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Volume 8 Issue 93

Published by
Orbis Publishino Ltd
@ Aerospace P"ublishinq LLd 1 985
Editorial Offices
War Machine
Aerospace Publishing Ltd
179 Dalling Foad
London W6 OES

Managing Editor: Stan Morse

Editorial: Trisha Palmer
Chris Bishop
Chris Chant
lan Drury
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Film work: Precise Litho Lrd
Artists: Consultant Editor; Major General Sir
Ray Hutchins Jeremy Moore KCB OBE MC, Comman-
Richard Hook der of British Land Forces during the
Falklands campaign.

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llodernT ed
Cheaper, easier to maintain and more flexible than their self- TheOerlikon 35-mm GDF system isused by over 20
propelled counterparts, towed anti'aircraft ga ns nonetheless countiles. Recent operators include the RAF, which has just
formed a unit touse theOerlikons capturedin the Falklands.
employ solthisticated tracking and. fire control systems' Argentine Oerlikons shot down four Harriers and at least two
making them a serious threat to groud attack airctaft . o{ their own aircraft during the conflict.

Since aircraft first appeared over the battlefleld, anti-aircraft weapons Qluns on a large scale as these are not only much cheaper than the-:
have been devetoped and employed in an effort to stop them. Durtng self-propelled counterparts but are easier to maintain and operate. i:-
World War II a variety of anii-aircraft guns ranging in calibre from most cases, moreover, they can be rapidly transported by alrcraii c:
i2.7-mm machine-gnrns up to 120-mm guns were employed by the major helicopter to where they are most needed, Towed antr-aircraft guns ar=
powers in an effort to combat air attacks, By the end of the war bombers also widely used to defend static areas such as supply dumps, arrfieics
','rere flying higher and faster, and it was realized that anti-aircraft gnrns, and command centres. In these cases they are often integrated into a:
even with proximity-fused ammunition and compiex radar fire-control overall air-defence system,
systems, were incapable of stopping them, The Middle East campaigns of 1973, the Vietnam conflict and mcr:
The major powers, namely the UK, USA and USSR, soon started to recently the Falklands campaign have proved that the light antr-atrcr=
jevelop surface-to-air missiles such as the Bloodhound, Nike-Hercules gmn is a real complement to mrssiles: not only has it a qutcker reac::::-
and SA-2 'Gurdehne'which could successfully intercept aircraft flylng trme in many situations, but it is also highly elfective in the ground-::-
-.-ery fast and very high, Thrs forced the aircraft to adopt new tactrcs and ground role
-;r very low to escape the surface-to-air missiles and radar systems.
Most countries today employ a mix oiguns and missiles to defend their
The Rheinmetall 20-mm anti-aircraft gun is fitted with the Italian Galileo P56
::rward units. In the major powers these are normally self-propelled computing sight.Thegunner uses a joysticktoelevate and trarerse theEruns
'.';eapons such as the Soviet 23-mm ZSU-23-4 or the West German twin and an analogue computer calculates the lead anEr,les necessa ry to hit the
:--mm Gepard, Many countrtes do, however, use towed anti aircraft target aircraft.


'L a

ffi )"ffil* FK z}-Zligrht anti-aircraft sun
The 20-mm EK 20-2 light anti-aircraft
gnrn mountinq was
developed to meet
the rather special requirements of the
Norwegdan armed forces and certain
units of the West German army. The
Rheinmetall twin 2O-mm light anti-
aircraft gmn is widely used by the West
German army, but its weight of 2160 kg
(4,762 lb) is too great to permrt the
type's use by arrborne and mountain
units. The FK 20-2 weighs only 620 kg
(1,367 lb) in its travelling configuration
and can be qurckly disassembled to
allow transport by pack ammals,
Companies involved in the desrgn
and development of the FK 20-2 tn-
cluded A./S Kongsberg Vappenfabrrkk
of Norway Rheinmetall of West Ger-
many, Hispano-Suiza of Switzerland T he 20 -mm F K 2 0 - 2 anti-aircraft gu n cannon as the twin 20-mm
(since taken over by Oerlikon-Biihrle) is a joint development between Rheinmetall system used by the West
and Kern, the last responsible for the Norway andWestGermany and uses German army and air force.
siqht. the same 20-mm MK 20 Rh 202
The FK 20-2 is fitted with the Rhein-
metall 20-mm MK 20 Rh 202 cannon as have the optical sight mounted be- the rear and one on each side, The FK This 20-mm FK 20-2 anti-aircraft gun
installed in the twin 2O-mm mount used tween them. The latter has a maEi- 20-2 rs a clear-wearher syslem only in the firing position clearly shows
by the West German army and air nificatron of x 1,5 for enqaginq aerial wrlh no capabrlrty lor radar conlrol the two magazineq one eacft stde of
force. The gmnner can flre either single targets and x5 for enqaginqt ground Other anti-aircraft systems used by the the barrel holdingTs rounds of
shots or bursts, the cannon havrng a larges T1.^ sighr has rwo eyepleces: Norwegian army include the Amer- ready-use ammunition. The grunner
cyclic rate of fire of 1,000 rounds per the upper cne rs used when the gmnner ican 12.7-mm (0.5-in) quadruple has a dual sight which enables him to
minute, A total of 160 rounds of ready- is seated ,.;hlie the lower one is used machine-gmn Bofors RBS-70 surface- track both aerial and ground targets
use ammunition is provided; of these, when the grunner rs engaging qround to-arr missile system and Bofors 40-mm easily.
150 are normally anti-arrcraft ammuni- targets frcm the much safer prone U60 and U70 towed antt-aircraft gmns,
tion and the remaining 10 armour- positlon T,- :he foonl of the gunner is a The 20-mm Rheinmetal MK 20 Rh Dimensions: length travelling 4, 00 m
piercing for the engagement of small sileld. but rn peace this is often 202 cannon is also used by the Norwe- (13 ft 1.5 in); widthtravelling LBO m
armoured vehicles On each side of removed ic save welght gian army, installed in a one-man (6 ft 1.2 in); heighttravellinq2,20m(7 fi
the cannon rs a box of 75 rounds of The svsrem rs normally mounted on Swedish turret mounted on M113 26in)
ammunition (high explosive rncendi- a f!'Jo-lyheeled carnaqfe that can be armoured personnel carriers. Elevation: +83"/-8"
arylHEI or high explosive incendiary- towed i:1' anv hetht 4x4 cross-country Traverse:360'
tracer/HEl-T), while above the cannon vehtcle 'rhrch also carries the three- Specification Rangres: maximum horizontal 6000 m
is a box of l0 rounds of armour- man cre'i and a supply of ready-use FK20-2 (6, 562 yards); maximum vertical
piercinq drscarding sabot-tracer arTrmuntiton. Calibre:20 mm (0,79 in) 4500 m ( 14,764 ft); effective vertical
(APDS-T). Traverse and elevation are In lhe i:-rg posirion the weapon is Weights: travellinq 620 kq ( 1,367 lb) 2000 m (6,562 ft)
manual via two hand wheels, which supponed cn three outdggers, one at firins440 kq (970 lb) Crew:3(lonmount)

B 40-mm 40L70 anti-aircraft gun

For many years the Breda company of
Brescia has been involved in the de-
sign and productron of a wide range of
weapons for both naval and qround
forces. One of its most lmportant naval
weapons rs the Compact Twin 40 mm
U70 Type 70 Naval Mount, which rs
already in servrce with over 20 navres
and used rn conjunction wrth an Orron
radar to provide a close defence sys-
tem against both arrcraft and air- or Italian Breda 40L70 Field Mounting is
sea-launched anti-ship missiles. The essentially a naval anti-aircraft and
company realized lhal rhis weoporl anfi-rnrisrTe system, installed on a
aiso had an army application for the four-wheeled carriage for army use.
defence of hrgh-value tarqrets such as Venezuela has recently taken
arrfields command posts, oi1 installa delivery of I B 40L70 Field Mountings,
trons and so on. The 40-mm Breda which it uses in conjunction with the
40L70 mount is now in seniice wrth Dutch HSA Flycatcher radar.
Venezuela, which already has the ori-
ginal naval rns-allation ir servce on
board its sx'Lupo' class frigates, The
40L70 cannot be used alone as rt has no
flre-controi system, but a wide range of
fire-control systems is available from a
number of manufacturers a typrcal
equipment being the Dutch Hollandse
Signaalappartean Flycatcher, When
used in conjunctron with the Flycatch-
er the complete system is known as the
Guardian, A typical flre unrt consrsts of two on each side on outrigqters. high capacity high explosive (HCHE), ammunitron (in clips of four rounds) is
two 40-mm 40L70s, one Flycatcher Turret traverse and weapon eleva- high explosive-tracer (HE-T), armour- provided under the turret, and the
flre-controi system, and generators. tton are electrrc at a maxlmum traverse piercing capped{racer (APC-T) and empty cartridge cases are ejected out-
The twin 40-mm 40L70 mount is speed of 90'per second, The mount target practice. To enqage aertal side the forward part of the turret.
essentially the standard naval turret in- has two 4O-mm 7O-calibre Bofors gmns targets such as helicopters, aircraft When firing the turret is unmanned,
stalled on a four-wheeled carrrage. ln which have a cyclic rate of fire of 300 and missiles the PFHE round would be beinq controlled by the operator in the
lhe flrrng posrrion the sysrem ts sup- rounds per barrel per minute, used as it produces over 2,400 frag- flre-control centre,
ported on six jacks that are adjustable Ammunition is identical to that used in ments of which some 600 are tunqsten For many years Breda has been pro-
to sult the different ground conditions; the famous Bofors L/70 antr-aircraft gun pellets, which can penetrate 14 mm ducing the Bofors 40-mm L/70 anti-
one jack is located at each end of the and includes proximity-fused pre- (0.55 in) of aluminium aircraft gun under licence, including
carriage, and the other four are placed fragmented high explosive (PFHE), A total of 444 rounds of 40-mm the towed system. To increase the rate

Breda 40-mm 40L70 antiaircraft grun (continued) Modern Towed Anti-Aircraft Weapons
of hre of the latter weapon Breda has ammunition 9900 kg (21,826 1b);
designed an automatic feeding device travel[ng with ammunition 10966 kg
which increases cyclic rate offire from (24, r76 rb)
240 to 300 rounds per minute, wrth.a Dimensions: length travelling 8,03 m
total of 144 rounds carned for ready (26 ft 4,9 tn); width travelling 3,20 m
use. (10 ft 6 in); height travelling 3,65 m
More recently Breda has developed (1 I ft I 1,7 in)
to the prototype stage a twin 3O-mm Elevation: +85"/-13"
towed anti-aircraft gun whrch uses the Traverse:360"
West German 30-mm Mauser Model F Ranges: maximum horizontal 12500 m
gun, which has a cyclic rate of fire of ( I 3, 670 yards); maximum vertical
BOO rounds per gun per mrnute, Each 8700 m (28,543 ft); effective vertical
barrel has 250 rounds of ready-use 4000 m (13,123 ft)
ammunition, The system is fltted with
the ltalian Galileo P75D optronic fire-
control system and a on-carrrage pow- The Breda 40-mm 40L70 Field
er unit, Mounting has a total of 444 rounds ot
ammunition ready for immediate
Specification use. When the weapon is firing no
Breda 40-mm 40L?0 crewmen are ptesent as the guns are
Calibre: 40 mm ( 1,57 in) aimed and fired by remote control by
Weights: travelling without the Flycatcher fire conttol system.


20-mm TCM-20 ligrht anti-aircraft gun
This TCM-20 twin 20-mm light anti-
aircraft gun in the tiring position has
jacks lowered to the ground to
For some years Israel used the old provide a more stable firing
American M55 trailer-mounted 12.7- platform. Thr's sysfem ri essentially
mm (0.S-in) quadruple light anti- the old American M55 with its four
aircraft gun system, but they realized 12.7-mm (0.19-calibre) MZ HB
that it had a very short range The machine-guns replaced by two
RAMPTA Structures and Systems Divi- 20-mmcannon.
sion of Israel Aircraft Industries then
modernized the system as the 20-mm
TCM-20 to meet the requirements of
the lsraeli Air Defence Command and,
following tnals with prototype systems,
lhe type was accepted for service in
time to be used in combat during the
1970 'War of Attrition', when it is
claimed to have shot down lO aircraft
in 10 engragements, It was also used
during the Yom Kippur War, when it is
credited with shootinq down some 60
per cent of enemy aucraft downed by
air defences, the remaining 40 per
cent being shot down by other anti-
arcraft guns and HAWK surface{o-air
missiles. In the 1982 invasion of the
Lebanon the TCM-20 was used not
only to shoot down Syrian aircraft and
helicopters but also in urban fighting
and to enqage qround targets The
TCM-20 was offered on the export
market at an early date and is now in
servrce with at least six countries apart and Systems has developed a new sys-
foom Israel. tem called the TCM Mk 3, which
The TCM-20 is the M55 with the four appears to be srmrlar in concept to the
12.7-mm M2 HB Browning heavy origdnal TCM but can be fltted with a
machine-guns replaced by two Hispa- variety of different weapons in the 20-
no-Suiza HS 404 cannon with a cyclic mm to 25-mm class, the example
rate of fire of 650 to 700 rounds per shown in l9B3 being fitted with 23-mm
minute, but a practical rate offlre of i50 cannon as used in the Soviet ZU-23
rounds per minute. Each barrel has a towed anti-aircraft qun system. In
quick-change drum maqazrne that addition to the same MIB optical siqht
holds 60 rounds of ready-use ammuni- as installed on the orlginal TCM-20 the
tron. The gunner aims the cannon with TCM Mk 3 is beinq offered with a Star-
an MIB reflex sight, Turret traverse Iiqht siqht with a magmflcation of x4
and weapon elevation are electric, for night operations and a fire-control
'rith onboard power provided by two system that includes a laser rangefin-
12-volt batterres mounted at the rear of der and computerized sigrht,
the carriage; the batteries are kept
charged by an auxiliary power unit, ln Specification
the flring position the wheels are nor- TCM-20
mally removed and the carriage is Calibre:20 mm (0,79 in)
supported on three levelling jacks. Weights: travelling 1350 kq (2,976 lb)
The basic model is normally tbwed Dimensions: Iength travelling 3 27 m
by any 4x4 light vehicle, although (10 ft8,7 in); widthtravellinq 1.70 m
Israel also has in service a self- (5 ft6.9 in); heighttravelling 1.63 m(5 ft
propelled model based on the M3 4.2tn)
series halftrack There is no provision Elevation: +90'/-10"
:or all-weather fire control, although Traverse:360'
-varning of the exact direction of Ranges: maximum horizontal 5700 m
approach by enemy aircraft can be (6, 234 yards); maximum vertical At present there are twoversions of mounted on the rear of an M3
given by an Israeli-designed EL/M 4500 m (14,764 ft); effective vertical the I sraeli TCM-20 twin 20 mm anti- halftracked vehicle. The system was
2 106 point-defence alertingr radar. 1200 m (3,937 ft) aircraft gun system: tawed and self- used tor the first time during the so-
More recently RAMPTA Structures Crew:4 propelled, with the latter being called War of Attrition in I 97 0.
fE iil:;* Tarasque lisht anti-aircraft sun

One ofthe features of theFrench

20-mm Tarasque light anti-aircraft
gunis thatit can be towed by a light
vehicle such as the M20 I (4x 4). The
20-mm M693 cannon has dual feed,
so enabling thegunner tochange
from one type of ammunition to
another to engage different types of
The 20-mm Tarasgue light anti-arrcraft armour-piercinq discardinq sabot
qtun entered service with the French (APDS) for engagrngr armoured
army severai years ago under the de- targets. The latter round will penetrate
signation Type 53 T2 It is armed with 20 mm (0,79 rn) of armour at an tnci-
the 20-mm M693 cannon (the standard dence of 0" at a ranqe of 1000 m ( 1,094
weapon of its type in the French army), yards)
which is also installed in the AMX-1OP The gunner has an anti-arrcraft stght
mechanized infantry combat vehicle with a magnification of x I and a
and the AMX-30 main battle tank, ground to qround sigrht with a mag-
The Tarasque light anti-aircraft gmn nficatron of xS
is carried on a two-wheeled carriage The Tarasque can also be installed,
that can be towed by a liqht 4x4 vehi- less rts carriage, in the rear of cross-
cle such as the M20i or Land Rover, country vehrcles such as the TRM 2000
The weapon can be brougtht rnto ac- 4x4 trxck: this grves the weapon qrea-
tion by two men rn about 15 seconds: ter cross-country mobility as well as
on arrLval al lhe selected fning posiilon enabling it to open flre as soon as the
the Iocking pin retaining the rear foot is vehicle comes to a halt,
removed and the mount slewed The French air force uses the twin
through 90" to place the other two feet 20-nm Cerbdre hght anti-aircraft gun
in contact with the Qround; the car- to provrde close protection for the Cro-
riage is then removed and the mount tale surface-to-air mrssile systems pro-
supported on the three feet. tecting its arr bases The Cerbere, also
Only one man is required to operate knonm as the Type 76 T2, rs essentlally
the Tarasque qrn, the other two men the West German Rheinmetall twrn 20-
acting as ammunition handlers or air- mm [qht antr-aircraft qrun with its on-
craft spotters, The gn-rnner rs seated on ginal MK 20 Rh 202 cannon replaced
the left side of the mount and moves in by the French GIAT M693 cannon.
elevatron with the 20-mm cannon. Currently berng tested for use wtth the TheGIAT 20-mmTarasque light anti- country mobility. This gun is now in
Elevation and traverse are hydraulic, Cerbere is the DALDO target indica- aircraft gun can also be carried in the wjde-sca/e use with the French army
though manual controls are provided tor helmet in ths system the'gun com- rear of trucks such as this Renault and is also offered for export, as are
for emergency use. Maxrmum traverse mander, situated away from the Cer- TRM 2000 (4x4) for greater cross- most French weapons today.
speed rs 40" per secono ano maximum bdre, constantly scans the sky for a
eievation speed is 80" per second. target. Once a hostile tarqlet has been than the Cerbere or Tarasque It has Dimensions: Iength travelling 4. 15 m
The 20-mm M693 is a dual-feed can- selected the commander presses a hydraulic elevation and traverse and (13 ft7,4 in); widthtravelling 1.90 m
non and has a cyclic rate of flre of 740 button and the Cerbdre mount is auto- 150 rounds of ready-use ammunttton (6 ft2.B in); heighttravellinq 1,70 m(5 ft
rounds per minute, The gunner flres matically lard onto the target in eleva- for each of the 2O-mm cannon. 6,9 in)
the cannon by pressing down his right tion and traverse, thus savtngvaluable Elevation: +83'/-8"
foot, and can flre single aimed shots or seconds in target acqulsltron, Specification Traverse:360o
bursts, A total of 140 rounds of ready- More recently GIAT has developed Tarasque Ranges: maximum honzontal 6000 m
use ammunition is carried, of which 100 a twin 20-mm light antr-aircraft gun sys- Calibre: 20 mm (0,79 in) (6562 yards); maximum vertical 4500 m
are normally high explosive (HE) or tem as a private venture, Desiqrnated Weights: r ravelltng wrth ammu n' I
jon ( 14,764 ft); effective vertical 2000 m
high explosive incendiary (HEI) for en- Type 53 T4 thrs weiqhs 2500 kg 840 ks (1,852 lb); firinerwith (6,562 ft)
gaging aerial targets, and 40 of (5,512 lb), and is thus much heavier ammunition 660 kq ( 1,455 ]b) Crew:3(lonmount)
Ii[J 20-mm M55A2 light anti-aircraft gun
In recent years the Yugroslav defence drum maqazine is used for the anti- of 700 rounds per mrnute, and the gnrn- have been made to a number of coun-
industry has desrgned and placed in aircraft rounds (HEI and HEI-T). The ner fires lhe cannon by depressing a tries rncludinq Cyprus and Mozambi-
production a number of 20-mm light ammumtion used by this qun is identic- foot pedal, For transportation the que,
anti-aircraft gnrns, all of which use the al to that used rn other weapons of this mount is carrred on a small two wheel
same basic Hispano-Suiza 20-mm HSS- family. carriage which in the firing position is Specification
804 7O-calibre barrel which is pro- The 2013 mm M55A4 BI has a car- supported on four outriggers M55A2
duced under licence in Yugoslavia, riage and sighting system similar to The 20i3 mm M55A2 is very similar Calibre:20 mm (0.79 in)
The 2011 mm M75 rs the most un- that of the Oer[kon-Bilhrle GAI-DOI to the M55A4 B I system, but has a diffe- Weights: Iravelling (wuh ammun irion)
sophisticated weapon in the family, Iigrht anti-aircraft gmn, and each of the rent sight and manua] elevatron and 1100 kq (2,425 lb); firins (without
and has a single barrel with the gnrnner three barreis has a 60-round drum traverse, The gnrnner is seated at the ammunition) 970 kq (2, l3B lb)
sitting on a seat at the rear of the mount, magazine. The gunner sits on a seat at reat and has two handwheels (one for Dimensions: length travelling 4,30 m
Elevation and traverse are manual, the rear of the mount and power for elevation and one for traverse), and (14 ft 1.3 in); wrdthtravelling 1.27 m
and the gmnner aims the cannon at air- the hydrau[c e]evation and traverse fires the cannon by pressing a foot (4 ft 2 in); heighi travelhns 1,47 m(4 tI
craft targets by means of an M73 reflex system is provided by a Wankel en- pedal, The gn-rnner is provided with a 9.9 in)
sight while a sight wrth a magniflcatron gdne mounted under the gunner's seat, sight for target tracking, but has to in- Eievation: +83'/ 5"
of x3.B is used to engage ground Maxrmum traverse and elevation rates sert key data (for example target Traverse:360"
targets, The cannon is normally fed are 80" per second, range and speed) manually to ensure a Ranges: maxrmum horizontal 5500 m
from a drum holding 60 rounds of Sighting is effected by an Italian hrt, (6, 0 I 5 yards); effective horizontal
ammunition, but there is also a box Galileo P56 sight with a maqniflcatron All of these 20-mm cannon are basi- 2500 m (2,734 yards); maximum
type magazine that holds 10 rounds of of x 1 for use against arrcraft and x 4 for cally clear-weather systems with no vertical 4000 m (13,123 ft); effective
ammunition; the latter is normally used use against ground tarqets, Each ofthe provrsion for radar flre control. They vertical 2000 m (6,562 ft)
for API, API-T and AP-T, while the 20-mm cannon has a cyclic rate of flre are also offered for export, and sales Crew: 6 (l onmount)

I 844
Low-level Rctdcr
Towed anti-aircraftguns depend on low-Ievel radar for their
efficiency; radar systems alert the batteries to the presence of
hostile aircraftand direct theguns when the enemyis
engaged. Today, systems sucft as Super Fledermaus are being
superseded by extremely sophisticated equipment like the
Swiss Contraves Skyguard.

Most anti-alrcraft guns are fitted wth simple optical sights to enable.them to
engage both g roun-d and alr targets. The latter is, of cou rse, the main objective of
thdtdweO an"ti aircraft gun, bu1 in the highly mobile type of warfare envisaged
today, there will doubti-ess be occasions when the towed anti-aircraft gun will
have to engage ground targets in order to survive.
To enabl6 a-erial targets to be engaged more effectively two drstlnct aids are
now avarlable. rn thelorms of an alerting radar and a fire-control system.
The alerting radar can be a tripod-, container- or vehicle-based system that is
deployed fair"ly near the gun position. This continuously searches,the sky for
airbrait and hi-licopters, altnough the latter are particularly difficult to detect
when tney are novering very near tr-e grou'rd. Orce a possible taJget comes
witnin range oI the radar it appears on tne radar opera-tor's screen Some o' lhe
more com-plex alerting radais have an rdentlficatlon frrend or foe (lFF) system
which enables the radar operator quickly to confirm if the target s friendly.or
hostile lf it is f riendly no aition is taken, but if it is conf irmed as hostlle the radar
operatcr nforms the anti-aircraft gun best posit oned to engage the t-arg-et of the
approxrmate speed. height and dlrection of approach of the aircraft. The light
anti-aircraft gun rs then pbinting in the general drrection of the target as it comes
into vrew.
One of the more complex systems of this type ls the Swedlsh Ericsson Glraffe
search radar, which was olginally developed to meet the requirements of the
Swedish army f or use with tlie Bof ors RBS-70 su rf ace-to-ai r missile system The
Giraffe radar system consists of a container which can be carried on top of a
wide range of iross-country vehicles, tracked and wheeled. Mounted on top of
the cont;rner is the radar on a hydraulic arm that can be raised to a height of
about 12 m (39.4 ft) to improve its surveillance capabllities. The radar operators
are seated inslde the container, and once aircraft are confirmed as hostile
RBS-70 misslle launchers are allocated to each lndividualtarget. Target informa-
tion can be transmitted to the RBS-70 launchers up to 5 km {3.1 miles) away
f rom the Giraffe radar unit. Each RBS-70 unit has a target data receiver whtch
can slew the RBS-70 launcher towards the target and inform the m ssile oper-
ator when the aircraft is withtn range. The Giraff e radar system js used by at least The Swedish Ericsson Giraffe search radar was developed for use with the
seven countries and can control Iight antt-aircraft guns as well as missrles Bofor s RB S - 7 0 s urf ace - to - air mjssi/e, b u f ls a/s o u s e d to contr o I lig ht AA g u n s.
One of the most comprehensrve anti-aircraft f ire-control systems available. n From the back of the truck the operators can transmit target information to AA
the world today is the swiss Contraves Skyguard, successor to the earJier units up to 5 km (3 miles) away.
Contraves Super Fledermaus system used by some 20 countries The Skyguard
frrecontrol systemisrnounted nafullyair-conditionedtrailerwhichcanalsobe Targets are first tracked by the pulse-doppler search radar mounted on top :'
carried on a tracked (e.g. M548) or wheeled chassls for greater cross-country the container and then by the tracking radar or the TV tracking system, the lai.:-
mobility. Although used-mainly with anti-a rcraft guns such as the Oerlikon twin being of considerable use in an ECM (electronic counter measures) envirc'-
35-mm series, tie Skyguard can also be used w th missiles such as the Sparrow meni. lnsrde the container is the control console, which can be operated by I's.
or a combination of guns and missiles. one man, the computer and the data transmission system, which transr'- ::
inf ormation to the mrssiles or anti-aircraft gun. One Skygua rd f ire-control syste --
Experience has demonstrated that a complementary defence of guns and typically controls two 35-mm Oerlikon towed anti-aircraft guns. Ttre lalter ha,:
missiles provides the most effective protection against hostile aircraft' The lust three rnen to keep the guns supplied with ammunition. The Skygua':
enemy ii forced low by the missile threat and thenengaged by the-guns' Here, f ire-control systern not only aims the gun accurately at the target but also ma<::

Skygiard provides fire control information forbofh mtssiles and 35-mm them open fire when the target is within range, and also selects the numbe- :'
OerlikonAAguns. rounds fired to ensure that the target ts destroyed.

E 561;# Mffi rght anti-aircrart sun
Czechoslovakia had an excellent gnrn- armour at a range of500 m (547 yards).
making capability well before World The main drawback of the M53 liqht
War II, and this was subsequently anti-aircraft gun is that, like the Soviet
taken over by the Germans, After the ZU-23, it is limited to clear-weather op-
end of the war Czechoslovakia con- erations as there is no provisron for
tinued to desiqn and burld weapons radar or off-carriage fire-control,
such as the 30-mm M53 light anti- Czechosiovakia developed two
arrcraft gmn which it strll uses in place other anti-aircraft weapons in the
of the Soviet 23-mm ZU-23, The Czech period after World War II although as
weapon is heavier and has a slower far as it is known nerther remains in
rate of flre, but it does have a more front line service with the Czech
effective range than the ZU-23 In addi- forces, These are the 12,7-mm (0,5-in)
tion to being used by Czechoslovakia, M53 quadruple anti-aircraft machine-
it is also used by Cuba, Romania, Viet- gnrn, and a 57-mm antr-aircraft gun, The
nam and Yugoslavia, There is also a M53 is'a two-wheeled carriage fitted
self-propelled model called the M53/ with four Soviet DShKM machine-guns, Twin 30-mm M53 weapons are towed with practical rate of fire being 100
59, whtch is mounted on a modtfied each fed from a drum holding 50 by a PragaV3S 6x6 truck. rounds per barrel per minute. The
and armoured Praga V3S 6x6 truck rounds of ammunition, This weapon Ammunition is fed to each of the 30- M53 has no radarsysfem, so rs
chassis, An unusual feature of the M53/ has an effective anti-aircraft range of mm barrels in clips of l0 rounds, limited in its engagements.
59 is that the twrn 3O-mm weapons can 1000m (1,094 yards) and is normally
be removed from the vehicle and towed by a GA-69 4x4 truck whrch
placed on the ground for ease of con- also carries its crew and a small
cealment while the truck rs driven amount of ready-use ammunition, The
away and camouflaged, The M53/59 is 57-mm anti-aircraft qun was used by
fed from vertical magazines holding 50 the Czech army in place of the Soviet
rounds, while the M53 is led horizontal- 57-mm 5-60 and has a hiqher rate of
ly in lO-round clips, fire, being fed with three- rather than
The M53 system is mounted on a four-round clips of ammunition, lt is re-
four-wheeled carrrage, no shreld ported that this weapon was exported
being provided for the four man crew, to a few countries including.Cuba,
To provide a more stable flring plat- Guinea and Mali
form in action, the wheels are raised off
the ground and the carnage is sup- Specification
ported by fourjacks one on each side M53
on outriggers and one at each end, Calibre: 30 mm (1,18 in)
The weapons are gras-operated, Weights: travellinqr 2100 kg (4,630 Ib);
each having a cyclic rate of flre of 450 firiis 1750 ks (3 B5B Ib)
to 500 rounds per minute though the Dimensions: length travelling 7,587 m
practical rate of flre is only 100 rounds (24fi ),0.7 in); width travelling 1,758m
per minute, Ammunition is fed to each (5ft 9,2in); height travelling 1.575m
barrel in clips, and two types of (5 ft
in) 2
ammunition are available, both having Elevation: +85"410"
a muzzle velocrty of 1000 m (3,281 ft) Traverse: 360'
per second these are high explosive Ranges: maximum horizontal 9700 m
rncendrary (HLl) and armour-piercrng (10,608 yards); maximum vertical The Czech twin 30-mm M53 light addition to this towed model there is
incendiary (API) for use aqarnst 6300 m (20,669ft); effective vertical anti-aircraft gun js usedhere to also a self- propelled version called
armoured vehicles, The latter round 3000 m (9,843 ft) defend a 'Bar Lock' air defence radar the M53/ 59, mounted on a 6 x 6 Praga
will penetrate 55mm (2, 17in) of Crew: 4 installation against air attack. In V 3 S armou r ed lruck chassis-

m [i-** ZtJ-H3ligrht anti-aircraft sun

For many years after the end of World
War II the standard hght anti-arrcraft
gmn of the Soviet army was the ZPU
series of 14.S-mm (0.57-in) weapons
using the Vladimirov KPV heavy
machine-gun, which even today is in-
stalled in turets mounted on a number
of Soviet armoured vehicles includrngr
the BRDM-2, BTR-60PB and 0T-64,
There are three basic models of the
ZPU, the ZPU-1, ZPU-\ and ZPU-4, the
numeral referrinqt to the number of
barrels. Althouqh withdrawn from
frontline servrce with the Soviet army
some years aqo. rhe ZPU serres re-
mains in service with about 40 coun-
tries around the world.
In the 1960s the ZPU series was re-
placed in the Sovret army by thezU^z3
twin 23-mm towed anti-aircraft gun
system whrch is no longer rn front-line
Soviet use, so far as rs known, having
been replaced by surface-to-air mis-
srles. At divisional level the last users
were the airborne or airborne rrfle dr-
visions which each had a total of 24
systems, four in each of the three air-
borne rifle regiments and 12 in the di- American helicopters, In Afghanistan the Soviet equivalent of the Land Rov- A Soviet-built 23-mm ZU-23 light anti-
visional artillery element. The weapon the Soviets have mounted a number oi er. The carriage has two rubber-tyred aircraftgun of the EastGerman army
is still used by some 20 countrres, ZU-23s on the rear of trucks to provrde road wheels: in the firing position seen jn the firing position, showing
howevet, and was even encountered suppressive ground-to-Qtround frre these wheels are raised offthe ground the box of50 rounds ofready-use
by United States forces durrngr their when convoys are attacked by gruerril- and the carriage rs supported on three ammunition for each barrel. The
invasion of Grenada in October 1983, las, screw-type levelling jacks. Each of the ZU-23 has been seen in Afghanistan
when ZU-23 and ZPU series liqht anti- The ZU-23 is normally towed by a 23-mm barrels is provided with a flash mounted on the rear of cross-country
aircraft quns downed a number of liqht vehrcle such as the 4x4 GA,Z-69 suppressor, and a handle is mounted trucks.

I 846
23-mmZU -23 light anti-aircraft gun (continued) Modern Towed Anti-Aircraft Weapons
on top of each barel to enable rt to be More recently Egypt has been test-
changed quickly Each barrel has a ing two versions of the Ml13 armoured
box ol 50 rourds of ready-use ammuni- personnel carrier with twin 23-mm
tion, and thouqh a cyclic rate of fire of antr-aircraft guns mounted on the rool
800 to 1,000 rounds per minute is possi- while Israel has captured a number of
ble, the practical rate of flre rs 200 BTR- 152 6 x 6 armoured personnel car-
rounds per minute. Two types of fixed riers from the PLO wrth a ZU-23
ammunrtron are frred by the ZU-23: mounted in the rear,
armour-piercing incendiary-tracer
(API-T) and high explosive incendi- Specification
ary-tracer (HEI-T), the former beinqr zu-23
useci to engage armoured vehicles Calibre: 23 mm (0.91 in)
and the latter to enqaqe aircraft. Both Weights: travelhnq 950 kg (2,094 ib);
projectiles have a muzzle velocrty of firing 950 kq (2,094 lb)
970 m (3,182 ft) per second, and the Dimensions: length travelling 4,57 m
API-T projectile will penetrate 25 mm (15 ft0 in); widthtraveiling 1.83 m(6 ft
(0.98 in) of armour at a range of 500 m 0 rn;, heighttravelhng LB7 m(6 ft
(547 yards), The mounting has no pro 1.6 in)
vision for off-carriaqe frre control. The Elevation: +90'/-10"
23-mm cannon of the ZU-23 are also Traverse:360'
used in the famous 23-mm ZSU-23-4 Ranges: maximum horizontal 7000 m
self-propelled antr-aircraft gun sys- (7, 655 yards); maximum vertical
tem, although in this applicatron the 5 100 m ( 16,732 ft); effective vertical Although no longer in large-sca,le use still highly effective, and a number
weapons are water-cooled to enable a 2500 m (8,202 ft) with the SovietUnion the twin 23-mm were used against American forces
higher rate of flre to be achieved, Crew: 5 ZU-23 light anti-aircraft gun system is during the invasion of G renada.

HT-** 5-60 anti-aircraft gun

The 57-mm (2,24-rn) 5-60 anti-aircraft controlled by a director and zero rn-
entered service with the Soviet
gn-rn dicator, plus radar. In each case
army after the end of World War II as ammunition is loaded in four-round
the replacement for the 37-mm M1939 clips by ammunition feeders, one clip
liqht anti-aircraft Qrun; thrs was the beinq in the feed tray to the left of the
Soviet equivalent of the famous Bofors breech and another clip on the mount
4O-mm L/60 weapon used in large itseil Three types of flxed ammunition
numbers by the American and Bntrsh can be fired by the 5-60, all of which
armies during the war. Until very re have a muzzle velocity of 1000 m
cently each tank division and moto- (3,28 I ft) per secondr two types offrag-
rized rrfle division in the Soviet army mentatron tracer (FRAG-T) and
had an antr aircra't regrmenl eqLip armour-piercrng capped-tracers
ped with the 5-60. Each regiment had (APC-T), The latter will penetrate
four batteries each with srx qluns, each 96 mm (3.7B in) of armour at a range of
battery havrnq two three-qtun platoons, 1000m (1,094 yards) The 5-60 has a
Each battery had a SON-9/SON-94 cyclic rate of flre of 105 to 120 rounds
'Frre Can flre-control radar, while at per minute and a practical rate of frre
regdmental HQ were two 'Flat Face' of 70 rounds per minute.
target-acquisition radars. More re-
cently the 'Flap Wheel'radar has been Specification
used wuh the S 60 systemn s-60
The 5-60 is still used by some 30 Calibre:57 mm(2.24 in)
countries especially in Afrrca, the Weights: travellinq 4660 kg ( 10,274 lb);
Middle East and the Far East, and fea- firins4500 kq (9,921 lb)
tures rn the inventory of most Warsaw Dimensions: length travelling 8,50 m
Pact countries In the Sovret army it has (27 ft 10.6 rn); widthtravelling2.0S4 m
been replaced in many front line units (6 ft 8.9 in); heiqht travelling2.3T m(7 fI
by the SA-B Gecko surface-to-ait mis-
sile (SAM), whrch in addition to beinq a Right: The 57 -mm S- 60 anti- aircraft
much more eflective all-weather sys- gun is highly effective when used
tem can be ready for action within together with the PUAZO- 6/ 60
seconds China has built a model ofthe director and the SON-9 / SON-94 radar,
5-60 under the designation Type 59, which is called'Fire Can' by NATO. In
while the ZSU-57-2 self-propelled antr- 1985 lraq was using the 5-60 together
arrcraft gun system uses the same with a low-light-level television
ammunition as the 5-60 system to engage Iranian aircraft.
The 5-60 can be towed by a variety
of vehicles including 6x6 trucks such 9.3 in)
as the Ural 375D or the AT-L iight Elevation: +857-4'
tracked artillery tractors. The weapon Traverse:360'
can engage anti-aircraft targets with rts Ranges: maxrmum horzonral - Z- . . :--.
wheels in contact wrth the ground but (13. 123 yards ); maxrmum ve:..:=
it is much more accurate wtth its BB0O m (28.871 1t;, efteclrve . e:'-:=
wheels raised off the qround and the withopticalsights4OOO m(13 -21 -
carriage supported by four screw effective vertrcal with off-cal-a::
jacks one on each side on ou riqoers control 6000 m (19,685 ft)
and one at each end, Optical sights are Crew: B
fitted for the engagement of both
ground and aenal targets, Four modes
of operation are available flrstly For many years the 57 -mm S -60 was
manual wrth the crew operating hand- one of the standard towed anti-
wheels for elevation and traverse; aircraft guns of the Soviet army and
secondly power-assisted with the was issued on the scale of 24 gtns
handwheels operated by the crews per division. This 5-60 is of the
but assisted by a servo motor; thrrdly, Egryptian army and is in the travelling
remotely'conLrolled by a Puazo series position, being towed by a 6x 6 trucft.
director and zero indicator; and fourth- In the Soviet army its replacement is
Iy, fully automatic and remotely- theSA-8.
m Tiio-** I$-I9 anti-aircraft sun
One of the standard antraircraft guns
World War II
of the Soviet army during
was the B5-mm (3,35-in) M1939, re-
placed in production by the M1944
which had a lonqer barrel and fired
ammunition with higher muzzle veloc
ity for increased ranqe, In 19BS the
M1939 and M1944 are still used by
almost 20 countries, although in the
Warsaw Pact they have been replaced
by surface-to-air missrles. After the
end of the war the Soviet Union intro-
duced two new towed anti-aircraft
gn-rns, the 100-mm (3.94-in) KS-I9 and
the 130-mm (5.12-in) KS-30; by 1985
neither of these remained in front-line
service with the Sovret Union, although
some 20 countries stlll use the KS-19
and two or three the much heavier KS- The Soviet 100-mm KS- 19 anti-aircraft gunwas introduced some 40 years ago, butinWarsaw Pact countries has
30. China has built the KS- 19 under the long been replaced in front-line sewice by missi/es such as fhe SA-2'Guideline'. TheKS-19 is, however, still in
designation Type 59. widespreaduse in both theMiddle and Far East.
The KS-19 is normally towed by an
AT-S medium or AT-T heavy full- setter and a power rammer. A well- range of 1000 m (1,094 yards), Specification
tracked artillery tractor, which also trarneo crew can achieve a maxlmum Antr-aircraft targets can be enqaged KS-19
carries the l5-man crew and a small rate of fire of 15 rounds per minute, with the sigrhts installed on the KS-19, Calibre: 100 mm (3 94 in)
quantity of ready-use ammunition. The Like most heavy-calbre anti-aircraft but better results are obtained with the Weight: travellrnq 9550 kg (2 t 054 lb)
weapon is mounted on a two-axle car- weapons the KS-19 was desrgned as a PUAZO-6/19 director and the SON-9/ Dimensions: length traveiling 9.45 m
riaqe, and in the flnng positron the ax- dual-role (anti-aircraft and anti tank) SON-9A (NATO reporting name 'Fire (31 ft 0 in); widthtravelling 2,35 m (7 ft
Ies are raised off the grround and the gun. Three types of ammunition, all Can') fire-control radar system, in most 8.5 in); height travelling 2.201 m (7 ft
carriage is supported by four screw with a muzzle velocity of 900 m countries the KS-19 is used to defend 2.7 rn)
jacks one on each side on ourriggers per second, are available for
(2,953 ft) strategic rather than tactical targets, Elevation: +85"/ 3"
and one ar each erd ol rhe carrrage. the anti-aircraft role high explosive, and the weapon can be tied into an Traverse:360'
When travellinq the mount is traversed high explosive fragmentation and fraqr- overail arr-defence system. Lighter Ranges: maxrmum horrzontal2 i000 m
to the rear and the barrel rs held in mentation. T\ruo rounds are available anti aircraft guns, such as the 57-mm (22,966 yards); maximum vertical with
position by a lock. for the anti-tank role AP-T (armour- 5-60, are used by fleld armies as they limefuse 12700 m(41 667 ft): max.mum
The KS-19 fires ammunition ol the piercinq tracer) and APC T (armour- are easier to move about. The KS-19 vertical with proximity fuse 15000 m
fixed type which is loaded in single piercrng capped tracer)t the flrst of has been used in action during the Ko- (49,213 ft), effectivevertical 13700 m
rounds from the left; to increase its rate these has amuzzle velocity of m
1,000 rean War, the many wars in the Middle (44,948 ft)
of flre, the weapon is fltted with a sing- (3,281 ft) per second and can pene- East, and also by North Vietnam Crew: l5
ie-round loadinq tray, automatic fuse trate lB5 mm (7.28 in) of armour at a against Amencan aircraft

ffi Ti.Z-** M55 lisht anti-aircraft sun

The 12,7-mm (0,S-rn) M55 quadruple cyclic rate of flre of 450 to 550 rounds During World War II two self- Specification
anti-alrcraft gun system was de- per barrel per minute, though the propelled models of the M55 were M55
veloped in World War II by the practical rate of flre is 150 rounds per butlt and some of these strll rematn rn Calibre: 12,7 mm (0.5 in)
Kimberly-Clark Corporation, and by barrel per mrnute. Types of ammunt- service in South America and else- Weights: travelling l33B kq (2,950 lb);
the time production was completed in tion that can be fired by the M2 where. The Ml6 was based on the M3 flrins 975 kq (2, 150 1b)
1953 some 10,000 systems had been machrne-guns include armour- halftrack, while the Mi7 was based on Dimensions: length travelling 2.89 m
built, In addition to berngr used during piercrng (AP;, armour-prerclng In- the M5 halftrack. (9 ft 5.8 in); widthtravelling2.09 m (6 ft
World War I1 the M55 was used by the cendrary (API) armour-prercing in- 10,3 in); heighttravellinq 1,606 m(5 ft
United States forces rn both Korea and cendiary-tracer (API-T), rncendiary An American M55 quad I 2.7 -mm 3.2 in)
South Vietnam In the latter conflrct it standard ball and training, (0. 5 0-calibre) anti-aircraft gun Elevation: +907-10'
was used in the ground hre-support Turret traverse and weapon eleva- sysfem is sftourn mounted in the rear Traverse:360'
role to break up mass attacks by Viet tlon are electric at a rate of 60" per of anM35 (6x6) truck.Inaddition to Ranges: effective horizontal lSOO m
Cong on American supply bases and second, the gmnner using a pair of con- being used for the anti-aircraft role, (1,640 yards); effective vertical 1O0O m
camps. Some M55 systems were also trol handles whrch also accommodate il las a/so been used in the ground (3,281ft)
put on the rear of trucks and armour the triggers. The weapons continue to fire support role. Crew: 4
plated for use in the convoy escort fire as long as there is suffrcient
role, In the US Army the M55 was re- ammunition left and the triggers are
placed from the late 1960s by the 20- depressed. The M55 is a clear-
mm Ml67 Vulcan towed anti-aircraft weather system only and the gunner
still used by almost
qnrn system, but it is has a standard MIB reflex sight to hrs
20 countries all over the world. More fron thatproiects a qraTrcule rmage on
recently Israel has developed from lhe an inclined qlass plate The graticule
M55 the TCM 20 anti-arrcraft gun sys- image consists of four concentric crr-
tem which has two 20-mm cannon in cles. each correspondrng ro various
place of the four 12.7-mm (0 S-in) aircraft speeds, and three dots on a
machine-guns of the origrnal. The vertical line in the centre ofthe field of
Brazilian company LYSAM has carried view that are used to determine line of
out a modernization of the M55 for the sight and compensate for gravity pull
Brazilian army and has also fitted two on the projectile.
20-mm cannon rn place ofthe four 12,7- The M20 two-wheeled trailer can be
mm machine-gmns. towed by a light vehicie but not at
The M55 system consrsts essentially speeds above 16km/h (10mph), and
of two parts the M45C mount and the for this reason the M55 is normally car-
M20 trarler, The former is an armoured ried in the rear of a 6 x 6 truck such as
mount wrth a seat for the gnrnner and the American M35. The weapon can
also contains an integral electric pow- be flred irom the truck or unloaded
er unit whrch rn turn is run from two onto the ground wrth the aid of two
6-volt batteries. Mounted on each side channels, one of which is carried on
of the mount are two 12.7-mm M2 HB each side of the truck. On the qround
machine-giuns, each of which is led the M55 is supported by three jacks
from a belt contarning 210 rounds of (one at the front and two at the rear)
ready-use ammumtion, The machine- and the small road wheels are re-
Qnrns are fully automatic and have a moved

I 848
Americcn lighf AA Guns in
fhe 2lSt Centur! f':;,,1g:'i"5$R,,T#gpf?iu'triliht:Ii,l,lfffrpffi
With renewed emphasis on rapid deployment divisions, the P^"^lXT":tg?Ilf9^?j^4^40 9t
1,000 rounds perminute t6 conserve ammun i c^

_u!!,rmyis curieiuyseetcinsirepraVer;entror the,M.t6T Jl3r1:-il:'riil[:'.lj::[jr',""?,tA:e,[:,.tfln €J!fr?;:iA%lL"r'^]yr%;,;i

Vulcansystem,itsonlytowedanti-aircraftgun,asse/f- lnfanrryFghrin"gt;hicr;inoir-luuSHl]urinecotpJLnv-zs Atorat of TbTrouncs
propelled AA guns like DIVAD can be transported by air only of ammunition can be carried, and would normally be a mix of types to enac :
byisingmass-ivetransportaircraft.Oneobviousaniwer both iii.i:q 9l?1111?i,s,:l: t".qe e1gqs.e!:
ioutdEetgpuygnexiiitingruroieanlivntryqunbut,.as._ ,".',3,i4'T?.$"??3R33iii3:;tl?",35*i,?L,3X"i,.:Ty:i,iJJjT;:"S'13[.?
il,?.'Jl?g.?-:i'$l:n:::,sTetLZl:li*:tsetrull:n-mp:#li :
Today the only towed light antr-aircraft gun in service with the US Army is the
General Electric 20 mm M167 Vulcan, which entered service in '1 967. This Boeing Avenger
weapon, likertsseltpropelledccunterpart,theM'l 63,hasnobad-orall-weather Boeing has, as a private venture, developed a missile system called ir.e
capability and lacks range. While the M163 is to be replaced in regular units Avengerwhich has already been tested bythe gth Infantry Division, which ac:s
the twin 40-mm Sgt York Division Air Defense Gun (or DIVAD as it is more as a test bed formation for much of the equipment earmarked Jor Cen::a
commonly known), no decision has been taken on replacement of the M 167 Command and the new light divisions. The Avenler is a Hummer chassis fite:
Vulcan, which is used by the 82nd Airborne Division and the 101st Airborne with a turret for eight General Dynamics Stinger missiles in the ready-to-laun:^
Division (Air units.
Assault), as well as by reserve position. During inital trials this has proved to be a highly effective systerr.
The recent decision to form a number of new light divisions capable of rapid
deployment f rom the United States to any part of the world by transport aircraft AMCTAC Setter
such as the Lockheed C-5, C 141 and C-l 30 has led to a number of companies The U S Army M issile Command and Tan k Automotive Command unveileo :.e
putting forward proposals for anti-aircraft weapons for these divisions. One of Setter air-defence system in 1984. This consists of an AM General Hun r.e-
the,early proposals was for a single barrel 40-mm system from Ford4erospace with a roof-top turret armed not only with eight Stinger missiles but also s r
and Cj]mmunications Corporation, which is currently building the DIVAD^ sys- nine-round pods of high-velocity rockets whrch are-highly effective agairst
tem.Thisseemstohavebeen.discountedalreadyasb^eingtootreavy Some aircraft,helicoptersanolightarmouredvehicles.Theroc[etbhaveavelo|iq*o.
manufacturers are proposing existing weapons, such as Oerlikon-Brlhrle 25-mm about 1500 m \4,921 ft) per second and an effective range of about 12OO -
Diana' whire others are propos ng new svstems
LADS 8,.'Jo?#[t;]"t ilif":s'i:ffr:B:i: f:':xJ#:.?"t3fi?::,,yihi*i-::
GE GE LADS is that it is a complete system in itself, thie latter requiring anotne-
One of the more interesting systems being proposed is the GE LADS, or vehicle to tow it.
General Electric Lightweight Air Defense System, which is a further develop-
ment of the private-venture GEMAG 25. The GE LADS system is mounted on a
f ou r-wheeled carriage which can be towed by light 4 x 4 vehicles such as the AM Currently being developed by General Electric, the GEMAG 25+ Air Defence
General HMMWV Hummer or carried underneath the Sikorsky UH-60 Black SystemcombinesaZ1-mmGAIl-|2/lJgunandStingersurface-to-airmissiles.
Hawk helicopter, already in service in some numbers. Thegunhasadualfeed,enablingittoswitchfromfiringanti-aircraft
The system is operated by one man, who sits in a fully-enclosed cabin on the ammunitiontoarmour-piercingloundsforgroundtargetswithoutchanging
leftside.MountedattherearisaFrenchDassaultsurveillanceradarwhichcan belts.Thefirecontrotsystemallowsforall-ieatherus6,providingtargei -
the acquisitionouttoll km(7mi\es).
detect and track two targets at a maximum range of 11 km (6.84 miles). lf


,Q. a,
lighf qnti - circ rotll gun

The UnitedStates Army uses the 2)-mmVulcan air defence system in two
basic configurations , the M I 67 towed and the M I 63 self-propelled on a
nodified M I I 3 full-tracked armoured personnel carrier chassis. Both are
essentially a clear-weather system, with a range-only radar being fitted on the
ight side of the electric turret. The gunner can select two rates of fire: I ,000
rounds per minute for engaging ground targets, or 3,000 per minute for
engaging aerialtargets.The M167 isissuedon fiesca/e of 48 per airborne
and air mobile division.
Nosing purposefully skyvvard, the six barrels of an M I 67 give no hint of the
awesome power theVulcanis capable of unleashing. Atmaximum rate of fire.
some 50 rounds (which can be high explosive, HE incendiary, atmou*
piercing or tracer) are being launched each second, with an extremely high
muzzlevelocity (close to 1100 m/3,600 ftper second).
ffi [b-** Vulcan light anti-aircraft gun
In the early 1960s the General Electric The 20-mmMI67 Vulcan light air defencesystemwas developed byGeneral
Company developed two anti-aircraft Electric to meet the requirements of the United States Army and entered
qnln systems to meet the requirements service in I967. Turret traverse and gun elevation is electric.
of the US Army. Both of these used the
same 20 mm cannon developed from
the M61 series installed in high speed
fighter aircraft such as the Lockheed
F-104 Starfiqhter. After trials with both
systems at Fort Bliss, Texas (home of
US Army air defence), both weapons
were accepted for service, The self-
propelled system mounted on a mod-
ifled Ml13 series armoured personnei
carrier chassis, is called the Mi63 and
was the replacement for the 40 mm
M42 Duster self-propelled anti-aircraft
gun, The towed model, calied the
MI67, was the repiacement for the
12.7-mm (0.S-in) M55 quadruple
machine-gun system deveioped in
World War IL
lhe M167 is strll in front-lire service
with the US Army, where it is em-
pioyed with airborne and airmobile di-
visions, Each of these formations has
one air-defence battalion with a batta-
Iion headquarters and four batteries,
Each of the latter has a battery head-
quarters and three flringr platoons each
with four M167 systems. Although the
self-propelled M163 is to be replaced
in the regular army by the twin 40-mm tion are electric recharqinq being
DIVAD, no decisron has been taken on carried out by a grenerator installed on
what will replace the M167 whrch has the forward part ofthe carriage. Turret
limited range and no all-weather capa- traverse rate is 60'per second and
bility, weapon elevation rate is 45' per
The M167lowlevel arr defence sys- second,
tem consists of a two-wheeled car- The flre-control system on the M167
riage on which rs mounted an electrr- consists of a range-only radar on the
cally-powered turret containing the rrght side ofthe mount, a sight current
20-mm MI68 Vulcan cannon, the link- generalor and a gyro Jead-computtng
ed-feed ammunitron system and the sight.
fire controls. The M167 is normally towed by an
The M16B Vulcan cannon has six M7l5 4x4 ligiht truck and can also be
barrels and two rates of fire, 1,000 and slung under a helicopter. In addrtion to
3 000 rounds per minute. The slower beinq used by the US Army, the M167
late is normally used agarnst giround is also used by a number ofother coun-
:rgets, whrle the hrgher rate is re- tries includinq Belgium, Ecuador,
served for aerial tarqets, To conserve Israel, Jordan, Morocco, North Yemen,
ammunition the gunner can select Saudi Arabia Somalia South Korea (6 ft 6 in); height travelling 2.038 m (6 ft It is generally accepted that the 20-
bursts of i0 30, 60 or lO0 rounds from and Sudan. 8.2 in) mm Vulcan anti- aircraft gun system
-.:le total of 300 or 500 ready-use rounds Elevation: +80"/ 5" has very limited capabilities. The
provided, Ammunition is of the fixed Specification Traverse:360' M I 67 self-propelled model will be and includes armour-piercing- Vulcan Ranges: maximum horizontal6000 m rcplaced by the 40 -mm DIVAD, while
:acer (AP-T), higrh explosive incendr- Calibre: 20 mm (0,79 in) (6, 562 yards); effective horizontal the towedM163 willprobably be
a:y (HEI) and high explosive incendi- Weights:travellinq lSBB kg (3,501 1b); 2200 m (2,406 yards); maximum replaced by a 25-mm gunor anew
ary-tracer (HE1-T), as well as the usual firins 1565 kg (3,450 lb) vertical 4500 m ( 14 764 ft); effective system combining a 25-mm gun and
:aining rounds Dimensions: length travelling 4.906 m vertical 1200 m (3 937 ft) lhe Strngrermrssile.
Tlrret traverse and weapon eleva- ( 16 ft 1 1 in); width travellins I 98 m Crew: 4-5 (l onmount)

E Hil[ifi[etall 20-mm twin lisht anti-aircraft sun

-:e Rheinmetall 20-mm light anti-
::craft gun was developed to meet the
::quirements of the West German
::illstry of defence by the Rhetnmetall
-:npary o' Diisseldorf. The mounl Ls
:rred wrth two examples of the MK 20
: r- 202 ?A-mm cannon which is the
s-andard weapon rn rts class tn the
German army: it is also installed
-:- :he Marder mechanized tnfantry
::mbat vehicle in a two-man power-
:perated turret; it arms the Wiesel
--ght arrportable armoured vehtcle trailer that can be towed by a light
',',':ich has recently been ordered into vehicle such as a Mercedes-Benz Un-
p::ductron for West German airborne imog 4 x 4 truck The gn-rnner is seated
-r:sr and rt is fitted in a two-man turret at the rear of the mount and aims the
::, ihe Luchs BxB amphibious twin cannon using an ltalian Galtleo
llnoured car, The cannon is also in- P56 computrnq sight which has an
:-=lled on a s.ngle mounl lor varioLs optical sight with a magnification of x 5,
:a;al applications, and the Italians an electronrc analogue computer for
:-a-.-e installed the cannon rn the FIAT/ calculatinq the lead angles required to
I -C Melara 6616 4x4 armoured car. hrt aenal targets, a joystick for eleva- AWest German Rheinmetall twin 20-mm light anti-aircraft gun is seen in the
i:s 20-mm twin light anti-aircraft tion and traverse and a panel for in- firing position, showing the gunner's seat at the rear with the ltalian Galileo
l:-i: system is carried on a two-wheel serting target rnformatton. P56 sightto his immediate front.
Rheinmetall 20-mm twin Iight antiaircraft gun (continued)

Elevation and traverse are hyd- training rounds. The APDS-T has a TheRheinmetall20-mmMK 20 Rh 202
raultc, maxrmum traverse speed being muzzle velocrty of 1150 m (3 773 ft) per cannon is used in this twin anti-
80" per second and maximum eleva- second aircraftgun mount, theMarder MICV
tton speed 48' per second, power for In lhe hrrng position the weapon is and the Luchs (B t 8) reconnaissance
these functions being obtained lrom an supported on three outriqgers, The vehicle. All of these guns will
air-cooled two-stroke petrol engrne system rs essentially a clear-weather probably be replaced by the new
mounted under the gunner's seat type, although it can be integrated into Mauser ModelE cannon,with longer
The cannon are gas-operated and an overall defence system. In addition range and improved ammunition.
iully automatic, the gunner firing them to being used by the West German
rra a foot-operated pedal that is f,tted armed forces it rs also used by Arqenti
,.nth a safety device. The gunner can na, Greece, Indonesia and Portuqtal, it
seiect erther srngle shots or full auto- was used by Argentina in the Falk- Specification
rnatrc with either barrel or both lands to defend Port Stanley airfield, Rheinmetall 20-mm mounting
.ogether. The cannon have a cyclic To meet the requirements ol the Calibre: 20 mm (0.79 in)
:ate of flre of 2 000 rounds per barrel Norwegian armed forces Hispano Weights: travelling 2 160 kq (4,762 lb);
:el mLnule and each cannon is pro- Surza and A./S Kongsberg Vappenfab- firins 1640 kq (3,6 t6 lb)
-;ided with an ammunition box contaln- rrkk designed and built a single-mount Dimensions: length travelling 5.035 m
.:.q 27a rounds ol 'xed ammunrtLon. antr-aircraft qun called the FK 20-2 ( 16 ft 6 2 in); width travellins 2 36 m
.-nother 10 rounds beinqr in the flexibie whrch uses the same 20 mm cannon as (7 ftB,9 in), heighttravellng2,075 m
'=ed sys,em lhat connecls -he ammuni- the Rheinmetall twin 20-mm mount. (6 ft 9.7 in)
-on boxes with the qun Types of This is used by the West German and Elevation: +B 1.6"/,3 5"
rmmunition that can be frred include Nonvegdan armres. In the future all of Traverse:360'
rrmour-piercrnq discardrnq sabot- the 2O-mm cannon of West Germany Ranges: maximum horizontal6O00 m
:acer (APDS-T). arhour-piercing in are expected to be replaced by the (6,562 yards); maximum vertical
:3ndrary{racer (API-T), high explo- Mauser Model E 25-mm cannon which 4500 m (14 764 ft); effective vertrcal
:-;e incendrary (HEI), high explosive was selected over the Rheinmetall Rh 2000 m (6 562 ft)
-::cendiary-tracer (HEi-T), and various 205 25-mm cannon several years ago. Crew: 4-5 (but only I on mount)


Oerlikon 20-mm GAI-BO I ligrht anti-aircraft gun

,re Oerlikon-Buhrie 20-mm GAI-BOI For manyyears the 20-mm GAI-BOI
--ght anii-arrcraft qun was originally was the lightest in the extensive
:alled the l0 ILa/STG, the STG stand- range of light anti-aircraft guns built
::g.for the actual cannon, which was by Oerlikon-Bdhrle. Traverse and
s:bsequently called the KAB-001 elevation is manual, and drums of 20
For many years Oerlikon-Birhrle or 50 rounds of ammunition can be
:ow called Machine Tool Works Oerli- fitted or a box holding justeight
<on-Biirhle and based rn Zurich, was in rounds.
:ompetition with Hispano-Suiza which
also built an extensive ranqe of hght
=rti-atrcraft weapons and treir assocj
:Led ammunrtion. In 1972 Hrspano-
Sriza was taken over by Oerlikon-
liihrle and some of the former's
-,';eapons were subsequently inte-
Iated into the Oerlikon range The
-:5-6664 hvin 20-mm weapon became
:e GAI-DO1, the 20-mm HS-639-B 3, I
:ecame the GAI-CO1, the HS-639-B AnOerlikon-Bihrle
- I became the GAI-CO3 whiie the HS- 20-mmGAI-BOI anti
i39-BS became the GAI-CO4, By i9B4 aircraft gun is seen in
J of these had been phased out of the firing position.
:loductron although they remained rn Akey feature
::rvice with many countries; for exam- of thisweaponisitsvery
lie the GAI-COI is used by both Chile lightweight, and it can be
-:d South Africa, brought into action by its
The 20-mm GAI-BOl was the light- two-man crew in about 20
:st Oerlikon-Biirhle weapon offered, seconds.
=lihough it too has now been phased
.it of sewice. It does, however, re- The 20-mm cannon has a cycirc rate
::.aLn in use wirh many counrries rn- offire of 1,000 rounds per minute, and
:ludrng Austria, South Africa, Spain the gunner can select either single
.rd Switzerland. To provrde greater shot or full automatic fire. Three types
robility some countries have fitted the of magazine are available for this
-,',-eaponin the rear of cross-country weapon: 50- and 3O-round drums, and
';ehrcles; for example, Austria has the an eiqht-round box The former two
xeapon on the rear of the Steyr 6x6 are normally used for anti-arrcraft
'.ehrcie wrlh ready-use ammunition ammunition while the latter is for
:arried to the rear of the cab. The main armour-piercing ammunition. The iol-
Crawback of systems such as the GAi- lowing types of ammunrtron can be
3O1 is that they rely on manua] con- fired by thts cannon arrour-pie"cirg-
rols for elevation and traverse and tracer (AP T), high explosive incendi-
--herefore some operators flnd it drf- ary-tracer (HEI-T) high explosive rn-
icult to track higrh-speed aircraft; no cendrary (HEI) semi-armour-prercing
provrsion is made ior radar fire control. high explosive rncendiary-tracer
Such systems do offer the advantagre of (SAPHEI T), seml armour piercing
beinq very light and can be disassem- high explosrve incendiary (SAPHEI),
bled into smaller parts for transpofia- and trarning Specification Elevation: +85"/ 5'
:ron in rough terrain where heavier The cannon is elevated by the gun- GAI-BOI Traverse:360'
'reapons cannot be employed. ner turning a handle, whLle traverse is Calibre: 20 mm (0.79 in) Ranges:maximumhorizonrai: -, :
For travelling the GAI-BOI is car- obtained using the gunner's feet. An Weights:travelling 547 kq (1 206 lb); (6,234 yards); effectrve 22CC r- Z ! -:
:red on a small two-wheeled carriage unusual feature of this weapon is that firins 405 kg (893 lb) yards); maximum vertrcal 45i I :,
:owed behind a light truck The the gnrnner can also enEtaqe ground Dimensions: Ienglh travelling 3 B5 m (14,764 ft); effectivevertrcai -:1, :,
','reapon can be brought rnro action targets from the prone position rn this (12 ft7,6 in); wrdthtravellinq i,55 m (4,921ft)
about 20 seconds, and is then sup- mode traverse is limited to 60' and (5 ft I in); height travelling 2.50 m (B ft Crew: 3 (l onmount)
eorted on its outriqqers. elevatron from -5' to +25". 2.4 tn)
ffimmmffi-s ffiffimE m# ffigwwts
T o.n.r"o decf .Ffai'r cu agra ins f [/S al:" rcids fh e 'macho eqotism,tvhich chr,iractelizes tilcircal l'he ii,:st L;S arlltio 1'..lorlh i,ir::lnarri
lf erd.Lr ffi e tn am tese "r"ns f al/e d lft c wzorJej's arnatols the -world over ll'he hymn is calecl \,\i-Ale lalllcherl il
LLiq-r':L 1954 ibliorir,-rng ihe
,":eawes$ co.leeen fraffon of anff-aire:aff
'How Great 'ihou Art' conticrreisiirl Tonkirt Ouii ilcic-Leni !lt eati'y
gru.ris, am d sooir a dded Sprnef -supru/f eef As 'Rolhng Thunder' progressed by f,is and i965 the i\ior:h Vretnarriese had r:irrei-r I fOlt
.54-3 surlae.e-do-air ira;'sslles lo lft ese
siarts the US Arr Force arrd |Ja.;y arrcre,rris
needed a1l the conficlence Lhey coulci mLislr-:i Lnnr lc l0{l-mil (ii.9I r1l 3yr iate sLrirrilri:i ihe
As a result of the American polcy ol graduai- number haii lri;,rr:c ;.,Lrrl lllr ilr,er erLd lj I95ti
he US air oifensrve a_qarnst North Vieinam -o,ras
il rsrn ('escalaiion or qraduated respor-rse') ihe there niere bei'r,reel i !0[] 7,it0Ll c-:uirs oi
ca.iled Operatrcn F.olLng Thunder it lastecl lor North Vretnarnese hacl ampJe opportunrty to gieaten rhar. 20 lrrii ,,alble lr i'.Iolih Viein:,rar
more than seven years in an on aqain ofi aqarn increase their air deience network and absorb f'evr' oi ilieSe ciirns rrieir: rar-iar cont,:olleci
lashron, pursued in vacrllating manner by a rralua.ble tactlcal lessons The r:esult rras one oi but they clrri nrt neell. t'r be Ihe lighle; ca[r:re
tlVashrnqton leadership uncertain oi atms the best delencleC preces ol geography orL the vi/eapons ,rete lL:eo.le:n',];r r:nol:tle alLcl i:oLLlil bi-r
rbjeclives ald methods Bul lhe name cf the planei tcvried io nelrr sites iriiil, rela,j-,.e ?ai3e irr-r:a-
o r il. r '-t. . Jn or g, ' ino .t' col:rceraiii a ilon'iv :..,.s l: o I i.irlr. o I Iila a :-Lr:r rl i-- !r1

,rcrn an old gospel hymn, seemed to reflecl lhe I{ crth V ietnames€ EURfie.r. s man f*he-rrSovlef - centrartron arncl i'ire i.i:;i:rp1rre.
suppLied 57-mm S-60 anti-aircraff gun, vwfit f,he OrigrnalL-'r rnost oi !re l\hrri (;.nil ar. ciair arLi.
ammunitian rnember an the riqhl rea,Cy tr: lery) crev-rs rir e,:i: r,'oirn leera::r lr aLl iire i-rrrnt-;:r
resupply the feed tray with r:li|: a{ laur army anci aii foice r3lLi .iic;.- lJarssaai r-,iL irr---ri
rouncjs. Tfte5-60ftas optical siEhts. hut
kncvriledge anci d.octirl-- iir llre \toiifl !re.
usee{ rn conjunction
':rith ar, a{f-carriage cerrlroJ nafilese ano It ,.,'!at! a retlai|rely SLrni:rie ia:r.
Servrcrng an ariillerli piece rs al.nosi a mechii
nical proces:; Ii requries a. Eooci cleal oi c,o-
ordinatton anong ihc quncr--rrri rrrcrmbcls i,.t,:
inarrmr.rrr elCciency -5ut ihe skrils r--cgru,:ed aie
alinost elenenialy Wrrh pr:a.circ,- ihe eiiiciel
cl/ le-'ei is kepi hic,rh
a:: .:aj


: .. . t..:4.:--:t;:-1-:; :.._.

.r.:-.:..;:i?+ : -J:. + ::..a-:. ...4a .a:':.'. ..
1 .:.-:;....::: .. t. - .:. . .. :1 .:

..:.i _':::r' :l t la?:a::,

The North Vietnamese perfected the anti- losses over Indo-China Admittedlrg, not all
r.rcraft Qlunner s art ihough in truth it was more were lets lhe US Navy toll represented
::rence than art It r,vas possible to compute casualtres in the spectrum from the Rockwell
'.'.th mathematical precisron the amount of ex- OV- i0 to the McDonnell Douglas F-4 while the
,:iosive per second required in a column of air USAF- s losses ranged from the lrttle Cessna O- I
:: render an object flying through that column BrrdDogto the biq hulkingRepublic F-i05. But
.latistically vulnerable The Communrsts' sec- neither the MiGs nor SAMs posed anythlng like
rr-fire technrque was excellent and they as serlous a threat as the thick ciusters of AAA
-culd fill a 13-km" (S-sqL;are mrle) column with batteries in 'Route Pack Srx around Hanoi anci
:rurderous flak irom 1000 to 6000 m (3 280 to Harphong,
i 685 ft) The first SA-2 site was detected south east of
Aircraft are not meant io duel with quns. Hanor in April 1965 and the Sovrets announced
::nall arms and AAA accounted for by far the the fact to tiie world in May Yet despile this
.rreatest portion of infliqiht losses du.nng lhe
'.-retnam hard rntelhgence, no action was taken agarnst
War e,len computrng unknown SANT batlerles until several had been com-
rir.ises in the equation Among US Navy air- pleted. T'he USA lost tts firsl warplane to the
r:ii losses to qlunfire arnounted to 58 per cent new threat on 24 July, when a USAF Ir-4C was
-, iotal losses on combat missions includrng 77 shot down, The flrst counterblows came three
-:r cent of shootdowns where the cause was days later some three months after the mrssiles
-;:nnitely knornrn, were known avarlable to the North Viet-
Small arms and flak took an even greater namese,
::-atrve toll of US Marrne Corps and Air Force The SA 2 'Guidehne missile had been rn
,,anes, This was due partlally to the fact that servrce for at least eight years at thrs trme, It
r --:h services flew a great deal more over was a v\.ell-tested, combat proven medlum-
:':uih Vleinam and Laos whele the only range weapon propelled by a booster rocket Above: The Sovief-suppliedSA -2 'Gu:ce.:: :
-:emy threat was gunflre most ol the time, but which burned for about five seconds aft-or surface-to-air missi,le rras used in large : ::: : =:
re llgures are still dauntrng: 73 per cent of all launch The sustainer took over lollowrng boos by N or th Vie tnames e and succeeded,'-n .s,i : : :.. .

ter separation and provrded another down some American aircraft, including !^: )
-SAF and 64 per cent of all 'Leather:neck' air- 20
strategic bombers. It proved more effect:-. : ::
-:ali losses were definrtely to guns seconds ol burn, which translated rnto a slant forcing tactical aircraft to fly much lot.,er. ,'. :.:: -
In absolute terms these flqures translated to range oi about 50 km (3 L miles) and a cerling of anti-aircraft guns could engage them.
. : :ghly I ,600 fixed-wing aircraft shot down by some lB0O0 m (59 055 ft)
::::a11 arms or AAA from the total 2,300 combat



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F' €.


i':.+i;..i. .. .--;
:: :, 'airr:rilr.
Nestled in the SAM's nose was a 130-kq (287- The missiles complemented the guns ex- A North Vietnamese 57 -mm 5-60 anti- aircraft gun
ceedingly wel1, By being forced into evasive engages American aircraft carrying out a bombing
lb) warhead which could be fused for contact, raid. The air defences around Hanoiwere so dense
proxrmrty or command detonation, If the mis- action to defeat the SAMs, aircraft were usually
that American pilots renamed it Dodge City. These
sile exploded within roughly I00 m (328 it) of an drawn to the lower levels where be- gun positions were well camouflaged and very
aircraft it could cause lethal damage, A detona- came effective, With radar control and track- difficult to spotfrom the air.
tion inside 60 m (197 ft) almost certatnly meant ing, the North Vietnamese air-defence system
a k1ll benefited from long experience and American
The key to beatrng the SAMs was early sight- 'rules of engagement',
rng. For that reason, tactical aviators learned to For instance, once ii became known that US trying to outwit one another,
avoid hugging cloud decks since the missiles fliers were prohibited from striking targets rn Ila SAM or AAA battery shiited from scan to
could pop up through an undercast, homing on or near civiiian or populated areas, those tracking mode, the suppressor turned toward
an aircraft completely unseen. In reasonable locales became ideal battery sites, Guns and/ the immediate threat, gained lock-on, and fired
.,rieather the telltale dustcloud indtcating a or SAMs were sited on or near 'neutral' mer- a missrle, This was the AGM-45 Shrike or, from
iaunch was the best visual cue, quickly fol- chant vessels, on hospital roofs and even in the 1968 onwards, the bigger and longer-ranged
lowed by the streaming whrte irail of the Hanoi soccer stadium. AGM-78 Homing on emissions from the enemy
Aside from the inevitable bombing errors, 'Fan Song'or'Fire Can'radars, the Shrrkes and
second stagte,
But the missile was an aircraft, and ihe SA-2's much damage was inflicted in downtown Hanoi Standard ARMs (Anti-Radiation Missiles) rm-
smal1 wings could not managie the g of a hard from shells or SAMs falllng to earth. Shell spiln- posed a penalty for threateninet US formations
:urn when approachlng detonation range. ters or dud rounds were one thing; runaway Nor were missiles the only threat, Aircralt
Therefore, smart pilots always turned in two SAMs at ground level were anotherl But the such as the F-105, Vought F-8 Crusader and
planes simultaneously to compound the prob- North Vietnamese seldom missed a chance to even the lrttle A-4 armed with 20-mm cannon
lems inflicted on the missile's tracking, A bar- show such destruction as the handiwork of could and did put radar sites out of business,
rel-roll type turn was optimum, 'Yankee air pirates'. In the end, it was not missiles or guns which
For all the pubhcity accorded SAMs during To combat the AAA and SAMs, sPecial deleated the North Vietnamese air-deience
'-he war, they inflicted relatively few actuai los- weapons and aviators were sent to South East net, Rather, it was mines which closed
ses, Little more than 200 aircraft are known to Asia, Among US Air Force tactical wings were Harphong and other ports through which North
have been shot down by SAMs beiween 1965 the fabled 'Wild Weasels' flytng two-seat F- Vietnam received the bulk of its war-making
and 1972, of which about 120 were USAF 105Fs, while McDonnell Douglas A-4 Sky- supplies, By the autumn of 1972, when the
machrnes, But regardless of numbers, SAMs hawks served a similar purpose on 'lron Hand' blockade had been ln effect for several
played a constant and prominent role in dictat- duty from aircraft-carriers in the Tonkrn Guif, months, North Vietnam's arsenals were de-
The procedures were approximateiy similar pleted, According to one unofficial source,
-ng the conduct of strikes rnto North Vietnam
Aircraft inbound to worthwhile targets in 'Route for both US Air Force and Navy fliers. The SAM there were perhaps fewer than two dozen
Package Four' and 'Route Package Six' were suppressors flew with or ahead of the strike SAMs ]eft in the country when the Paris
'-rsually wrthin the envelopes of 30 or more SAM group, waitrng for an enemy radar to come 'up' Accords were signed rn January 1973, Mean-
siies, By 1972 there were some 300 sites and scan the formation Communist radar oper- whlle, aviators accustomed to pushlng through
--irroughoui the country, as far south as the De- ators became cagey, knowing that if they scan- walls of 57- 85- and IOO-mm flak found little
Zone between North and South ned very long they rnvited disasier, Conse more than 20- and 37-mm weapons to oppose
with ll0 of them in and around the quently, an electronic cat-and-mouse game them,
:{anoi-Haiphong area alone, evolved, with airborne and ground operators The ring around Hanoi had been broken,


Oerlikon 20-mm GAI-DO I light anti-aircraft gun

The Oerlikon-Biirhle twin 20-mm GAI- Oerhkon-Biirhle did offer a 25-mm
DOI light anti-aircrafl gun was origi- anti-aircraft gmn called the GBI-AOI
nally designed and built by Hispano- with a srngle 25-mm KBA series can-
Suiza under the designation HS-6664, non on a one-man mount with manual
andwas the most sophisticated 20-mm eievation and traverse, A feature ofthis
weapon in the company's range, The weapon was that the dual-feed cannon
main advantages of the GAI-DOI over was provided with two boxes of
the other 20-mm light anti-aircraft guns ammunition each containing 40
manufactured by the company were rounds, one holding armour-piercing
powered elevation and traverse, a discardinq sabot-tracer (APDS-T)
new sight, and two rather than one 20- ammunition for engagrng Iight
ITIm Cannon, armoured vehicles, and the other with
The system is frtted with two 20-mm high explosive incendtary-tracer
KAD series cannon with a cyclic rate of (HEI-T) for engaqdng aerial targtets,
ire of 1,000 rounds per minute per bar- Thrs weapon is no lonQter offered and is
:el Each barrel is provided with a box nor knov,n to have enlered servLce in
:ragazine that holds 120 rounds offixed any quantity. In its place Oerlikon-
:r-nmunition. The gunner can select Birhle rs now offering the much im-
:ither slngle shots, rapid single shot, proved Diana twrn 25-mm light anti-
bursts or full automatic frre, The arcraft Enrn.
ammunition flred by the GAI-COI is
-ientical to that of the GAI-BO1,
The gunner rs provided with a
s:ield, and mounted under the gmn-
:e/s seat is the Wankel engine which
:rcndes hydraulic power for cannon
:levation and mount traverse, max- This Oerlikon-Btihrle twin 20-mm is a clear-weather system, although a
-::-urn elevation speed beingt 48" per GAI -DO 1 light anti-aircraft gun in the radar such as the Contraves LPD-ZA
second and maximum traverse speed firing position shows theWankel could be used to provide early
:1" per second, As with all powered engine under the gunner's seat. This warning to a number of guns.
1]-ti-aircraft guns, manual controls are
!lcl'rded for emerqencyuse. The gmn-
:-:r also has an ltalian Gallleo P56 sight
-,';:lch is identical to that installed on
:-= Rheinmetall twin 20-mm light anti-
gmn used by the West German
=craft forces. This allows the qunner
:: engage ground and aertal targets
;--th a high hit probability, Specification
ln the flring confign-ration the GAI- CAI-DOI
131 is supported on three adjustable Calibre: 20 mm (0,79 in)
-:ei. and for transpofiation rt ts carrted Weights: travelling with ammunition
::- two-wheeled carriaqe towed by a
a 1800 ks(3,968 ]b); firinswith
-frt truck. From its travelllng posiiion ammumtion 1330 kg (2,932 lb)
:e weapon can be brought into action Dimensions: Iength travelling 4,59 m
:'.-its crew in less than one minute. (15 ft0.7 in); widthtravelling i.86 m
The basic GAI-DO1 light anti- (6 ft 1.2 in); herqht travelling 2.34 m (7 ft
gun is a clear-weather system,
therefore hmited to daylight use; Elevation: +81"/-3"
--d Traverse:360'
:- conditions of low cloud its effective-
-=-:ss is much reduced. The weapon Ranqes: maxrmum horizontal 5700 m
:.:r. however, be used in conjunction (6, 234 yards); effective horizontal
',';-,h the Contraves (ltaly) LPD-20 2200 m (2, 406 y ards) ; maximum An Oerlikon-Bfihrle 20-mm GAI -DO I of ready-use ammunition. The
s:arch radar, which would provide the vertical 4500 m (14,764 ft); effective twin light anti-aircraft gun in firing gunner aims theweapon using an
position. Mounted each side of the ItalianGalileoPS6 sighting and an
;:r with target informatron such as verrical 1500 m (4,921 ft)
:lge and speed, Crew: 5 (l onmount) 20-mm cannon is a box of I 20 rounds aiming unit containing a computer.


Oerlikon 25-mm Diana light anti-aircraft gun

-:e Swiss company Oerlikon-Bitrhle being offered, the GBF-AOA and the
:-arufactures a wide range of 20-mm GBF-BOB, The flrst of these is armed
=::C 35-mm towed anti-aircraft gun sys- with twin 25 mm KBA cannon, which is
but some years aqo realized that alreaciy used by lour NATO countries
:ere was a gap between the most installed in armoured vehicles and has
:.:phisticated 20-mm system (the twin a cyclic rate of frre of 570 rounds per
3AI-DO]) and the twin 35-mm GDF barrel per minute. The 25-mm KBA
s:rres, To bridqte this gap the company fires five different types of ammunitionl
--ghtdeveloped thegun twin 25-mm Diana high explosive incendiary-tracer
anti-aircraft system, which (HEI-T), semi-armour-piercing high
:-as the company designation of the explosive incendiary shell with tracer
GBF series, (SAPHEI-T), target practice with trac-
The Diana weighs only 2100kg er (TP-T), armour-piercing discarding
:630 lb) complete wtth ammunition, sabot-tracer (APDS-T), and armout-
::abling it to be transported quickly piercing practice{racer (APP-T), The
by helicopters such as the A6rospa- HEI-T is used to enqage aerial tarqets
-ale Puma or SikorsVWestland Sea while the APDS-T round is used
Cngrto where it is needed, The system agtainst ground targets and will pene-
'. normally towed behind a light vehi- trate 25 (0.98 in) of armour at an
:ie on rts two-wheeled carriage. In the angle of 30' at a range of 2000 m (2, 187
::rnq position the wheels are ratsed off yaiOs), The GBF-AOA rs fltted with the
:.e ground and the carriage is suP- Italian P75 Galileo sight,
pcrted on three hydraulic jacks (one at The GBF-BOB has the Oerlikon KBB
-:e front and two at the rear) which can cannon which is also used on the Sea This Oerlikon-Biihrle Diana twin 25- cannon has a dual-teed system
:= adjusted to suit varyinq ground con- Zenith navai anti-missile defence sys- mm light anti-aircraft gun systemin enabling thegunner toswitch from
itrons, tem. The KBB has a longer barrel than the firing position shows thewheels one typeof ammunition to another to
So far two versions of the Diana are the KBA, and fires ammunition with a raised clear of the grround. Each engage either ground or air targets.
Oerlikon 25-mm Diana liqht anti-aircraft gmn (continued)

higher muzzle velocity and therefore

grreater target penetration. The GBF-
BOB also has the Contraves Gun King
sight whlch was first installed on the The Oerlikon-Biihrle Diana twin 2 5-
35-mm GDF series of anti-aircraft gnrn, mm light anti-aircraft gun has been
This features an optical sight with a introduced by the company to
magniflcation of xS and a 12' field of bridge the gap between its 20-mm
view, night sight, laser rangefinder and 35 -mm weapons. D iana can be
with a range of 5000 m (5,468 yards) to quickly brought into action and has
an accuracy of + 5 m (5,46 yards), and a rapid elevation and traverse, thanks
digital computer, Both the GBF-AOA to its on-board auxiliary power unit.
and GBF-BOB have powered eleva-
tion and traverse to allow high-speed
targets to be tracked: maximum
traverse speed is 80" per second and
maximum elevatron speed is 48" per
The Diana can also be used in con-
junction with the Contraves Sky Guard
trailer-mounted fire-control system
(originally designed for use with the
Oerlikon GDF twin 35-mm cannon),
which carries out both target suweill-
ance and tracking, The Contraves
Alerter radar can provide the grunner
with the range and speed of the
approaching target so the weapons
are already laid in the general direc- Specification Dimensions: length travelling 4,295 m Ranges:maximum horizontal 6000 m
tion of the tarqet as it appears, Diana (i4 ft 1,1 in); widthtravelling2, 10 m (6, 562 yards); effectrve horizontal

As of early l9B5 four prototypes ol Calibre: 25 mm (0,98 in) (6 ft 10,7 in); height travelling 2. 13 m 3000 m (3,281yards); maximum
the Diana had been burlt with a turret Weights: without ammunition 1725 kg (6ft11,9in) vertical 5000 m (16,404 ft); effective
suitable for installation on armoured (3,803 lb); withammunition2lO0 kg Elevation: +85"/-5' vertical 2500 m (8,202 ft)
vehicles, (4,630]b) Traverse:360' Crew: 4-5 ( I on mount)

Oerlikon 35-mm GDF anti-aircraft gun

In the late1950s the Swiss company
Oerhkon-Biihrle developed a twin 35-
mm towed anti-aircraft gnrn called the
IZLAI353, which today is more com- Twin 35-mm GDF anti-aircratt gun in
monly known as the GDF series, Since travelling mode.When in firing
thrs entered productron in the early position the carriage is raised clear
1960s over 1,600 weapons have been of the ground and supported on four
built for sale to at least 20 countries, ou triggers. Tirs syslem rs mosl
Known operators of the GDF series in- effective when used with a fire
clude Argentina, Austria, Brazil, control system such as ffteSwiss
Cameroun, Finland, Greece, Japan, Contraves Skyguard.
South Africa, Spain and Switzerland.
Early rn l9BS it was announced that the
British Royal Air Force Reqiment was
to form a new air-defence squadron
equipped with the GDF twin 35-mm
system to protect the Nimrod AEW
base at Waddrngton, Lincolnshire.
These GDF anti-aircraft guns were
captured during I9B2 in the Falklands,
where they had been used by Argenti-
na to defend Port Stanley airfleld in laser rangefinder,
conjunction with Rheinmetall twin 20- The GDF series is armed with twin
mm light anti-aircraft qnrns and Euro- 35-mm KDB automatic cannon which
mrssile Roland surface{o-air misstles. have a cyclic rate of fire of 550 rounds
It rs believed that the Arqentine GDFs per barrel per minute, The barrels are
shot down four British Aerospace Har- each fitted with a muzzle brake, and
rrer aircraft and at least two Argentine can be fitted with muzzle velocity-
afcraft as wel], measuring equipment whtch feeds in-
The GDF twin 35-mm anti-aircraft formation to the flre-control system, A
gun system is mounted on a four- total of ll2 rounds of ready-use
wheeled carriage, In the firing position ammunition is carried, with a further
the wheels are raised clear of the 126 rounds hetd in reserve on the
Qrrourd and supported on four jacks, mount. Each barrel has 56 rounds of
one at each end and one on each srde ready-use ammunition rn clips of seven
on outriqqers. Weapon elevation and rounds, Ammunitron fired is of the tery consists of two GDF twin 35-mm Although designed primarily for use
traverse are electro-hydraulic, fixed type and includes higth explosive anti-arrcraft guns, two generators and in the anti-aircraft role, the Oerlikon-
traverse speed berng a maximum of incendiary{racer (HEI-T), high explo- a single Skygnrard flre-control system. Biihrle twin 35-mm GDF anti-aircraft
l l2'per second and elevatton a max- srve incendiary (HEI), semi-armour- grun sysfem rs a lso highly effective in
imum of 56' per second, piercing high explosive incendiary- Speciflcation the ground role , and was thus used
Srnce its introduction the GDF has tracer (SAPHEI-T) and practice GDF by theArgentine army againstthe
been constantly modernized and rounds, Calibre:35 mm (1,38 in) British in the I982 Falklands conflict.
many of these modifications are now The basic GDF is a clear-weather Weights: travelling (with ammunition)
available in kit form to enable purchas- system only, but most countries prefer 6700 ks (14,77 I lb); travelling (without
ers ofolder weapons to bring them up to use it in conjunction with a fire- ammunition) 6300 kg (l3,BB9 lb) Traverse:360"
lo the latest productron standard. For control system, Thrs was originally the Dimensions: length travelling 7.80 m Ranges: maximum horizontal 9500 m
Contraves Super Fledermaus, but this (25 ft 7. 1 in); width travelIing2.26 m ( 10, 389 yards); maximum vertical
example the basrc weapon is fitted
wrth a Ferranti sight but this can be has been replaced in production bY (7 ft 5 in); hergrht travellinq 2,60 m (B ft 6000 m (l9,685 ft)i effectrve vertical
replaced by the new Contraves Gun the much more effectlve Contraves 6,4 in) 4000 m (13,123 ft)
King mim-sight which also includes a Skygnrard system. A typical GDF bat- Elevation: +92'/-5" Crew:3 (onmount)

7 ne reputatian of the swedish company Bafors was esfab/jsfte d over s0 years ago
'",':th the 4a-mmLl6a,whichwaswidelyusedrn wortdwarll;today ovei iacoiiiries
-se jfssuccessor, the 40-mmLl70. stillonly aclearweather system, albeitavery
scprtrsficated one, ithas nowbeen developedinto the all-weather B)FI system,
::corporating multi-sensor fire control and high performance tracking systems.

- ..::e is little doubt that the Bofors 40,mrn anti- then swrtched off to prevent errors by the oper-
,.,::rait gun is the most famous weapon of its ator when the weapon is being flred, The day
:-: in the v'rorld, and it has been anci is used srght has o maqnrhcation ol x7 whire the nrglLt
= lrmies and navres ol mdnv countries srgh has a maqn-hcaljon of x8, The lalrer er-
. A-r Force has even rns alled a 4O-mm
--S ables targets to r,e observed al a maximum
:: -,un in one oir'sspecral
Lockheed C-130 range of about 7 km (4 35 miles) under good
.. ---n errcratl o engaqe groud largets conditions, The optical target indicator is
- .. :liren' productron model ol the Bofors another useful ald wrth the BOFI system This rs
::rr Li70 towed anti-aircrait qun is essential- positroneC near ihe gun and when the operator The Bofors 4a-mm Ll70 is one of the mosi',',':ce..'
used anti-aircraft guns in the worlci roaa:
le-r wea:her sys crlt Bu' lodays fie.d sees a iargei he qurckly lines up the pistol type C ons tant d eve lopm e n t, e s p e c i a I ly t n a tr,::-i ;.: I : j :.:
- ,-,-:s lace attack from aircraft and helicopiers drm / tLr- he -rge' and -hen rne trigger
' :;n fiy in almos: any wea'her and from a whereupon aimlng information {iom the syn-
and fire controlsystems, ftas enabled it !. re:'...:.
Izighly effective even though its bas;c des:Ei.: ;. ,: --
- , of raclica. missrle syslems. The Bolors :hrc. . .--e arq^' indicaror are Lransmilied about 40 years old.
' . :'. r'70 weapon carr oe made much mo'e directll,, .o :he gun by rneans of a cable. Mean-
::ir,ze by the addition of a fire-control sys- ,r:hile a ,anp lrghts up on the gun fire,control algned with the axis ol the :c.:,-
'- - r'v{any
-.. cl which there are a nurnber on the mar- sJ.st3m and a buzzer sounds. The operator then the display unit is mounted ,r- .:.: , :
of these can be used vrith the Bofors r:sses a buiton for target indtcation and the cabrn on lhe lef' srde cf r. *.- .--
. . her antr-aircrafl guns and rncluoe r'-e . :. . . :- : t:ai.7 slews onto the rarget in borh power supply untt is located .: :..: - -..
.-::r Contraves Super Fledermaus and ri:cre :-:" a::cl-i and traverse The gun crew then the moulrt The lrequenc, -o -.-- -
- -.:. Skyouard and rhe Hol."rds^ S.rro;l-,r - .:::.:s .re iarQret as normal, The optical tarOet cerver has two modes ot oFei. -. ..
.,':.en l lvcatcher - r oi partrcular use in picking lp agility and fixed lrequency .;.'t :. i,l -.
llfbrs has developed its o","vr lire,c::,.r:. .al:i::: iiat appear sudcienly. The British target indicatron).
s:em for the Bofors Li70 called tie :,!:_ -'.- .-_ --.'s^ Dynamics RapLer towed system The trackinq radar fulfils ih: -,.-_ ,:.
-:crs Optronic Fire-Conirc: Ins:r';:::::.. - j-. a s-milar device r,thich has been tions designai jon and a --:_ -_.. .
..-'h in ils basic rorn l - ,- : .'.'-: .. - .. -, *:- rc rmprcve the kill probability of the sys data from the fire conLro: :-,-: -
.. -L consisls e.;ser'. - .. .' .--- : .,, - :::- :-., a considerable degree.
:: B lowed qlr. o t..i_ ...' . -' -..
1ng oftaroets and transfer oi ai,,,,= =- -
: range oi the targel to 'he I-: -- '
All-weather BOFI system Targel acqurs;rron rs s ar.=I i .,-
.re all-vreather BOFI system ts the most target indication button on the cce:-.,:
.: crr;s:lcated version of the Bofors L/70 series. whereby the position ol ihe .ar:=
.:,i 9rr'es the system not only an all-weather nared 1o the lrackrnq radar f:. . i. -
-..i* --.'r aircrafr. helcoptersano mis
dQo.TlS lion area is centred arounC ::.: ::
s--:s but also multi-sensor fire control and two positlon and the operator cali c:rt=
, ir-;:ji cerformance tracking systems. at any trme during the accursi.:::_ i,:...-
Ii: BOFI tracking radar comprises three When a target is detecteci ',rtz :.-,-:..-
::a-i unrts.
uniis. tnethe
he radar transcelver,
transceiver, the drsplay
disnlav mar:caJly swrrches over Io il-.e ': :' .

;-r is firing the compuier c::.-: ^:--:

..'"'iih indicator
icator and radar controls, un,i
and tir"
the and a lamp indicatrng smocih:r3tj,.:-t _
..: alm-oll position o! fi1ccr-: - c:'.',-er supply unit, IVlountecl over the elevating on. Durrng lrackrng 'he ccn-,c - : -' ..
I The laser rangefinder a:: r:ass is the radar transceiver unrt which is fire-control system computes ,h: ::- -: - .
in elevation and traverse basec :
range and angular lrackino qr __.
Iarqe:. The operator can s rper . .. " .
the radar scope and when tr; -.,.'
rupled by enemy jamm-nq or '. :. - -
is masked by ground clutter. rneit::r .- -
(based on lhe laresr rargar so?- j ..
ned out Ar any trme 'he oper . : .
over Io the normal Oprrontc :, I j
track-nqunder lair wearher. :: ' . . ..
also at any tlme interrupt the ira:<-::r -- - ,
acqursirron by ouncnrno he - - ,'
Latein J984themanufacture r :::.:,,, :', -' .
another verslon ol the Boitis . -. ,
led Trinity. This rs a modulai. s.-: : .. ..:
c-udes the qur ammunrL.:- ..
fire-conlrol system and cor. t=
ship- and land-based appllcar:::. .- ..
role it would be mounted .: -. : jj
wheeled 1e.g Br8; chossrs': r :
rhan the current towed sysrer-- - ..-
gun and its ammunition is alsc -:::r ... .-
American DIVAD se i-pl i - .: -
gmn system,

This is the gunner's position on the lef t siie .: ::3

carriage.The basic40-mm Ll70 Bofors gun:s a
clearweather system, but anumber of compar,:es
including Bofors itself, now offer various fire
control systems to give the weapon an al!-weat!.e:
capability which js noraz essen tjal.
40-mm Bofors L/70 anti-aircraft gun
3'.-er 50 years ago the Bofors company TheSwedish Bofors 40-mmL70 anti-
:erreloped a 40-mm towed anti- aircraft gun is shown in the travelling
:-:cra-ft gun which within a few years position. This is the Model B with an
became world famous, This had a 60- auxiliary power unit mounted on the
:albre barrel (resulting in the stan- rear of the carriage, enabling the
jard appellation Bofors 40 mm U60) weapon to be runwithout any
aird had a cyclic rate of fire of 120 external power source and to be
:cunds per minute, This weapon was brought into action much faster.
,,,idely used during World War II and
,'.as manulactured under licence in
nany countries including the USA (as
ihe Ml), the UK (the Mk 1), Hungary,
Itaiy and Poland Even in l9BS the
',',eapon remains in tronl-line service
',vith more than 10 countries.
After the end of World War II a
r:ruch-improved 40-mm light anti-
arrcraft gun was developed by Bofors,
and this entered service in 195 I as the
40-mm Bofors U70, In addition to hav- rear, Ammunition is fed to the weapon high explosive-tracer (HE-T), armour- less, with an uplo-date fire-controi
ng a longrer 70-calibre barrel, the new in clips oi tour rounds and an ammunt- prercing capped-tracer (APC-T), and system, the Bofors U70 remains a high-
-xeapon had a rate of fire rncreased to tion tray above the weapon can hold 26 training. Additional details of the ly effective weapon system,
3C0 rounds per minute (cyclic), This rounds of ready-use ammunitron, At Bofors V70 ammunltion and its associ-
iigher fire rate was achieved by ram- the rear ofthe mount, one on each side, ated fire-control systems are given
nng the new round during run-out are ready-use racks that hold 96 elsewhere, Specification
:nd ejecting the empty cartrldge rounds of ammunition, In the firinq position the wheels are Bofors U70
:ases forward of the mount towards the Weapon elevation and mount raised clear ofthe gnound and the car Calibre:40 mm (1,57 rn)
end of recoil, Initially two models of the traverse are electro-hydraulic, with nage is supported on four jacks, one at Weights: travelling (with generator)
3ofors 40-mm U70 were offered, these manual controis for emergency use. each end of the carriage and one on 5150 kg (11,354 ]b); travelling (wrthout
i:eing designated the Bofors L/70 Mod- Maximum elevation speed is 45'Per each side on outriggers. generator) 4800 kg ( 10,582 lb)
el A and Bofors U70 Model B. The second and maximum traverse sPeed The Bofors L/70 has been made Dimensions: length travelling 7 29 m
llodel A relied on an external source is 85" per second. under licence in a number ofcountries (23 ft 1 1 in); width travellins 2,25 m(7 fr
-ir power whrle the Model B had its Ammunition development is a con- includinq the UK, Italy, Spain, India, 4,6 in); height travelling 2.349 m (7 ft
:',\'n generator mounted towards the tinuous process at Bofors and today West Germany and the Netherlands, It 8.5 in)
:cnt of the carriage, five basic rounds are available for the is normally towed by a 4x4 or 6x6 Elevation: -90'/ 4"
I he basic Bo{ors U7O has a six-man Bofors U70 anti-aircraft gun in tts land truck, which also carries the crew and Traverse:360'
:rew, of whom four are on the carriage and numerous naval applications. AII supply of ready-use ammunition. in Ranges: maximum horizontal i2500 m
ammunition frred by the gun rs of the some countries, for example the UK ( I 3, 670 yards); maxrmum vertical
a: all times: the elevation and traverse
fixed type. The flve types are Pre- and West Germany, the Bofors U70 B70O m (28,543 ft); effective verttcal
-a;rers are seated one on each side of
--a3 mount, while two ammunition feed- fraqmented high explosrve (PFHE), has now been replaced by missiles 4000 m (13,123 ft)
:ls are placed one on each side at the high-capacrty high explosive (HCHE), such as Rapier or Roland. Neverthe- Crew: 6 (4 onmount)

The Bofors grun has been primarilY Right: The 40-mm L70 Bofors gun has
designed to engage aerial targets a cyclic rate of fire of 300 rounds per
but can also be used with deadlY minute, but practical rate of fire is
effect against ground tatgets, lower. The ammunition is fed to the
inclu ding armou r ed pe rsonne I gun in clips of four rounds, with the
carriers with their thin armour. empty cartridge cases being ejected
Whenengaging the latter an armour- under the forward part of the mounL
p ier cing c apped- tracer (APC -T) Amaximumof 26 rounds of
round is normally used. ammunition are for ready use.

Below left: Projectile for the Bofors Below: Cross-section of the new
40 - mm P FHE (p re-fr agm ente d high- B ofor s, 40 - mm PF HE ( preJr agmente d
explosive) round firedby the 40-mm high-explosive) round, with the fuse
L70 grun,whichhas a proximity fuse on the right and high-explosive
for g:reater effect. content on left.
Armed Forces of the World

SovietAir Forces
Part 2
The Soviet aviation component most closely match-
ing a Western air force is the Voyenno-Vozdushnyye
Sily (V-VS), in which are included Long-Range Avia-
tion (the strategic bomber arm), Transport Aviation
and Frontal Aviation (F R). Of these three, the roles of
the f irst two are self-explanatory, but the FA (Fronto-
vaya Aviatsiya) is a specially balanced force worthy
of detailed study.
Whereas some of the world's principal air forces
have fought.hard to distance themselves from the
army from which they sprang, the V-VS has re-
mained closely allied with ground elements of the
armed forces. Nowhere is that harmony better illus-
:rated than in the FA, which rs attuned to the support
'equirements of the Red Army in battle.
FA units are assigned to the five Air Armies allo-
lated to Theatres of Military Operations together
,vith air-defence (Voyska PVO), transport and bom-
:er squadrons. Until 1981, '1 6 Frontal Air Armies
trAAs) constituted FA and were assigned to the
-eningrad, Baltic, Belorussian, Moscow, Car-
:athian, Odessa, Kiev, Transcaucasian, Central
+sian, Siberlan, Transbaikal and Far East Military
):stricts, plus the Soviet forces in East Germany, can switch rapldly f rom role to role according to the TheWest has had many chances to inspect the
trcland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary. (The North tactical situation. Three main functions may be den- M ikoy an-Gurevich MiG-Z3MF'F logger- G' during
laucasus, Turkestan, Ural and Volga Military Dis- tified: air defence (meaning over the battlefield, and its trips to Finland and France. These sk are
:'cts had no Frontal Air Armies.) leaving other units to protect the homeland); air backedup by anAntonov An-12 in quasi-civil
ln the recent regrouping of air forces to facilitate preparation (known as interdiction in the West); and colours (despite the tail gun turret). MiG-Z3s are
rapidly replacing the MiG-2I in Soviet units.
-ore rapld war mobilization, the FAAs have been air support (attacks on the battlefield) n addition,
-:olaced by Air Forces of Military Districts (AFMDs). squadrons can be detailed to undertake tactical re-
:r AFMD now combines all aviation units in its area connaissance and provide electronic countermea- The more sparsely-defended South-Vt,:..='-
:rcept bomber and transport elements, but is sures with appropriate aircraft. TMO demands 1 ,250 aicraft, but relativell, 'e,.,
;:nerally similar ln function to the disbanded FAA. In ln the past dozen years, the FA has changed allocated to the frozen wastes of the Norin-,',:=.='-
"'.artime, between three and five AFMDs would be dramatically f rom a purely tactical force to one with TMO. The Southern area has 850 tactica : -:-=-:
.:tached to one of the 13 Theatres of Military Opera- the potential for offensive operations beyond the whilst the Far East TMO (last of the f ive cc-: - =- ..
: :ns, such as the Western TMO, which faces NATO immediate bounds of the battlefield In total, it com- Theatres) operates an up-to-date force c' ? - -.'- '
- Central Europe. Air Forces comprise Divisions prises some 6.000 aircraft disposed according to the craft. The potential adversary here s -.:,- -
) viziya) with subsidiary Regiments (Polka) of three strategic situatlon. Thus, in the area bordering Euro- although relations with the fellow Corr-- - =
:i:uadTons (Eskadriliya) of 15 aircraft each, the last- pean NATO members, three Theatres of Military China have been turbulent enough fc',,',:' ::- -,
-entioned including two or three operatlonal train Operations include the major share of air assets, led gency plans to have been made.
:'S. by the Western TMO (NATO's central front) with lnthe pastdecade, the FA hasexpanc:: -:':: -:
,intil the advent of recent, multi-role aircrbft, divi- 2,850 aircraft, over 90 per cent of them modern of action following introduction (fro- l=:=-:--
: :ns were assigned a specific task, but now they types. '1974) of thepotentSukhoi Su-24'Fer-::- l.=-r_ _

are in service w:th regiments based a: : '.

via), at Chernyakhovsk (Soviet Balt'c.
': :,---":--
stanlinov and Gorodok (Ul, rainsl, a: -=* : - : , - '
Germany, from 1979) and in the ='- :.- --=
'Fencer', aided by variable-geomet^, ,'. -:: -r: :
hi-lo-hi combat radius of 1800 <m - -l- - =.
whencarrying2000 kg (4,409 lb)o:r,'.:::--. .-- -
the lo-lo-hi mode can reach the a -: :. :' :.--
Anglia, plus those of north wesl ='z':: ,- : - _
Italy, from its home bases.
Theimpactof the'Fencer'nasL==^ :':'--' - :'
modern Soviet fig"::' :=. :-=: '_-
it is the first
ground attack and the first to ca.^, . ,..
=::, -: : :
temsofficer(naside-by sidesea: :::.: - j - :':
that of ils nearest NATO equ r: -.' -.
-:- - :
Dynamics F-'l 'l 1). ln addit or '.:=^-.
=. :!- .- :' -
attack radar, it has a terrain-avc o:- :: : . :.: -
laser ranger and marked targe: s=:. :-.-:- : - .:
liverordnancewithanaccuracvc'aa -'!- - =
weathers. When usedforshort ra':: ::--:. --: .

Soviet reconnaJssance assets iest on sp,eca-:!-

equipped MiG-2 I s and 23s, and in the l,!:G - 2 : I
These are two MiG-Z1R'Foxbat-D s'',,;k:c: :"-::,-
large S LAR ( s i d e - lo o ki n g a ir b orn e ra'a-',r ;: :i e - ;::
side of the nose. Under the NATO codeia.i::e c:
'Ram-M', theSoviets are believed ta b'e pu:c::_::
TR- I type high- altitu de spy plane.
\:> PerSS
Armed Forces of the World Soviet Air Forces ru
-ay carry a formidable load of up to 8000 kg
7,637 Ib).
i-laving learned lessons from the various small-
scale wars of the past 20 years (such as those in the
Middle East),. the FA is placing emphasis on the
attainment of local air superiority in order that strike
and attack aircrait may go about their business un-
hindered. ln this area, some 900 MiG-23 'Flogger
B,'Gs' are supported in part by an equal (but dimi-
nishing) number of late-generation MiG-2'1 'Fishbed
J/l(L/Ns', which are also employed in air support.
The 'Floggers', similar to those in the Voyska PVO
use, have internal cannon and AA-7 and AA-B air-to-
air missiles.
Less visible than thls armoury, but of no lesser
importance, is the training given to air-superiority
pilots in the FA. The past five years have witnessed
an increase in experimentation with new tactics and
the development of training for several missions
new to the Soviet forces: fighter escorts, ECM
(electronic countermeasures) escort, manoeuvring
air combat, independent search missi'ons and air
accompaniment of ground forces. More emphasis
has been placed on dissimilar air combat training
(possibly even with 'aggressor' squadrons) and
multi-event tralning sorties. Such will encourage but its lo-lo-lo range of 360 km (225 miles) is a usef ul N ow an ageing design, the T u polev Tu - 2 2' B lind er'
f lexibility of tactics to exploit a changing battle situa- asset. is still in limited service both as a reconnar'ssance
tion and the more efficient use of multl-role aircraft. Reconnaissance is provided by MiG-21 'Fishbed- bomber andon maritime reconnarsance dufies. /f
is thought that'BLinders' have been used for level-
For air support and secondary interdiction, the Hs' and MiG-25 'Foxbat-B/Ds', perhaps assisted by
bombing attacks on guerrilla strongholds in
Sukhoi Su-17 'Fitter' and MiG-27 'Flogger' are em- a few remaining Yakovlev Yak-28 'Brewer-Ds'. Dedi- Afghanistan, and Libya has used her aitcraft in
ployed, about 800 and 650 respectively serving in cated ECM and Elint (electronic intelligence- angeroverChad.
the FA. Typical of the Soviet.penchant for adapta- gathering) is performed by a handful of 'Brewer-Es'
tion, the MiG-27 is a simplif ied MiG-23 which trades and Antonov An-l 2 'Cub-Cs', although large num- deployment has been to evaluate methods of close
speed for simplicity and increased payload. lts lo-lo- bers of combat aircraft are detailed to operate ln the liaison with armed helicopters, something already
lo radius of action with a typical load of four 500-kg electronlc jamming role. practised by the USAF Thunderbolt.
(1,102-lb) bombs and two self-defence AA-2 AAMs ln at least one (and possibly another) new area, The second new FA aircraft could be an equiva-
is 385 km (240 miles). the FA is receiving aircraft which parallel those re- lent to the Lockheed TR-1 , presently only identified
A further illustration of Soviet trends is found in cently added to the NATO armoury for tactical war- by the provisional NATO code name 'Ram-M'. This
the Su-'17, which is a varlable-geometry adaptation fare in a European environment. A parallel to Fair- aircraft would undertake stand-off radar and infra-
of the earlier Su-7. A few Su-7 'Fitter-As' may serve child's A-10 Thunderbolt ll is to be f.ound in the red surveillance of the battlefield and relay its
in low-threat areas, but the type's indifferent load- Sukhoi Su-25 'Frogfoot', in that both are rugged findings to ground commanders for rapid exploita-
carrying capability has been greatly improved in the close-support jet aircraft. The Soviet aircraft has no tion.
Su-l 7 'FitterC' and derivatives. Like its MiG-27 less than 10 underwing stores attachment points, Even before helicopters are consldered, the
companion, it lacks all-weather penetrative avionics, together with a heavy-caiibre, Gatling-type cannon assets of the Frontovaya Aviatsiya indicate that it is a
in the belly. and an operational radius of some well-equipped force optimized for conventional and
480 km (300 miles) whilst carrying 4535 (10,000 lb) limited nuclear warfare. By dint of hard work and
Bearing a similarity to the MiG-27 on account of its of stores. careful acquisition of Western technology (using
downward-tapering nose (for ground attack The 'Frogfoot' entered limited operational service overt and covert means), the Soviet Union has
duties), the MiG-238N'Flogger-H' still bears the in Afghanistan during 1982, where it is used for brought its tactical forces close to the level of their
variable-geometry intakes of the air defence Western counterparts and instituted training which
versions. This version has been supp/ied to the air attacks against guerrilla strongholds, and now
farces of Bulgaria, C zechoslovakia, Poland and equips FA regiments in Bulgaria and elsewhere. will eventually permit the full potential of versatile
India. One of its associated missions during the Afghan new equipment to be realized.

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