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Nokia Academy

Idle Mode Operation


BSS Parameter Planning 1
RN2010-40A

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Module Objectives

• List the functions of the MS during the idle mode

• Explain the parameters used for PLMN selection, cell selection and cell reselection

• State the purpose of location updates and the associated parameters

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Idle Mode Operation
When?
• When the MS is switched ON MS switched ON

• When there is no dedicated connection


Why? Search RF
channels to find
• To camp on the best suitable cell BCCH carrier

Why to camp on a specific cell?


Check that the
• For MS to receive system info from the NW on DL PLMN & cell is
allowed
• For MS to be able to initiate a call whenever needed
• For the NW to be able to locate the MS when there is a Mobile Terminate d
(MT) call/SMS MS camps on
the best
suitable cell
Idle Mode Tasks
See slide 10 for detail
• PLMN selection
• Cell selection & re-selection
• Location updates

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Camping on a Cell:
Motivation

indication NAS control CM requests


radio
to user measurements
manual mode

PLMN
selected
PLMN selection cell selection registration location
and reselection and reselection area changes registration
PLMN
available location
registration
automatic mode response

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ID’s and ID Codes
Parameter Value
LAI (locationAreaId)
• MCC (Mobile Country Code) 0 … 999
• MNC (Mobile Network Code) 0 … 99, 0… 999 (optional 3-digit MNC)
• LAC (Location Area Code) 1 … 65533

BSIC (bsIdentityCode)
• NCC (Network Color Code) 0…7
• BCC (BTS Color Code) 0…7

CI (cell-ID 0 … 65535

TSC (trainingSequenceCode) 0…7

CGI (Cell Global Identity) MCC + MNC + LAC + CI

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PLMN Selection
Switch on in automatic PLMN selection operation mode
Last registered
PLMN or
equivalent PLMN

Home PLMN

User controlled
PLMN list

Operator controlled
PLMN list
Timer T
often called “HPLMN Search Timer“
6 .. 480 minutes Other PLMN‘s with
Default: 60 minutes RAT‘s the MS is
capable of

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States and State Transition for Cell Selection
go here whenever a
new PLMN is selected

2 no BA list stored BA list stored


for PLMN 1 for PLMN

Normal no suitable cell found Stored list


cell selection cell selection

no suitable
cell found suitable cell found suitable cell found

Choose cell suitable cell found trigger


Camped Normal
normally cell re-selection
return Suitable cell
to idle re-selected
leave
mode
idle no suitable
mode cell found
no • IMSI unknown
Connected
suitable • Illegal MS
mode
cell • PLMN not allowed
found 2

(adopted from TS 43.022 V5.1.0 chap. 6)


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States and State Transition for Cell Selection, cont.

go here when no SIM in MS SIM inserted in MS


Any cell 1
selection

no suitable no suitable
cell found
cell found cell found

Choose cell suitable cell found Camped trigger Any


on cell re-
return any cell cell selection
to idle leave re-selected
mode idle cell found
mode on selected
Connected mode PLMN
(emergency call
only)

2 (adopted from TS 43.022 V5.1.0 chap. 6)

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Normal Cell Selection
Search all the RF channels, take samples during
3-5 s and calculate averages. And put them in
ascending order with respect to signal level.
Then tune to the strongest RF channel.

Search for the frequency correction burst in that Tune to the next highest
carrier in order to verify if it is a BCCH carrier RF channel which is not
tried before

Is it a BCCH No
carrier?

Yes
Try to synchronize to the carrier and read
the BCCH data

Is it a correct No
PLMN ?

Yes

Is the cell barred? Yes

No
No
Is C1>0

Yes
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Camp on the cell
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Pathloss Criterion C1 for Cell Selection and Reselection
C1 = A – max(B,0)
= RLA_C – RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN – max(MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH – P , 0)

RLA_C = avg received RxLev on BCCH


P = MS max output power

rxLevAccessMin (RXP),
I am SEG-BTS, BASIC, -110…..-
outside 47 dBm, Step 1 dBm
Default:-105dBm

msTxPwrMaxCCH (TXP1) SEG_BTS, ADV


(800/900) 5….39dBm
msTxPwrMaxCCH1x00 (TXP2) (1800)
I am inside, but 0….36dBm
have not (1900) 0….32dBm & 33 dBm
enough power Step 2 dBm,Default(900): 33dBm

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Cell Selection with C1
• In case the neighboring cells belong to different Location Area, a hysteresis is applied with C1 criteria
• Minimizing ping-pong cell reselections
• cellReselectHysteresis (HYS) (SEG-BTS) (BASIC)(0…14 dB) Step 2 dB, Default:4dB

Cell1 Cell2
LAC1 LAC2

C1 ( Cell1) C1 (Cell2) A= 4 dB
B= 6 dB

A B C C= 8 dB

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Pathloss Criterion C2 temporaryOffset (TEO) penaltyTime (PET) (SEG-
(SEG_BTS) (BASIC) BTS) (BASIC)
CellReselectOffset (REO)
0....70dB step size 10 dB 20 .. 640 s ,step size: 20 s
(SEG-BTS) (BASIC) 0 .. 126 dB
step size: 2 dB

C1 + CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET – (TEMPORARY OFFSET * H(PENALTY_TIME - T))


C2 = for PENALTY_TIME ≠ 640 s
C1 - CELL_RESELECT-OFFSET for PENALTY_TIME = 640 s

C2
no TEMPORARY OFFSET penaltyTime (PET) (SEG-BTS) (BASIC)20 .. 640 s
step size: 20 s
C1
serving cell:
• C2:
new candidate
List of 6 = former serving
CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET
strongest cell
carriers: T
• C2: C2
• C2:
• C2: C1
• C2:
• C2:
CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET
• C2: new candidate
= formerly non-
serving cell TEMPORARY OFFSET
T
PENALTY_TIME
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Cell Reselection Based on Pathloss Criterion C2
C2
cell 1 cell reselection &
cell 3
location update

cell
reselection cell 2

CELL_RESELECT_
HYSTERESIS (HYS)

time
5 seconds 5 seconds
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LAC =A LAC = B
Cell Reselection Based on Pathloss Criterion C2
=30 Cell "A" (Serving Cell)

Road =25 Cell "B"


Macro 900 "C" C1 =5 Cell "C"
=50 Cell "D"

Micro 900 "D" C2 = C1 + cellReselectOffset - temporaryOffset*H(penaltyTime-T)


Macro 1800 "B"
=30 + 0 (H(x)=0, serving cell) Cell "A"
=25 + 20 - 30*H(20 - T) Cell "B"
C2 =5 + 0 - 0*H(20 - T) Cell "C"
=50 + 0 - 30*H(40 - T) Cell "D"

Cell "A" Cell "B" Cell "C" Cell "D"

cellReselectOffset 0 dB 20 dB 0 dB 0 dB

temporaryOffset 0 dB 30 dB 0 dB 30 dB
Macro 900 "A" Parameters
penaltyTime 20 s 20 s 20 s 40 s

Time T: (0 - 19 s) Time T: (20 - 39 s) Time T: (> 40 s)


C2 =30 Cell "A" C2 =30 Cell "A" C2 =30 Cell "A"
C2 =15 Cell "B" C2 =45 Cell "B" C2 =45 Cell "B"
C2 =5 Cell "C" C2 =5 Cell "C" C2 =5 Cell "C"
C2 =20 Cell "D" C2 =20 Cell "D" C2 =50 Cell "D"

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Cell Reselection Events
Authentication Failure
Pathloss Criterion C1 notification by upper layers
C1 ≤ 0 for a period of 5 s

Cell has been barred


CELL_BAR_ACCESS &
Pathloss Criterion C2 CELL_BAR_QUALIFY
• neighbor‘s C2 value > RACH Failure
current cell‘s C2 value (same LA) MAX RETRANS + 1 times
• neighbor‘s C2 value >
current cell‘s C2 value + HYS
(new LA) Downlink Signaling Failure
for a period of 5 s. DSC ≤ 0

When shall I
select a new cell?

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DL Signaling Failure
90
DSCinit := round
BS_PA_MFRMS MS

DSC := DSCinit BTS


2..9 multi-
frame periods
paging
yes message successfully no
decoded?

DSC := min (DSC+1, DSCinit) DSC := DSC - 4

DSC ≤ 0
no

yes
Cell
Downlink radio link Update
DSC = Downlink Signaling failure Counter failure detected!

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Location Update Procedure
MS BSS MSC VLR HLR

LOCATION UPDATE REQUEST

REQUEST SUBSCRIBER ID

SEND SUBSCRIBER ID

REQUEST SUBSCRIBER INFO

SEND SUBSCRIBER INFO

AUTHENTICATION

AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE

ALL OK - HLR UPDATE

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Trade-Off between Location Update and Paging Traffic

signalling
traffic

function of user density,


function of cell size, call arrival rate ...
user mobility

Paging
LocUp

optimum number # of cells in Loc. area


of cells in Loc. area

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Location Updates
 MS location & status flag => MSC / VLR
 Mobile Station switched ON mode
• IMSI Attach / Detach
• Same Location Area => No Location Update
• Different Location Area => Location Update
 Change of the Location Area
• Location Area under the same MSC / VLR
• Location Area under another MSC / VLR => HLR will be updated
 Service is rejected (MS unknown in VLR)
 Time-Periodic LU (MS -> MSC/VLR)
MO Abbreviated Range And Description Default BSC - Category
Class Name Step value MML
Name
BTS allowIMSIAtta Yes/No Defines whether IMSI attach/detach is used in the cell. Yes ATT ADV
chDetach
BTS timerPeriodic 0...25.5 h, Defines the interval between periodic MS location 0.5 h PER ADV
UpdateMs step 0.1 h updates.
The value 0 means that the periodic location update is not
used.

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LU and VLR Cleaning
MS Makes the last MS does not MS does not MS Has not made MS Data cleaned up
contact with network make a make a a periodic LU till from VLR after Loitering
(MOC, MTC, SMS). periodic LU. periodic LU. now. DETACH flag time ends. In case the
If MS makes a IMSI MS still kept MS still kept set. No more VLR cleaning time
DETACH, the Attached in Attached in paging for the MS; occurs before this time,
loitering time starts VLR. VLR. Loitering time the MS data is cleaned
starts earlier

Time

0 6 12 12.5 25.5

BSS (BTS) parameter (ZEQO)


TIMER PERIODIC UPDATE MS 6 HRS

VLR Parameters (ZMXO)


• IMPLICIT IMSI DETACH USED
• IMPLICIT DEREGISTRATION 012 HRS. 30 MIN
• LOITERING 00 DAYS 13 HRS
• VLR CLEANING START TIME 04:12

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