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Volume 8 Issue 8Z

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The Brazilian
frrgafe Constitucao
in England as partof
lhesx-sfiip 'Niteroi'
class order. ^Sfte
single launchers for
Frtgates today are ostensibly desigmed fot anti'submatine the MM.38 Exocet as
wanfare, and in major fleets are used in this role. In smaller well as twosingle Mk
of I4.5-in(114-mm) DP
nations, howeve4 suchrressels rnust sewe a vatiety gruns andSea Caf
putlr(, es. SAMsysfems.

Other than the Soviet Union and China, which each produce their own operations and smaller, cheaper but still highly capable desigms ic:
frigates, most non-Western nations tend to buy either off-the-shelf stan- surface strike missions. Surprisrngly, it is only in recent years that -:r=
dard frigate designs in service with NATO navies or, if they can afford it, USSR has built a frigate-type class with an integral onboard ASW he--
a vessel customized for their own particuiar requirements, One of the copter. In practically all Western nations, a frigate without its o,",:-
most recent examples of the latter is the Saudi Arabian order to France hehcopter is nowadays the exception.
for four T\7pe F2000 frigates, In terms of capabllities these vessels will be Although China designs her own frigates she still has a long way to g:
able to outperform most of the frigates in service with the NATO navies before she catches up with either the West or the Soviet Union. Lachr-g
today, They are based on state-of{he-art electrontcs, and because of modern technology sources, China has frigate classes that appe.:
therr sophistrcation may well cause some operating problems to their robust enough, but certainly do not match up in terms of electronics a-.r:
owner. armament subsystems, to the extent that the ASW weapons carried are
At the other end of the scale is the large missile corvette, or small light still depth charges or based on l95Os-technology Soviet rocke:-
frigate depending on which view you take of the type, These are betng launchers. This is all expected to change in the course of the ne:':
bought by a number of navies as cheaper alternatives to more conven- decade.
tional frigates as replacements for World War II units that are now
hopelessly out of date, A'Jiangnan' class frigate of thePeopie'sRepub lic of Chinra leads a mjxed
With its overall naval policy in mind, the Sovret Union subscribes to flotilla of 'Riga'class fngales a nd 'Huchwan' class torpedo-armed hydrofoils
both philosophies, producing highly sophisticated designs for ASW in a demonstration of C hina's rapidly-expanding naval power.

M 'ffi"iil*'ctass
Previously known to NATO as the Sea area. So far only nine named ships Specification racks for 24 depth charges, and
'BAL-COM-4' class (Baltic Combatant have been identified (Ihe Wismar, 'Parchim'class between 20 and 30 mines according to
No, 4) and to the technical press as the Parchim, Bad Doberan, Buetzow, Displacement: 960 tons standard and type
'Koralle' class, the 'Parchim' class of Perleberg, Liibz, Teterow, Purna and 1,200 tons full load Aircraft: none
light frigates is believed to be based Anklam), though another seven sister Dimensions: length 72.5 m (237.9 ft ); Electronics: one'Strut Curve' air-
on the Soviet 'Grisha' design with local ships, as yet unidentified, are known to beam 9,4 m (30,8 ft); draught 3.5 m search radar, one'Muff Cob' flre-
modiflcations to surt its use by the East be in commission. A class total of lB is (11,5 ft) control radar, one TSR333 navigation
German navy, Built at the Peenewerft beheved likely, with possibly sx untts Propulsion: two diesels delivering radar, one 'High Pole-B' IFF, two
shipyard at Wolgast from the late 1970s attached to the navy-commanded B94B kW ( 12,000 hp) to two shafts 'Watch Dog' ECM systems, two 16-
onwards, the'Parchims' are replacingr Coastal Frontier Brigade at Rostock, Speed: 25 kts barrel chaff launchers, one medrum-
the unsatisfactory 'Hai ill' class of large This performs dutres similar to those of Amament: two quadruple launchers frequency hull-mounted sonar, and (in
patrol craft that was constructed in the the Maritime Border Directorate of the for 32 SA-N-S 'Grarl' SAMs, one twin some on starboard side of the main
mid to late 1960s. The new class is Sovret KGB. For this role the vessels' 57-mm AA and one twrn 30-mm AA superstructure) one high-frequency
designed primarily for coastal ASW armaments may well be modified to guns, fow single 406-mm (16-in) tubes dippingsonar
operations, but carries the healry AA rnclude additional gmns at the expense for anti-submarine torpedoes, two 1 2- Complement:60
armament characteristic of Warsaw of some ASW capability, barrel RBU6000 250-mm (9.84-1n) ASW
Pact naval units operating rn the Baltic rocketlauncherswith 120 rockets, two

L i&irh"'class
Built as a malyy protivolodochnyy submarine torpedoes, two rails for 12
korabl' (MPK, or small anti-submarine depth charges, and between 20 and 30
ship) between 1968 and 1974 the mines according to type
'Grisha I' class production run ended Aircraft: none
after only 16 units, These provided a Electronics: one'Strut Cuwe' air-
more specialized ASW capability than search radar, one 'Pop Group' SAM
the earlier'Mirka' and'Petya' classes. fire-control radar, one 'Muff Cob'or
They were followed during 1974 and ('Grisha 1I1' only) 'Bass Tilt 'gmn fire-
1976 by eight 'Grisha II' class pogra, control radar, two 'Watch Dog' ECM
nichnyy storozherzoy korabl' (PSKR, or systems, one'High Pole-B'lFF, one
border patrol ship) umts for the Mari- medium-frequency hull-mounted
time Border Directorate of the KGB. sonar, and one high-frequency
These differed from the 'Grisha Is' in dippinqisonar
having second twin 57-mm AA mount
a Complement:80
substituted for the SA-N-4 'Gecko'
SAM launcher forward and in having Right : A' Grisha I' unit in heavy
no 'Pop Group' fire-control radar, From weathershows that there is nobow
1975 onwards to the present the sonar dome.There is a hull set and a
'Grisha III' class' has been the Soviet dipping sonar which is housed in the
navy's production model. A 'Bass Tilt' deckhouse aft beneath the hump-
gmn fire-control radar (atop a small sft aped supers tru cture.
deckhouse to pofi on the aft super-
structure) has replaced the 'Muff Cob'
system on the earlier versions, whilst
the space previously occupted by thrs
radar has been taken up by a single
30-mm CiWS, To date 32 'Grisha III'
units have been built wrth a construc-
tion rate of about three per year, It is
probable that the 'Grrsha llls'or poss-
ibly a further development will even-
tually replace most of the earher light
frigate classes at present in servrce
with the Soviet navy.
Displacement: 950 tons standard and
1,200 tons full load
Dimensions: Iength72.0 m (236.2 ft)
beam 10.0 m (32 B ft) draught 3.7 m
(12.1 f0
Propulsion: CODAG arrangrement with
one gas turbrne and tour diesels
delivering power to two shafts
Speed: 30 kts
Armament: one twin launcher for lB Above : The'G risha I I' retains the
SA-N-4'Gecko' SAMs, one twin 57-mm same ASW armamentas theSoviet
AA and ('Grisha Ill' onty) one 30-mm navy units, but has a second twin
AA CIWS qun, two l2-barrel RBU6O00 57-mm gun forward in place of the
25O-mm (9.84-in) ASW rocket- SA-N-4'Gecko' SAM launcher bin
launchers with rockets, two twln
120 sysfem.
533-mm i2l-in) tubes for anti-

The'Grisha II' class lightfrigate is

used solely by the maritime element
of the KGB for protecting Soviet
territorialwaters and to prevent
people escaping to thewest by boat.
For rnanyyears theSovietnavy has been apredominantly
submarrhe service, but expansion anci deployment
worldwide have produced more well-balanced fleets, with the
ASW function coming much more to the fore.
Control of the oceans, mastery of the seas ls as straregically important today as
it was when the Greeks destroyed the Persian fleet at the Battle of Salamls in
480 BC; as wnen Nerson oesr'oyed tre f rerc^ at tne Battle o{ tne N:le n 1798
AD; and as when the Br:Lish emp re r^rived i^ larqe pan because of the tinest
naval and merchant fleets the world had ever se6n.
The West have always relled on sea transport for the supply of vital commod-
Ities; the USSR has been in the happ er posit on of needing only internal.
iand-based lines of communication. Warsaw Pact forces can never defeat the
Wesr uniess ,t w ns contro, o'ihc seas. rhe Wesican never oe'earLfre Wa,saw
Fact unless it finds the cor.rnter to the phenomenal build-up of Sovret naval
forces thai has taken place since the 1950s.
The architect of the Soviet naval ascendancy, and arguably one of the most
far-sighted and brilliant naval officers the modern world has seen, is Admiral of
the Fleet Serger Gorshkov, commander-ln-chief of the Soviet navy srnce 1956.
Under Gorshkov the Soviet navy has become the'senior service'and has made Kiev can acd as the command and cantrol unit for ASW hunter-kilter groups ,

IS presence'e L t^'oe gnorr rl-e world. Tnis .s not 'or ptreiy defensive reasons, She,provides the mainfighter cover and heliborneAsW capabilitywitn ier
exceor thar arlac( s r^e oesrorr of de'ence. The Sov.el st.ategv s to deny the embarked air group of Yak-38'Farger'VTOL aircraft andRamov-Ka-ZS
world's oceans to the West in war and, to a lesser extent, also in -p'eace. lt is ilear 'Hormone' or Ka-27 'Helix' helicopters.
that few things inf [uence or tmpress a neutral countrv quite so much as a naval
carrier force steamrng off its shores. bases (Severomorsk, Kronshtadt, Sevastopol and Vladivostok) are rce b:,-,
The Soviet armed f"orces are piedominantly conscript. Within the Iand-based wrnter, and more importantly, are 'hemmed rn' by countries either par. :'
arms only the Strateaic Rocket Forces and special fories are allowed to choose '. e"dtv tO, rne Wesr. fO" e\ar.p e, ie ornr.- lhai lhe Ba tic Flpe ^-:. . :
(6r reject) conscr pts, but the SovieL navv as a w'1ole cnooses wh cn yolng rren Len ngrad a^d 'each lne l\ortn Sca. it must rrrsr pas> tn.o-g^ t-e :. : .
will serve their three vears with it. This is because sea warfare has becoire an controlled by Denmark, Sweden and Ncrway; and then, to gain access:-- --
incred bty complicated operar,on, retving as r ooes on tne n"osr sopnrsricated Atlantrc, it rlust pass bythe UK. ln naval straregythese areas are caliec :- _ .
electronic techniques imaginable, and that is the case because sea wartare has points', and every day each sicie tests the othei's ability both to pass l--, _:
been revolutronized by the development of the modern submar ne The only them and to defend them.
weapon system that potentially poses as much of a threat as the submanne on It is nterest ng to look ar a Soviet anti,submarine warfare group in oper; _ - -
botn srdes is lne sateli Ie star wars svsien whtch ;s in any event yedrs avvav tne \orrh Sea, wnere it,s nor only Sov et s-lrna.ines tnal .ry"ro pd\s T^ : ' .'
from final developrnent and deployment. And while NATO and Wbrsaw Paci choke points, as NATO submarines are continually probi rg Sovr'et defei- :=., .
land forces face each other, exercising irr front of each other across common 'ecroroca basis.Tne q-oJp r^ atl p oocorriry cons,sLs o'a'Ka'a c;o-: '
borders, and while respective air forcei continually test each other's defences, acco-oaned oy iour '\t vd( c,dbs {rgat.s. al. crewco by a rnao.:.
submarines continually penetrate or try to penetrate the other s de's defences scriptedjuniorratrngs;therearemoreoTficersandseniorpeityoffiiersi".^--.
on a daily basis. lt is, to ail intents and purposes, a war that has been very Britlsh ship {for example) because Soviet naval offrcers and petty office i. -. -
secretlywaged for at least the past 1 5 years. lt is a war, moreover, that s fought to do many of the jobs lhat in the Royai Navy are undertaken by ieaC nc': - :.
largely in unknown and uncharted territory, because the fact remains that rnan andtechnibal seamen. LivlngconditirinsforiheconscriptsarepoorbyJ,:^-::-
knows more about the topography, conditions, environment and resources of son with lhose of NATO forces. lndependence of thouqht and nrtiat,t,e ::-
the Moon than he knows about the oceans. encouraged, Tear'ng tne snip w tl be on e--ective"{rghl nq 'orcc --
One fact den'onstrates the proble-. The acoustic detection o' submarrnes the pressure really starts. (ln November '1975 a 'Krivak'-clasi frigate ,- =:
depends on the speed of sound in water, and that itself is dependent on defect to Sweden, but was eventu,r ly forced back by Soviet ships arc : -:-:"
lemperature and salinity. Both these factors can vary very significantly, not only Though not an everyday occurrence, th s rs st ll a gocid inclication oi tie -^--. -
from ocean to ocean but even within a comparatvely small area. problems that result frorn such an inJlextble system.J
For all lts naval might, the Soviet Union suff ers f rom the f acilhat all of rts rna jor On board the 'Kara'ciass crutser is an electronic enqtneer's drean- _' - _-
mare). Firsily, there is the capability for the rnput of rainr data from so.rr:=.
For coastal and inshore ASW the Soviets have a large number ot hght frigates satellites, friendly aircraft, other surface ships and the ship's own he: cl: =--
like the' P oti' cl as s. T h e s e h ave a m i nim u m of w eapons an d sensois, bu t1o there rnay also be a frierrdly subrnarine Jeedino back tnformation. Se::-:
nakeupfor this they tend towork inhunter-killei teamswith supportfrom there is the input provided by interception of 'enemy' transmissions, tr s :. - :
helicopters and coastal maritime patrol aircraft provided by the ship {and her acconnpany ng ststers) or can be relaVss '-1 :
\ - \lu!f .

rrlll : .,, '

,A.lthough having a relatively heavy AA armament, the role of the 'Kresta II'
i"*tG?r-ri"i itbrii^riiv esW, ior which it carries two quadruple Ss-N-14
SjJex'mjssi/e Ja uhchers for long-dtstaflce attacks on enemysubmartnes'

snore-based intercept fssll 1y. Tn.rd y. tnere s -he i^p-r p ovroed ov tne s^ip's
own frxed detect on dev ces, such as sonar, 'Head Net' air surveillance radar etc.
Tne 'Head \et' radar can be orn ttecl'-or tne ASW"ec(, nowaver. excepl
to make the po nts that ail raw data reaching the shrp have to be processed by
one or rnoie mainframe computers and that the sheer quantity of data puts a
:remenooJS st-a n o^ operalor and eq.l:pment al:ke.
What type of nformation rs pouring into the 'Kara' class cruiser and, to a lesser
extent, the four 'Krrvak' class frigates?
To begin with, the Sovret high comrnand trles to keep tabs on the posrtion of
every NATO submarine, partiiularly those within fiflng d stance of the Soviet
Union's most sensrtive and strategic area. ln theory sateilites observe the
submannes leavrng port, and then attempt to track them through the oceans
using infra-red technrqes to detect each submarine's heat trarl. llundreds of
Soviet spy ships isten'or any sr:bma'ine w Lh n their are a. ano 1'v To ile^1ity .,1.,...
c ass if nor the boat r1se.f by its d sLi.cive elect'on'c sonar s gnat-'e. Static iltl,
devices littering the sea bed (one area where the West leads the Sovlets) are l.'@'-$
a so used to p:-< up the pass ng of lne subn',ari^e. Surtace si" ps. a rcraIt and
tand-baSed interCept Stat;OnS also'sten Carerui,y fOr a^V t'a-S-'5S onS. Al Ihe
same 1me. more raw dara abort tne cond lion oi t^e sea .tse'wl^e'ever a
r rl\,e,

submarrne is thought to be rs also processed wth a vtew to reduclng the

chances of a wrong posrtive identif icatlon result ng f rom changes in salinity and
Nct every last piece of this data reaches the 'Kara' class cruiser, lor some ts
analysed on snore or oV anotner sh p oesignateo 'or t'llI soec lrc p-'pose. Bul
t^e ir'ormation Lhal does arrive is'ed to the -ra n"?-e compute-, \ryhere the
data is compared w th the data base to provide {if ali goes well) the informatton
that there is a submarlne rn the operational area, where;t started, where it is The helicopter cruiser Moskva can command an ASW group. Four of her
likely to be going and, even, whai t is likely to do when rt gets there Kamov ASW helicopte/s arespotted on take-off and landing areas,which are
Meanwhilb, the submarine is not being exactly helpfrl: rt lries initially to covered by nets to slop fhe aircraft slipping in rouErh seas.
remarn totally undetected, or lets slip false information if detected. it also uses
its electronic countelmeasures (ECM) systerns to deny and m s ead the hun- One of the Soviet Baltic Fleet's'Krivak I' {rigatesrsseen alspeed. Far ASW
ters;andlney nturrluseelectroniccoJnletrcou'te'rTesSuIes'ECCMrsvsten"s operalions the modern frigate is equippedwith gas turbine propulsion so that
t'l olevent this. it can match tfie speeds ofn uclear submarinesforexlendedperiods.
'-5"",i1, i.'oiiin of the'Kara'class cruiser has a major problem on hrs hands,
thator management. One mJsl reme-oerrl-ar't s ^olirsl d -atterof detectlng
the submarine, but also of destroying it or, ln trme of peace, of going through the
drill of destroylnq lt. And as the fire-control systems are also added lnto the
erectronic ntell g-ence systems, ef 'ect ve ooeraL:or^s ca r'{or sJoerb equ prent
ano very h gry tratned operato's -l's. as o^e can reod Lv m3gins. nLits an
enormous strain on officers ard serior oetty o'ficers, as lhe .t.ajor;tv of Lhe
sh p's c"ew are simply bullon pJsne's.
But assuming thit the Sovr'et captain has located a submarine, that the
submarine has riot done anvthLno so unf r endiv as f rre its torpedoes (or a mtssile)
at him, or rf it has that hrs ECM sfstems have managed to def lect them, how will
ne qo in fo. the <,ll? The answer is +rom h s own snip, probably rsinq the MBU
roc[et-launchers (two 16-barrel launchers on the foredeck and two srx-barrel
taunCneis aft) or depth charges, or from the accompanying'Krivak'class fri-
gates, using torpedoes or depth charges. Alternativeiy the captain can request
' aid of one of his own navv's hunteri'killer submarines.
th" it inier ir"
ttrat tf''e NnfO subrnarrne will probably remain unde-
tected in the frrst place, for the chances of detecting its precise position are very
sl'm ndeed. Th s s probably the reason wny so nna y Soviet sh ps remain on
station (anchored or'patrolling) in the North Sea for months at a time, keeprng
their overall surveillince and detection net as tlght as they can. And that
probably explains why the crew of an occasional Soviet sh p trres to defect en
masse; there can be 'cw tnirqs rrore 'Leiy to ma(e a pe.son questo^ hls
loyalt es rnan'oLr rorrhs or eJen a year spent n rl-e \o'ln Sea, Dan crlarlv '
you are a consc ipt earning tne orirce'v su- trl f50 a vcar on a sh p lLal dllows
no alcohol, even on Karj Marx's birthday.

t ifrtn"'class
Built at the Kaliningrad, Nikolayev and
Modern Frigates (Part 2)

Komsomolsk shipyards rn the Soviet

Union the 64 umts (including eight for
export) of the'Riga'class were the de-
sign successors to the six slightly older
'Kola class escorts, Always designated
storozhevgy korabJ' (SKR, or patrol
ship) by the Soviets, the class has
proved to be an excellent coastal-
defence design and followed the
Soviet practice in the 1950s of building
flushdecked hulls with a sharply raised
forecastle, Over the years the 'Rrgtas'
have become one of the larqer Soviet
ship classes, and have been exported
in some numbets. In all, 17 were trans-
ferred; two to Bulgarra, five to East
Germany (of which one was burnt out
in an accrdent soon after being taken
over), two to Frnland and eight to In-
donesia. Most ofthese units have now
been either scrapped or placed in re-
serve, and China built four further untts
in her shipyards from components sup-
plied by the Soviets, At present the
Soviet nalry has some 35 'Rigas' in ac-
tive service with another l2 in reserve,
A small number of the operational ves-
sels were modified during the 1970s, a
twin 25-mm AA gmn being added on Specification Armament: three single lOO-mm (3,9- One of the most popular pastimes
each srde of the funnel and a dipping 'Riga'class in) DP, two twrn 37-mm AA and (some practised by the Soviets inwarm
sonar fitted abreast ofthe bndqe. Be- Displacement: 1,260 tons standard and untts) two twin 25-mm AA guns, two climates is relaxing on deck away
fore thrs, however, all umts were fltted 1,510 tons full load I 6-barrel RBU2500 250-mm (9, B4-in) from their spartan living conditions.
with two hand-loaded l6-barrei Dimensions: length 91,5 m (300,2 ft); ASW rocket-launchers with I 60 as the majority of the crew of this
RBU2500 ASW rocket-launchers for- beam 10, I m (33, I ft); draught 3,2 m rockets, two racks for 24 depth 'Riga' class frigate is doing.
ward to replace the original ASW (10 5 ft) charges, and one twin or triple 533-mm
armament of a single MBU60O 'Hedge- Propulsion: geared steam lurbines 1u (2}-in) tube mountingfor tvro or three Electronics: one'SIim Net' ar-sear;:.
hog' and four aft-mounted BMB-2 dehvering power to two shafts l" antr-ship torpedoes radar, one'Sun Visor-B' fire-confi cl
depth-charge throwers, One ofthe ac- Speed: 28 kts Aircraft:none radar, one 'Wasp Head'fire-contrci
tive units was also fitted with a taller radar, one'Don-2' or'Neptune'
stack cap and several 'Bell' series navigation radar, one'High Pole-B
ECM systems, possibly as a trials ship IFF, tvro'Square Head'lFF, two Mia:::
Dog' ECMsystems, andone lugh-
frequency hull-mounted sonar
Now obsolete, the'Riga' class Complement: 175
remains in service with the Soviet
navy in relatively large numbers for
second-ijne duties and as training

Seen during the 'Okean '70' exercise off the Philippines, this 'Riga' class frigate The two Finnish navy'Riga'class fngales Hameenmaa andUusimaa/eada
of the Pacific Fleef is st/,|usefu I in that area because one of the potential group of patrol boats.ln 1980 the latter was sfrjcken to provide spares for her
adversaries is the similarly equipped navy of thePeople'sRepublic of China. sr'sfer sirp, which was redesig\ated as a minelayer.
il fiL,u"'classes
The lB units of the 'Petya I' class were fically built with a triple 533-mm (21-1n)
constructed at the Kaliningrad and torpedo tube mounting and RBU2500
Komsomolsk shipyards between 1961 ASW rocketlaunchers for.the navies
and 1964. From the latter year until of India ( 12 ships), Vietnam (four ships)
i969 both shipyards switched to build- and Syria (two ships). The 'Petyas'are
ing a total of 27 'Petya II' class units, currently rated by the Sovtets as slor-
which differed from their predeces- orzhevoy korabJ'(SKR, or patrol ship),
sors in havlng an extra quintuple 406-
mm (16-in) ASW torpedo tube mount- Specification
rng in place of the two aft ASW rocket- 'Petya'classes
launchers. The two forward-mounted Displacement: 950 tons standard and
RBU2500 rocket-launchers were also 1, l50 tons or ('Petya II') 1,160 tons tulI
exchanged for the RBU6000 sYstem load
with automatic loading facilrties, Both Dimensions:length B1,B m (268.4 ft) or
vanants also had mine rails, ('Petya II') 82.5 m(270.7 ft); beam 9. I m
From i973 onwards eight 'PetYa I' (29.9 ft); draught2,9 m(9,5 ft)
vessels were modified to give the Propulsion: CODAG arrangement with
'Petya I (Mod)' class. The conversion two diesels and tlvo gas turbines
involved the additron of a medium- delivering power to three shafts T his unmodified m em ber of the front of the bridge and the lack of any
frequency variable-depth sonar (VDS) Speed:33kts / 'Petya I' class of light frigates is easily stern superstructure for a variable-
system in a new raised stem deck- Armament: two ('Petya I (Mod)' towed- identified by the presence ofthe depthsonar system.
house, which necessitated the removal array trials ship one) twin 76-mm (3-in) RBU2500 ASW rocket-launchers in
of the mine rails, A further three untts DP gmns, four iG-barrel RBU 2500 250-
were then converted as trials vessels mm (9. 84-in) ASW rocket-launchers
and given the same sub-group de- with 320 rockets or ('Petya Ii' and
signation: one was fitted with a larger 'Petya 1l (Mod)'only) two l2-barrel
VDS system with no deckhouse at the RBU6000 250-mm (9.84-in) ASW
sternt the second had a deckhouse in- rocket-launchers with I20 rockets or
stalled abaft the stack (following the ('Petya I (Mod)'on1y) two 16-barrel
removal of the torpedo tubes) and RBU2500 launchers with ]60 rockets,
fitted with a complex reel./winch in- two ('Petya I (Mod)' only one) racks ior
stallation for what may be either a 24 or 12 depth charges, one ('PetYa II
towed non-acousttc ASW sensor or a (Mod)' two and'Petya I (Mod)' towed-
towed surface-shtp sonar array; the array trials ship none) 533-mm (2 1-in)
third vessel had a small box-like struc- quintuple tube mounting for flve or 10
ture built at the stem for a towed sen- anti-submarine torpedoes, and
sor deployed from a hole in the stern. berween 20 and 30 mines (none rn
in I97B a srngle unit ofthe Petya II type 'Petya I (Mod)') according to tYPe
was also converted to a trial vessel and Aircraft: none
given the title 'Petya II (Mod)' class. Electronics:one 'Slim Net' or Strut
The conversion was along the lines of Curve'air-search radar, one 'Hawk
the 'Petya I (Mod)' but with a slimmer Screech' 76-mm gun fire'control radar,
VDS deckhouse which allowed reten- one 'Don-2' navigtation radar, one 'High
tion of the minelaying capability, Pole-B'and (only in'Petya 1') two
In late 1984 the Soviet navy had a 'Square Head'IFF, two 'Watch Dog'
total of seven 'Petya I', 1I 'Petya I ECM systems one high-frequency
(Mod)' including three trials vessels, 23 hull-mounted sonar, one high-
'Petya II' and one 'Petya II (Mod)' (for frequency dipping sonar, and (in
trials) in service with all four fleets. A some, see text) one variable-dePth
further three 'Petya il' of the Soviet sonar Above : One tas ksomefimes
navy were transferred to Vletnam (two Complement: 98 undertaken by the'Petyas' in the
ships) and Ethiopia (one ship), whilst absence of any larger units is that of
another 18 export shtps were speci- the'T attle- tale' ; here a' Petya I I'
shadows the carrier HMS Eagle in
The'Petya Il' differs from the earlier 1975 while the latter was on an
'Petya I' in having a heavier ASW exercise.
armament in the for m of RB U 6000
automatic r ocket-launcher s and
extra torpedo tubes. +-ll

'ii J -r

L iitirk"' ctasses
Built between 1964 and 1965 at the ulsron plant is sunilar: in concept to the
Ka[ningrad shipyard, the nrne'Mirka ]' combined diesel and gas hrrbine plant
class vessels were followed on the of the 'Petyas' wrth a htgh maxtmum
stocks during the latter halfof 1965 and speed for use tn attacks on su.bmerqed
1966by nlne 'Mirka II'ciass units, They submarrnes, The basic difference tn
were constructed as a more special- the two vanants is that the 'Mirka IIs'
ized variatron of the early 'Petya' de- lack the two aft 250-mm (9 B4-tn)
sign and were inittally rated by the RBU6000 ASW rocket-launchers of the
Sovrets as malyy protivolodochnyy
korabl' (MPK, or small anti-submarine
ship). As with some other ASW- The'Mirka I' and'Mirka II' units of
oriented ship classes, this was the Black Seafleet are regularlY
changed in 1978 Io stororzhevoY de ploy e d to the M e diterr anean
korabl'(SKR, or patrol shiP), squ adron to provide ASW pro tection
The various vessels of the two 'Mir- to higher-value surface units and the
ka' classes sewe only with the Soviet many deepwater anchorages that
Baltic and Black Sea Fleets, The prop- the Soviet navy has in the region.

'Mirka' class (continued) Modern Frigates (Part 2)
Mrrka I bur have lnstead an addirional Specification Armament: two twin76-mm (3-in) DP Electronics:one 'SlLrn Net cl is::-:
quintuple ASW torpedo tube mounting 'Mirka'classes gnrns, four ('Mirka I') or two ('Mirka II ) 'Mirka li only'; Strur Cunro ----:-:r rr.
for 406-mm (16-in) electric torpedoes Displacement: 950 tons standard and 12-barrel RBU6000 250-mm (9, 84-rn) radar, one'Hawk Screech T6 r:_-_ --.i--
fitted between the bridqe and the j, 150 tons full load ASW rocketlaunchers with 240 or 120 flre-control radar, one Dan--
mast. Also, the later 'Mirka ll' umts Dimensions: 82 ,4 m(270.3 ft); beam rockets, and one ('Mirka I') or two navigation radar, two Hrgn F. .-.-l .: :
have a 'Strut Cuwe' air-search radar in 9. i m (29,9 ft); drausht 3,0 m (9,8 ft) ('Mirka II') 533-mm (21-rn) quintuple two 'Square Head' lFF, two \:ia:::-
place of the earlier ships' 'Slim Net'set Propulsion: CODAG arrangrement with tube mounrings torflve or I0 an-i- Dog' ECMsystems, one med',::-
Almost all units of both classes have two dresels and two gas turbines submarine torpedoes fiequencyhull-mounled son;: l.: .-
now been fitted with a dipping sonar delivering power to two shafts Aircraft: none most units) one hrgh-frequenc_"'
either instead of the intemal depth- Speed:35 kts dippingsonar
charge rack in the port srde ofthe stern .! Complement:98
or abreast the bridge, This is intended
for use in areas like the Baltic where AII the nine 'Mirka II' class frigates
oceanographic conditions for ASW op- a builthavenow been fittedwith a new
eratrons are notortously difficuit, The Irh*. type of dipping sonar in place of the
'Mirka' series is expected to serve on internal depth charge rack on the
into the early 1990s before replace- port side of the stern
to improve the:Lr
ment ASWcapabilitiesrn lie
Mediterrane an and B altic



il iilni'ctass
(3-in) DP and two twin 30-mm AA guns,
Although constructed in the Soviet Un- beam i2,B m (42 0 ft); draught 4.2 m search radar, one 'Pop Group S.AJrl
ion at the Zeienodolsk Shipyard on the (r3,8 ft) two l2-barrel RBU600 250-mm (9.84-rn) fire-control radar, one Hawr Sc::=:-.
Black Sea, the 'Koni' class of storozfte- Propulsion: CODAG arianqement with ASW rockellaunchers with 1 20 76-mm fire conirol radar, ore D--*
voy korabl'(SKR, or patrol ship) is in- one diesel and two gas turbines rockets, two racks for 24 depth Tilt' 30-mm gun fire-control racia: ::-:
tended only for export, a mere one delivering power to three shafts charges, and between 20 and 30 mines 'High Pole-B IFF, two 'Watch Dcg
unit, the Timofey Ul'yanlsev, being re- Speed: 27 kts according to type ECM systems, and one medium-
tained by the Soviets as a crew training Armament: one twin launcher for 18 Aircraft:none frequency hull-mounted sonar
ship for the naval personnel from those SA-N-4 'Gecko' SAMs, two twrn 76-mm Eleclronics: one 'Strut Curve'a-r Complement: i l0
countries which have bouQtht vessels of
this class, There are two distinct sub-
classes, the'Koni TyBe II'class differ-
ing from the'Koni Type I'class in hav-
ing the space between the funnel and
the aft superstructure occupied by an
extra deckhouse believed to contain
air-conditiomng units for use in troprcal
The countries which have taken de-
livery of 'Koni' class units are East Ger-
many (the two Type Is r?osfock (141)
and Eerlrn (142)), Yuqoslavia (the hvo
Type Is Spfit (31) and Koper (32)),
Algeria (the two Type Ils Murat Reis
(901) andiRasKe/I'cft (902) and Cuba
(the two Type IIs MarieJ (350) and un-
named (356)), The two Yugoslav units
have been further modified by the
Yugoslavs themselves to carry two
single aft-flring container-launchers
for SS-N-2B 'Styx' ann-ship cruise mis-
sles on each side ofthe superstructure
which houses the SA-N-4'Gecko'SAM
launcher-bin assembly, A tenth unit is
known to be under construction for ex-
port, wrth more planned. The Tlpe IIs
have also had two 6-barrel chaff laun-

chers added to their equipment fit.

Specification The EastGerman navy has twoTlpe i

'Koni'class 'Koni' class frigafes, tfte Rostock (J 4J;
Displacement: l, 700 tons standard and and tle Berlin ( I42). They ditfer
1,900 tons fu]lload slightly from other Konj cJass units
Dimensions: Iength 95,0 m (311.7 ft); in having no chaff launchers, and
carry E ast G erman- built TSR3 3 3
The Type I 'Koni' class frigate is built navigation radars in place of the
in the Soviet Union primarily for more usual Don-2 sets.
export. The Type II differs in having
ad ditional super s tru c tur e, w hic h
fiouses arrcon ditioning systems for
use in tropical climates.

lffi, :;*-;-- r * . e
L iilriuak'classes
-:: 1970 the first unit of the gas twbtne-
r":wered 'Krivak I' class of boJ'shoy
-:rotivolodochnyy korabl' (BPK, or
.aroe anti-submarine ship) entered
service with the Soviet navy, Built at
-ie Zhdanov ShipYard in Leningrad,
the Kahningrad Shipyard and the Kam-
ish-Burun Shipyard in Kerch between
19?0 and 1982, 2I units of this variant
were constructed, In 1976 the'Krivak
II' class, of which I I were built at Kali
ningrad between that Year and 1981,
was flrst seen. This differed from the
orevious class in havinq single 100-mm
(3.9-in) quns substituted for the twin
76-mm (3-in) turets of the earlier ver-
sron, and a largter variable-depth sonar
housrng at the stern, Both classes were
re-rated lo storozhevoy korabl (SKR,
or patrol shtp) stalus ]n the lale 1970s
possibly rn view of what some Weslern
observers constdered to be the type's
deficrencies in terms of size and li-
mired cndurance for ASW operations
rn open waters
Tie first unit of the 'Krivak III' class,
desrqned to remedy some of lhe prob-
able defects, appeared rn mid-1984
This has a helicopter hangar and flight
deck in place ofthe aft gun turrets and
SA-N-4 'Gecko' SAM launcher, and the
forward quadrupie SS-N-14 'Silex'
ASW missile-launcher is replaced by a
srngie 100-mm DP gmn turret. The vari-
abG-depth sonar system rs retained
beneath the flight deck at the stern,
whilst single 30-mmADG630 CIWS are
located on each side of the hangar'
The other ASW armament of the 'Kri-
vak Vil'ctasses and the forward SA-N-
4 launcher are also retained The'Kri-
vak III rs now believed lo be in series The long rack of thb bow with the
four gas turbines dellverinq power to torpedoes, and between 20 and 40
oroduction at several shipyards as the anchor well forward betraYs the
two shafts mines accordinq to type
Sovjet nalry's new mtssile frigate for the presence of a large bow sonar dome
i9B0s. Soeed: 32 kts Aircraft:none
Armament: one quadruPle launcher Electronics:one 'Head NelC' air- for a medium frequency active sonar'
for SS-N- 14'silex anti-subma rine searchradar, two 'Pop Group' SAM For underlayer searching a variable'
Specification fire-control radars, two'Eye Bowl' depth low-frequency sonar system is
'Krivak'classes missiles, two twin launchers for 36 SA-
N-4 'Gecko' SAMs, hvo twin 76-mm (3- 'Silex' flre-control radars, one'Owl fittedaft.
Dispiacement: 3,000 tons standard and
in) DP ('Krivak I') or two sinqtle 100-mm Screech' ('Krivak I') or 'Kite Screech'
3,700 Ions ('Krivak I') or 3,800 tons B'or'Salt Pot' IFF, one medium-
t3.9-rnlDP t'Krivak 11) guns rwo 12- ('Krivak II') gun fire-control radar, one
('Krlvak II') tu]lload frequency hull-mounted sonar, and
barrelRBU6000 250-mm (9.84-in) ASW 'Don Kay' or 'Pa1m Frond' navigatlon
Dimensions:length 123,5 m (405 2 ft); one medrum-frequencY variable -
rockellaunchers wrth 120 rockets, two radar, two 'Bell Shroud' ECM systems,
beam 14.0 m (45.9 ft); draught 4 7 m depthsonar
(15.4 ft) quadruple 533-mm (21-in) tube two 'Bell Squat'ECMsystems, four 16-
morrnlrnos fot a ntt-su bma rlne barrel chafflaunchers, one 'High Pole- Complement:220
Propulsion: COGAG arrangement w II h

Soviet frigate'Krivak Class ll' cutaway drawing key

1 VDShandllngarea 35 Navigationbridge
2 VDSprotectivedoorln 36 Llfe-savingequipment
rraised oosition 37 Controlcentre
3 contrdl centre forVDS 38 Gangway
4 Torpedodecoys 39 Ofiicers'quarters
5 Mlne ra ls set in deck 40'BellStroud'ECN,4
6 Balancedrudder 41 RBU6000launcher
7 Screwsupport 42 Blastscreen between RBU
B Doublescrew 6000 launchers
I Shaft 43 Reload chamberforSA-N 4
10 100-mm qun 44 Crew
T 1 Turntableiammunition 45 SS-N-14quad launcher
hoist 46 Blastscreen
12 SA-N-4 47 Waterline
13 Missile stowage 48 Anchor
'14 Stores 49 Sonar
1 5 Turbine reduction gear 50 Magazlne
16 Enqine room 51 Fueltanks
17 COGAGgasturblnes 52 l\.4agazine and hoistto RBU
18 Funnelcasing launcher
19 Funneluptakes 53 Whip aeria s
20 Ventilators
2T Launch
22 Radarcontrolcentre
23 'Kite Screech' radar
25 Air command guldance
26 Turntable
27 533 mmquadtorpedo
2a Boat crane
Turntable and machine
room for torpedo tubes
30 Biloe keels
31 Raiio direction finder
32 'Head Net-C'radar
'Eye Bowl' radar
3A Bridge
'Krivcrk'in Action
Designed to hunt and kill nuclear submarines in the deep waters of the world's
ocean+ the 'Krivak' class of frigate is faster and much more heavily armed than
W e s ter n conte mp or arie s.

When the first 'Krivak I' bolshoy protivolodoch jLr,,{di;.:tr:,.1

nyy korad' (large anti-submarine shrp) en-
iered service with the Soviet navy during 1970
it made an immediate impressionwithWestern
naval powers, who generally saw the design in
a highly impressive light, especially when
compared with contemporary Western missile
destroyer and frigate designs. Desprte the
Soviet description of ASW ship, Western
observers mistook the type's actual role to be
surface strike, with anti-air and antr-submanne
weapons embarked only for self proteclion,
The reason for thrs misassessment was that the
class shipped in a forward positron a quadruple
container-launcher missile assembly for the
same supersonic derivative of the SS-N-2'Styx'
as supposedly carried by the contemporary
'Kresta I1' class cruisers and rnitially allocated
the NATO desrgnation SS-N-10 The mistake
was flnally resolved during the 1970s by West-
ern naval intelligence aqencies: the revised
designation SS-N-14 'Silex'was adopted as the
original and the incorrect SS-N-10 label was 'l-':18e-{
simultaneously dropped, One apparent reason
for all the confusion was reportedly the result of
the Soviets actually sendrng the'Kresta II' ciass
'i!al!. -
to sea without any missrles aboard for several .4.q ,,Se, ..
years as the system was undergorng finai test- -_.;,!-r3$.S&$,
rng, a brrlliant piece of deception whrch led
intelligence services to the wrong conclusions,
No conflrmed picture oi an SS-N- 14 has ever
been released to the technrcal press, but reli- r 1!'lf:,,rat
able reports indicate that rt rs tn fact a solid-
propellant rocket-powered wrnged cruise
missrle that conceptualiy resembles the Au- ence is placed not on the ship's own sensors The 'Krivak I' class Soviet frigate Storozhevoy is
stralian lkara ASW missile in dropping a para- but on a thrrd-party source. This rs a capability seen in the English Channel. By the stern housing
chute-retarded acoustic-hominq torpedo The whrch flts in well with known Soviet ASW prac- for the variable depth sonar can be seen the towed
maximum and minimum rangres are 55.5 km tices: for long-range tarqtets the 'Krivak' is sup- decoys that make up part of the BAT- I acoustic
pired wrth target position data from other sur- noise making system used againsthoming
(34.5 mrles) and 7.4 km (4,6 miles) respectively,
The maximum range figure means that to en- face ships or airborne platforms via a data-link
sure the missile's terminal accuracy depend- system after missile launch and early control tions tire class is fitted wrth a four-engine gas
by the vessel's own'Eye Bowl' missile tracking turbine COGAG arrangement, the two smaller
and command gnridance link radars, T'he pre- units being coupled up with the two larger units
sence of a pair of these radars aboard a 'Krivak' for ful1-power operations. The exaggerated
suggests that a salvo of two SS-N-14 missiles overhang of the bow is a good indicatron of a
can be used during an engagement to increase bow-mounted sonar, probably of the medium-
the krll probability. fiequency type, For operations agatnst sub-
To aid in the high-speed manoeuvring marines operating below the thermal layer a
associated with some aspects of ASW opera- variable-depth sonar system rs located aft, in
side a prominent housing on the quarterdeck.
The model carrted is the same low-frequency
set that rs fitted to most ccntemporary Soviet
ship desrgns, and may be used to target the
'Silex' missiles in close-range attacks.



'Krivak' in Action

Above : The'Krivak I' frigate Storozhevoyisseen in

theNorth Atlantic. A good gauge oI the number of
crew a Sovietwarship carries can be obtained by
counting the number of liferaftiontainers the
vessel carries, and multiplying by I0 (the number
of persons carried by each raft).
Modern Frigates (Part 2)

'Krivak ll'class patrol ship

Below:The I I 'Krivaklls'ditferfrom their 2l

predecessors iri having single I 00-mm guns in
place of twin 7 6-mm weapons in the two
aft turrets. Classified by the.Soviets as a
Storozhevoy Korabl' (Sl(8, orpatrol vessel), the
'Krivak' k armed with a massive quadruple
/aunclrerforSS-N-14 ASW missiles; two twin
launchers inpop-up mountings fore and aft for
SA-N-4 air defencemr'ssr?es,'(wo RBU6000 ASW
rocket-launchers behind the forward SAM mount;
and eight533-mm(2f -in) torpedo fubes
'Krivak' in Action


The 'Krivak i'was built in tandem with the tized' areas and support the 'Krivaks' on leng- A'Krivak I' class frigate is distingruished from the
'Krrvak il'durrng the mid-1970s and early 1980s, thy search missions, possibly using a central- 'Krivak II' variant by the two twin 76-mm DP gun
The latter variant differs in having the ortgtnal ized command post afloat or ashore to co- turrets aft and a smaller housing at the stem for the
ordrnate the sweep. variable-depth sonar towed body.
twin 76-mm (3-in) qun turrets aft replaced by a
new type of fully-automatic water-cooled sing-
le-barrel 100-mm (3.9-rn) gun capable of.flrrng 'Krivak III'launch Black Sea Fleet via the Suez Canal to the Pacific
at up to 80 rounds per minute agatnst either air The lack of an integral ASW helicopter was Fleet, confirms the importance of the new class
I I 'Krivak IIs' were
or surface targets, Only found to be very hmiting, however, and this in future ASW operations in that area. This is
completed compared with 2l examples of the resulted rn the further revision of the Krivak indicated by the fact that inter-fleet transfers
'Krivak I' type over the construction cycle of the desrgn to grve the 'Krivak III' type, of which the over the last few years have confirmed the
lwhole class. Surprisingly, units of both subclas- first unit was launched in 1983, This uses the upgradrng of the Pacific Fleet's ASW assets
lses were completed without their 'Bell' series same huil and propulsion plant, but the arma- from simply a defensive coastal force to one
ECM systems, as a result posslbly of the de- ment fit has been extensively changed tn some capable of sustaining the new Soviet ASW poii-
mand of higher-pnorrty shipbuilding program- areas. The two aft gun turrets have been re- cy outlined above in all its areas of concern,
mes. placed by a ta1l and narrow helicopter hangar It is to be expected that over the next few
In 1978 the 'Krivaks' were redesignated sfor- and fllght deck for a single Kamov Ka 25 'Hor- years the Kalimngrad shipyard, the Zhdanov
ozhevoy korabl'(patrol ship), The reason for mone-A' or Ka-27 'Helix-A' ASW hehcopter. shipyard at Lemngrad, and the Kamish-Bunin ll
thrs may have been either an initial mtsrating of The variabie-depth sonar is retained in a hous- shipyard at Kerch, will undertake series pro-
duction of the new variants as the logical suc- L
the type by the Soviets or, more ltkely, a ing now located beneath the fl1ght deck. The t:
change in Soviet naval policy durtng this minelaying capabilrty is also retained, but the cessor to the earlier 'Knvak' classes, with a
period, Thrs latter involved a shift of emphasis quadruple SS-N-14 Silex launcher forward is class total of between 15 and 20 in service by r
for surface ASW units, from open-ocean hun- replaced by a single 100-mm (3 9-in) DP gun the late 1980s if similar production rates are fl
ter-killer operations against nuclear-powered turret. A 'Krte Screech' fire-control radar re- used, Such a force will endow the Soviet navy H
missile submarines (SSBNs) to a more suppor- places the 'Eye Bowl' missile-guidance radars, with a potent force of ASW vessels that are E
tive ASW role in order to secure from interdic- The forward SA-N-4 'Gecko' SAM launcher bin designed to work in their 'bastton' submanne- I

tion by Western nuciear attack submarines the and associated 'Pop Group' fire-control radar operating areas and, working with other clas-
operating areas of Soviet SSBNs and the transit remain, but the corresponding aft systems ses of smaller ASW units now under construc-
routes to and from the submarine bases. For have been deleted and two 30-mm ADG630 tlon or in the prototype stage, these will make
this role the 'Krivaks' were ideal, working in CIWS fitted aft on each side of the hangar with the task of Western attack submarines more
neat conjunctron with the medturir- and short- the associated 'Bass Tilt' fire-control radar for- dlfficult than it is now,
range shore-based ASW aircraft of the Sovtet ward of the funnel. The remaining ASW arma-
navai air forces with the ard of information ment oltwo fully automatic RBU600O ASW rock- .1
A'Krivak I' in the English Channel shows the
gained from the networks of underwater et-launchers and the two amidshrps 533-mm forward twin SA-N-4 'Gecko' SAM launcher I

acoustic arrays that are said to protect the (21-in) torpedo tubes also appear to have been installation, the two RBU6000 ASW rocket-
Soviet coastlines. The smaller 'Mtrka', 'Petya' retained, launchers and the trainable quadruple SS-N' I 4
and 'Grisha' classes could then perform the The transit ofthe flrst ofthis class through the 'Silex' ASW missile launcher, together with the two

more generai ASW mrssrons within these 'sani- Bosporus in the autumn of 1984 from the Soviet associated'Eye Bowl' missile guidance radars.






j .'l'" "


Slassed by the Sovrets as a malyY
raketnyy korabl'(MRK or small rocket
ship), the 17 units of the 'Nanuchka I'
class were built between 1969 and
:974 at Petrovsky, Leningrad with a
modified vanant, the 'Nanuchka II'
class, followinq at that yard and at an as
yet unnamed Pacific coast shipyard
:om 1977. Now in slow series con-
struction (one per year) the 'Nanuch-
kas' are considered by Western
observers to be coastal missile cowet-
tes, although the fact they are verY
often seen quite far from home waters
(on deployment to such areas as the
North Sea, the Mediterranean and the
Pacific) tends to put them more in the
very light frigate category, especially
when:he firepower ollhe class Ls cons-
rdered, The anti-ship missile carried ts
the Mach 0.9 SS-N-9 'Stren' which can
be fitted to carry either a 500-kq ( 1, 102-
lb) HE or 200-kiloton nuclear warhead
over a range of i10 km (68 miles), The
SS-N-9 uses a dual active radar and
rnfra-red terminal homrng system, wtth
third-party targetingr and mid-course
corections to qnride it in over the hori-
zon engagements.
In 1977 an export version the
'Nanuchka lI' ciass was delivered to
lndia. This dtffers from the standard
Soviet modeis in having twin SS-N-ZB A'Nanuchka I' small missile shiP 28 'Styx' missile launchers, whilst the Propulsion: three paired diesels
'Styx SSM launchers in place of the underway. The export'Nanuchka II' Iatest Soviet variant, the 'Nanuchka delivering power to three shafts
trrple SS-N-9 'Siren' launcher systems, class differs mainly in carrying SS-N- III', has a differentgunarmament. Speed: 32 lts
India took delivery of three units Armament: two triple contatner-
Aigeria and Lrbya subsequently re- launchers for SS-N-9 'Srren' antt-ship
ceivinQi three ships each, Indta is missrles, one twinlauncherfor 18 SA-
known to have ordered a further three, N-4'Gecko' SAMs, one twrn 57-mm AA
gun or ('Nanuchka ili' only) one 76-mm
whilst Aigerra and Libya are each due
(3-in) DP and one 30-mm CIWS quns
to receive one more unit,
Specification Electronics: one 'Band Stand'air- and
'Nanuchka'classes surface-search radar, one 'Peel Pair'
Displacement: 780 tons standard and surface:seareh and navigtation radar,
900 tons fulIload one 'Spar Stump' surface-search and
Dimensions:lenqth 59.3 m (194.6 ft); navigation radar, two 'Fish Bowl' SAM
beam 12:6 m(41.3 ft); draught 2,4 m flre-conirol radars, one 'Muff Cob' or
(7 I ft)
('Nanuchka IlI' only) Bass Tilt' fire-
control radar, one 'Hich Pole-B' IFF,
hvo passive ECM systems, and two 16-
The'N anuchka I' class of small
mrssrTe ship carrjes tfte SS-/V-9 'Srren' barrel chafflaunchers
anti-ship missile as its main
armament. For maximum range a
third-party over-the-horizon ^'T\
targeting sourcers reguired.".f;lil

il 'ilrantut'class
Gatling gnrn mounts that in the Soviet Armament: two twin contalner-
Built at Petrovsky, Leningrrad, the flrst over-and-under missiie contalner-
'Tarantul I' class unit was completed in launchers for the long-range super- navy have the designation AK-630 (the launchers for SS-N-2C 'Styx' anti-ship
1978. Like the 'Nanuchka', the class ts sonic SS-N-22 derivative of the SS-N-g ADG630 desiqnation often used being missrles, one quadruple launcher for
'Siren' in place ol the original SS-N-2C a NATO nickname). 16 SA-N-5'Grarl'SAMs, one 76-mm (3-
designated a maW raketnYY korab|
(MRK, or small rocket ship), but its ex- 'Styx' system, in) DP and two 30-mm CIWS gmns
act place in Soviet naval plans is not yet One possible explanation for the ex- Aircraft: none
istencs oi this design rs tfial it is ln- Electronics: one 'Band Stand'air- and
clear, since in many respects it is not as
tended for export, and in fact during Specification surface-search radar or 'Plank Shave'
modern as the 'Nanuchka' class, surface-search radar, one (not in early
However, seven 'Tarantul 1'units are in l9B3 a'Tarantul I' was transferred to 'Tarantul'classes
service at present, and a production the Polish nalry, with more to follow it Displacement: 4BO tons standard and units)'l:iqht Bulb' targeting data
is not certarn at present whether this 580 tons fuli load system, one'Spin Trough' navlgation
rate of some three shiPs Per Year is radar, one 'Bass Ttlt' gun fire-control
berng sustained, In order to rectify first vessel was an ex-Soviet navy unit Dimensions: lenqth 56.0 m (183,7 ft);
or new build speciflcally for transfer, beam 10.5 m (34.4 ft); draught 2.5 m radar, one 'High Pole-B'IFF, one
some of the shortcomings of the design 'square Head' IFF, fourpassive ECM
the later units of the class have poss- The 'Tarantuls' deploy a modified ver- (B 2 ft)
sion of the Sovret navY's small shiP Propulsion: CODOG arrangements systems, anci two 16-barrel chaff
rblv been fltted while building with up-
armament of a fully automatic 76-mm with two diesels and two QIas turbines launchers
daied electronrcs whilst a furlher unit
(3-in) DP grun, capable of 120 rounds deliverinq power to two shafts Complement: 50
was completed in 1981 to the'Tarantul
iI' class conflguration with two twin per minute, and two 30-mm 6-barrel Speed:36 kts

1 734
Modern Frigates (Part 2)
'Esmeraldas' class
Although stnctly speaking rated as
missile corvettes rather than small
light fngates, the units of the 'Esmeral-
das'class must, because of their multi-
purpose capabilities, be ranked with
the latter, Ordered in 1978 from the
Itahan firm CNR del Trreno, the de-
based on the 'Wadi M'ragh (now
sigm is
'Assad') class for Libya but with more
powerful diesel engines, the addition
of a helicopter landing platform
amidships and a SAM launcher aft of
the bndge. All sx units of the class, the
Esmeraldas (CM11), Manabi (CMiz)
.LosRrbs (CM 13), El Oro (CMI 4), G ala-
pagos (CMIS) and Laja (CM16) are
now in sewice with the Ecuadorean
naw as the country's primary antiship
surface strike force, The helicopter
platform rs used to operate one of the
naq's three A6rospatiale Alouette III Specifications TIre Galapagos (CM I 5) is the fifth unit of the 'Esmeraldas'
light helicopters in the surface-search 'Esmeraldas'class class, built in ltaly for Ecuador. The quadruple Albatros SAM
and arr-sea-rescue roles as circum- Displacement: 620 tons standard and launcher behind the bridge superstructure and mastfires
stances dictate. The anti-ship missile 685 tons fi:ll load the Aspidemissile.
syste{n frtted is the 65-km (40.4-mile) Dimensions: lenqth 62.3 m (204.4 ft);
ranqe MM,40 Exocet, with two banks beam9,3 m(30.5 ft); drausht2,5(8.2 ft)
(each of three single conlarner- Propulsion: four MTU diesels Whitehead A24#S anti-submarine
launchers, firing outwards) located be- delivering 18 195 kW (24,400 hp) to four torpedoes
tvveen the landingr platform and the shafts Aircraft: provision for one light
bridge, The SAM system fitted is the Speed: 37 kts helicopter on a landing pad
liqhtwelght four-round launcher ver- Armament: six sinetle container- Electronics: one RANlOSalr- and
sion of the ltalian Albatros weapon sys- launchers for MM.40 Exocet anti-ship surface-search radar, one Orion IOX
tem whrch uses the Asptde multi-role missiles, one Albatros quadruple fire-control radar, one Orion 2OX fire-
mrssile. Only self-defence,.-{SW torpe- launcher for four Aspide SAMs, one control radar, one Decca TMl226
do tubes are fitted, together with a hull- 76-mm (3-in) DP and one twrn 40-mm r navigationradar, one IPN20data
mounted sonar set, for sub-surface AA gnrn, and hvo triple 324-mm (12,76- , rnformationsystem, oneGammaESM
warfare operations. tn) ILAS-3 rube mountings for stx system, and one Diodon hull-mounted
Although more coftectly classed as a missile cowette, the Complement:51
Ecuadorian navy's'E smeraldas' c/ass ias mo re firepower
per ship thananumher of light frigate classes.They are
armed with six MM .40 Exocets , a quadruple Albatros SAM
/auncfter, gruns an/ torpedoes


E ffi
part of the Argentine navy's mod-
whereas the others are being con- which the Argentines use on their Propulsion: two diesels deliveringr
ernizat]on plans, a contract was siqned structed with a telescopic hangar to 'MEKO 360' type destroyers. Although 16853 kW (22,600 hp) to tvvo shafts
in October 1980 with the West German allow the permanent carriage of a ltght desrgned for use primarily on coastal Speed: 27 L:ts
',firm of Blohm und Voss fcr six'MEKO hehcopter, The earher units ll'tll be operations, the class forms a potent Armament: four srnqle container-
[40A16' class ships, to be built (to a retrofitted at the frst available oppor- offensive force for use in any future launchers for MM.38 Exocet anti-ship
hght frigate clesign based on the Portu- tunity if finances allow. naval operations against the Falkland missrles, one 76-mm (3-in) DP and tvso
guese Joao Couttnho' class) uncier lt- The Argentines are currently study- rslands. twin 40-mm AA gnrns, two sinqle I2.7-
cence at the AFNE shrpyard tn Rto ing a plan whereby in order to cut mm (0.S-in) machine-guns, and fi/vo
Santrago, Ensenada and known locally military expendrture they might well Specification triple 324-mm ( l2 76-rn) rube
as the 'Espora' class. The lead ship have to sell offsome oftheir new shtps, 'MEKO 140A16'class mountinqs for 12 Whitehead A244lS
Espora (P4) was commtssioned into Amonq the ships being considered is Displacement: 1,470 tons standard and anti-submarine torpedoes
the Argentrne navy in 1983, a trro com' an 'Espora' class umt. The 'Espora' 1,700 tons tull load Aircraft : one A6rospatrale Alouette IIi
pnsing the ftosa/es (P5), Spiro (PG) class is replacing some of Argentina's Dimensions: lenqth 91.2 m (299.2 ft); or Westland Lynx HAS,Mk 23light
and Parker (P7) followrns in 1985, obsolete, ex-American World War II beam 12,2 m (40.0 ft); draught 3,3 m helicopter
a flna1 parr, theRobrnson (PB) and Sea- destroyers, and its members are (10 B ft) Electronics: one DA-05/2 air-search
ver (P9), in 1986 and 1987 respectlely, equipped predominantly wrth ASW radar, one WM-28 fire-controi radar,
The first three differ from the last three and anti-surface warfare weapon sys- -{' one Decca TMl226 navrgationradar,
units in initially havinq only a helicop- tems. The four MM.3B Exocet contain- two LIROD optronic fire-control
ter landing platform amidships, er-launchers shipped aft could be re- systems, one Daisy automatic actron
placed by eigrht canisters for the light- informatron system, one RDC-2ABC
As part oI the Argentine navy's er but longer-range MM,40 Exocet ESM system, one RCM-2 ESM system,
modernization programme in the two Dagaie chafflaunchers, andone
1 970s, six West German'MEKO I 40' ASO-4 hull-mounted sonar
class light frigates were ordered to Complement:93
be licence-built in Argentina. All will
eventually be fitted with a hangar


i 735
F H 'il1#["h'ocl"r,
The 'Fatahillah' class of Dutch- not known if these will be of the 'Fataht-
desisned and -built light ASW frigate lah' class, Moreover, it is not known if
was ordered tn Augmst 1975 as the first they will be procured at all as the In-
malor new-burld warship type for the donesrans have bougtht three tecon-
Indonesian navy since the acceptance ditioned ex-Royal Narry 'Tribal' class
of Soviet ships in the 1950s and 1960s. frigates,
The class numbets only three, the last The anti-ship missile armament
unit, the JVa/a (363), differinq from her fitted to the 'Fatahillahs is two pairs of
two sisterships, Ihe Fatahillaft (361) container{aunchers for the 42 lan (26-
and Malahayati (362). tn havtng a new mrle) ranqe MM.3B Exocet, and this
type of helicopter landinq deck aft primary armament allows the ships to
which folds around the MBB BO105 operate as effective suppods for the
Iight helicopter carried to form a han- growing force of missile- and gun-
gar structure; the other ships have no armed attack units which are beingT
helicopter facrlitres at all. The arma- procured for use among the mYriad
ment and electronics fit was procured islands which make up the indonesian The Indonesian navy 'Fatahillah' may be built to replace ex-American
from a vartety of NATO countries, republic, c/assfrigafe Malahayati (362). /f and Soviet frigate classes which are
whilst for sewice in the hot cltmates of money can be foun d it is Possib/e still in service atter some 25 years of
the Far East the ships are fitted with Specification that a further batch of these frigates use,
air-conditroned livtng spaces, They 'Fatahillah'class
also have a full nuclear-biological- Displacement: l, 160 tons standard and missiles, one 120-mm (4,7-in) DP one Aircraft: (ly'aia only) one MBB 80105
chemical (NBC) warfare citadel, and 1,450 tons full load (two inli/aia) 40-mm AA and two single light helicopter
have fin stabilizers and a combined Dimensions:length 84.0 m (275.6 ft); 20-mm AA gmns, one twin Bofors 375- Electronics: one DA-05 air- and
diesel or gas turbine (CODOG) prop- beam I l, 1 m (36.4 ft); draught 3,3 m mm (14.76-in) ASW rocketlauncher surface-search radar, one Decca
ulsion plant arangement for 'quick- (10 B ft) with 54 rockets, and (except inlfala) ACI229 navigationradar, one WM-28
start' operations, The magazines fitted Propulsion; CODOG arrangement two triple 324-mm (12,76-in) Mk32 flre-control radar, one I,IROD optronic
can carry a total of 400 120-mm (4.7-1n) with one Rolls-Royce Olympus TM3B tube mountings for 12 Whitehead fire-control system, one Daisy
and 3,000 4O-mm rounds. The main gas turbine delivering 16674 kW A244lS or Mk 44 anti-submarine automatic action information system,
radar fire-control system for the guns rs (22,360 shp) andtwo MTUdiesels torpedoes one SUSIE I ESMsystem, two Corvus
backed by a single LIROD television/ delivering 5966 kW (8,000 hp) to hvo chaff launchers, one T Mk 6 torpedo
laser/infra-red optronic flre-control shafts decoy system, and one PHS-32 hull-
unit, Speed:30 kts mounted sonar
if present plans are continued, an Armament: four stngle container- Complement:89
additional two or three frigates will be launchers for MM,3B Exocet antt-shtp
bought for the Indonesian navy, but it is The Dutch-built 'Fatahillah' class {or
thelndonesian navy Proved a
success jn servjce. The general-
purpose version armed with MM.38
Exocet missiles is shown here.

fI W :rui,"
Ordered from Frarice rn October I9B0
embarked helicopter will be able to launcher for Standard SM-IMR mis-
siles and containerlaunchers for Oto-
diesels delivering 24235 kW
(32,500 hp) to two shafts
as a major part of the 14,000 million cafiy out targeting functions,
franc Sawari weapons supply contract, The presence of the class, in an area mat SSMS, When the Saudis are going Speed: 30 kts
the first of a total of four 'Type F2000' of partrcularly sensitive strategic im- to order these vessels is not known at Armament: eight single container-
portance to both major power blocs, present, launchers for Otomat Mk 2 anti-ship
, class frigrates was laid down in the
will be of considerable interest to all missiles, one octuple launcher for 26
Arsenal de Lorient shrpyard in I9BI
and launched in 1983 for commrcSlon- the Arabian Gulf oil states, and the Specification Crotale Naval SAMs, one 100-mm (3,9-
'Type F2OOOs'wrll be matched only bY 'Type F2000'class in) DP and two twin 40-mmAA guns,
ing in 1984 as the Madina (702) The
Iraq's ]talian 'l,upo' class frigates, A Displacement: 2,250 tons standard and four single 533-mm (21-in) tubes for
remaining three vessels are the Hofuf
(704), Abha (706) and ?arT (708), and further two large frigates armed with 2,6I0 tons fulIload FlTPwire-gruided anti-ship and anti-
were laid down at the CNIM shiPYard an area-defence SAM system are Dimensions: Ienqrth 115,0 m (377,3 ft); submarine torpedoes, and two single
under consideration, France propos- beam 12,5 m (41,0 ft); draught 4,7 m 324-mm ( 12.76-in) Mk 32 tubes for Mk
at Seyne-sur-Mer in I9B2-3 for delivery
ing a'Type F4000'desiqn equiPPed (15 4 fr) 46 anti-submarrne torpedoes
during 1985-6,
The class is a very complex destgn with the American single-rail Mk 13 Propulsion: four SEMT-Pielstick Aircraft: one A6rospatiale SA 365
and uses much untried state-ofthe-art ?
Dauphin 2 liqht strike helicopter
electronics technology, and may well A'Type F 2000' frigate of the S audi Electronics: one DRBV 15 air- and
be too sophisticated for so Young a Arabian navy. The purchase of this surface-search radar, one Castor II
navy as that of Saudi Arabia, The sopftisticafed c/a ss from France is frre-control radar, two Decca 1226
weapon systems are PredominantlY typicalol oil-rich Arab nations navigation radars, one DRBC 32E SAM
French in ongin, although the surface- buying weapons with more f,re-control radar, one SENIT VI action
to-surface missiles are the Franco- capacity than is necessary. rnformation system, one DR400O ESM
Italian Otomat Mk 2 rather than the system, two Dagaie chaff launchers,
more usual member of the Exocet
one Diodon TSM2630 hull-mounted
sonar, and one Sorel variable-depth
family, which indicates a longt-ranqle
anti-ship strike role, especrally as the sonar
A6rospatiale SA365 DauPhin,?-

t-liddle Ecrst Flcshpoint :
Thg Gulf Bushehr, Movement to Bushehr has be::_


oirweatthhasgiven thenations of theMiddteEasttheabirity toobtainweaponsof ixr'#:::"J: ftr""1*i5;?il:' 11? f ;,;= .

themostadvancedkind.Unfortunately,thevolatilityof theregion jssucft thatthe ter the present-day Iranian na\ry Ls :-.'.':=:,'
weapons could find fhernse/yesr'n use af a/most any time, with graveconseguences large, havtng.shrunk from 20,000 to li i I - :-=:-
for{hewortd. 3:3,:T*'5",i'*?.3::i*?J.fJ"*"*J _=
Tension between Iran and her Arab neish- most efficient armed.forces in the area, and 33r[?ti3i;Jllitr5tJr3]i",:5*"fri"f?';=-
bcursisnotanewphenomenon, Itisatension thingshavechangedsinceKhomeinitookover, of those how many are operationa. .. -:-j-- =;
:aigoesbeyondnatlonsdividedbyacommon Nonetheiess, present-day lranian potential body's guess, Nonetheless, sateihte c:'.':r1;:
::hgion, although rn part it can be traced back for mischief-making is still enormous, An identifiesone combat stores ship (she nas:: ::
.: the split in Islam foiiowrng the death of attempt could be made to attack and control lhe Bandar Abbas), one replenishme:: :' ::
I.ichammed and the subsequent Islamic ex- the Tumbs; or to destabihze countries like one guided-missile destroyer and cne -al;=
cansion. It is also a tension founded in cultural Bahrain (with a Shia majority), Qatar or even patrol craft, American and British na';a- ::::::
-:ipathies and remembered slights, insults that small Omani enclave at the very tip of the in the area are warned, as are the On:a:,'s ',',:-:
lnjuries that go back many hundreds of Arab peninsula, occupred by mostly drssident can be trusted not to panic, The proble::: -=s :-
=C (furd before anyone becomes too smug tribesmen and (some say) the Mahdr who
-.'=ars. the fact that if the Iranians attempt to tai<3 :-.-::
this, rt is worth remembering that the caused such trouble to Oman in the lg60s, re- 3:---
the entrance to the Gulf, the UK, USA ani
ars of the Roses are still fouqht, if only on the
sulting in the SAS being sent in to help shore up can and will act unrlaterally, bui tha:
:::cket field; and that the Hundred Years War Oman's then fledgling forces. Whatever the attempt is made to land or attack one :: :-=
- =:-
'= siill remembered in continental Ewope.) circumstances, Iran is still the greatest poten- Arab countries, the three nations have :: .';=-,
Before the Ayatollah Khomeini decided to tial aggressor in the area, until asked. And above and beyond thrs. r:t ::.:
spread his own version of Islamic truth, the However weakened Iran is by internal dis- canblowafewlranianshipsoutolthehg:,s===
j:ah dreamed of a Persian empire to rrval that sension and the Iraql war, she is still viewed just because they feel threatened: it gives p:: -
,: Xerxes, an empire that would, naturally, con- wrth suspicion and outright alarm by her Arab ple a wonderful reason to make nasty spee ::-=.
::i (tf not include) Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait, neighbours. And Iran has indeed involved her- in the United Nations, as well as gt-,ilner :--:-=:
:-rrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and self in the internal affairs of her neighbours: of countrres a reason to do the same ihiirS: --:-::--
l=an, all countries that just happened to be that there can be no doubt, She has exported selves, with results that all krow anC l;:---,
:-:h in oil or natural gas, ideological subversion as well as the weapons fear,
l: was and is a state of affairs that dnves to back up that subversion. It ls thus worth The decrsion is made that the A5:3r-tr-
:ertographers crazy. Dependrng on the map looking at an incident that could have taken AWACS aircraft based in Rryadh in Sa-::- -::=-
::-e considers, that long channel between the place recently or may even take place tomor- bia will increase coverage in the area -:-=
-r:ab peninsula on the west and lran, Pakrstan row. Incidentally, never expect to see such an Royal Saudi Arabian navy headqua::-rs -:--
=:-C India on the east is knornm either as the tncidentmentionedinthepress: first, eventhe Riyadhisaisoalerted; asluckwouldha'.-e-:
--ersian Gulf or the Arabic Gull CallLng it just winners would not want to admit that such an firstof the Saudis' lburnew Type F200C t-;-.:.
:e 'Gulf only gets both sides upset. Today. thrs action happened in case it encourages others from France is visiting Dammam on te e. =.
.retch of water is one of the most strategically to try the same ploy with greater success; and coast, just north of Bahrain,
::portant areas in the world: whoever com- second, the losers wouid be concerned about
:-andsitcontrolstheflowofoilfromtheMiddle loss of face, often regarded as being more
_:lb:'Ttll-:il3l'-'lisntL"'"*ei"Jt'ons :li*Cll *""-1"..-or=lir"-nv-6"r'ii"iX'l"ir," Y!:;::U{Ei::::J:i::',i3t,",:tri:;,vi:#:'*,
:-:nours of hts tntention to occupy and control world over, znd'theSAudi,Maarna,class;ave? E;E;";ht'
:e Tlrmbs islands that gn:ard tire enirance to Amerrcan satellite rntelligence has shown a Lbewhere. Thus the GuIf coutd see auied weapons
:e gmlf, But the Shah was then in control of the sliqht build-up of Iranian naval forces at on opposrhgsides.
Middle East Flashpoint:The Gulf
Shortly after sundown, an AWACS aircraft that one highly-placed non-lranran smuggler be used, The decrsron is made somewhat re-
picks up other maritime movement on rts Wes- has bought himself some war-surplus equip- luctantly because the Saudi navy is strl1 build-
trnghouse AN/APY-I radar, which can spot ment, so the AWACS command does what it ing up its strength and, more importantly, per-
maritime targets at long ranqe lrom its high- always does in these circumstances and sonnel, The problem is that the Saudis have one
altrtude patrol orbit. The rnformation that thts checks with the coastguard and frontier police Type F2000'frigate (wrth three more building),
AWACs aircraft picks up rs drsturbrng rn the of Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states to see if a four corvettes, nine fast attack craft (missile),
extreme: four more patrol craft or fast attack highly-placed smuggler is expecting a ship- three fast attack craft (torpedo), 39 patrol craft,
craft have appeared from the inlets and secret ment. (And one has to be really highly placed iour coastal minesweepers, 16 landing craft,
bays that make up the Iranian coastline, They to get that sort of treatment: usually it happens one tanker (with one more building), and 24
are identified as naval ships because they are only ',v1"n liquor convoys are detected drrving hydrofolls or air-cushion vehicles, but only
too iast to be the dhows that smuqgie ernbar- across the desert.) 4,500 officers and men, Admlttedly many oI
goed goods rnto lran. Nonetheless, it couid be The answer is negative: no 'rllegal' ship- those craft are used by the coastguard and
ments are expected, The four new Iranian frontier police, and some are even used by the
shrps are steaming to jotn up at a point some National Guard which Prince Abdullah has
]5 km (9 3 miles) south of Bushehr, and satellite built up to be an extremely efficient (rnternal ?)
IR surveillance now confirms that the lranian fighting force. Still, there are pialnly not enough
ships in Bushehr have started therr engines and trained personnel to go round and the Saudis
are leaving port. are obvrously reiuctant to iose the ones they
Although there are American and Brrtrsh have. But the 'Type F2000' (suitably relnforced)
shrps rn the area, it ls decided to leave it to the should tlp the balance on their side if a naval
Saudis in the first instance, and this means that engagement does take place, because it is a
their new 'Type F2000'frigate, the Madrna, will very formidable weapon indeed,
The Madina was built by Lorrent (DTCN)
launched 23 April 1983 and commissloned in
1984. She displaces 2,610 tons at full load, has a
top speed of 30 kts and can steam for 12000 km
(7 455 mlles) at 15 kts, She carries a crew of 179
,::": -;-'* -
s':-,fl_,,_.4 -
(15 officers and 164 ratings), plus one A6rospa-
tiale SA 365 Dauphin 2 helicopter, She is armed
f' wlth 26 Crotale Naval sohd-propellant iR-
command SAM misslies that deliver 15 kg
(33 ]b) of HE on tarqet; eight Otomai Mk 2 tur-
bojet-powered radar-homing SSM missrles
that dehver 60 kg (132 lb) ol HE to 60 km (37 3
miles); one 100-mm (3 9-in) Creusot Loire gun
that flres at 60 rounds per minute and has a
I3-km (8 1-mile) range; four 40-mm Bofors in

The A6rospatiale SA 365 D auphin helicopter

carriedby theMadina can be used as anASW
weapon, but in the Gulf would primarily be used
for anti-shipping attacks, both directly against rt
patrol cratt and as a target designator and mid-
course gruide for Madina's Otorn at anti-ship
: -ir_ " #€':':ti' q l
' .L*
,a \ :i
., r,l .i :{,.-' .i'.
:t-Yff€q..;:: ,' l .tt-
::a: ..i -i: ,@]:_:.t
ji : ; ..-,J,r !'l
'::: :i 's lL.
, | ;.;
;' r'i "' . ,:t'.. ..U; ,f,1... t-+ :k
s"$'s-, ,#tr ', - j k., ' ,.;+ -,--l€e','-
tl " q r,,'. **..
ffiit- gtg itj .&';' | ,
6 , l*'*' /'"/lij

i1;o,,.. ,*,,,,,
Modern Frigates (Part 2)
hvo twin Breda mountings that,fue 320 rounds replenishment oiier would be used in an patrol craft, number i44, As she gets wr'Jr::r
per minute and (radar-controlled) can knock attacking role, but when you have most of your range of the Iranlans, she tries to raise them c:
out an incoming Exocet; fow torpedo tubes aft navy put out ofaction by iraqi Exocets and your ship-to-ship radio, but to no avail. But 1q-ha:
lor F17P duai-roie torpedoesi and two other own Islamic Courts of Justice, you do not have number I44 does get is a couple of Sea Kilier
hrbes, also ait, for Mk 46 antl-submarine torpe- ali that much choice. The combat stores ship missiles that come skimming across the n-a;es
does. She is, as the French wouid say, formid- (almost certainly lhe Bandar Abbas) is more of towards her. Number 144 does not ha-;e a
ablel a worry for the combat stores she may have on chance. At this point the Iranians finally bre-<
Her fire-control systems wou-ld also be sup- board than for her armament. radio silence to announce on open chai:rs'.
plemented by equipment of the overilyrrg that they are under attack by unident-fied s;-
AWACS platform. Generalwarning face ships, believed to be Amencan ani':::
The Madina will be reinforced by one 'Skor- At this point, the Saudi naval HQ issues a they are figrhting back bravely in the face cl -:=
pion' class coastal patrol craft detached from general waming to all shipping that 'certain wicked aggression. And this is where -:e
Ras Tanurah and two Jagn:ar' class last attack elements' of the Royal Saudi Arabian navy will Madina comes lnto action.
craft (torpedo) from Dammam. be conducting an exercise off the Saudi Ara- The decision has been made in Rr:raih ::
By the time the Saudi forces have left port bian coast, and that as this exercise may in- avoid sinking the Saam if possilcle. beca'.L-
and rendezvoused, all the Iranian forces have clude live firing, it would be advisable to all such an important loss could trigger ofi a
met up and are steaming down the Gulf on a ships to contact the Saudi Arabian coastguard confrontation, if not war. The ldea rs to
teaci -:e
course to take them to Ras al IGraLma. north- wrth their position at reqular intewals. Iranians a lesson without causing ':he:: ::,:
emmost emirate in the UAE, but because of the This message is repeated frequently in Ara- much loss of face. Four Otomat Mk 2 sur:ace-::-
;urious bend of the coastline, also the emirate bic, English, Urdu and Farsi, the Iast being the surface missiles are fired, two each al l:.le !:--
:losest to the entrance of the gruJf. The Iranian langmaqe of Iran just in case they missed the dar Abbas and lhe Kharg. There are :rc i:e: -
sirips are making about 15 kts which will gnve porrt, plus English and Urdu because English is hits, and one combat stores ship and c::e ':e:
:rem plenty of time to swing south east and the lingnra franca of the high seas, and Urdu is replenishment oiler explode. SimuJia::e:::r1
a:tack, threaten or pay a coutesy call on any ol spoken universally by Iocal traders. Np one lhe Madina has been warning. vla r:.': -:*:
ie Gulf states, or any of the oil rigs that dot that wants the Iranians to think that they are being two unidentified craft have strayed 1i-:: :J:
of water. picked on or even warned off, because if the missile test firing area and are under cc:is-jel-
The Iranian frigate has been tentatively Iranians do think that they are being warned able risk.
-Centifled as the Saam, British-built and com- off, it may just trigger them into doing some- The message strikes home, and the re-='--
:::rssioned in 197i, then refitted in Devonport ur thing precipitate. But il the Iranian intentions ing Iranian ships turn back, still shadcr:: :-;
-377 when her il4-mm (4.5-in) Vrckers Mk 7 are honourable (or at least not that aggressive) the AWACS aircraft.
;nin mounting was replaced by the Mk 8 (raagre the mere threat of live firing will cause them to The Saudi task force stays at sea a -::je .:--
ZZWo/13.7 miles and rate of fire 25 rounds per keep away, mainly because the last time there ger (lt is, after ali, on exerclse) beicr= -: ::,:
inute). in addition she carries two tvyin 35-mm was a live firing exercise (admittedly by the retums to its home ports.
lerlikons, five OTO Melara Sea K:lier SSMs army) in 1984 a Gulf Air passenger jet was For months to come, accus€rtion and c::-::=:-
-:at deiiver a 70-kg (i54-lb) HE warhead over blown out of the sky. accusation will flood the airwaves ar-r -:.:-
!; icn (i5.5 miles) and nine Seacat SAMs mth a By now it is 04,30 and dawn is beginning to press, except that no one will admii :: a -=-.=-
:ilge of 5.9 km (3.7 miles). It is perhaps more break. And as it does, the lranian squadron engagement even having taken place .;::-g*-.
1:curate to say that this was the armament turns directly to the Arabic coastline and in- of course, it was those brutish America:-s c::k-
:arried in the time of the Shah: no one really creases speed to 20 kts. ing on undefended Iranian shrps aga-:.
crows what she has now, but it is unlikely to be Srmultaneousiy, a wave of bombing breaks Poor old number 144 wdl be repcr-ei =.
in the same leagme as the armament out in Bahrain and Kuwait and the Qatari radio having hit a mine; the hvo unidentined s::ps
:arried by the Madina. She can in theory steam stations goes off the air. Now the bombing that strayed into the firing zone mll be -ae*-
r-ter than Ihe Madina (39 kts), but the repie- could be the work of Palestinians, or Libyan- tified, finaliy, as dhows - and a prognarnr::e;d
:;hment oiler accompanying her has a top inspired terrorists; the Qatari radio station be set up to equip all trading dhows rnith rai:s
=peed of only 21,5 kts. The replenishment oiler cor:ld have suffered a breakdown, or there so that no more accidents can happei: I:e
:i:nost certainly Ihe Kharg, burlt by Swan Hun- could be yet another attempted palace coup, bombings will be put down to either Lib_r---
:er) also should be carrying three helicopters Unfortunately, the Saudi task force cannot Zionist-lnspired terrorists. Qatar radic r--
rlich may have been fitted wrth antl-stup tor- allord to take the time to find out. It alters come back on, and the Saudl relignous leade::
pedoes or missiles. it sounds unlikely that a course to intercept the Iranian frorce; all mari- will again try to stop it broadcasting subvers:;e
time freguencies are now confirming that live Western-styie music.
firing wlll take place, and that all ships should This engagement never actuaily took piaee
stay well clear, at least irr the next few hours or But if ever it had, it could well have happenei
so. in exactly the way just described. The one sirre
Leading the Saudis is the 'Skorpion' coastal thing is that you will never hear about it.

- a-;- ' The Madina andiersrslers sft ould prove a match

--Sfo*j#r,-i*i.=- for most potential seaborne enemies in the rqiion.
Air power is well developed in the Gult, howeven
The eight Otomat missiles carriedby tfie Madina
so if ispossib/e that dedicated AAW vessek may
have aThomson-CSF guidance system, andwith be acquired to operate in t andem with the anti-
mid-course gruidance have a range of over I 60 kn shipping capabilities of the'TYpe F2000'.
( 100 miles). The missiles can be fired in salvoes of
two, with a three-second interval between
successjve /auncfi es.'..
* tlE;

'Niteroi' class
Ordered in September 1970 ftom the navy, including the aircraft-carrier
English shipyard Vosper-Thornycroft Minas Gerais,
in ASW and general-purpose versions, in June I9B 1 a modified'Niteroi' class
the 'Niteroi' class shtps were based on frigate, the Brasil (U27), was ordered
the company's Mk I0 frigate design for commissioning in 1985 ftom a 1ocal
and were constructed both ln the UK firm as a training ship for the naval and
and Brazil. The four ASW ships are the merchant marine academies. Fitted
/Vjteroi (F40), Defensor (F41), /nde- with a light AA armament, the vessel is
pendencia (F44) and Unjio (F45), and fitted with a hangar and landing deck
are fitted with the Branik missile- aft for two Westland Lyrx HAS.Mk 2l
Iauncher system derived specifically helicopters.
for the Brazilians from the Australian
Ikara ASW missile system, The two Specification
general-purpose units are the Consfi'- 'Niteroi'class
iucao F42) and h'beral (F43), and Displacement: 3,200 tons standard and
3,800 tons full load The 'Niteroi' class ASW vessel Uniao ASW mksile. The magazine carries a
these are similar to the ASW ships
Dimensions: Iensth 129.2 m (423.9 ft); (F45) has a Branik missile launcher total of 10 such mrssr?es, urfiicft are
though instead of the Branik system
theyhave a second I l4-mm (4,5-in) Mk beam I3.5 m(44.3 ft); draughtS,S m system aftwhich fues theAustralian targetedby boththebow sonar and
B DP qun mount aft (in the place occu- (iB 0 ft) Mk 44/ 4 6 torpedo-equipped I kara theVDSsystem.
pied by the Branik system tn the ASW Propulsion: CODOG arrangement
ships) and two pairs of contarner- with tvvo Rolls-Royce OlymPus TM3B two triple 324-mm ( 12, 76-in) STWS- I forfive depthcharges
launehers for MM.38 Exocet SSM mis- gas turbines delivering 4 1759 kW tube mountings for six Mk 44 or Mk 46 Aircraft : one Westland Lynx HAS, Mk
siles located betv\reen the bridge and (56,000 shp) and four MTU diesels anti-submarine torpedoes, and one rail 2I light helicopter
deliverinq I 1752 kW(15,760 hp) to two forflve depthcharges Electronics: one AWS 2 air-search
the funnel, Fitted with a combined
diesel or gas turbine (CODOG) prop- shafts Armament: (F42 and F43) four single radar, one ZW-06 surface-search
ulsion plant, the design is considered Speed:30.5 kts containerlaunchers for MM, 38 Exocet radar, tlvo RTN IOX fire-control
to be exceptionally economical in Armament: (F40, F4l, F44 and F45) one anti-ship missiles, hvo I 14-mm (4,S-in) radars, one lkara tracking radar (not in
Branik ASW missile launcher with l0 DPandthree single 40-mm AAgmns, F42 and F43), one CAAIS action
terms of manpower when comPared
with previous warships of this size, A Ikara missiles, hrro triple launchers for one twin Bofors 375-mm (14.76-in) information system, one RDL-2/3 ESM
CAAIS action information system is 60 Seacat SAMs, one 114-mm (4,5-in) ASW rocket-launcher with 54 rockets, system, one EDO 610E hull-mounted
fitted to allow co-ordinated sudace- DP and three single 40-mm AA gnrns, two triple 324-mm (12.76-in) STWS-l sonar, and (not in F42 and F43) one
ship ASW and surface strike oPera- one twrn Bofors 375-mm (I4.76-in) tube mountings for 12 Mk 44 or Mk 46 EDO 700E variable depth sonar
tions with other vessels of the Brazllian ASW rocket-launcher with 54 rockets, anti-submarine torpedoes, and one rail Complement: 201

il Ti*g""n' and Jianghu' classes

Specification Specification
In the late 1950s the Chinese assem- which is still not operational although
bled in their Hutung shipyard at Shan- one of the units has now been seen Tiangrnan'class Jianghu'classes
ghai four frigates of the Soviei 'Riga' with missile mountings, The class also Displacement: I, I50 tons standard and Displacement: I, 568 tons standard and
class from components suPPlied bY introduced into service the first I,500 tons full load i,900 tons fi;l} load
the USSR, Known locally as the 'Cheng- Chinese twin 100-mm (3.9-in) gun Dimensions: lenqth 90.8 m (297,9 ft); Dimensions:length 103.2 m (338.6 ft);
du'class, these ships were followed in mount, beam 10,0 m (32.8 ft); draught 3.9 m beam 10.2 m (33.5 ft); draught 3. I m
While the Jianqtdongs' were undet (12 B ft) (10,2 ft)
1965 by the laying down of the first hull
of an indigenous enlarged and mod- construction, a new design for qreater Propulsion: four diesels delivering Propulsion ( jianghu I' and Jianghu iII')
ified variant at the Jiangnan shipyard in anti-ship engagement capability was power to tvvo shafts two diesels delivering power to hvo
Shanghai, resulting in the designation being formiilated, The flrst three or Speed: 28 kts shafts
'Jiangnan' class, Four further units four units of what became known as the Armament: three single lOO-mm (3.9- Propulsion: ( Jianghu II') probably a
were completed at the Tung Lang Jianghu I'
class were Iaid down in in) DP, four hvin 37-mm AA and two CODOG arrangement delivering
shrpyard, Guangzhou (Canton) be- ig73-4 at Hutung, Iaunched in 1975 and twin 14.5-mmAAguns, two l2-barrel powerto tvrro shafts

tween 1967and 1969, Four ofthe class, commissioned in 1976. A second ship- RBU 1200 ASW rocket-launchers with Speed: 26.5 kts for Jianghu I'and
together with the four 'Chengdu' class vard, the TungmanQl at Shanghai, is 120 rockets, four BMB-2 depth-charge Jianshu III', and 30 kts for Jianghu iI'
ships, serve with the Chinese navY's iince believed to have ioined the throwers and two depth-charge ratls Armament: tlvo twin container-
South Sea Fleet, whilst the Jiangnan' Drooramme, An estimated 15 units are with a totai of 60 depth charges, and launchers for Shanghou-Yihou I anti-
class lead ship sewes with the East Sea in cSmmission with another three at the between 40 and 60 mines accordtng to ship missiles, two single (or tvuin in
Fleet, At least one of the 'Jiangnans' flttrng-out stage and three mole under type Jianghou III') 100-mm (3,9-01n) DPand
took part rn the combat operations construction. Apart ftom the Jianghu I' Aircraft:none six trivin 37-mm AA gnms, ttvo or four
I against South Vietnamese naval ves- series (with a rounded stack for vent- Electronics: one'Ball End' surface- 12-barrel RBUt200 250-mm (9, 84-in)
ing the diesel exhaust fumes from its search radar, one'Wok Won' fire- ASW rocket-launchers wrth 100 or 200
sels dwing the January 1974 occupa-
tion of the Paracel Islands. Apart from prbpulsion plant), at least three of controlradar, one 'Fin Curve' rockets, trrvo racks for 60 depth
being largter than the 'Chengdus', the ihos-e built so far were constructed to naviqation radar, one 'High Pole-A' charges, and between 40 and 60 mines
'Jiangnans' have the major differences the Jianghu II' class design with a iFF, and one high-foequencY hull- accordingto type
of a diesel propulsion plant (instead of squared stack thought to be for a local- mountedsonar Aircraft: none
geared steam turbines) and that they lv-desiqned and -built combined Complement: 1BS Electronics:one 'Eye Shield' air-
have not been refitted to caffY the ciiesel br sas turbine (CODOG) search radar (being fltted), one
'Square Tie' missile fire-control radar,
Shanghou-Yihou I (the Chinese copy powerplant. There is also a single ex-
of the Soviet SS-N-2 'Styx) anti-ship ampte-of the Jianghu III' class, whtch one 'Sun Visor-B' flre-control radar (in
cruise missile, rev-erts to the iounded stack ofthe flrst some), one 'Fin Curve' and/or one
subsroup but has twin lOo-mm (3.9-in) 'Don-2' navigation radar, one'High
Followrng the political upheaval of
the Culturai Revolution the first friglate gun mounts (fore and aft) of the tYPe Pole-B' IFF, one 'Yard Rake' IFF (being
design to emerqe was the Jiangdong' fltted to the 'Jiangdongs', An eventual fitted), and one high-fuequency hull-
class, two units of which were con- total of some 25-30 Jianghu class ves- mountedsonar
structed at the Hutung shipyard be- sels is expected. Complement: 195
tween i970 and 1978, The Iong build-
inq and commissioning times were fft e Peopjeb R epublic of C hina has
caused by the fact that the ships were
built the'J ianghu' frigate in three
due to carry the first Chinese- different versions. Still in production,
the Egy ptian navy has r e c e ntlY
designed and -built naval SAM system,
bought two'J ianghu I' units with
revised gan armaments.

Armed Forces of the World

The Motorized Rifle

Numerically, the motorized rifle division rs the most

mportant of the four types of dlvisron used by the
Soviet army today, accounting for no less than 1 36
:f the 208 available divisions. During Wor d War ll
Soviet infantry went into battle on their 'feet, n
:'ucks or on the sides and decking of tanks, but ln ;lliririi*
-'re post-war period great efforts were rrade to
-echanize the Soviet infantry. The f rst arrno;red
:ersonnel carrier to enter service was the BTB-152
i x 6 vehicle, which was essentially a modified truc<
:rassis fitted with an armoured body. Th,s was a
siart, butthevehicle lacked the cross-country r oo -
:,, required to operate with tanks. ln the i 950s tne
3TR-50 full-tracked vehicle, based on the cnass s o'
-re PT-76 light amphlbious tank, was ntrod-cea
: rst models had an open top, so the troops \re:e
, ery vulnerable to shell splinters and small arn-s f ;.e.
-re introduction of tactical nuclear weapons n eanr
.1at later production models of the BTR 50 nad a
'.'rlly enclosed troop compartnnent tnat was aiso
.'ovided with an NBC system.
The BTR-'l 52 has now been replaced by tne 3Ti-
eJ series of BxB vehicles, which are fully aron - The Red Army pioneered the use of mechanized one artillery and one anti-aircraft missile regimer-:s
: ous. The first versions had no overhead pi'c1ect on in{antry combat vehicles (MICYs) - personnel The remaining supporting units are identrcal -:
: rt later models had a f ully enclosed troop ccn carl carriers equippedwith powerful armament and those of the tank division described earlier. O' :-=
extra armour -with the BMP-1, which first
-ent and were fitted with the same turret as ;-stal- appeared in I 967. I t is armed with a 73-mm gun
three motorized ritle regiments. lwo are eqJ tc=:
:d on the BRDM-2 4x4 reconnaissance r,en c e and with the wheeled BTR-60/BTR-70 veh cle wh:le t-:
with an AT-3 'Sagger' missile, clearly shown here
:'med with the '14.5-mm (0.57-rn) KP'"T racnine- mounted atop the barrel third has the BMP-l tracked lVlCV. Each BTR,6|
;.ln and a 7.62-mm (0.3- n) co-ax,ai n ach ne gun. BTR-70 motorized rifle regrment has an antr-tar<
',1ore recently the BTR-70 8x8 ver', c e nas been battery which has three platoons each with th.e:
^iroduced, but this is almost ident ca tc ire BTR-60 73-mm gun is an AT-3'Sagger'wire-guided anti-tank BRDM-2 4x4 vehicles armed with AT-2 'Swatte'
- most respects. missile, which has a range of 3000 m (3,280 yards). AT-3 'Sagger' or AT-5 'Spandrel' anti-tank miss les
The BTR-50 series has been repraced in most These weapons enable the BMP-1 to deal with Regiments equipped with the BMP-1/BMP-2 ha'"':
'-cnt-line units by the BMP-1 , wn cn ,r,ras f rst seen almost any target it encounters on the battlefield. an anti-tank capability on each vehlcle in the shaoe
- cublic during a display held rn Red Sqrare, Mos- Some vehicles also carry a number of SA-7 'Grail' of a'Sagger' or'Spandrel' ATGW, and therefore lac<
-:w, in 'l 967. The BMP-'1 is a n ecnan zed infantry man-portable SAMs for use in the anti-aircraft role. any organic antitank batteries.
,:mbat vehicle, and differs fron :ne .iraditional The BM P-2 has recently been introduced, and this Each motorized rifle division also has a divisiona
='moured personnel carrier in manv \.'iays. First the has a new two-man turret armed with what is be- anti-tank battalion not found in the tank d visron Th s
-:antry can aim and fire their r''es and iight lieved to be a 30-mm rapid-fire cannon, while did have three batteries each wlth six '1 00-mm (3.94-
-achine-guns from within the ven c e :n almost mounted on the turret roof is a launcher for the AT-5 in) T-12 anti-tank guns towed by MT-LB multi-
::mplete safety from enemy smali a-r.s fire as the 'Spandrel' anti-tank guided missile, which is much purpose tracked vehicles, but most front-lrne d -
:VP-1 s fitted w;lh firing pons, eac^ v. rn a per- more effective than the older 'Sagger' as all the visional anti-tank battalions now have two six-gun
:cope above it for alming purposes Tne one-man operator has to do is to keep his sight on the target batteries of T-1 2s and a nine-veh cle battery o'
:dwer-operated turret is f itted wlth a1}mm \2.81- to ensure a hit; it also has the longer range of BRDM-2s with ATGWs Some motorized rifle dlv -
^' low-pressure gun fed by an auiorr,atic loader 4000 m (4,374 yards). sions also have an independent tank regiment.
,'. rich contains both HE and HEAT tnigh explos ve The main difference between the motorized rifle To enable the divisional commander to carry oui
..ri-tank) rounds. The maximum range of these divisions {MRD) and the tank division (TD) is the his assignment he must have information on the
-:rnds, which is affected by high winds, ,s 1300 m number of tank and motorized rifie regirnents in position, force and movements of the enemy This
' ,422 yards). A 7.62-mm (0.3-in) machine-gun is each division and the actual composition of the tank information can come from Front level, but the di-
-ounted co-axial with the 73-mm (2 87-ln) gun to regiments. A motorized rifle division has six regim- visional commander also has a reconnaissance
::a with softer targets, whrle mounted over the ents, the mix being three motorized rifle, one tank, battalion under his own command. This battallon rs
identical to that in both the motorized rifle and tan<
divisions, and has an HO and servrce company, two
BMP reconnaissance compan es one scout car re-
connaissance company and one radariradro recon
naissance company. lts totalequipment inciudes slx
MBTs, 13 BRDM-2s, two BTR-60s and l5 BMP-1s;
included in the BMP-1 total are three of the special
reconnaissance model, whrch lacks the 73-mrn
\2.81-in) gun of the basic vehicle but has equipment
to monitor enemy communicatrons, direction-
finding equipment and battlefie d survei lance

Two of the three regiments in a motor rifle division

areequippedwith the BTR-60. A tough, reliable
vehicle with excellent cross- country pertorm ance,
fully amphibious and armed with the same
it is
turret as the BRDM-Z armoured car, which carries
a I4.5-mm machine-gun and a coaxial7.62-mm
Armed Forces of the World

-lne of the nrore recent additions to some tank strenqth of about 250 officers anC men.
. ^ J rnotor zed rltle the helicopter squad-
divisions s Almost all Soviet arrroured vehicles aTe now
':- ih;s has a squadron HO, signals, maintenance f itted with an NBC systern, and many of the rockets
:-l armament sections, and six flights, each of and artillery weapons can fire chemical nrun trons.
- cn has three helicopters, so gtving the squadron NBC protection equipment is issued on a large scale
.:ia of 1B helicopters. The helicopters comprise and many exercises are conducted in full NBC gear.
'. \'il lvl -2'Hoplites'which can each carry a max- Each division also has a chemical defence battalion
- -- of e ght troops, six Mt-B 'Hips' which can each which has a battalion FO, serv,ce, reconnd ssance
:'-,, 32 troops, and six of the deadly Mi-24 'Hinds' and support platoons and two decontamination
^ :l can carry troops as well as an offensive load companies. Each of the last is issued with special
'lc(ets and missrles. vehicles for the rapid decontamination of weapons
--: engineer battalions of both types of division and equipment. The radar-directed cannon of the Shilka ZSU-23-4
: i -ost rdentical, although their equipment does The Soviets have rea ized that there will be many are rated as significantly more effective than the
-, s ghtly. The battalion has an HO. and combat casualties in time of war, so each division has a US M 167 Vulcan system and pose a major threat to
I -3er-, pontoon bridge, road/bridge constructicn, medical battalion. This has a battalion HO, transport, NATO ground attack aircraft, on which so much
,-- ;al and assault rivercrosslng companies, plus supply/service and disinfection/decontamination hopeispinned.
:-.::ns tor reconnatssance, communlcatlons, piatoons, plus medical and collection/evacuation
: -i.nance and service. The engineering battalion companies. many cases such strongpo nts \\/ have to be
'- f a vrtal role rn anywarin Europeasthereare attacked as soon as possible so ti-tat the advance is
r ^-anv rvers and streams to cross. The BMP, Tactics not delayed. lf there is t me a caretu p an w 11 be
-r-60 BTR-70 and BRDM-2 vehicles are fully Since the end of World War ll the Soviets have made to subject the defensive pos tion to a hail of
--:^ J ous, but much of the otherequlpment used sought to build up a balanced army of tank and artillery and rocket fire in an etforl to destroy as
--:- 3 Lr v s
c nn errnh as
on, such actrir^Lc andtreilorc
trucks and trallers, hacnnlrra
has only a motorized rifle divisions which are well suited to much of the enemy as possible (especialLy ATGWs)
.::'ording capability. Ihef -64I-12lanks can all offensive operations on both conventional and nuc- before the maln altack goes in. Orrce the enemy
. -:i
th a snorkel which enables them to ford
r,v lear battlefields. They are well aware that tanks posrtion has been overcome the advance will con-
::cin of 5.5 m (18 ft), but the river bed must be cannot operate alone and need the active support of tinue, probably w th f resh troops, and meeting en
--- :-l
entry/exit points have to be chosen with the other arms including infantry, artillery, air- gagements will then take place aga rr. The pursurt
:-: -ne s gnals company is equipped with exten- defence forces, engineers and arr support ele- presents the Soviets w th signif icant comrnand attd
.: :rn'munrcations equipment and generators. ments, both f ixed-wing and helicopter. The lessons control problerns as the situat on can change so
-: -cror transport battalion has a battalion HO, an learned by the lsraeli army in the early days of the Tnev w:ll trv to pJ-\Je eler\ Jn.l.j or e\en
. --'^- - r tion transport company, a POL (petrol, oil 1973 Middle East campaign are well known in the race ahead by another route to block off their line of
.-: -3r,cants) company and a cargo transport com- Soviet army, whose tactics now take into account escape. Helicopters cou d be used to drop off block-
t also has maintenance, supply/service and the increasing number of ATGWs being fielded in rng teams beh nd enerrv nes.
ca elements. the West. ln recerrt years the Sor eis har, e been p acrng
, , .n so many tracked and wheeled armoured ln the Soviet army there are three basic types of greater ernphasls on ui-r IS des oiecj io i gni t'""el
. :- : es n service, maintenance is a major problem offensive action: the meeting engagernent, the ahead of the ma n fc'ce T-:s: rr ts ii I na,;e t nks,
-: ::ch d vision has a maintenance battalion with a breakthrough attack and the pursuit. The first of nfantry, art I efv anC e-! :eer: anC are nlended to
these involves attacking the enemy on the move Create haVOC in the .,e:r a e:S :S elt3ni\,r_.SerVeS are
and is considered to be the most important type of ro.^gro
.1 combined arms attack: infantry dismount from offensive action. In this type of operation part of the n conc us on, i :: ::r ited thatthe Soviet
j f.t-60s as tanks spearhead the assault. Soviet Soviet unit tries to pin down the enemy unit whrle army s the most po',r'er'- | i -e \,1,/oT d, and s being
exercises are brutally realistic, casualties being the main part moves to outflank or envelop the strengtnened constan. \ [\ ti3 rircduction of new
:?edily accepted as the price of combat efficiency. weapons t has qreat n'ca :\ f :epower and flex
',\'sile the intentions af the Communist leadership enemy. The breakthrough attack is designed for use
: et airt as inscrutable as ever, there can be no against an enemy in a defensive positton. lf possi- ibility, and ts tact cs a'e c"a"o ng to take tnto
.cubt as to the very great capability of the Red ble, these positions should be bypassed and neutral- account the ntroduct on oi -ei', ri'eapons by the
.:-:rny. ized bv following units, but the Soviets realize that in potential enenny.