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Proceedings of the ASME 2014 Pressure Vessels & Piping Conference

July 20-24, 2014, Anaheim, California, USA




Arindam Ghosh1 Yaying Niu Rajesh Arjunan

Houston, Texas, USA Houston, Texas, USA Houston, Texas, USA

ABSTRACT results from air to commonly used process fluid are also
While finite element modeling analysis is becoming more discussed.
frequent for analyzing AIV problems, in the absence of
experimental data in large diameter pipe, there is no industry NOMENCLATURE
wide accepted methodology for representing the pressure a Pipe internal radius
excitation for the pipe so accurate cycles to failure may be am Pipe nominal radius
predicted. The assumptions involved in determining the actual c Speed of sound in fluid medium
amplitude of the acoustic excitation, which modes may develop cL Acoustic wave speed in pipe material
and how they couple with the structure all contribute to the fc Crossing frequency
overall uncertainty of the problem. fmn Structural natural frequency at mode (m,n)
Depending on the degree of correlation assumed between fpq Acoustic natural frequency at mode (p,q)
the structural and acoustical mode shapes the results vary Gd(f) Power spectral density of predicted stress
dramatically. There are also variations based on the number of h Pipe wall thickness
participating modes assumed. Relative strengths of a Km Axial component of structural wave number
Weldolet®, an Insert Weldolet® that is a variation of Kn Circumferential component of structural wave number
Sweepolet® and a Reducing Tee connection were analyzed for m Number of half structural waves in axial direction
a 24×6 inch Sch. 10S and STD connection assuming various M Mach number of mean-flow velocity
degrees of correlation and mode participation. Wide n Number of full structural waves in circumferential
fluctuations in the cycles to failure were observed based on the direction
assumptions; however, the stress ratios between the nrms Number of cycles of failure at predicted RMS stress
connections are relatively stable. This suggests the use of an value
acoustic Stress Intensification Factor (SIF) in conjunction with Ni Number of cycles allowed at stress amplitude ziS
Fatigue Strength Reduction Factors (FSRF) to determine p Number of full acoustical waves in circumferential
suitability of connections in AIV service rather than an absolute direction
value of cycles to failure. pi Excitation sound pressure at ith structural mode
Further investigation of the trends in the value of SIF as p(z) Rayleigh probability density function
the D/d (branch to header diameter) and D/t (diameter to P0 Maximum sound pressure excitation amplitude
thickness) ratios over a range of pipe diameter are required q Number of acoustical wave nodes in radial direction
before these SIF’s could be put into use. Experimental data for S Predicted RMS stress amplitude
a few controlled failure cases are required to ground the finite Urms Fatigue usage at predicted RMS stress amplitude
element prediction in reality. As the experiment is more likely xi Normalized ith modal displacement
to be conducted with air the possible pitfalls in extending the

Corresponding author. Email:

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z Non-dimensional amplitude in Rayleigh probability intensification the connections need to be studied under loading
density function more akin to what actually occurs in AIV where the structural
αpq Roots for zero of the first order derivative of Bessel and acoustic mode shapes match. Since the nature of matching
function changes based on fluid properties, the impact of changing the
β Non-dimensional pipe wall thickness parameter process fluid is also investigated.
ν Poisson’s ratio of pipe material
σ Standard deviation of a random process MODEL DESCRIPTION
AIV Acoustically induced vibration 1. Branch Connections
FSRF Fatigue strength reduction factor FE models of pipe with branch connections that employ
MW Molecular weight Weldolet®, Insert Weldolet® that is a variation of
SIF Stress intensification factor Sweepolet®, and Reducing Tees were analyzed for 24×6
SRSS Square Root of Sum of the Squares inch Sch. 10S and STD thickness connections. The branch
SW Insert Weldolet®, a variation of Sweepolet® connections used for the FE model are presented in Fig. 1.
RT Reducing Tee
WL Weldolet® (a) (b) (c)
SEA Statistical Energy Analysis

Finite Element (FE) method is becoming prevalent in
analyzing acoustically induced vibration (AIV) problems. Since
Eisinger conducted FE modeling to evaluate AIV of piping Figure 1: 3-D models of branch connections: (a)
systems in 1999 [1], many other engineers and researchers have Weldolet® (WL), (b) Insert Weldolet® (SW), (c)
also been involved in the FE modeling approach [2-5]. For Reducing Tee (RT).
example, Kim [2] proposed a dynamic stress calculation
method using internal sound power and structural modes of FEMAP was used as preprocessor and postprocessor for
pipe and was validated by a FE model as well as Carruci & the FE analysis. NEiNASTRAN was used as the analysis
Mueller data [6]. The basic theory behind this proposed software, both for modal analysis and forced response
approach is modal resonance between structural and acoustic analysis. The model consisted of a main line and a side
modes as documented in Ref. [7]. Allison et al. [3] built a FE branch line with different branch connections. The main
model for welded joints to evaluate piping resonance and line and the side branch line were extended to a length
fatigue life predictions using structural stress method in the equal to the diameter of the pipe with symmetry boundary
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code [8] and Energy conditions. Figure 2 shows the 24×6 inch Sch. 10S RT FE
Institute screening method [9]. Swindell [4] and Skailes et al. model used for the analysis. The FE model utilized both
[5] presented FE modal analysis-based AIV screening methods shell elements and solid elements. Solid elements were used
that were originally proposed by Blevins in Ref. [10]. For at the branch connection and weld area to capture accurate
fatigue life predictions, a Rayleigh probability distribution is stress for each branch connection. The extended main line
applied to RMS stress amplitudes in conjunction with ASME and branch line were modeled using shell elements for
S-N curves [8]. This fatigue analysis method is also easier application of forces. The solid elements were
documented in Refs. [11] and [12]. modelled with tetra (CTETRA) elements and the shell
Although those FE modeling approaches for fatigue elements with quad (CQUAD4) elements (see Fig. 2). Finer
predictions were proposed in [1-5], in the absence of mesh size was used at the connection, while coarser mesh
experimental results for large diameter systems, caution is size was used away from the connection. In order to
necessary in understanding resultant stress intensity and cycle determine the appropriate mesh size, analysis was run with
of failure values. This paper is an attempt to investigate the coarse, medium, and fine mesh. The difference in stress
effects of varying input parameters such as spatial correlation levels was insignificant between the medium and fine mesh.
of excitation force, participation of various structural modes The maximum grid point stress deviation for the medium
that may be excited, forcing amplitude, damping ratio, and mesh was found to be 0.2. Hence to have an optimal
fluid medium. The engineering goal is to determine the computational time, medium mesh was selected for the
suitability of various connections in AIV service. Study of analysis.
stress intensification factors (SIF) in process piping and FSRF’s
in pressure vessels suggests that values for Reducing Tee (RT)
are smaller than those for Insert Weldolets® (SW) which are
smaller than Weldolets® (WL) [8,13]. However the fatigue
studies used to determine the SIF’s/FSRF’s are based on
uniform loading. To determine the proper nature of stress

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significant. Moreover the stress ratios under correlated and
uniform loading conditions may be different. Hence both
uniform and correlated loading were considered in this
The excitation forcing function of correlated loading is
written as
0 , (1)
where xi is the normalized modal displacement at a
structural natural frequency fi, pi is the excitation pressure
amplitude at the ith mode, and P0 is a constant representing
the maximum excitation pressure amplitude, e.g., 0.5psi in
Figure 2: 24×6 inch RT model with mesh and
this study. According to Ref. [10], although not exactly
boundary conditions.
identical, such excitation can be treated as joint acceptance
equaling to one. The modal frequencies and loading were
2. Excitation and Coincident Frequencies
used to perform forced response analysis to retrieve the
AIV is generated when circumferential acoustical modes
maximum stress at each frequency, at the branch
are coincident with structural modes [1]. In the current FE
model, modal analyses were performed to retrieve the mode
Coincident frequencies can be obtained to evaluate the
shapes and modal frequencies. The resultant mode shapes
structural mode shapes and acoustical modes. Here, pipe
were used to create the excitation loading. Two types of
structural natural frequencies are calculated from the FE
excitation forces were used for the analysis:
modal analysis as well as the following equation in Ref. [7]:
1) Correlated loading: Excitation force distributions are 2
1 2 4
2 2 4
azimuthally correlated with the structural modes perfectly. 2 2 4
4 , (2)
The excitation pressure is set to 0.5psi at the location with
maximum modal displacement, and normalized to lower where fmn is the structural natural frequency at axial mode m
values at other locations according to the corresponding (i.e., number of half structural waves in axial direction) and
modal displacements (see Fig. 3(a)). The excitation is circumferential mode n (i.e., number of full structural
oriented perpendicular to the pipe surface. waves in circumferential direction), cL is the acoustic wave
2) Uniform loading: Excitation force is distributed speed in piping material, am is the nominal pipe radius, ν is
uniformly in the pipe and completely uncorrelated with the Poisson’s ratio, Km is the axial component of wave
structural mode shapes. Here, the excitation pressure is set number, and K2 = Km2 + Kn2 with circumferential
to 5psi (see Fig. 3(b)). component Kn = n, and β = h/(2√3am) is the non-
dimensional pipe wall thickness parameter defined in [7].
(a) (b) Acoustical natural frequencies are calculated by using
the following equation [7]:
2 0.5
2 , (3)
where p is the number of full acoustical waves in
circumferential direction, q is the number of nodal lines in
radial direction, c is the speed of sound for the investigated
fluid medium, a is the pipe internal radius, M is the mean
Figure 3: Excitation loading patterns: (a) Correlated flow Mach number, and παpq is the root for zero of the first
loading, (b) Uniform loading. order derivative of Bessel function. Here, M is set to 0.5 to
consider the impact of mean flow on the natural
Uniform loading represents the broadband excitation frequencies.
when there is no particular correlation between the Acoustical modes are assumed to be also sustained away
acoustical and structural mode shape. Correlated loading from the branch connection, i.e., AIV due to resonance is
excitation occurs at a limited number of frequencies and is assumed to happen in the 24 inch main header even away
responsible for the maximum stress response. Uniform from discontinuity. Resonance occurs when circumferential
loading on the other hand is prevalent at a large number of modes are coincident: i.e., when n = p and fmn ≈ fpq. In
frequencies. Although the excitation pressure amplitude is general, pipes with large D/t ratio tend to have lower
much higher (see the following results and discussions) structural natural frequencies. Process gas with speed of
than the excitation for the correlated loading, the stress sound less than the speed in air also has lower acoustical
response at a single frequency is much smaller. However, natural frequencies. In this analysis, pipes with wall
the summed stresses at all frequencies may still be thickness of 0.25 inch (Sch. 10S) and 0.375 inch (Sch.

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STD) are used for fatigue cycle calculations. When propane Following the procedure described in Ref. [12], the
with molecular weight (MW) of 44.1 g/mol is used in the number of cycles associated with S can be determined by
fatigue analysis compared to air with MW of 28.97 g/mol, setting the fatigue usage Urms = 1 in the following equation:
lower acoustical natural frequencies are observed and
different fatigue cycles are obtained. ′′
∆ 2 ′

Three sets of frequency combinations are used for ∆ /
6 2
branch connections (i.e.: RT, SW, and WL): 1 , (4)
1) The first set is to include all the structural mode shapes
for the fatigue analysis, which will give the most where nrms is the number of cycles of failure to be
conservative cycles of failure. Only a few structural modes determined at the stress value S, Δz is the integration step, zi
can be excited by internal sound pressure fields in reality. = iΔz, p(zi) is the Rayleigh probability density function, Ni
2) The second set is the combination of the coincident is the number of cycles allowed at stress amplitude of ziS,
frequencies for each connection type and pipe wall that is determined from ASME S-N curve in Ref. [8]. Note
thickness. that ziS is equivalent to ziσ, where σ is the standard
3) The last set is to use the coincident frequencies that have deviation for a random process. The “3σ” criterion is mostly
the most dominant stress response for each of the used in fatigue estimation but various values can be
connections and pipe wall thicknesses. investigated: e.g., 1σ to 4σ are used to evaluate cycles of
Note that in the second set the maximum stresses at failure in this paper.
different coincident frequencies could be located in various When the combinations of coincident frequencies or all
spots, while the last case is focused on one natural the structural natural frequencies are considered, S is
frequency with maximum stress at single location. defined as the SRSS value of the predicted stresses, and
In the FE analysis, damping is chosen to be 0.25% of crossing frequency, fc is defined in the following equation in
critical damping as Ref. [1]. However, the commonly used Ref. [11]:
∞ 2
damping ratio of 0.5% is also investigated [5]. 0

3. Frequency Range and Spectrum 0 , (5)

Frequency range of 500 – 1500 Hz is used because
mostly that is where the first two circumferential mode where f stands for any natural frequency, and Gd(f) is the
coincidences happen and the amplitudes are dominant. If power spectral density of the predicted stress in the whole
the full acoustic frequency range is to be studied statistical frequency span. Definition of crossing frequency shows that
energy analysis (SEA) is most appropriate [14]. This paper a frequency with higher stress amplitude gains more
is focused on investigating parameters related to FE studies. weighting. If there is only one frequency component
Before the fatigue analysis, a spectrum of piping included in the analysis, i.e., the last case of fatigue
internal sound pressure levels is calculated based on Eqs. analysis, the crossing frequency equals to the frequency
(1) to (19) of standard IEC 60534-8-3: 2010 in Ref. [15]. It investigated.
is assumed that there is an operating pressure reducing
device upstream of the 6-inch branch line. The calculated RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
sound pressure spectrum has a RMS value of 0.5psi. The Table 1 shows the circumferentially coincident frequencies
high frequency components (e.g., 1000 ~ 1500 Hz) would for the fluid media of air and propane. The coincident
gain more weighting according to the IEC standard. Since frequencies for the Sch. 10S pipe are lower than those for the
the FE model has excitation amplitude of 0.5psi at all Sch. STD pipe, and fluid medium propane also gives lower
frequencies, in order to simulate practical operations, the coincident frequencies than air. These coincident natural
maximum stress levels ranging from 500 to 1500 Hz are frequencies are then used for fatigue analysis as per the second
weighted based on the calculated spectrum. and last sets of frequency combinations as discussed in Section
2 of model description.
4. Fatigue Calculation Methodology
Fatigue cycles can be evaluated based on the method in Table 1: Coincident natural frequencies.
Ref. [12]. In the fatigue analysis, the stress values obtained Sch. 10S f (Hz) 969 1116 - ‐
from the FE model are treated as RMS amplitudes. For Sch. STD f (Hz) 980 1278 1307 ‐
turbulence induced random excitations, the real vibration Propane Sch. STD f (Hz) 661 969 1040 1292
amplitudes can have a distribution between 0 and zS, where
S is the predicted RMS stress value and z is the non- Figure 4 shows the modal displacements at the coincident
dimensional amplitude in Rayleigh probability density frequencies with maximum stress levels for Sch. 10S and STD
function. RT configurations. Note that on either side of the 24 inch
extension lines, at the location with maximum modal

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displacement, excitation pressure is set to 0.5psi and Figures 7 and 8 show the FE predicted stress values under
normalized to lower amplitudes in correlated loading case. correlated loading excitations for the all three connections Sch.
10S and STD piping, respectively [16]. The stress values are
plotted against the pipe natural frequencies between 500 and
(a) 1500 Hz. At each natural frequency, the stress value in the plot
is the maximum among the predicted stress field of the piping
system. In addition, the pressure spectrum obtained from Ref.
[15] gives the weighted stress results. Both Figs. 7 and 8
indicate that the general stress levels (i.e., SRSS values) for RT
connections are the lowest, while the stress values for WL
connections are the highest. Sch. STD connections have lower
stress levels than their counterparts with Sch. 10S pipe wall
thicknesses. The crossing frequencies for all the cases are
around 1000 Hz. These stress results are then used to perform
(b) fatigue analysis.

Figure 4: Modal displacements at the coincident

frequencies with maximum stress: (a) Sch. 10S Reducing
Tee, (b) Sch. STD Reducing Tee.

Figures 5 and 6 show the stress plots indicating the

maximum stress locations in red color at the coincident
frequencies for RT, SW, and WL for both Sch. 10s and STD
configurations. The coincident frequencies with those
maximum stresses are listed in Table 3(b). All three
connections show that the maximum stress responses are
located around weld lines (see the locations with red color).

(a) (b) (c)

Figure 5: Maximum stress locations at the coincident

frequencies for Sch. 10S connections: (a) Reducing Tee,
(b) Insert Weldolet®, (c) Weldolet®.

(a) (b) (c)

Figure 6: Maximum stress locations at the coincident

frequencies for Sch. STD connections: (a) Reducing Tee,
(b) Insert Weldolet®, (c) Weldolet®.

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Figure 7: Predicted stress vs. pipe natural frequency for Figure 8: Predicted stress vs. pipe natural frequency for
Sch. 10S pipe: (a) Reducing Tee, (b) Insert Weldolet®, (c) Sch. STD pipe: (a) Reducing Tee, (b) Insert Weldolet®,
Weldolet®. (c) Weldolet®.

Table 2(a) shows the crossing frequencies, SRSS stress

values, stress ratios between the connections, and numbers of
cycles to failure when using uniform loading and including all
the structural modes. The cycles of failure are calculated at 1σ,
2σ, 3σ, and 4σ. Even though the uniform loading amplitude is
5psi, 10 times of the maximum amplitude of correlated loading,
the predicted SRSS stress values are much smaller than that of
the correlated loading case in Table 2(b). The stress ratios for
uniform loading are inconsistent when pipe wall thickness
changes, while they remain stable for correlated loading case in
Table 2(b), which indicates that a separate SIF/FSRF
investigation is needed. In general, the fatigue life of the piping
structure under AIV excitation is dominantly determined by
correlated loading, which is applied in the following results.
Under the correlated loading excitation and including all
the structural mode shapes, Table 2(b) shows the fatigue
analysis results. Sch. 10S pipe has larger stress values and thus
shorter cycles are predicted than Sch. STD pipe. For different
connection types, the stress ratios remain stable as D/t changes
indicating that ranking of the connections would be reasonable:
i.e., RT provides greater fatigue resistance than SW which are
more resistant than WL (see Fig. 9(a) for the stress ratios
normalized to Sch. STD RT), but various studies on D/d and
D/t are still required.

Table 2: Fatigue analysis results with all the pipe

structural modes included: (a) Uniform loading; (b)
Correlated loading.
All modes included; Uniform loading; Air Number of cycles
Pipe Sch. Type fc(Hz) Ssrss(ksi) S Ratio 4σ 3σ 2σ 1σ
RT 1135 3.922 1 6.06E+07 4.17E+08 9.77E+10 2.59E+11
Sch. 10S SW 1106 4.581 1.168 1.46E+07 2.94E+07 1.33E+10 2.59E+11
WL 1098 6.905 1.761 1.07E+06 1.36E+06 7.27E+06 2.59E+11
RT 1078 3.011 1 2.95E+09 4.82E+10 1.18E+11 2.59E+11
Sch. STD SW 1012 4.52 1.501 1.64E+07 3.48E+07 1.72E+10 2.59E+11
WL 1011 4.726 1.570 1.14E+07 2.08E+07 7.31E+09 2.59E+11

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All modes included; Correlated loading; Air Number of cycles
Pipe Sch. Type fc(Hz) Ssrss(ksi) S Ratio 4σ 3σ 2σ 1σ
RT 1035 58.622 1 866 941 1701 18888
Sch. 10S SW 1021 87.093 1.486 318 344 600 5825
WL 975 95.295 1.626 255 275 478 4520
RT 1041 35.505 1 3389 3726 7179 96144
Sch. STD SW 975 51.563 1.452 1213 1322 2424 28269
WL 1064 61.413 1.730 767 833 1499 16366

Although the cycles of failure are predicted, the cycles are

greatly under-estimated because only a few structural modes
can be coincident with acoustical modes in reality [1].
Therefore, the combinations of the coincident frequencies and
the coincident frequency with maximum stress value should be
applied in fatigue analysis.

Table 3: Fatigue analysis results using correlated loading

and coincident frequencies: (a) Combined coincident
frequencies, (b) Coincident frequency with maximum
Combined coincident modes; Correlated loading; Air Number of cycles
Pipe Sch. Type fc(Hz) Ssrss(ksi) S Ratio 4σ 3σ 2σ 1σ
RT 1070 16.474 1 35959 40602 87582 2.60E+06
Sch. 10S SW 995 17.242 1.047 30930 34860 74642 1.79E+06
WL 1014 21.427 1.301 15403 17222 35787 609670
RT 1270 10.78 1 156310 179930 455930 5.04E+08
Sch. STD SW 1289 12.493 1.159 92270 105360 239710 2.78E+07
WL 1296 14.519 1.347 54838 62214 135380 5.01E+06
Coincident mode with Smax; Correlated loading; Air Number of cycles
Pipe Sch. Type fmax(Hz) Smax(ksi) S Ratio 4σ 3σ 2σ 1σ
RT 1084 14.083 1 60890 69171 150960 6.32E+06
Sch. 10S SW 975 13.762 0.977 65846 74865 164250 7.71E+06
WL 980 17.763 1.261 28079 31615 67463 1.53E+06
RT 1322 7.489 1 719100 885110 3.66E+06 2.29E+11
Sch. STD SW 1333 8.364 1.117 435390 517250 1.78E+06 7.29E+10
WL 1334 10.146 1.355 197990 228740 618080 1.71E+09

Figure 9: Stress ratios for different connections and pipe

Tables 3(a) and 3(b) show the fatigue analysis results when
wall thicknesses (normalized to Sch. STD RT): (a) All
using combined coincident frequencies and the coincident
structural modes included, (b) Combined coincident
frequency with maximum stress response, respectively. For
frequencies, (c) Coincident frequencies with maximum
both cases, the resultant frequencies are around or higher than stress.
1000 Hz, thus the low frequency components between 500 and
1000 Hz are not contributing to the structural fatigue Figure 10(a) shows the cycles to failure plotted against σ
significantly. The ratios of stress are also plotted in Figs. 9(b) values for RT connection. As noted in the fatigue analysis
and 9(c) but normalized to Sch. STD RT. The stress ratio plots section, σ stands for the RMS stress value input, and thus for
also indicate that a RT is more fatigue resistant than a SW most fatigue analysis 3σ or higher is utilized. However, for a
which is more resistant than a WL, although RT and SW have Sch. STD RT connection that does not have failures detected so
close stress values. Note that SIF’s/FSRF’s are not employed in far, Fig. 10(a) and Table 3(b) indicate that the number of cycles
the current fatigue analysis. Further investigation is necessary to failure is realistic only when using 1σ and the coincident
to determine if stress captured from the FE model is the actual frequency with maximum stress level so that the STD RT has
notch stress or a separate SIF/FSRF is needed. significant fatigue life. However, the cycles to failure are still
low and the assumption of perfect spatial correlation is suspect.
At the 1σ case, Fig. 10(b) shows the similar result in terms of
cycles to failure as the stress ratio plots in Fig. 9.

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connections with various D/t and D/d and damping ratio of
0.5% need to be studied by FE modeling and matched with a
few controlled experiments in order to give conclusive

Table 5: Fatigue analysis results for damping ratios of

0.25% and 0.5%.
Coincident mode with Smax; Correlated loading; Air Number of cycles
Damping Type fmax(Hz) Smax(ksi) S Ratio 4σ 3σ 2σ 1σ
0.25% RT 1322 7.489 1 719100 885110 3656800 2.29E+11
0.50% RT 1354 3.263 0.436 6.57E+08 1.43E+10 1.18E+11 2.59E+11
0.25% SW 1333 8.364 1 435390 517250 1777600 7.29E+10
0.50% SW 1357 3.377 0.404 3.80E+08 7.64E+09 1.18E+11 2.59E+11
0.25% WL 1334 10.146 1 197990 228740 618080 1.71E+09
0.50% WL 1355 3.837 0.378 7.64E+07 6.48E+08 1.06E+11 2.59E+11


In this paper, acoustically induced vibration (AIV) in three
types of piping connections (i.e., Reducing Tee (RT), Insert
Weldolet® (SW), and Weldolet® (WL)) were studied by
using finite element (FE) model and fatigue analysis. Two types
of excitation pressure distributions were applied in the model:
uniform loading that has evenly distributed pressure on the pipe
internal surface and correlated loading that has pressure
distribution proportional to pipe modal displacements. The
Figure 10: Logarithmic values of cycles of failure: (a) RT predicted SRSS stress levels show that RT has the lowest stress,
at [1σ, 4σ], (b) RT, SW, and WL at 1σ. SW has the middle level, and WL has the highest stress value.
Also, Sch. STD pipe has lower stress levels than Sch. 10S pipe.
In addition to the fluid medium air, the effect from propane The published SIF/FSRF values are obtained under the
with higher molecular weight is investigated. Table 4 shows the assumption of uniform loading. The current investigation
fatigue analysis results for both air and propane. Since propane demonstrates that stress ratios for uniform and correlated
has more coincident frequencies than that of air as shown in loadings are different. This underscores the need for separate
Table 1, the SRSS stress value of propane is also higher and research to determine appropriate SIF/FSRF values under fully
thus the fatigue life is shorter. A pipe transporting heavier fluid or partially correlated loading consonant with the problem of
is more likely to have AIV excitations particularly at low acoustically induced vibration. Further investigation is also
frequencies. required to determine if notch stress is captured correctly for all
the geometries analyzed in this publication. If the notch stress
Table 4: Fatigue analysis results for air and propane: (a) is found to be underestimated appropriate SIF/FSRF shall need
Combined coincident frequencies; (b) Coincident to be applied.
frequency with maximum stress. By using the predicted stress at the all structural natural
(a) frequencies between 500 and 1500 Hz, a fatigue analysis was
Combined coincident modes; Correlated loading Number of cycles performed by including: 1) all the structural natural
Pipe Sch. Fluid Type fc(Hz) Ssrss(ksi) S Ratio 4σ 3σ 2σ 1σ
Air RT 1270 10.78 1 156310 179930 455930 5.04E+08
frequencies; 2) combined coincident frequencies between
Sch. STD
Propane RT 1167 12.032 1.116 105380 120540 280540 5.72E+07 circumferential acoustical and structural modes; and 3) the
(b) coincident frequency with maximum stress value. The fatigue
Coincident mode with Smax; Correlated loading Number of cycles analysis results show that stress ratios remain stable as D/t
Pipe Sch. Fluid Type fmax(Hz) Smax(ksi) S Ratio 4σ 3σ 2σ 1σ changes between the connections indicating that ranking of the
Air RT 1322 7.489 1 719100 885110 3656800 2.29E+11
Sch. STD
Propane RT 1037 7.612 1.016 665900 814690 3254900 2.12E+11
connections would be possible: a RT is more fatigue resistant
than a SW which is more resistant than a WL, even though
Table 5 shows the fatigue analysis results using different additional studies on other connections and reinforcements
damping ratios of 0.25% and 0.5%. Higher damping ratio gives (e.g., Stub-In, Reinforcement-Pad, Full-Wrap, Header-Wrap)
lower stress level and longer fatigue life as expected. In and various D/d and D/t are still required. The results also
particular, the cycles of failure of higher damping ratio case suggest that using 1σ and the coincident frequency with
indicate that using 3σ and the coincident frequency with maximum stress along with 0.25% damping ratio or 3σ with
maximum stress also could give realistic values so that the RT 0.5% damping ratio gives realistic cycles to failure so that Sch.
and SW connections do not fail. However other types of STD RT has significant fatigue life. However, the cycles to
failure under the other configurations are generally low and the

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usage of perfect correlated loading needs more investigation. It [12] Brenneman, B., and Talley, J. Q., 1986, “RMS Fatigue
is thus problematic to use cycles to failure for AIV analysis Curves for Random Vibrations,” ASME J. Press. Vess. T.,
without proper experiments for validation. In addition, fluid 108, pp. 538-542.
with higher molecular weight tends to have lower acoustical [13] 2012 ASME B31.3 Process Piping, The American Society
natural frequencies and increased number of coincident modes. of Mechanical Engineers, New York.
Future FE studies will include additional connections and [14] Mann III, J. A., Eilers, D., and Fagerlund, A. C., 2012,
reinforcements under different D/t and D/d conditions, and “Predicting Pipe Internal Sound Field and Pipe Wall
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