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RESEARCH PROPOSAL

THE CORRELATION OF YOGA TO THE ABILITY OF


LEARNING CONCENTRATION OF SENIOR HIGH
SCHOOL STUDENTS IN BADUNG

I NYOMAN TEJA SEMARA PRADIPTA


STUDENT’S ID 2017220009

MANAGEMENT STUDY PROGRAM


FACULTY OF BUSINESS
SAMPOERNA UNIVERSITY
JAKARTA
2018
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study


Concentration is one of aspects that can improve student achievement (Nisa,
2008). It is also revealed by Kintari (2014), that the concentration of learning can
significantly improve student achievement in the classroom. The process of
learning requires students to sit in the classroom and listen to the teacher's
explanation. Gunawan (2015) reveals that one of the main reasons why a child
does difficult to concentrate as long as studying because they tend to dislike or not
interested of the material that being studied. In addition, teacher’s methods that
being used are also the reason why a child is difficult to concentrate. That
intended method is one-way communication between the teacher and students:
without the active participation of the students. This is not only makes the
concentration of student learning decrease, but also causes other bad things such
as the decline in mathematical achievement and truant cases (Nuryadi, 2012).
Relaxation is one of the easiest techniques to apply to children. According
to Margolis (1990), Relaxation can reduce anxiety, impulsivity, hyperactivity,
distorted ability, and emotional stability for children. Relaxation can also
positively improve self-concept, learning achievement, and positive behavior in
the classroom. However, there is an activity that focused on integrated body and
mind through movement and relaxation, namely Yoga.
Yoga is an activity that directs to concentrate, regulate the breath, soothe the
mind with certain poses. It is based on realistic recognition of a person's current
psychological state (Chidananda, 1991). Many benefits can be obtained from
yoga, such as improves posture, blood flow, reduce stress, increase strength, and
increase concentration. Yoga is not only can be done by adults, but also can be
applied to children. Research by Peck, Bray and Theodore (2005), reveals that
yoga can be an alternative that ensures enhanced positive behavior and substitute
for medical intervention of children with concentration problems. The yoga
method is an option because it contains easy-to-understand instructions and it
does not require much material.
1.2 Problem Statement and Research Question
Education is both the solution and the cause of various problems that occurs
in Indonesia. Education is an instrument which can help children to develop their
potential for future use. Assessment of Education is important because student
learning’s assessment outcomes during learning can be measured. Parents expect
their children have high achievement while studying at school. Generally, a school
will conduct a test or exam to measure student achievement at the end of the
learning process. There are several aspects that can improve student achievement
in terms of concentration such as Yoga. Yoga is an activity which focused on
integrated body and mind through movement and relaxation.
Some studies suggest that Yoga has an effect on improving the
concentration of students, but there are also studies that prove Yoga does not give
a significant effect. Researcher interested to examine whether Yoga gives effect to
the ability of Senior High School student’s concentration. Based on the exposure,
researcher interested to find out whether there’s an effect of Yoga on Learning
Concentration of Public Senior High School’s student in Badung.
A scientific investigation is initiated from a problem which needs to be
solved by using scientific method. Furthermore, the scientific method is expected
to be able to solve the problem faced by learners based on what has been
described in the background of the study. According to the background of the
study above, the research problem can be briefly formulated as follows: does
Yoga has a correlation with academic performance among senior high school
students?
LITERATUR REVIEW

Yoga
Yoga has been known as the philosophical life’s system of Indian ancient
society (Sindhu, 2007, Stiles, 2002). Now days, yoga has developed into one of
comprehensive health systems. The classical yoga technique is developed by
Patanjali through the Book of Yoga Sutras (Stiles, 2002). The term of yoga comes
from the words Yuj and Yoking (Sanskrit) which means harmonious unification of
the separate (Sindhu, 2007; Stiles, 2002). The purpose of harmonious unification is
the unifying process among body, mind-feeling and spiritual aspect in human
being (Stiles, 2002).
Table 1
Yoga’s Isms

No Isms of Yoga Exercises that focused on


1 jnana yoga Unification through knowledge
2 karma yoga Unification through social service
3 bhakti yoga Unification through devotion to God
4 yantra yoga Unification through visual or mandala creation
5 tantra yoga Unification through chakra energy generation
6 mantra yoga Unification through sounds
7 kundalini yoga Unification through Kundalini energy generation
8 hatha yoga Unification through body and breathing
9 raja yoga Unification through mental mastery

Yoga can be done by all ages from children to the elderly. Yoga is not a
practice that associated with a particular religion. Patanjali (Stiles, 2003) mentions
that yoga is not a religion and everyone actually can do yoga. Everyone does yoga
because it fits with real purpose of yoga: unifying process among body, mind-
feeling and spiritual aspect in human being. It can be gained through a process of
self-awareness.
Yoga has 9 isms that fit the needs of individual which is explained through
table 1.
Currently hatha yoga is the most popular yoga than the other yoga style
(Sindhu, 2007). The focus of exercise in hatha yoga includes the following
activities: Pranayama, Mudra, Bandha, Asana, etc.
Concentration of Learning
The concentration of learning means the attention through the process of
behavior that change in the form of mastery. According to Binet (Sujiono 2005: 1-
11) concentration means the ability to concentrate on a problem to be solved.
Based on the research of yoga practice’s result, it influents for the physical,
psychological and spiritual. Here is shown the results of research on yoga that can
be seen in table 2.
Table 2
research of yoga ‘s result
No Aspect Result and Respondent Researchers
1 PHYSICAL Increases strength, stability and Berger, Silver and
body balance Stein (2009)
Subject: children
2 SPIRITUAL Can increase a person's awareness Impett, Daubenmier
of their body, awareness of dan Hirschman,
themselves, the ability of self- 2006; Valente dan
acceptance and the satisfaction of Marotta, 2006
life as a whole
subject: psychotherapist, female
3 PSYCHOLOGICAL Yoga can increase happiness, Brisbon dan
lowers stress levels, anxiety and Lowery, 2009;
depression Khalsa, Shorter,
subject: yogi level beginner Cope, Wyshak dan
(beginner) and already trained Sklar, 2009
(advanced, committed, musician)
Yoga for children to calm the mind White (2009)
and increase health and well being
subject: children
Yoga in public school can improves Wertman, A.,
adolescent mood and affect Wister, A. V., &
subject: public school students Mitchell, B. A.
(2016)
METHODOLOGY

Variable and Operational Definition


The variables of this research are Yoga as the independent variable while
the concentration ability of Senior High School’s students in Badung regency as a
dependent variable.
Yoga is a body movement that includes concentration of mind and breathing
arrangements. This activity is done twice a week for a month before the student
start to study in the class. The type of yoga which will be given is Yoga for child.
It refers to the type of Raja Yoga which consists of a combination of three basic
yoga movements in general such as Pranayama, Surya Namaskar, and
Relaxation. In addition, other types of Yoga movements are also included such as
Yoga Asana, Laughter yoga, Yoga in pairs or groups, Acro Yoga, and Meditation.
Concentration of learning is the ability of a person to focus on the classroom
teachings. The student’s concentration of learning will be measured through the
learning concentration questionnaire which is given before the treatment (pre-test)
and after the treatment (post-test).
Respondent
The population of this research is all of students of Public Senior High
School in Badung regency aged 16 to 19 years old. Sampling was conducted by
random sampling (Probability Sampling) using Two-Stages Cluster Sampling
technique: the researchers randomized the school to be selected from 10 Public
Senior High Schools in Badung, then the second step is randomizing the class.
The selected sample is the second grader of SMAN 1 Kuta Utara. The School has
a total of 80 students. Respondent will be divided into two groups such as the
experimental group and the control group. The control group which consists 40
students does not receive Yoga treatment, while the experimental group which
consists 40 students is trained Yoga for 8 meetings.
Measurement
Measurement of learning concentration ability during pre-test and post-test
is done by giving questionnaire to respondents. The questionnaire was prepared
based on the inatentif theory by Fanu (2010). A total of 30 questions were given
to the respondents.
Research Design
This study uses quasi-experimental methods. The research design used is
Non-equivalent Control Group Design. This design requires the calculation of the
pre-test and also the post-test. Pre-test has a purpose to determine the extent of the
experimental and control group's equality (Myers & Hansen, 2006). The choice of
answers to the statement consists of four columns such as Often; Sometimes;
Rarely; and Never.
Research Instrument
The instrument of the present study is in the form of guided question and
answer test. As a research instrument, the test should be valid and reliable so that
it can be used together valid and reliable data. Research is valid when similarities
between the data collected with the actual data occurred on the object under study
and the instrument used to meet the requirements (Sugiyono, 2013). Validity
which will be tested in this research is the validity of content and validity of
construct. Measurement of content validity will be done with SPSS 17.0 for
windows.
The reliability’s approach which used in this research is a single
presentation method which will result in internal consistency estimation (Azwar,
2010). The results will be analyzed by Alpha Cronbach with the help of SPSS
17.0 for windows computer program in the calculation.
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