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TURCOLOGICA

Herausgegeben von Lars Johanson

Ban d 34

1998
Harrassowitz Verlag • Wiesbaden
Larry Clark

Türkmen Reference Gramırıar

1998
Harrassowitz Verlag • Wiesbaden
D ie Deutsche Bibliothek - CIP-Einheitsaııfnahme

Clark, Larry:
Türkmen reference grammar/ Larry Clark. - W ıesbaden:
Harrassowitz, 1998
(Turcologîca; Bd. 34)
ISBN 3-447-04019-X

© O tto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1998


This work, i n c l u d î n g alİ o f i ts p a r t s , is p r o t e c t e d b y C o p y r ig h t.
Any use beyond the limits of C o p y r ig h t law without the p e r m i s s i o n
of the publisher is f o r b i d d e n and subjecc to p e n a lc y . This a p p lie s
p a r t i c u l a r l y to reproducrions, translations, microfilms a n d storage
a n d p r o c e s s in g in e le c t r o n i c systems.
Printing and binding by MZ-Verîagsdruckerei GmbH, Memmingen
Printed in Germany

ISSN 0177-4743
ISBN 3-447-04019-X
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Foreword......................................................................................................................... xvii
Ttanscription....................................................................................................................xxiii
Abbreviations.................................................................................................................. xxv

iNraoDucnoN....................................................................................... ı
The History of the Türkmen.............................................................................................. 2
TheSaljuks...................................................................................................................... 2
Tlıe Name "Türkmen"...................................................................................................... 3
Formation of the Modem Türkmen............................................................................... 4
Incorporation into Russia............................................................................................... 6
Soviet and Independerit Türkmenistan......................................................................... 6
The Distribution of the Türkmen....................................................................................... 8
Türkmen in Türkmenistan............................................................................................ 8
Türkmen Outside Türkmenistan.................................................................................... 9
The Turianen Language.......................................................................................................12
Written Sources of the Türkmen Language................................................................... 12
Türkmen Dialects.............................................................................................................16
Türkmen and the Oğuz Languages..................................................................................18
The Study of Türkmen....................................................................................................... 22
The Foundations of Türkmen Linguistics........................................................................;.......... 22
The Three Capstones of Türkmen Linguistics................ ............................................. 23
Türkmen Linguistics in the W est.................................................................................. 25

SOUND SYSTEM...................................................................................................- ......— 27


Phonology........................................................................................................................... 28
Descriprion of Vowels................................................................ -J.....................................28
The Vowels e le/ and s /a:/............................................................................................. 32
Long Vowels in Root Syilables............................................................ .........................33
Long Vowels in Non-Root Syilables............................................................................ 35
Descriprion of Consonants................................................................................................. 37
Pronunciation of Russian Consonants.......................................................................... 40
Syllable Structure................................................................................................................ 43
Stress............................................................................................................................ - • - 4 4
Morphophonology.................................................................................................... :.......47
Vowel Harmony.................................. ................................................................................ 47
Front-Back Harmony...................................................................................................... 48
Rounded-Unrounded Harmony....................................................................................... 49
Vowel Harmony Rules....................................................................................................49
vi Türkmen Reference Grammar

Vowel Harmony in Borrowed W ords........................................................................... 52


Vovvel Hannony in Suffbces.......................................................................................... 53
Vowel Lengthening........................................................................................................... 56
Fusion of Two Vowels ................................................................................................56
Fusion of Two Vowels with Loss of Consonant........................................................ 58
Vowel Lengthening with Case Sıiffbtes....................................................................... 59
Vowel Lengthening with Family Name Suffixes.........................................................59
Vowel Loss.........................................................................................................................60
"Consonant Hannony"........................................................................................................63
Consonant Voicing.............................................................................................................65
Adding the Consonants Mİyi, c /&/, h İn /....................................................................... 69
Syllable L oss......................................................................................................................71
Orthography.......................................................................................................................73
The Türkmen Alphabet...................................................................................................... 73
Letters of the Turîcmen Alphabet.................................................................................. 74
The Letters for Vowels............................................................................................... 76
The Letters for Consonants........................................................................................76
The Letters a, e, e and 10 ........................................................................................... 76
The Signs t and t ......................................................................................................77
Variant Spellings............................................................................................................78
Türkmen Orthography.......................... .............................................................................79
= Vowel Hannony..............................................................................................................79
Rounded Vovvel Hannony and the Letteıs a and e /s ................................................80
Rounded Vovvel Harmony and the Letters h and h .................................................80
Rounded Vowel Hannony and the Letters y and y .................................................. 81
Rounded Vowel Hannony in Suffbces...................................................................... 82
Consonant Assimilations..............................................................................................84
The "New Türkmen Alphabet"..........................................................................................86

GRAMMATICAL SYSTEM..................................................................................................87
Introduction........................................................................................................................ 88
Parts of Speech................................................................................................................... 88
Content Words............................................................................................................... 88
Structure Words..............................................................................................................90
Particles.......................................................................................................................... 90
Word Structure................................................................................................................... 91
Simple W ords.................................................................................................................91
Derived Words................................................................................................................ 92
Combined Woıdsç..........................................................................................................92
Words and Grammar.......................................................................................................... 93
Grammatical Su£Bxes..................................................................................................... 93
Grammadcai Categories................................................................................................. 94
Table of Contents vii

Nouns.............................................................................................................................. 97
Types of No.uns.............................................................................................................. 98
Simple N ouns............................................................................................................. 98
Derived Nouns............................................................................................................ 98
Combined Nouns........................................................................................................ 98
Grammatical Categories of Nouns................................................................................ 99
Number............................................................................................................................100
Plural Suffîx............................................................................................................... 101
Fonns of the Plural Suffix.........................................................................................106
Peıson.............................................................................................................................. 107
Possessive Suffixes....................................................................................................107
Forms of the Possessive Suffixes............................................................................. 112
C ase.................................................................................................................................114
Nominative Case......................................................................................................... 114
GenitiveCase.............................................................................................................. 116
Definite Possession................................................................................................ 116
Indefmite Possession..............................................................................................119
Fonns of the Genitive Case....................................................................................121
Accusative Case.......................................................................................................... 121
Forms of the Accusative Case................................................................................125
Dative Case..................................................................................................................126
Forms of the Dative Case...................................................................................... 130
LocativeCase.............................................................................................................. 131
Forms of theLocative Case.............................................................. .....................135
AblativeCase.............................................................................................................. 135
Forms of the Ablative Case....................................................................................141
Adjectives........................................................................................................................143
Types of Adjectives........................................................................................................145
Simple Adjectives...................................................................................................... 145
Derived Adjectives..................................................................................................... 145
Combined A djectives................................................................................................145
Comparative Degree........................................................................................................147
Superlative Degree.......................................................................................................... 149
Quantifıers..................................................................................................................... 151
Numerals............................................................................................................................ 151
Cardinal Numerals...................................................................................................... 151
The Numeral 6wp /bir/................................................................................................ 154
Ordinal Numerals.......................................................................................................... 157
Collective Numerals..................................................................................................... 159
Distribution Numeıals...................................................................................................159
Appıoximation Numeıals...................................................................... ............... . 161
Fractions..................................................................................................................... 163
viii Türkmen Referenee Grammar

Fraction Words........................................................................ . 164


Percentages............................................................................... . 167
Arithmetic................................................................................ 167
Counting Word........................................................................ 169
Quantifying Pronouns................................................................. 170
Collccüve Pronouns................................................................ 170
Indefmite Pronouns................................................................. 173
Negative Pronouns.................................................................. 178
Pronouns...................................................................................... 181
Personal Pronouns....................................................................... 181
Personal Pronouns in the Genitive C ase............................... 187
Demonstrative Pronouns............................................................. 190
Demonstrative Pronouns in the Genitive Case..................... 195
Reflexive Pronoun....................................................................... 196
Reflexi ve Referenee................................................................. 197
Reflexive Possessive Referenee.............................................. 199
Reflexive Possessive Referenee in Object Phrases................ 199
Otber Uses of ea /ö:8/............................................................. 200
Inteırogative Pronouns................................................................ 202
Verbs............................................................................................ 209
Types of Verbs............................................................................ 210
Simple Verbs........................................................................... 210
Derived Verbs........................................................................... 210
Combined Verbs...................................................................... 210
Grammatical Categories of Verbs.............................................. 211
Voice......................................................................................... 211
Negation.................................................................................... 212
Tense/Aspect/Mood................................................................. 213
Person/Number........................................................................ 214
Question.................................................................................... 215
Tense and Aspect.......................................................................... 217
Present Indefinite Tense.............................................................. 219
Forms of the Present Indefinite Tense................................... 221
Present Indefinite Tense: Contracted Fonns.......................... 222
Present Continuous Tense........................................................... 224
Forms of the Contracted Verbs.............................................. 225
Subjective Present Continuous Tense........................................ 229
Forms of the Subjective Present Continuous Tense............. 230
Negative Present Perfect Tense................................................... 231
Odıer Uses of -aHOK/eHOK /-ano:k/eno:k/............................... 232
Contrasting Negative Forms of the Present and Past Tenses 233
Forms of the Negative Present Perfect Tense........................ 235
Table of Contents ix

Subjective Present Perfect Tense.....................................................................................236


Fonns of the Subjective Present Perfect Tense.......................................................... 237
Past Indefinite Tense.........................................................................................................238
Other Uses of -flM/flH /-dı/di/.......................................................................................239
Forms of the Past Indefinite Tense.............................................................................240
Habitual Past Indefinite Tense.........................................................................................241
Other Uses of -apflu/epnn /-ardı/erdi/......................................................................... 242
Forms of the Habitual Past Indefinite Tense.......... ^ ...............................................243
Subjective Past Indefinite Tense......................................................................................244
Other Uses of -BnmHp/untuHp /-ıpdır/ipdir/................................................................ 244
Forms of the Subjective Past Indefinite Tense.......................................................... 246
Past Continuous Tense.....................................................................................................247
Other Uses of -apfltı/topjpt /-ya:tdı/yâ:rdi/............... .................................................250
Contrasting the Past Indefinite, Habitual and Continuous Tenses......................... 251
Foıms of the Past Continuous Tense..........................................................................251
Past Perfect Tense............................................................................................................ 253
Other Uses of -bihubi/ hiihh /-ıpdı/ipdl/.......................................................................255
Forms of the Past Perfect Tense................................................... .............................. 256
Unrealized Past Perfect Tense..........................................................................................257
Forms of the Unrealized Past Perfect Tense............................................................... 258
Futuıe Indefinite Tense.....................................................................................................259
Other Uses of -ap/ep /-ar/er/........................................................................................261
Contrasting the Future and Present Indefinite............................................................262
Fonns of the Future Indefinite Tense......................................................................... 262
Definite Future Tense....................................................................................................... 264
Contrasting the Definite Future and Future Indefinite............................................. 265
Forms of the Definite Future Tense............................................................................266
Mood.................................................................................................................... ............ 267
Imperative Mood.............................................................................................................. 267
First Person Imperative................................................................................................268
Forms of the First Person Imperative..................................................................... 269
Second Person Imperative............................................................................................ 270
Fonns of the Second Peıson Imperative................................................................274
Third Person Imperative.............................................................................................. 274
Foıms of the Third Person Imperative.................................................................... 276
Conditional Mood............................................................................................................ 277
Tenses in the Conditional Clause............................................................. T.............. 282
Other Uses of -ca/ce /-8a/0e/........................................................................................ 285
Forms of the Conditional M ood.................................................................................286
Subjunctive Mood............................................................................................................287
Forms of the Subjunctive M ood.................................................................................288
Desiderative M ood...........................................................................................................289

i
X Türkmen Referenee Grammar

Forms of the Desiderative Mood................................................................................ 290


Other Mood Suffixes........................................................................................................291
Suffix of Desire.............................................................................................................291
Forms of the Suffıx of Desire..................................................................................292
Suffix of Bıtention....................................................................................................... 293
Forms of the Suffix of Intention.............................................................................294
Suffix of Obligation.....................................................................................................294
Forms of the Suffix of Obligation.......................................................................... 296
Su£Bx of Permission....'............................................................................................... 297
Fornıs of the Suffix of Permission......................................................................... 300
Modal Formations.............................................................................................................301
Ability........................................................................................................................... 301
Affîrmation....................................................................................................................303
Benefit........................................................................................................................... 304
Conjecture.....................................................................................................................304
Desire............................................................................................................................ 305
Experiment....................................................................................................................305
Need...............................................................................................................................306
Possibility.....................................................................................................................307
Pıetense..........................................................................................................................310
Resolve..........................................................................................................................310
Descrjpitye Verbs..............................................................................................................311
Beginning of Action.........................................................................................................311
Process of Action............................................................................................................. 319
Direction of Action...........................................................................................................324
Completion of Action......................................................................................................326
V erbals...........................................................................................................................327
Infînidve........................................................................................................................... 327
Foıms of the ffifinitive Suffix......................................................................................332
Verbal Nouns................................................................................................................... 333
Verbal Noun in -Ma/Me /-ma/me/.................................................................................333
Foıms of the Verbal Noun in -Ma/Me /-ma/me/..................................................... 334
Verbal Noun in -hiu/hiu /-ıs/is/.................................................................................. 334
Forms of the Verbal Noun in -biıu/Miu /-ıs/is/....................................................335
Paıticiples..........................................................................................................................336
Present Paıticiple in - hh/ üsh /-ya:n/yâ:n/...................................................................336
Forms of the Present Participle................................................................................340
Past Participle in -m /eu /-an/en/..i........................................................................... 341
Forms of the Past Participle.................................................................................... 344
Future Participle in -tkak/ ^ sk /-jak/jek/.................................................................... 345
Forms of the Future Participle.................................................................................346
Future Indefinite Participle in -ap/ep /-ar/er/..............................................................347
Table of Contents xi

Fonns of the Future Indefinite Participle............................................................... 348


Present Perfect Participle in -hmk/hhk /-dık/dik/...................................................... 348
Gerunds.................................................................................................................... ....... 350
Gerund in -un/nıı /-ıp/ip/..........................................................................................350
Fonns of the Gerund in -hm/mı /-ıp/ip/..................................................................357
Gerund in -a/e/# /-a/e/y/............................................................................................ 357
Gerund in -anu/enH /-alı/eli/ ................................................................................. 358
Gerund in -ara#a(H)/arefle(H) /-a:gada(n)/â:gede(n)/....................................................358
Adverbs............................................................................................................................. 359
Types of Adverbs............................................................................................................. 359
Simple Adverbs............................................................................................................359
Derived Adverbs.................................................................................................... ....359
Combined Adverbs....................................................................................................... 360
Classification of Adverbs................................................................................................. 361
Adverbs of Time...........................................................................................................361
Adverbs of Sequeaoe.................................................................................................... 364
Adverbs of Place................................................................................................ ..... 370
Adverbs of Direction.....................................................................................................371
Adverbs of Degree........................................................................................................ 373
Adverbs of Manner....................................................................................................... 375
Modal Words................................................................................................................... 377
Affkmation....................................................................................................................... 377
Negation............................................................................................................................ 382
Confirmation.....................................................................................................................386
Certainty........................................................................................................................... 388
Supposition......................................................................................................................389
M otivation....................................................................................................................... 391
Intensification................................................................................................................ 392
Limitation........................................................................................................................ 396
G eneralization................................................................................................................ 397
Demonstration.................................................................................................................. 401
Inıerjections......................................................................................................................403
Postpositions................................................................................................................... 405
Postpositions with the Nominative C ase...................................................................... 405
Postpositions with the Dative C ase............................................................................... 416
Postpositions vvith the Ablative Case.............................................................................421
Amdliary Nouns................................................................................................................427
C onjıtnctions............................................................................................................ 433
Coordinating Conjunctions.............................................................................................433
Connection................................................................................................................... 433
Contradiction............................................................................................................... 438
Coırelation....................................................................................................................444
ITM!IWLW,lW.lm .u U |j

xii Türkmen Referenee Grammar

Subordinating Conjunctions.........................................................................................450
Condition.................................................................................................................... 450
Contingency................................................................................................................ 451
Causadon.................................................................................................................... 451
Qnotation.......................................................................................................................453
Particles......................................................................................................................... 457
Particles That Express Attitudes.................................................................................. 459
Emphasis..................................................................................................................... 459
Speculation..................................................................................................................463
Confirmation....................................................................................... ....................... 465
Assertion........................................................................................................................467
Particles That Express Emotions...................................................................................470
Appeal......................................................................................................................... 470
Realization.................................................................................................................474
Surprise.........................................................................................................................475
Grammatical Particles....................................................................................................476
Question........................................................................................................................476
Negation..................................................................................................................... 478
Qualification............................................................................................................... 480

S YNTACnC SYSTEM..................................................................................................... 485


Phrases............................................................................................................................486
Noun Phrase Structure..................................................................................................487
Juxtaposition............................................................................................................. 487
Agreement........... :......................................................................................................488
Government.................................................................................................................. 489
Verb Phrase Structure.................................................................... ................................ 490
Juxtaposition............................................................................................................... 490
Government...................................................................................................................491
Semences......................................................................................................................... 492
Types of Sentences.........................................................................................................492
Classifîcation According to Purpose...........................................................................492
Classification Acoording to Structure......................................................................... 494
Simple Sentences............................................................................................................. 496
Parts of a Sentence....................................................................................................... 496
Order of the Parts of a Sentences................................................................................. 498
Agreement Betvveen Subject and Predicate.................................................................500
Words Not Connected with Parts of a Sentence....................................................... 500
Composite Sentences........................................................................................................501
Compound Sentences................................................... ..............................................501
Complex Sentences......................................................................................................502
Table of Contents xiii

LEXICON................................................................ 505
Word Comppsition................................................ 506
Compound Words................................................. 506
Combination W ords............................................. 509
Intensified Words.................................................. 510
Reduplication..................................................... 510
Intensifying Syilables....................................... 511
Auxiliary Verbs.................................................... 512
Neologisms, Clipped Words and Acronyms...... 516
Word Derivation................................................... 517
Nouns from Nouns................................................ 518
Agent Suffibc...................................................... 518
Association Suffix........................................... 518
Industry Suffıx.................................................. 519
Companion Suffix........................................... 519
Diminutive Sufftxes......................................... 520
Petsian Suffixes................................................. 520
Russıan Suffixes................................................ 522
Nouns from Verbs................................................. 523
Process/Result of Action.................................. 523
Means/Place/Agent of Action.......................... 524
Other Suffixes................................................... 526
Verbs from Nouns, Adjectives and Other Words 527
The Suffix +na/ne- /+la/le-/......................... 527
Other Suffixes.......................... '........................ 528
Verbs from Verbs.................................................. 530
Voice Suffixes................................................... 530
Active Voice.................................................. 531
Passive Voice................................................. 531
Reflexive Voice............................................. 532
Cooperative Voice......................................... 533
Causative Voice............................................. 534
Compound Voice Suffîxes............................ 535
Descriptive Sufifcces.......................................... 536
Adjectives fitom Nouns......................................... 538
Attribute Suffix................................................. 538
Privation Suffix................................................. 539
Relation Sııffix.................................................. 540
Other Suffixes................................................... 540
Persian Suffixes................................................. 541
Persian Prefıxes................................................. 541
Russian Adjectives............................................ 542
xiv Türkmen Referenee Grammar

Adjectives from Verbs.................................................................................................... 543


Adverbs from Nouns, Adjectives and Other Words.....................................................545
Borrowing.......................................................................................................................548
Persian and Arabic.......................................................................................................... 548
Russian......................................................... ................................................................. 550
Thematic Groups........................................................................................................... 552
Verb Groups.................................................................................................................... 552
Verbs of Motion......................................................................................................... 552
Verbs of Speech.......................................................................................................... 554
Verbs of Emotion and Understanding....................................................................... 554
Time and Calendar......................................................................................................... 555
Time of the Day.......................................................................................................... 555
Days of the Week........................................................................................................556
Day of the Month........................................................................................................557
M onths........................................................................................................................557
Seasons........................................................................................................................557
Year............................................................................................................................. 558
Cardinal Directions.........................................................................................................558
Money, Weights and Measures.....................................................................................559
Money......................................................................................................................... 559
Weights and Measures................................................................................................ 559
Human Body...................................................................................................................561
Anatomy..................................................................................................................... 561
Senses and Bodily Functions....................................................................................561
Famiiies.......................................................................................................................... 563
Kinship........................................................................................................................563
Manıage...................................................................................................................... 563
Greetings, Faıewells and BestWishes..........................................................................565
Greetings and Farewells..............................................................................................565
Best Wishes and Odıer Phrases................................................................................. 567

PARADIGMS...................................................................................................................569
Noun Paradigms.............................................................................................................570
Pronoun Paradigms........................................................................................................577
Verb Paradigms..............................................................................................................582

BIBLIOGRAPHY..............................................................................................................661
Works in Türkmen and Russian Languages................................................................. 661
Works in Other Languages............................................................................................ 673

INDEX.................................................................................................. ;..........................679
Table of Contents XV

TABLES

Short and Long Vovvels in Root Syilables.................. 34


Characterization of Vowels According to Oppositions 48
Consonant Assimilations.............................................. 64
The Türkmen Alphabet.................................................. 75
Indefinite and Definite Possession............................... 120
Arithmetic...................................................................... 168
Quantifying Pronouns................................................... 171
Verb Tenses/Aspects...................................................... 218
Contracted Verbs............................................................ 227
Modal Foımations.......................................................... 302
Descriptive Verbs........................................................... 312
Functions of Participles............................................... 337
Modal W ords................................................................. 378
Conjunctions.................................................................. 434
Particles.......................................................................... 458
Compound Words.......................................................... 508
Turianen Weights and Measures................................... 560
Turianen Anatomy........................................................ 562
FOREWORD

This book is a referenee grammar of Standard Türkmen, as vvritten and spoken by


representative speakers of the Teke d iale ct in the Ashgabat-Marı region of the country of
Türkmenistan in Central Asia, where Standard Türkmen is the national language.

The Türkmen Referenee Grammar is intended to be an accessible, practical and


comprehensive referenee work for students, researehers and linguists. My chief goal has
been to present Türkmen grammar for foreigners, and specifically for speakers of
English. Although this is not a contrastive grammar, comparisons are made vvith
English at every ttım in order to bring the user’s prior knowledge of grammar into play
and thereby to highlight some of the main differences betvveen the two languages.
Because most learners lack familiarity vvith the linguistic terminology and framevvork of
the Latin grammatical tradition, I have tried to explain the terms of grammatical
deseription wherever it was deemed necessary and to avoid excessive use of Latin terms
that mean little if anything to such learners.
My second goal has been to make consultation of this referenee grarfitnar as practical
as possible for users. An important aspect of practicality is responding to the needs of
those kind of learners who relate structuıes of one language to those in their own
language through "equivalencies." In nearly every case, the presentation of a suffıx or
structure is accompanied by a suggestion of an English equivalent or equivalents. At the
same time, the less literal translations, supported by annotations, of the numerous
illustrative sentences may be of practical service to researehers who use Turkmen-
language sources. In addition, every example has been transeribed as an aid to those who
seek a guide to a broad pronunciation of the language, as well as to those who prefer to
work with transeription rather rhan with the Cyrillic alphabet of Standard Türkmen.
Other aspects of practicality inelude the numerous highlighted examples, eross-
references, and paradigms, and the extensive Table of Contents and Index.
By its nature, my third goal- that of comprehensiveness- is doomed to failure. No
grammar can store ali the complexity and variety of a language, but it should
incorporate ali of the Standard forms and meanings of its phonological, morphological,
syntactic and lexical systems. This referenee grammar claims to do this for the
phonological and morphological systems of Standard Türkmen, and contains an
introduetion to its other systems. Moreover, the Türkmen Referenee Grammar seeks to
suggest the richness of the Türkmen spoken and written languages through abundant
citations of examples which have been seleeted for their aptness, variety and clarity from
a vastly larger collection of examples. Since the deseriptions of Türkmen grammar rely
heavily on the interpretation of these illustrative sentences, it should be noted that any
one of them may lose some feature of its original context, such that, in some cases, the
translation provided might be open to an alternative interpretation.
xviii Türkmen Referenee Grammar

General linguists also may find in this grammar an additional source for their
comparative researehes, since they rarely cast their nets farther than Turkish among the
Tuı kic languages. The cohsequence of this has been that the modern language of Turkey
is regarded as the model of this language family. The truth is that no modern Turkic
language may serve as its structural model, let alone Turkish which has been in the
"shop" for centuries, being stripped dovvn and restored again and again. This referenee
grammar presents sufficient data to linguists who seek an altemate or additional example
in the Turkic language family. For the Turkologist who long has realized the importance
of Türkmen for this field of study, the Türkmen Referenee Grammar may disappoint in
its determined avoidance of the comparative-historical approach which is routine in
Turkology. Atcthe same time, the Turkologist will recognize that historical grammar
rests upon a thorough understanding of the synchronic systems of a language and,
equally, upon an exhaustive treatment of its dialeets. To have attempted to meet these
challenges here vvould have svvelled this work to an unacceptable size.

The first part of this book (Sound System) presents a deseription of the sound system,
changes and spelling rules of Standard Türkmen. Ali Türkmen examples in this referenee
grammar are given in the Türkmen alphabet based on Cyrillic seript, rather than in the
"new Türkmen alphabet" based on Latin seript, vvhich is many years away from full
implementation. Ali examples are accompanied by a morphophonemic transeription
whose principles are simple (see Transeription) and produce a gross realization of the
aetual pronunciation of any representative Teke speaker of Standard Türkmen. In this
transeription system, each phoneme is represented by a symbol commonly used in
grammars and linguistic deseriptions. In addition, changes vvhich occur vvithin a vvord or
at the boundary between vvord and suffix (but not between vvord and vvord) are
represented. No other phonetic or suprasegmental features are indicated. English
approximations or equivalents of Türkmen sounds are taken from my variety of
American English. Because such approximations are subject to nit-picking, symbols
from the International Phonetic Alphabet are provided as a kind of objeetive referenee.
In the second part of the book (Grammatical System), the grammatical categories and
suffîxes of Standard Türkmen are presented according to their usage with different parts
of speech. Each grammatical category begins with a general deseription and referenee to
English usage to facilitate passage from a knovvn to an unknovvn language. This is
foilowed by highlighted typical examples and then a presentation of the main
expressions of each jgrammatical category, accompanied by examples. Some seetions
also inelude contrasts betvveen vvays of expressing various categories, and each seetion
ends vvith a deseription of the forms of the suffixes or struetures used.
The third part of the book (Syntactic System) offers an all-too-brief deseription of the
main syntactic patterns-of Standard Türkmen, its purpose is to familiarize students of
Türkmen vvith the general struetures of phrases and sentences, and not to teach parsing
or to present a full analysis, a task that remains to be accomplished even by Türkmen
linguists.
Foreword xix

In the fourth part of the book (Lexicon), a brief overview of the Türkmen lexicon
with emphasis on the means of vvord formation is provided. Selected themuic groups
(anatomy, kinship, formulaic sayings, ete.) are discussed, since they may present some
interest to students and some other users. Attention is devoted to compounding and
derivation as the majör means of vvord formation, and to borrovving as a source of
lexicai enrichment.
The last part of the book (Paradigms) offers full paradigms of noun an: pronoun
declension vvith plural, possessive and case forms, as well as verb conjugıtion vvith
declarative and interrogative forms in both positive and negative.
An extensive Bibliography is appended to encourage further research, but it should
be pointed out that many of the vvorks cited theıe have not been available or eonsulted
for this study. A full index of forms and constructions concludes this book.
This referenee grammar skimps on syntax, omits several phonological (phonotactics,
intonation) and lexical (phraseology) topics, and lacks historical and dialect data, surely
proper elements of referenee. Such shortcomings may be placed in the perspeetive of the
thousands of studies of majör languages like English that appear each year, as opposed
to the relative handful of studies that have ever appeared on Türkmen or oth:r Turkic
languages.

The Türkmen Referenee Grammar relies on four main sources (see Abbrevia: ons), its
grammatical deseriptions depend heavily on those contained in the tvvo-volume
FpaMMaTMKa TypKMeHCKoro st3 biıca (1970, 1977), a vvork of thoroughiy sound
scholarship that stores and deseribes the norms of the Standard language. The d ebt vvhich
every student of Türkmen ovves to its collective of authors is very great, and ] am glad
to acknovvledge my extensive use of this vvork.
The resources of the Türkmen Language Project conducted at Indiana Univsrsity in
1993-1995 constitute the second main source of the Türkmen Referenee Grammar. This
project vvas funded by the Çenter for the Advancement of Language Leaming
(Washington, D.C.) to prepare the Türkmen Language Course. That course vvas designed
and vvritten to enable learners at U.S. government language schools to gain
communicative competence in the Türkmen language at a profıciency level of 2+
(Interagency Language Roundtable scale), and to meet the specifıc needs and .sehedules
of those schools. The course package consisted of around four thousand printed pages in
eleven books, as vvell as forty hours of video- and audio-tapes in tvventy cassettes.
Türkmen members (Ejegız Sapaıova, Ogulsona Ishankulıyeva, Nıyazberdi Rejt:bov) of
the Türkmen Language Project provided its staff vvriters (Suzan Özel, Y/iilianı Dirks)
vvith examples for exercises, as vvell as various illustrative examples for this grammar
upon request. In addition, frequent discussions vvith them clarified aspects of Türkmen
grammar and usage.
The third main source of the Türkmen Referenee Grammar consists of Turkmen-
language materials printed in the last fîfty years. Examples extracted frorn these
materials represent Standard Türkmen in several varieties of its usage, rangirg from
XX Türkmen Referenee Grammar

literatüre to journalism to daily speech. These sources inelude literary works and
newspapers from which examples were cited in the TpaMManiKa TypKMeHcıcoro sobiıca
and Oskar Hanser’s Türkmen Manual, as well as literary and sociai Science works and
newspapers that appear as readings in the Türkmen Language Course. Finaily, a variety
of current iiterary, sociai science and popular works, as well as magazines and
newspapers, served as sources of examples.
The fourth source of the Türkmen Referenee Grammar consists of the spoken
materials recorded on video- or audio-cassettes by David Tyson of the Türkmen
Language Project. These inelude television and radio broadcasts, taped lectures, informal
intervievvs vvith Türkmen from a wide variety of socioeconomic levels, and prompted
(but not seripted!) dialogs with Türkmen in Ashgabat and other localities of the Ahal
and occasionaliy other provinces. Ali such video- and audio-taped segments were
transeribed and translated by Tyson in the "Transcripts" volüme of the Türkmen
Language Course.

Potential users of the present Türkmen Referenee Grammar should be aware of the
history of its composition. A first version of the grammar was vvritten in 1995 to
accompany the Türkmen Language Course prepared by the Türkmen Language Project.
The primary goals of that version were to satisfy demands of the government review
team regarding its structure and presentation, and to provide a deseription of the
language which wou!d be accessible to the wide range of learners vvithin the government
who potentially might use that course. Neither goal had anything to do with traditional
expeetations of grammatical deseription. Moreover, neither goal vvas fully met, as it vvas
impossible to finish the grammar by the deadline set by the funding ageney. In 1996,
when the funding ageney announced its intention to print the Türkmen Language Course
for internal govemmental use, I urged that ageney not to do so, as its deadline had
prevented effective editing of any of its volumes and, in particular, the grammar itself
vvas far from Fınished. Since it decided to do so över my protests, I vvas able to
introduce a limited amount of editing of the volumes, including of the grammar in the
form in which it then existed. Thus, two prior versions of this grammar came into
existence, neither of them in anything like the form I vvould have intended had there
been suffıcient time to complete the grammar for this ageney. Although the previous
versions may be useful to some kinds of learners, they are rough-hevvn and incomplete,
and they should not be used by those interested in the grammatical deseription of
Standard Türkmen. The present Türkmen Referenee Grammar is a thoroughly revised and
expanded work intended for such users.

In vvriting this grammar, I enjoyed the incredibly good luck of vvorking eloseiy vvith
Professor Ejegız Saparova of the Türkmen National Institute of World Languages in
Ashgabat. Her expertise in the contrastive analysis of Türkmen, Russian and English
grammar, as vvell as her resolute attention to detail, her experience in language teaching,
and her unflagging spirit vvere key ingredıents in its accomplishment. In the Summer of
Foreword xxi

1995, she devoted long hours to helping me complete the first version of this grammar,
contributing-many of the grammatical understandings in Türkmen and English, as vvell
as the interpretations of Türkmen sentences. At the same time, she patiently taught me
the nuts-and-bolts of the kind of grammatical deseription that aims at accessibility. The
follovving Summer, she read through many seetions of the revised manuseript, spotting
numerous errors in deseription, transeription and translation. Any expression of my
respect and gratitude vvould be a poor substitute for my dedicating this vvork to her.
I also wish to express my appreciation to ali my friends who formed the Türkmen
Language Project at Indiana University. Dr. Nancy Clair of Brovvn University guided
me into the fıeld of language pedagogy and her natural elarity and wit never failed to
make our vvork together a revvarding experience. David Tyson of Indiana University vvas
more than a mainstay during the Project. His linguistic and cultural knovvledge, his
quiet strength and humor, and his friendship, have made our several collaborations
personally important. Ogulsona Ishankulıyeva of Türkmen State University collected
and helped me translate a large body of examples from grammatical vvorks. Nıyazberdı
Rejebov of the Türkmen Ministry of Education assembled a great quantity of examptes
from nevvspapers, as vvell as provided me with materials on specialized topics. Suzan
Özel and William Dirks of the Department of Central Eurasian Studies at Indiana
University, as other members of the Project, ciarifîed a number of points of Türkmen
usage, and Andrea Word and Sarah Sherry of the Department of Linguistics assisted in
phonetic analysis and in contrasting English and Türkmen. Professors Lars Johanson
and Eva Csatö of Johannes Gutenberg-Universitiit in Mainz, as vvell as Marcel Erdal of
Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitiit in Frankfurt, provided sound counsel regaıding
several points of grammatical deseription. I also benefıtted from conversations with
Professors Akı Gurdov of Chi\rjew Pedagogical Institute and Paul Nevvman of the
Department of Linguistics at Indiana University. To ali of these friends I say Thanks
for the memories."

In a vvork of this size, which contains vvhat has seemed like trillions of symbols in three
vvriting systems, errors must remain. Of these, I am the sole executor.
TRANSCRIPTION

The transeription system used in this referenee grammar is based on a morphophonemic


principle. Only the basic pronunciations of Türkmen phonemes are transcr.bed, and
never their variants. Thus, c and 3 are transeribed /©/ and /S/, instead of [s] and [z], and
6 always appears as /b/, and never as its variant [v] that occurs in non-inidal positions.
The transeription symbols used are those whieh appear in the deseription of vowels and
consonants (see Phonology).
Long vowels are indicated by a colon (:). With a few exeeptions, the writirg system
of the Standard language does not distinguish betvveen the short and the lonj; vowels,
for the reason that Turkmen speakers do not need such visual distinetior.;;. These
exceptions inelude using the letters y for short /ü/ and yü for long /ü:/, and the letters
3/e for short /e/ and a for its nearly always long counterpart /â:/. This means that the
letter a represents both /a/ and /a:/, u both /ı/ and /ı:/, m both /i/ and /i:/, o both /o/
and /o:/, e both /ö/ and /ö:/, and y both /u/ and /u:/. Such dual representations are
indicated throııgh the convention a /a-a:/, u lı-v.l, h /i-i:/, o /o-o:/, e /ö-c:/, and y
/u-u:/. Long vowels were verified in the Standard dictionary of EacıcaKOB-K uppueB-
XaM3aeB 1968. In addition, long vovyels were corroborated, wherever possible, by
Turkmen members of the Turkmen Language Project, while those in propernames were
checked against the dictionary of proper names by ATara>iH30B 1992. Where n:cessary,
spellings of Turkmen words were verified in the orthographical dictionary edited by
BeMeos 1989.
Transcriptions are set within slashes (//> and mirror, so far as possible (capitals do
not exist for /8, 0/), the capitalization and punetuation of the Turkmen examplcs.
The transeription represents ali sound changes that take place between morphemes
within a word (vowel harmony, consonant assimilations) and at the juneture be tween a
word and a suffix (vowei loss, consonant voicing, consonant assimilations) (see
Morphophonology). Changes vvhich take place at the juneture between words are not
transeribed, for the reason that the great majority of illustrative examples ı cpresent
written and not spoken Turkmen.
There remain a few inconsistencies in the transeription of Russian vvords, since it
was difficult to establish a rule for variant pronunciations of certain sounds. Iııdividual
speakers vary in their pronunciation of Russian sounds and in their application of the
rounding rule of vowel hannony and certain consonant assimilations to Russian words
from one context to another (see 52). In general, the subject of the Russian cornponent
within the Turkmen phonological system requires a special study.
So far as could be determined, the official preseription that Russian words are
pronounced as in Russian is not observed consistently by any Turkmen speaksr. As a
consequence, the transeription may retain some inconsistencies; for example, the
transeription of Russian t}> /f/ may altemate between /p/ and /f/ ((jjeBpajit /pevvral/
'February', but TejıecJjoıı /telefon/ 'telephone'- both could be reversed), and the
xxiv Turkmen Referenee Grammar

transeription of h /ya/, e /yo/ and jo /yu/ after consonants (there is a spelling rule for
Russian e /ye/; see 76-77) also may vary (oKTSöpt /oktyabır/ 'October', but caıuoneT
/9amolot/ 'airplane', BajııoTa /waluto/ 'currency'- these also have variants).
In regard to vowel harmony, Russian words are treated as Turkmen words
throughout, according to the rule that vowel hannony follows the vowel of the last
syllable of borrowed words. In regard to consonant assimilations, these generally are
not observed at morpheme juneture within Russian words (HHCTMTyT /inötitut/ instead
of /in00itut/ 'institute'), although they usually are in the case of initial consonant
clusters with vowel prothesis (cTyjı /u00ul/ 'chair')- Final consonant clusters are
transeribed according to the convention - c t /-0[0]/ and -33 /-8[8]/ in both Russian and
Turkmen words (aBrycT /awgu0[0]/ 'August', noesn /poye8[8]/ 'train', flocT /do:0[0]/
'friend').
In the translations of Turkmen examples, and throughout this referenee grammar,
Turkmen words and names are transliterated with essentially the same symbols as those
used for transeription, except that long vowels, vowel harmony and consonant
assimilations are not indicated, and sh is used for s, ch for c, and j for j.
Grammatical and lexical suffixes are cited throughout the Turkmen Referenee
Grammar according to whether they are added to noun stems (preceded by the symbol
+) or verb stems (preceded by the symbol -, vvhich also is used vvith particles).
Some grammatical works represent the variant vowels of suffixes b y the Capital
letters A, I and U, or other sy m b o ls, where each letter stands for two or more vowels
(A = a /a-a:/, e /e/, s /a:/; I = u /ı-ı:/, h /i—i:/; U = u h-ı:/, H /i—i:/, y /u/, y /ü-ü:/).
Such sy m b o ls also are used for consonants. In this work, however, suffixes are cited in
their unrounded vowel and unassimilated consonant variants only. As an illustration,
the location case suffix is cited as +na/ae /+da/de/, even though this suffix potentially
has twenty variants, due to vovvel hannony and consonant assimilations (see 53, 62).
First, the suffix +fla/ne /+da/de/ p o te n tia lly has four variants according to its vovvel:
the unrounded back vowel form /+da/ for words containing unrounded back vowels; the
unrounded front vovvel form /+ de/ for words containing unrounded front vowels; the
rounded back vovvel form /+do/ for words containing unrounded back vowels; and the
rounded front vovvel form /+dö/ for vvords containing rounded front vowels. Second,
the suffix +fla/jje /+da/de/ potentially has five variants according to its consonant: the
variants /+Sa/8e/ when added to stems ending in 3 /S/; the variants /+0a/0e/ when added
to stems ending in c /©/; the variants /+na/ne/ when added to stems ending in H /n/;
the variants /+la/le/when added to stems ending in ji /!/; and the variants /+da/de/ in
ali other cases. Together, the four times five possibilities produce tvventy variants for
+fla/ne: /+da/de/do/dö/8a/8e/5o/5ö/0a/0e/0o/9ö/na/ne/no/nö/la/le/lo/lö/.
Such variants occur as the result of stable rules of the sound system vvhich are
detailed under Morphophonology. In addition, the variant vowels of suffixes are
indicated in the transeription (e.g. +na/j(e /+da-do/de-dö/) in the seetions on the forms
of suffixes in the Grammatical System and the Lexicon, and in the Index.
ABBREVIATIONS

As briefly explained in the Forevvord, this referenee grammar leans on a number of the
grammatical deseriptions and illustrations provided in the rpaMMamum mypYMencmzo
R3HKa (cited as "G" or rpaMMamum; see "Abbreviations" below). Turkmen members of
the Turkmen Language Project also provided examples for this grammar and for the
"Lessons" volumes of the Turkmen Language Course (the latter cited as "T'). The
"Transcripts" volüme of that course served as the source of numerous examples
appearing in audio-taped and radio broadcast ('TA"), printed ('TP") and video-taped and
televised ("TV") materials. Citations of the latter type of materials inelude references to
the unit (1-18) and lesson (1-5) within each unit; for example, 'TV14.3" means that a
sentence derives from visual materials used in Lesson 3 of Unit 14 of this course.
Other printed sources from vvhich examples were derived included: articles in a variety
of Turkmen nevvspapers ("N"); pieces in popular magazines ("D," "O"); shoıt stories and
novels ("BG," "BH," T T ); the intelleetual nevvspaper 3de6um?ı ee Cynzam as cited by
Hanser in his Turkmen Manual ("H"); and the literary and other works vvhich served as
the sources of examples in the rpaMMamum mypKMetiCKOZo soum ("G"). Exact citations
of these sources are omitted.

BG EepflHMyxaMMeT T y n o B , reAHaAbiyçu, AmraSa-r: «TypKMeHMCTaH», 1990.


["The Bride-Taker": contemporary stories]

BH BepflHHa3ap XyflaöHa3apoB, CaûMHaH acepAep. AıuraSaT: «TypKMeHMCTaH»,


1990. ["Selected Works": pages 5-389]

D ffusıp. ["Country": general magazine about Türkmenistan]

G rpaMMamum mypKMeHCKOSO jutuca, I. 0onem um u Mopçfiojıozusı. [Pefl H.A.


BacKaKOB et al.], Amxa6^q: «LIjimm», 1970.
[Also cited as rpaMMamum.]

H Oskar Hanser. Turkmen Manual. Descripdve Grammar o f Contemporary


Literary Turkmen, Wien: Verlag des Verbandes der vvissenschaftlichen
Gesellschaften Österreichs, 1977.

N Nevvspapers [selected issues of various Turkmen nevvspapers published 1993-


1995]

O Oeadan. ["Beautifiır: magazine for women]

T "Lesson" volumes of the Turkmen Language Course prepared by the Türkmen


Language Project at Indiana University (1993-1995).
xxvi Türkmen Referenee Grammar

TA Audio-taped and radio broadcast materials in the "Transcripts" volüme of the


Turkmen Language Course.

TJ Thpkhiu 3^yMarejfflHeB, Tapa uuAdupuM. Auıraöa-r: «TypKMeHMCTaH», 1990.


["Black Lightning": contemporary novel]

TP Printed materials in the "Transcripts" volüme of the Turkmen Language


Course.

TV Video-taped and televised materials in the "Transcripts" volüme of the Turkmen


Language Course.
INTRODUCTION

Türkmen is a member of the widespread Turkic language family of Eurasia. These


languages, vvhose speakers number around 125 million people, form the basis of
national languages in East Europe (Chuvash, Tatar, Bashkir, Gagauz), the Caucasus
(Azeri, Kumuk, Karachay, Balkar, Nogay), Siberia (Tuvan, Altay, Khakas, Yakut),
China (Uygur, Kazak), Central Asia (Kazak, Kirgiz, Türkmen, Uzbek, Karakalpak), and
the Near East (Turkish, Azeri). Turkic languages share a common grammar and
vocabulary, but only a few of them are similar enough today to eası: mutual
understanding. The closest relatives of Turkmen are the languages of the Turks in
Azerbayjan (Azeri) and Turkey (Turkish), and of a number of dialects in Afghanistan,
Iran, Iraq, Syria, the Balkans, Moldava and the Ukraine, ali of which beloııg to the
Oğuz group of the Turkic language family.
The majority of world Turkmen live in the country of Türkmenistan located in
Central Asia, and substantial numbers also live in Iran, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.
Türkmenistan borders the Caspian sea in the west, and shares with Kazakistan the Ust-
Yurt plateau in the northwest, and some of the Amudarya delta around Da:>hhowuz
with Karakalpakistan (a part of Uzbekistan) in the north. The Amudarya river defines
its northeastem border with Uzbekistan, while the Murgab river, rising in its Southern
neighbor Afghanistan, forms the M an (ancient Merv) oasis in the southeasteın region
of Türkmenistan. The Köpetdag mountains and the Etrek river in the southvest run
along its southem border with Iran.
Historically, this territory comprised part of the fertile Khorezm region around the
Amudarya delta and Aral sea; the Khorasan region of northwestem Afghanistan,
northeastem Iran and the Murgab and Tejen oases, and the northern and southem
valleys of the Köpetdag with the Etrek and Gorgan rivers; the Balkhan mountains
extending northward from the westem end of the Köpetdag, the Caspian sea and
Mangıshlak peninsula (now in Kazakistan); and the Garagum desert which constitutes
around 70 percent of the territory of Türkmenistan.
9 Türkmen Referenee Grammar

The History of the Turkmen


The origins of the Turkmen may be traced back to the Oğuz confederatiön of nomadic
pastoral tribes of Antiquity and the early Middle Ages who were settled around Lake
Baikal and in present-day Mongolia. Known as the Nine Oğuz, this confederation was
composed of Turkic-speaking peoples who formed the basis o f powerfuI steppe empires
in Inner Asia, ineluding the First (552-612) and Second (692-742) Turk empires and
the Uygur Steppe (744-840) and Tienshan (866-1270) empires. A group of the Oğuz
that vvas interrelated with the Turk ruling families followed those families out of Inner
Asia after the Basmils, Uygurs and Karluks destroyed the Second Turk Empire in 742,
and moved fîrst into the Semirechye region and then by 775 into the steppe region
between the middle Syrdarya and the Ural rivers of Central Asia. The Turk-Oguz or
Syrdarya Oğuz ineluded twenty-two basic elans, the majority of whose names survive
among the modem Türkmen.1 These Oğuz took part in the destruetion of the Khazar
realm in 965, and groups of them began moving into the European steppe where they
were known as the Uz (from Oğuz) or the Torki in European sources until they became
absorbed by the Kipchak Turks of the region in the 12th century.2 In Central Asia,
lıovvever, Müslim sources referred to the Syrdarya Oğuz as Guzz, to dıstinguish them
from the Tokuzguzz (Nine Oğuz) of the Uygur realm in the Tienshan mountains.3

The Saljuks
By the late tenth century, the bonds of the Syrdarya Oğuz confederation began to
loosen due to a general lack of cohesiveness and to pressures from other steppe peoples.
At that time, a military commander named Saljuk who was a member of the
charismatic Kınık elan of the Oğuz, founded the Saljuk dynasty över those elements of

1 For the üst o f these cîans vvhich appeaıs in îhe 1 lth century dictionary of Mahmud al-Kashgari, see
Barthold 1962: 109-116, Dankoff 1972: 32-34, 1982: 101-102 and Golden 1992: 207-208. f a khkhcb:
1991: 68-69 provides a conveniem table of the names which survive in the Turkmen clan-tribal
structure. These inelude five modem tribes (Kashgari's Salgur = modem Salır, Eymür = Yemreîi,
Chawuldur = Chowdur, Bayat * Bayat and Igdir), six elans of the modem Gökleng ttibe (Kashgari’s
Kayjg, Bayundur, Bâktili, Bayat, Tuurka, Chapni), four elans o f the Teke (Ewâ - Yewa, Afshar,
Bügdüz, B'âchânâk), two cîans of the Yomut {Bügdüz, Chapni), and one elan of the Arsan (Kınık). Of
the seven elan names without established representation among the modem Turianen, Kashgari’s
Yazgır elan probably survives as the modem Garadashlı cribe (ATaımraae 1988: 42, £ xhk hcb: 1991:
109-123), while Kashgari’s Ak Bölük and Kara Bölük may be equated vvith the names Agöyli and
Garaöyîi, which are associated vvith the modem Sakar (flacKKHeB: 1991: 286-288).
2 Some o f these Oğuz groups became incorporated as 'Türkmen' elans within the Kipchak, Ay and
Küdey tribes o f the eastem Bashkir, see KysecB 1974: 183-184, 202, 210.
3 Conveniem revievvs o f early Oğuz histoıy may be found in Adamovjc 1981-82, Banhold 1962: 77-99,
Cahen 1968: 1-15, and Golden 1972, 1992:205-212.
Introduction 3

the Oğuz peoples who became a dominant factor in Near Eastem history until eighty
years ago.4 -
Legends conflict regarding Saljuk’s role in the process, but under his sons and
grandsons, numerous Oğuz tribesmen converted to İslam, and began to battle with non-
Islamized Oğuz in the steppe between the Ural and Syrdarya rivers, as well as with the
Karakhanids in Transoxiana and the Gaznavids in Khorasan. In 1040, the Saljuks
defeated the Gaznavid ruler Mas’ud which opened the way to a majör migration of
Saljuk Oğuz into Khorasan. Subsequently, along vvith the expansion of the Saljuk
Sultanate, Oğuz tribesmen began migrating into the Near East. Saljuk aımies defeated
the Byzantines at Manzikert in 1071, confronted the European Crusaders for centuries,
and even withstood the first assaults of the Mongol conquest. However, after the battle
of Kösedağ in 1243, the Saljuks became a protectorate of the Mongol empire. During
this period (1243-1261), further migrations of Oğuz peoples from Khorasan to
Azerbayjan, Syria and Anatolia took place.
Between 1261 and 1320, Saljuk chiefs of Anatolia waged holy war against the
Byzantines, and it was from their midst that came a Saljuk chief named Osman (~
Othman) who founded the Ottoman dynasty. Between 1354 and 1402 the house of
Osman expanded into the Christian Balkans, until it suırounded Constantinople. After
the fail of this eity in 1453, vvhich ended the one thousand-year old Byzantine empire,
and after the incorporation of Arab lands in 1517, the Ottoman empire became the
largest Islamic empire ever, lasting until World War One.

The Name "Turkmen'


The term "Türkmen" first appeared in Müslim sources at the end of the İOth century as
a designation of those Oğuz groups who converted to İslam and in the middle of the
llth century migrated south from the Syrdarya region into Khorasan.5 Whether these
sources reported an ethnonym then in existence among the Oğuz remains unclear, but
they used the terms Oğuz and Turkmen, as well as the combinations Oguz-Turkmen
and Turkmen-Oguz, interchangeably as a designation for the Islamized Oğuz. By the
13th century, the term Türkmen possessed the properties of an ethnonym which, except
in historical legends, supplanted the ethnonym Oğuz, and came to refer to ali the
Saljuk Turks, particularly those who continued to pursue nomadic pastoralisin.
The exact origin of the vvord Türkmen has not been resolved. Some early scholars,
beguiled by the French spelling "Turcoman," made the unacceptable suggestion that
this vvord represented a compound of the ethnonyms Turk and Coman (that is, Kuman,
a group of the Kipchak Turks in eastem Europe). Other scholars feel that the formation

4 This historical summary is based on Agadshanow 1994 (= ArajjaçaHOB 1991), Barthold 1927, 1962: 99-
131, Bosworth 1968, 1995,Cahen 1965, 1968: 19-50, Golden 1992: 216-225,347-378 and İnalcık 1973:
3-58,
5 See Barthold 1962: 77-80, Golden 1992: 212 for this usage, and two possible earlier occuırences of the
name.
4 Turkmen Referenee Grammar

Türk+matı must mean 'resembling Turks,' and refer to the folk etymology suggested
by contemporaries of the Oguz-Turkmen, ineluding the Aıab Iexicographer Mahmud al-
Kashgari who, in the 11th century, derived the word from Turk mânartd, which means
in Persian "These look like Turks."6 Hovvever, the most likely explanation of the word
is that it is derived from the ethnonym Türk plus an intensifying element +man, which
could mean 'most Turkish of the Turks' or 'pure-blooded Turks.'7

Formation o f the Modern Turkmen


During the Mongol conquest of Central Asia in the 13th century, the Oğuz tribes who
had remained in the Aral sea region between the Ural and Syrdarya rivers after the split
with the Saljuks were pushed farther into the Garagum desert and along the Caspian
sea, an area sparsely inhabited until that time. Until the early 16th century, they were
concentrated in four main regions: along the southeastem coast of the Caspian sea, on
the Mangıshlak peninsula, around the Balkhan mountains, and along the Uzboy river
bed running aeross north-central Türkmenistan. Here, in the İ4th-l6th centuries, the
Turkmen refomıed into the tribal groups vvhich exist today. Beginning in the 16th and
continuing into the 19th century, Turkmen tribes and groups migrated from this
vvestem region eastward and southeastvvard into Khorezm, Southern Türkmenistan and
Khorasan.8
In the 16th century, the Sahr, Ârsan, Sarık, Yomut and Teke tribes vvho form the
modem Türkmen people lived in the northvvestem area of their modem territory.
According to historical legends recounted by the 17th century Khivan nıler Abu’l-Gazi
in his "Genealogy of the Turkmen," these tribes formed a kind of "Sahr confederation,"
in that they were organized into the "outer Salır" (Salır proper, Teke, Yomut, Sank),
vvho nomadized on the coast of the Caspian, and the "inner Salır" (Salır of Khorasan,
Ârsan), most of vvhom nomadized from the Caspian east tovvard Khorezm.9
Multiple factors contributed to the subsequent migrations of these tribes from the
vvestem territory, ineluding pressure from northem nomadic neighbors like the Kalmyk
Mongols, the enticement of political povver and economic vvealth in neighboring

6 See Baıthold 1962: 80-82, Dankoff 1973: 235-237, 1984: 363, Golden 1992: 213; also cf. Agadzhanov-
Karryev 1978, AraHHflaoa 1988: 116-117, öyp&ueB 1991: 45-51.
7 The element -hman is virtually unknown in Turkic languages, occuning in a few words also restricted
to the Oğuz; for example, the name Karaman was bome by a Salır group, by an Oğuz hero in the Dede
Korkul eyele, and by a number o f settlements in Anatolia and the Balkana; see TeHHtoeB 1976: 461,
flacHKMeo 1991: 243-253.
8 For this period of Turkmen histoıy, see especially ıhe reconsuucüons of Bregel 1960 (= Bperen 1959),
1981, and flaîHKHeB 1991 £= Dshikijew 1994); also cf. Baıthold 1962: 131-170, EepAHea 1970: 16, 22-
24 and Doerfer 1975-76: 85, 1976b: 247-248, 1977: 193. BıegeTs studies appear to have been
unknovvn to Golden 1992: 400-401, some o f whose remarks on the fonnation of the modem Turkmen
are wide o f the mark.
9 Kohohob 1958: 73-74, 103; cf. Barthold 1962: 132-133, 137, Bregel 1981: 18, and 1991:132-
137,222-223. Leiser 1995: 1005 reveıses the composition of the two divisions of the Salır.
Introduction 5

sedentary regions like Khorezm, the salinization and desiccation of vvestem pasturage
and consequent inter-tribal feuding, and others. While some elements of these groups
may have begun moving eastward in the late 16th century, the majör migrations of the
Sahr, Ârsan, Sank and Teke to the southeast occurred in the 17th century.
The Ârsan were the first to migrate, moving into southem Türkmenistan (Khorasan)
and Khorezm. By the early 18th century, most Ârsan had settled along the middle
course of the Amudarya from Sayat in the north to Kerki in the south. T.ıey were
joined by the Sank vvho moved betvveen Khiva, the Amudarya and the Murgab oasis,
settling in the latter at the beginning of the 19th century. The Salırs’ migration took
them to the middle course of the Amudarya in the early 17th century, from vvhich some
of them later vvent to the Murgab oasis and then to Saragt. That same century, the Teke
moved into the Ahal region along the Köpetdag mountains, and the Yomut split into
vvestem and eastem groups, as they expanded their grazing grounds from the. Gorgan
and Etrek in the southvvest to Khorezm in the east. In the 18th century, the Te.(e began
to occupy the Tejen and Murgab river basins, a process completed in the foLlovving
century. As a result of v/arfare with the Khiva Khanate and other factors, the Salır and
Sank gradually vvere subordinated to or dissolved in other groups, and the Teke, Ârsan
and Yomut became the most prominent and numerous of the Turkmen tribes. In the
course of these migrations and resettlements, the Turkmen also absorbed a v ariety of
local Iranian and Turkic peoples vvho subsequently became associated vvith the core
Turkmen tribes. In southeastem Türkmenistan, these ineluded the originally Iranian
peoples cailed the Nohur, Mürcheli, Ânevvli, Mehinli, Süncheli and Hasarlı, and the
originally Oguz-Turkmen groups of the Yemreli, Garadashlı and Alili.10
During this formative period, most of the Turkmen tribes fell under the control of
the Uzbek khanates of Khiva and Bukhara. Persian shahs also periodically attempted to
subdue and exact tribute from southem tribes. Uzbek khans and princes of both
khanates enlisted Turkmen military support in their mutual struggles and in campaigns
direeted against the Persians. Consequently, many Turkmen tribes migrated eloser to
the khanates’ urban centers vvhich came to depend heavily upon the Turkmen for their
military forces. The height of Turkmen influence in the affairs of their sedentary
neighbors came in the I8th century when on several occasions (1743, 1767-1770) the
Yomut invaded and controlled Khorezm. Such conflicts continued into tlıe 19tlı
century, until the Teke, Gökleng and Yomut became independent from Kh: va and
Persia in 1858-1861. One result of the constant hostiiities vvith these states was the
dissolution of the eastem Yomut, and the consolidation of their range in u-estem
Türkmenistan. With this, the modem distribution of the majör Turkmen tribes
essentially vvas fixed.

10 flacHKHea 1991:83-123.
6 Turkmen Referenee Grammar

Incorporation into Russia


Russian encroachment upon Turkmen territory began in eamest in the latter part of the
19th century. Of ali the Central Asian peoples, the Turkmen put up the stiffest
resistance against Russian expansion. In 1869, the Russian Empire established a
foothold in present-day Türkmenistan with the foundation of the Caspian sea port of
Krasnovodsk (current Tiirkmenbashı). From there and other points they marehed on and
subdued the Khiva khanate in 1873, and subsequently conducted raids against Turkmen
tribes, especially the Yomut and Teke.
By the late 1870s, the Russians had advanced to one of the last Tnrkmen
strongholds, a fortress near the town of Gökdepe, northwest of Ashgabat. In 1879, a
Russian expeditionary force vvas tumed back by the Ahal Teke defenders of the fortress.
Hovvever, after a three-week siege and the loss of some 15,000 Türkmen lives, Gökdepe
fell to a Russian force under the command of General Skobelev in 1881. Annexation of
the remaining Turkmen territory follovved the Turkmen defeat, vvhich is novv marked by
the Turkmen as a national day of mouming and a symbol of national pride.
Later the same year, the Russians signed an agreement vvith the Persians and
established vvhat essentially remains the border betvveen Türkmenistan and Iran. After
the surrender of the Man Teke in 1884 and other aetions that brought Russia into
confrontation with Great Britain, a similar agreement vvas signed betvveen the tvvo
povvers in 1887, vvhich fixed the border vvith Afghanistan. Follovving annexation to
Russia, the area vvas administered as the Trans-Caspian District.! 1

Soviet and İndependent Türkmenistan


The Turkmen generally took little part in the revolutionary activities that established
Soviet rule in 1917. During the Civil War and later socioeconomic reform campaigns,
many Turkmen groups out-migrated to Afghanistan and Iran, vvhile others joined the
armed resistance to Soviet rule known as the Basmachi Rebellion throughout Central
Asia from the 1920s into the early 1930s.
In the national delimitation of October 1924, vvhen Central Asia vvas divided up
into union republics, the Trans-Caspian District and Turkmen Oblast of the Turkestan
Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic became the Turkmen Soviet Socialist
Republic. By the late I930s, pastoral nomadism ceased to be an economic altemative
as the majority of Türkmen had become sedentary. Efforts by the Soviet State to
undermine tlıe traditional Turkmen way of life produced changes in familial and
political relationships, religious and cultural observances, and intelleetual
developments. Significant numbers of Russians and other Slavs migrated to urban
areas. Cotton cultivation vvas expanded vvith the construction of the Garagum canal,

1İ Bregel 1995: 202, Carrere d'Encausse 1994: 147-149, Saray 1984, 1989.
Introduction 7

modest industrial capabilities were developed, and limited exploitation of


Türkmenistan^ natural resources was initiated.12
During its existence as Soviet Türkmenistan, Moscow kept the republic under fimi
control, and for the most part the Türkmen leadership staunchly supported Soviet
nationality policies which fostered education and literacy, emancipation of women, the
development of a Türkmen political elite and intelligentsia, and other modemist trends.
Türkmenistan reacted sluggishly to the policies of gîasnost and perestrojka, and found
itself rather unprepared for the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the independence
which follovved in 1991.
After the August 1991 coup attempt in Moscow, Türkmenistan’s communist leader
Saparmırat Nıyazov called for a popular referendum on independence. Because official
results of the referendum were 94 percent in favor of this move, the republic’s Supreme
Soviet had little choice other than to declare Turkmenistan’s independence from the
Soviet Union and the establishment of the state of Türkmenistan (TypKMenucmaH
deeAemu) on 27 October 1991.

12 For Soviet Türkmenistan, see Berdi Murar 1975.


8 Türkmen Referenee Grammar

The Distribution of the Turkmen


The majority of world Turkmen live in the state of Türkmenistan (1989 Soviet census:
2,537,000). Relatively large populations of peoples, most of whom identify
themselves as belonging to the same Turkmen groups as those in Türkmenistan, live in
Iran (low estimate: 400,000), Afghanistan (mean estimate: 400,000) and Uzbekistan
(1989: 121,600). Small groups also live in Russia, Kazakistan and Tajikistan (total in
1989: 71,400). Without counting the Turkmen of Iraq, Syria and Turkey, or the Salar
of China, the total number of Turkmen amounted to conservatively 3,500,000 in the
early 1990s.

Turkmen in Türkmenistan
According to Soviet censuses there were 766,000 Turkmen in the Soviet Union in
1926, 811,000 in 1939, 1,002,000 in 1959, 1,525,000 in 1970; 2,028,000 in 1979,
and 2,730,000 in 1989. The number of Turkmen living in Türkmenistan was
2,537,000 in 1989, with the remainder in other republics of the former Soviet Union.
Because Turkmen have maintained their affiliation with the former clan-tribal
organization, the distribution of modem Turkmen may be deseribed in terms of the
distribution of these tribes in Türkmenistan. Unfortunately, only the 1926 Soviet
census collected data on ethnic affiliation and distribution among the Turkmen, so that
even more current treatments of dıis question rely on those materials.13 The following
list also derives from this source, with the provisions that the names of some of the
districts may have undergone recent changes and that these data may be supplemented
by the distributions indicated for the dialeets (see below, 16-18).

1. Teke live compactly in the districts of Bâherden, Ashgabat, Bayramah, Man,


Tejen, Kirov, Wekilbazar, Sakarchâge, Türkmengala, and in groups in the
Kaka, Gızılarbat, Yerbent and Stalin (now Murgap) districts.
2. Yomut live in the Gızıletrek, Esengulı, Gazanjık, Köneürgench, Tagta and
Krasnovodsk (now Türkmenbashı) districts, and partially in the districts of
Yılanlı, Andreyev, Kalinin, Telman and Lenin.
3. Â rsan live compactly in the Burdalık, Garabekewiil, Sayat, Kerki, Gızılarbat,
Charshangı and Hojambaz districts, and in groups in the Garhk district.
4. S alır live in the Saragt district, and partially in the Charjew, Kaganovich
c (now Sakar) and Stalin (Murgap) districts.

13 See Wood 1990: 37. A summary o f ihe 1926 data vvas published by Karpov 1929, and some of its
materiaî on the distribution of Turkmen is repeated in J3ypflueB-Ka#wpoB 1991: 16. Bregel 1981 also
used Karpov and several other sources in deriving his estimates of historical changes in the trihal
demography o f the Türkmen.
Introduction 9

5. S arık live in the Yolöten and Tagtabazar districts, and a few in the Stalin
(Murgap) district.
6. Chovfdur live compactly in the Kalinin and Porsı districts, and in gr:ups in
the Dashhov/uz district and in districts along the Etrek and Amudarya river s.
7. Gökleng live in the Garrıgala district, and a small group in Yılanlı disırict.
8. Ânevvli live in the Gongurgala village of Kaka district.
9. Bayatlar live in the Burdalık and other districts.
10. Ogurjalı live in the Cheleken district.
11. Yemreli live in the Yılanlı district.
12. Süncheli and Mûrcheli live in the Sünche and Mürche villages of Balıerden
district.
13. The "holy tribes" (Ata, H oja, M agtım, M üjew ür, Seyit, Shılı) live in the
Saragt, Darganata, Krasnovodsk (Türkmenbashı), Garrıgala, Gızılarbat and
other districts.14

Although reliable current figures for the number of members of each of tlıe.se etlınic
groups are lacking, data from the 1926 census indicated that the largest tribes were the
Teke (270, 254, or 39 percent of total), Arsan (151,483, or 22 percent), Yomut
(90,729, or 13 percent), Salır (35,541, or 5 percent) and Sarık (32, 729, or ıılmost 5
percent).15 Thus, the five tribes of the earlier "Salır confederation" accounted for almost
85 percent of the Turkmen at that time. It is unknown vvhether these tribes have
maintained their relative sizes or exact distributions to the present.

Turkmen Outside Türkmenistan


Outside of the State of Türkmenistan, Turkmen live in Russia, Kazakistan, Uz cekistan,
Tajikistan, Afganistan and Iran. In addition, some Turkmen scholars daim the
Turkmen of Irak, Syria and Turkey, as well as the Salar of China, as their own
The number of Turkmen in Russia does not exceed 12,000 or so, vvith th: largest
group living in the Stavropol region of the northem Caucasus, and very small groups
around Astrakhan and in Dagestan. These Turkmen cali themselves "Trukhmen' and are
descendants of Chowdur, Igdir and Söyünjajı tribal groups who migrated here from
vvestem Türkmenistan in small numbers in the 17th-18th centuries under pressure from
the Kalmyk Mongols.16 Turkmen also are thought to live in the Crimea of the Ukraine
Republic.17

14 For the six "holy tribes," see Basilov 1984 and fleMH^oB 1976.
15 flypfttıeB-KaflupoB 1991:15-16; but see Bregel 1981: 14-17 for refinements of these figures.
16 EacKüKOB 1949, KypeHOB 1962, flypflueB-KafltıpoB 1991: 36-38.
17 JJypAueB-KaflupoB 1991: 39-43.
10 Turkmen Referenee Grammar

A very small number (3,800) of Türkmen live in Almatı and in villages of the
Gurjev, Chimkent and Karaganda prûvinces of Kazakistan, but their ethnohistory is
unknown,18
About half of the TuTkmen of Uzbekistan (1989: 121,600) live in greater Khorezm,
ineluding those in Karakalpakistan (60,200) and around the cities of Urgench, Khiva
and Khazarasp of Khorezm province (6,000), while other groups live along the
Amudarya and near Samarkand and Bukhara. These inelude perhaps a small number of
descendants of the medieval Oguz-Turkmen peoples who settled here, as well as
Turkmen groups vvhich began to settle along the Amudarya and in the delta in the
16th-17tlı centuries. Ethnically, the Turkmen of Karakalpakistan, Khorezm and the
Amudarya identify themselves with the Yomut, Chowdur, Arabachı, Hıdır-ili and
Olam tribes, and small numbers witlı the Hoja, Seyit and Shıh "holy tribes."19
Very little information is available on the Türkmen of southem Tajikistan (20,400,
with the majority in Jılıköl district), so that it is unclear vvhether they are descendants
of the medieval Oguz-Turkmen settlers, or more recent immigrants, or a mixfure of rhe
two.20
The Turkmen of Afghanistan live predominantly in its northvvestem region, moving
from the eastem province of Kunduz and the Bağlan province south of Kunduz, to the
northem provinces of Samangan, Balkh and Jauzjan, to the northern parts of Faryab,
Badgiz and Herat provinces, to small enelaves in Gilmend province, and to a
community in Kabul and its environs.21 Estimates of the number of Turkmen settled
in Afghanistan range from 300,000 to 900,000, although the most recent study of the
question placed their number at around 400,000.22 The greatest number reşide in
Jauzjan province (180,912), then in Kunduz (73,220), Faryab (50,820), Balkh (39,
036), Samangan (20,312), Herat (10,066), and other provinces. These groups ali
identify themselves as Turkmen and maintain their clan-tribal affiliations. The largest
group by far are the Arsan (around 350,000), and smaller groups are the Teke, Salır,
Sarık, Mavvrı, Mukri, Hatab, Alili, and a few Yomut. The oldest settlers from
medieval times are inciuded among the Ârsan, although the majority of these appear to
have migrated to Afghanistan since the 1670s and again in the 1930s. The other
Turkmen moved to Afghanistan in the later 19th century or follovving dıe inidation of
extreme reform policies in the Soviet Union in the 1920s,23

18 flypfltıeB-KaflbipoB 1991:33-35.
19 flypflueB-KaaupoB 1991: 25-33.
20 / I y r e ü - Ka;ıMpoB 1991: 22-24.
21 Ba6 aeBa 1992: 10-11.
22 EaBaesa 1992: 6-21. This seholar averaged figures from the 1979 Afghan census, data colleeted by
Franz 1971-1972, and interviews which she held with Türkmen villagers throughout northem
Afghanistan. HrMypoB 1993: 109, relying mainly on older sources, arrived at an estimate of 450,000 at
the beginning of the İ960s. İrons 1984: 804 estimated 380,000, while Hypa^eB-KajjtjpoB 1991: 46-48
offeTed 840,000.
23 Ea6 aeBa 1992: 22-47.
Introducrion 11

The Turkmen of Iran are settled in districts (Gorgan, "Steppe" Gorgan) of the
northeastem part of Mazandaran province and in districts (Guchan, Bojnurt, Saragt) of
the northwestem part of the bordering Khorasan province. Estimates of their number
range from 400,000 to 1,100,000. Those of the Gorgan and Etrek area identify
themselves as Turkmen belonging primarily to the Yomut, Sahr, Sarık, Gökleng and
Atabay tribes, vvith an Ogurjah group living on a Caspian island, Turkmen of the
Bojnurt district belong to the Teke, Nohur, Yemreli, Igdir, Ânevvli, Mürche, Süncheli,
Hıdır-eli and other groups, and those of the northeastem part around Mashhad and
Saragt to the Salır, Sarık and other tribes.24
Those peoples in the Near East vvho are called or self-designated "Türkmen" are
descendants of the Oguz-Turkmen immigrants of the llth-13th centuries, and share
only their ethnonym with the modem Turkmen. They inelude the Turkmen settled in
the northeastem and partly central provinces of Iraq who may number more than
200,000, and vvho speak a westem Oğuz dialect eloser to Azeri than to Turkish.25 The
Turkmen of Syria iive in the northem regions from the Mediterranean to Aleppo on the
border vvith Turkey. Together with the Turkmen of Turkey (often designated by the
sociai term Yürük), they comprise more than 200,000 people and speak either Syrian
Arabic or a dialect of Turkish.26
In the 14th century, a large body of Salır Turkmen migrated from the Samarkand
region of Central Asia to the Gulja region of present-day Xinjiang and to the Gansu
and Qinghai provinces of northwest China where they constitute the modem Salar
minority of about 70,000 people. Although elearly of Oğuz origin, the culture and
language of the Salar are not recognizabiy Turkmen.27

24 JJypsuea-KaflkipoB 1991: 48-49, ATaeB 1993a: 21-23; also cf. Farmayan 1983, Irons 1975 and Menges
1951. Doerfer 1977: 129 gives the conservaüve figüre of 400,000 Turkmen in Iran, Irons 1984: 804 the
figüre of l . l million, and flypflueB-KaflupoB 1991:57 the figüre of 750,000.
25 C>Be30B-Kafl3Kap0B 1993: 141, 185-187; cf. Buluç İ966, 1979, Benderoğlu 1976, J^ypflueB-KaflfcipoB
1991: 50-53.
26 CaxarMbipaflOB 1993: 205-208, 213; cf. Doerfer 1991: 107-108, £(yp,n;fc>feB-KaflbipoB 1991: 53-55,
EpeMees 1969, Kapa6 ae& 1993, Riza 1931-33, Roux 1970.
27 For genealogical connections betvveen the Salar and Sahr, see J^^hrhcb 199i: 244-248; also cf.
^ypflueB 1992: 21-24, ATaeB 19936: 287. For recenı Lreaünenis o f the Salar language, see TeHMtneB
1976 and Hahn 1988.
12 Turkmen Referenee Grammar

The Türkmen Language


The modem Standard Turkmen language is called TypaneH adeöu öuau 'the Turkmen
literary language' or Xs3upKu 3 omoh mypKMen öuau 'the modem Turkmen language'.
This language was formed in the Soviet period primarily on the basis of the dialect
spoken by members of the Teke tribal group in the Ahal and M an provinces of
Türkmenistan. Prior to 1917, literate Turkmen used the Chagatay literary language
written in Arabic seript. Afiler 1917, reforms of this seript were undertaken in 1922 and
in 1925 for the purpose of bringing it closer to the pronunciation of Turkmen, and
some publications appeared in that language.28
The main outlines of Standard Turkmen were formulated in the period 1928-1940,
when it vvas vvritten in a Latin alphabet. The First Linguistic Congress of
Türkmenistan held in 1936 refined Standard Turkmen in Latin seript, but by 1939
plans abeady were underway to svviteh to the Cyrillic-script, which offıcially became
the basis of the Standard language in 1940 (see 74). The Second Linguistic Congress of
Türkmenistan held in 1954 essentially confirmed the norms of the Standard language
stili in use today.29
Language policy in the State of Türkmenistan is marked by a determination to
affinn the position of Turkmen as the official language and to remove the heritage of
the Russian-dominated past. A parliamentary resolution of May 1990 that replaced
Russian vvith Turkmen as the official state language vvas institutionalized in the 1992
Constitution vvhich proelaimed Turkmen "the official language of inter-ethnic
communication." This vvas accompanied by restoring or applying Türkmen names to
cities, villages, farms, streets, stores and numerous other establishments, replacing
some Russian adminstrative terminology, and promoting Standard Turkmen as the
national language of ali Turkmen, regardless of their dialect. In 1993, the Turkmen
government resolved to switch the Standard language to a Latin-based seript (see 86).

Written Sources of the Turkmen Language


Prior to the 20th century, Turkmen vvas not a literary language, although some
Turkmen writers used the classical literary language of Central Asia called Chagatay
and their vvritings are referred to as TypKMen öuauhuiİ st3ye nduz3pAUKAepu 'vvritten
monuments of the Turkmen language'. Hovvever, the modem Turkmen language has a
history of more than a millennium of development from the original language of the
Syrdarya Oğuz people.
Recapturing that history is the province of historical linguistics and philology.
Historical linguists attempt to restore previous stages of a language until they reach an
ending-point at vvhich the language no longer is distinguishable from other languages

28 For a catalog of these early printed worfcs in Arabic seript, see JfaöepflHeB 1981.
29 See Maptmpos 1972,1973:205-207.
Introduction 13

of the same genealogy. To accomplish this task, they rely primarily on the linguistic
features of the dialects o f a language, but also, if they are available, on prior texts
written in the language, as well as on loanwords made into and out of the language,
and the like. Philologists restore the exact pronunciations and meanings of texts, so
that when such texts exist for a language their vvork is essential to historical linguists.
In seeking earlier evidence of the Turkmen language in written sourc es, it is
imperative to keep in mind several points of the reconstruction of Oğuz history
revievved above. First, the basic split between Islamized and non-Islamized Oğuz tribes
that occurred toward the end of the lOth century left most of the non-Islamized tribes in
the westem part of the steppe betvveen the Ural and Syrdarya rivers. Especially after the
migration of the Saljuks into Khorasan in the 1040s, the medieval coııcept of
"Turkmen = Müslim" did not apply to those steppe tribes, and yet they formed the
nucleus of the modem Turkmen. Thus, they should be distinguished from the "Oguz-
Turkmen = Müslim" of Khorasan and other regions of the Near East. Second,
historians assume that the steppe tribes w ere pushed from the Aral sea area to-«aıd their
vvestem grazing grounds on the Mangıshlak peninsula, along the Caspian sea and
vvestem Türkmenistan in the 13th century. Apart from this movement, itself
conjectUTal, almost nothing is known of the Turkmen tribes in the steppe from the 1 lth
to the middle of the 16th centuries. Although the possibility that individuais or groups
of these tribes appeared in places in the Near East during this time cannot be cıccluded,
the steppe tribes become known to history as the modem Türkmen only after their
migrations into Khorezm and Khorasan in the 16th-17th centuries. Thus, vvith one
exception, it is a priori unlikely that any of the Oguz-Turkmen written sources prior to
that time are relevant to the history of the Turkmen language.
The exception consists of the Oguz-Turkmen linguistic materials vvh eh vvere
recorded by the llth century lexicographer Mahmud al-Kashgari. His Divan Lügat at-
Turk ("Compendium of Turkic Dialects"), vvhich vvas vvritten in Arabic and completed
in the 1070s, frequently opposes Oguz-Turkmen to the Khakani Turk language (a court
language based on the Chigil, Yağma and other Karluk dialects) vvhich is :he main
subject of his deseription.30 Kashgari left no room for doubt as to his understa nding of
the term Türkmen: 'Türkmen. They are the Oğuz," "Oğuz. A tribe of the Turks; the
Türkmen.”31 Most frequently, he cited Oğuz phonetic, grammatical and lexical features
under the term "Oğuz," but also used the terms "Oguz-Turkmen," "Turkmen-Oguz" and
simply Türkmen," ali of these apparently interchangeably.
Thus, Kashgari’s Oguz-Turkmen material potentially constitutes the earlieıt record
of the predecessor of modem Türkmen. Several considerations, hovvever, argu: against

30 For treatments o l Kashgari’s Oguz-Turkmen material, see A xannu 1958, Banguoğlu 1!)59, 1960,
Korkmaz 1972, Muxamedova 1973, and Dankoff 1982: 43-48, 1985: 275-289,333-336.
31 Dankoff 1982: 101-102, 1984:362.
14 Turkmen Referenee Grammar

this conclusion.32 First, Kashgari indicates the existence of dialects in the Oguz-
Turkmen language of this period through characterizations like "Most of the Oğuz say
bard u k 'I went' for bardım ," and "Some of the Oğuz say ol tapratıgsak ârdi 'H e
should have hurried'...In another of their dialects they say ol tapiratıgsı ârdi."33 One of
those dialects appears to have been spoken by the Karluk Turkmen vvho vvere identifıed
by Kashgari as "A tribe of the Turks. They are nomads; not Oğuz, but they are also
Türkmen." He records the form âbâ 'mother' in the Oğuz dialect, and says that "among
the Karluk Turkmen it is âpâ."34 Such indications suggest that the Oguz-Turkmen
material in Kashgari may belong to three or more dialects, and that therefore any one of
these- or, equally, a dialect not recorded by Kashgari- could represent an earlier stage
of modem Turkmen.
The fact that several Oğuz dialects already existed in the llth century must be
viewed in the context of Oğuz history. Kashgari compiled his work in the 1070s, at a
time after the majör split in the Oğuz tribal union which sent the Saljuks into
Khorasan (1040s) and vvhen many of the Oguz-Turkmen tribes vvere migrating into the
Near East during the Saljuk expansion (1060s). Kashgari himself studied in Bagdad
then under Saljuk control, so that, in ali likelihood, he gathered most of his Oguz-
Turkmen data through contact vvith individuals of the Oğuz tribes in Khorasan vvhose
dialects över the course of time developed into vvestem Oğuz and into "Khorasan
Turkish" (see below). Although there is no evidence that he personaily joumeyed into
the steppe to collect data from the Oğuz betvveen the Ura! and Syrdarya rivers, it should
be remembered that his vvork ineludes linguistic information about numerous Turkic
dialects of the Eurasian steppe vvhich he could have recorded from merchants and other
individuals vvho took part in the trade betvveen the Near East, Khorezm and Volga
Bulgaria that traveled through the Oğuz steppe.35
Some portion, therefore, of Kashgari’s Oguz-Turkmen recordings potentially could
belong to early Turkmen. Hovvever, not to mention the probable dialect differences that
exist in this material, even a cursory examination of the majör phonological differences
vvhich Kashgari highlighted betvveen Oğuz and Turk does not provide any basis for
identifying them as Turkmen; such features as Oğuz d- ~ Turk t-, -v-----p- and -C- ~
-Cg- are found in many Oğuz dialects, vvhile b- - m- is found only in Turkish and j- ~
y- is not found in Oğuz. Much the same could be said about Kashgari’s morphological
and lexical material as vvell.

32 In addition to these, certain inconsistencies which affect the reliabiüty of Kashgari’s Oguz-Turkmen
recordings have been noted by Doerfer 1975-1976: 93-94, 1987: 107, 1990a: 29-30, and other scholars.
33 Dankoff 1982: 413, 1984: 145.
34 Dankoff 1982: 122, 353. The "Karluk Turkmen' probably can be identifıed as the predecessors of the
modem Ak Garlık and Gara Garhk elans o f the Arabachı group \vhich is part of the Chowdur mbal
union; see AraHHiöOB 1988: 15, 41, 46-47 and DacHKtteB 1991: 298-299.
35 See Pritsak 1959b.
Introduction 15

If the promise of Kashgari’s Oğuz material stili has not produced any sound basis
for Turkmen historical linguistics, then the linguistic material labeled 'Türkmen" or
produced by Turkmen in the Near East in subsequent centuries should not raise any
expectations at ali. This applies, in the first place, to the several manuals vvritten in
Arabic whıch describe the Kipchak Turkic language of the military rulers of Mamluk
Egypt in the 13th-14th centuries. Particularly tovvard the end of the 14th century,
numerous Oguz-Turkmen of Anatolia joined their military ranks, so that these
grammars also inelude citations of features and vvords o f the language of these
"Turkmen." However, ali of this material belongs to westem Oğuz dialects and not to
Turkmen proper.36
Certain works written in what is called "Old Anatolian Turkish" in the 13th-15th
centuries display such eastem Oğuz features as bol- 'to be(come)' as opposed to
vvestem Oğuz ol-, In vievv of vvhat vvas said above regarding the basic contours of
Turkmen history, it is very unlikely that this language could have represented an earlier
stage of Turkmen. The Gennan seholar Gerhard Doerfer has argued that Old Anatolian
Turkish actually is an earlier stage of the eastem Oğuz dialect group vvhich he terms
"Khorasan Turkish" (see belovv), citing not only linguistic correspondences, but such
facts as the origin of some vvriters from Khorasan (for example, Jalâl ad-Dîn Rûmî,
1207-1273).37 Although the questions of its origin and development remain
unresolved, Old Anatolian Turkish clearly does not exhibit specifically Turkmen
linguistic features.38
On the basis of evidence in hand, it appears that ali of the linguistic material labeled
'Turkmen" or "Oğuz" and dating to the llth-17th centuries must be attributed to the
dialects spoken by the Oguz-Turkmen of Khorezm, Khorasan, Azerbayjan, Anatolia and
other areas of the Near East. Although the nucleus of the Turkmen tribes vvho form the
modem Turkmen people surely existed in the Middle Ages, first in the steppe from the
Syrdarya to the Ural rivers and then in the Mangıshlak-Balklıan region, there are no
Oğuz linguistic materials that can be shovvn to originate in these areas.39

36 Doerfer 1975-76: 92-93, 1976b: 246, İ990a: 24. For the Arab-Kipchak manuals, see Ermers 1995,
Hofman 1969: 6/183-185, 200-203, 220-223, M yxaM e,qoBa 1973, and Pritsak 1959a: 74-81.
37 Doerfer 1975-76, 1976a, 1977: 130-133 and 1990a: 20-27. This seholar also contends that the I4th
century Arab philologist Ibn Muhanna recorded material from early "Khorasan Turkish"; cf. Doerfer
1975-76: 132-133, 1976a: 145, 1976b. The Turkmen citations in a small pentaglot Arabic-Turkmen-
Mogoli-Pashıo-Persiatı glossary written since the 18th century in the area around Herat also probably
belong to ıhe Khorasan dialects; see Weiers 1973, Clark 1979: 80-82.
38 As Johanson 1993: 25-26 pointed out, there is no evidence that a literary form of Khorasan Turkish
existed in ıhe I3th century when Rûmî composed a few verses in Turkish, using forms of the eastem
Oğuz spoken in his native Balkh. Beller-Hann 1992: U 7 -U 8 , 121-126 also hesitated in accepting
Doerfer’s identification and explored the further development of Old Anatolian Turkish into 'Turk
Ajami" (early Azeri); also see Guzev 1990.
39 A few scholars (for example, Benzing 1964: 722) mainıain that the several written versions of the
"Ogaz Legend" (13ıh-i5ıh centuries) and ıhe "Book o f Dede Korkut” ( J5th-I6th centuries), which are
relevant to the ethnogenesis and subsequent history o f the Oguz-Turkmen, belong to the literatüre of
16 Türkmen Referenee Grammar

In the 16th-17th centuries, the core Turkmen tribes whose dialects form the modem
Turkmen language began their migrations into sedentary areas of Khorezm and
Khorasan and came into contact with the long-established cultural traditions of the
Turks and Iranians in these areas. Beginning in the 18th century, a number of Turkmen
poets studied in the religious schools of Khiva and Bukhara, where they leamed to
write the classical literary language of Central Asia called Chagatay. Famous poets who
wrote in this language and whose legacy helped mold Turkmen national consciousness,
inelude Azadi (1700-1760, Gökleng tribe), Magtımgulı (1733-1782, son of Azadi),
Mollanepes (ca.1810-1862), Kemine (1770-1840, Teke tribe), and others.40 While the
lyrical, religious, didactic and historical poetry of these writers constitutes the
beginnings of "classical Turkmen literatüre," the aetual language of their literary
produets is not an early representative of modem Turkmen. Indeed, Aleksandr
Samojlovich conducted a thorough analysis of the orthography, phonology, grammar,
syntax and lexicon of a 19th century historical poem written by a Teke poet in this
language, and could not find any feature that diverged significantly from late Chagatay
and that could be identified specifıcally as Turkmen.41 On the other hand, a substantial
component of Persian-Arabic vocabulary, suffixes and constructions, as well as a few
Chagatay elements, entered the Turkmen language primarily through the medium of
this late Chagatay literatüre.

Turkmen Dialects
Standard Turkmen is regarded as their national language by ali Turkmen living vvithin
Türkmenistan and, according to many Turkmen, by at least some of those living in
ııearby countries as vvell. This partly abstract Standard language stands elosest to the
real language of the Teke dialect, and specifically of its Ahal subdialect spoken in the
Ashgabat region,42 because many of the specialists who formulated the Standard
language in the 1930s were Ahal Teke, a n d the majority of officials, businessmen and
intellectuals who routinely use this S tandard language, are Ahal Teke or live in

ıhe Turkmen. Hov/ever, ıhe exisiing copies o f these works do not display Turkmen features; see the
references in Iz 1965, M elikoff 1995. For repuledly “Türkmen" passages in ıhe 17ıh century
"Genealogy of the Turkmen" writtcn by Abu’l-Gazi o f Khiva, see Benzing 1964: 722, Eckmann 1964:
383-384.
40 This literatüre was finst introduced to a European readership in the work of Chodzko 1842: 379-398,
who published three poems by Magümguh and poems by several other Turkmen poets. Subsequenüy,
one poem by Magtımgulı and one by ıhe Yemreli poet Magnıpı appeared in Bepe3HH 1857: 88, and
thirty-one poems by Magtımgulı in Vâmbery 1879. Cumoüjiobhh 1906-1929 founded the study of this
literatüre; also see Azmun 1966, 19K9, 1995, Benzing 1964, Beıtel’s 1964, Feldman 1992 and Köpriilü
Zade 1927.
41 Cumoüjiobhm 1914a: 011-053; cf. Doerfer 1995: 228. For modem studies of this language, see
Armana3apûB 1978, AtuıuııypoB 1977, 1984, Amıaeca 1985, İTa&sKapoBa 1968, 199Ü, TysuMHeB 1983,
1984, and Xtifltıpo 6 1958-62, 1959, and the recent primer on the Arabic seript by rypöaitOB 1992.
42 A3biM0B 1967; EepflHeB 1970: 20.
Introduction 17

Ashgabat. At the same time, a variety of differences exist in the phonology, grammar
and lexicon of Ahal Teke, as well as in the speech of those Turkmen vvho are not Ahal
Teke. The whole of such differences for each group of speakers is characteıized as a
dialect, and their study is pursued as Turkmen dialectology.
A characteristic of Turkmen dialectology is that the definition of dialects is based
on tribal identities; for example, the "Teke dialect" essentially is regarded as the speech
of self-identified members of the 'Teke tribe," regardless of how that ethnos i:> defined
or where its members live.43 As a result of the adoption of this principle, Türkmen
dialects are classified as "sociai dialects" (in the sense of the ethnic history of Türkmen
sociai groups, rather than of their socioeconomic status) and their linguistic features are
extracted from these entities.
Turkmen dialectology was established in the pioneering work of A bksandr
Poceiujevskij and other scholars who conducted several expeditions to record dialects
in the years 1927-1936. On the basis of this research, Poceiujevskij distinguished two
basic groupings of dialects: those clustered around the core tribes vvithin Türkmenistan
(Teke, Yomut, Ârsan, Salır, Sarık, Gökleng, Garadashlı-Alili), and those distrı buted in
the valleys of the Köpetdag mountains and along the banks of the Amudarya river
(Nohur, Anew, Âski, Surhı, Arabachı, Kırach, Chandır, Mukn, Hatay, Bayat, Cheges).
The first group vvas regarded as closest to the norms of the Standard language, w hile üıe
second group was regarded as rarely divergent from those norms.44
Subseqiıent investigations, ineluding monographs and doctorates on ali of the
dialects of the core group and nearly ali of those of the marginal group, produced a
majör synthesis and a more detailed classification of Turkmen dialects.45 According to
this classification, Turkmen is composed of the follovving "majör dialects":

1. Teke dialect spoken by members of the Teke tribe settled in the soı.them
regions of Türkmenistan and along the northem skirt of the Köpetdag
mountains, from Gızılarbat to the banks of the Murgap and Tejen rivers This
dialect has two subdialects:
(a) Ahal: Tejen and Ashgabat districts up to Gızılarbat, ineluding Büzmeyin,
Gökdepe, Bâherdin, Bamı and Goch districts.
(b) Man: Man, Türkmengala, Sakarchâge, Murgap and Bayramalı districts.
2. Yomut dialect spoken by members of the Yomut tribe settled in the we:stem
and northem regions of Türkmenistan. This dialect has tvvo subdialects:
(a) VVestem: Some villages of the Gızılarbat district and a seetion of th<: city
of Gızılarbat; the Gazanjık, Nebitdag, Gumdag, Gızıletrek, Esengalı,
Cheleken, Türkmenbashı and Jebel districts.
(b) Northem: Köneürgench, Tagta and Telman districts.

43 For a discussıon o f Turianen clan-tribal organizaıion, see flxHKJieü 1991: 305-3X2.


44 rioueJiyeBCKHÜ 19366: 90-92, A3limob 1966:108-109.
45 EepHiıeB 1970:24-26.
18 Tnrkmen Referenee Grammar

3. Â rsarı dialect spoken by members of the Ârsan tribe settled along the
Amudarya river in the Halach, Garabekewül, Hojambaz, Gızılayak and
Charshangı districts, and partially in Sayat.
4. S alır dialect spoken by members of the Sahr tribe settled in the Saragt
(Sarakhs) district,
5. Sarık dialect spoken by members of the Salır tribe settled on the Central
course of the Murgap river in the Yolöten, Tagtabazar and Gushgı districts.
6. C how dur dialect spoken by members of the Chowdur tribe, mostly in the
Kalinüı district of the Khorezm oasis, and a few in Sayat.
7. Alili dialect spoken by members of the Alili tribe settled in Kaka district on
the northem skirt of the eastem seetion of the Köpetdag mountains.
8. Gökleng dialect spoken by members of the Gökleng tribe settled in Garrıgala
district along the Sumbar and Chandır rivers.
9. Nohur dialect spoken by members of the Nohur tribe living along the banks
of the Sumbar river in Nohur, Kürüzhdey, Tutlugala and Könekesir districts
in the Köpetdag mountains.
10. Ânew dialect spoken by members of the Ânew tribe living in the villages of
Manısh and Mehin.

In addition to these, Turkmen has "minör dialects," in the sense of those spoken by
less populous or less cohesive ethnic groups. These inelude the Garadashlı and Yemreli
subdialects spoken in Yılanlı and Lenin districts of the vvestem Khorezm oasis; the
Hasar dialect in. Kaka district; the Kırach dialect in villages of the Danew and Farap
districts; the Mürche subdialect in Dayna and Mürche; the Esgi subdialect in the Sayat
district; the Sakar dialect in Sakar; the Olam dialect in Charashangı district; the Burkaz
subdialect in the northem part of Man district; and the Ata subdialect in villages of the
Daraganata, Man, Tejen, Saragt and Gızılarbat districts.
The 1970 synthesis of Berdiyev and other scholars noted- but did not inelude in its
classification- the "marginal dialects" of the Turkmen living in Karakalpakistan; in the
Nurata district of Samarkand province and Garaköl district of Bukhara province in
Uzbekistan; in Tajikistan; in Stavropol (Chovvdur, Igdir, Söyünjajı), Astrakhan and
Dagestan of Russia; in Iran (Yomut, Salır, Sarık, Alili, Gökleng, Yemreli, and some
Nohur); and in Afghanistan (Ârsarı, Sank, Alili). Since its appearance, a majör nevv
understanding of the "minör" and "marginal" dialects has been proposed (see below, 19).

Turkmen and the Oğuz Languages


The classification of languages is one of the chief goals of historical linguistics, for it
ostensibly charts their divergence from related languages and thus clarifıes the history
of their speakers. The question of the classification of Turkmen as an Oğuz or as a
Turkic language also concems its historical trajectory from its modem form back to a
form from vvhich it began to diverge either from a "parem" Oğuz language or from an
Introduction 19

"offspring" of that language. Charting such relationships between Oğuz languages and
their predecessor(s) produces their genealogy or "family tree."
The historical development of the Turkmen language remains virtually unstudied.
To be sure, a host of comparative studies by Turkologists çite Turkmen data as part of
their research either on the history of Turkic languages as a whole or on the history of
the Oğuz languages as a group.46 Although they bring vahıable clarifications to their
subjects, such studies put the cart before the horse in the sense that the history of each
Turkic language, ineluding Turkmen, must be thoroughly investigated before prior
relationships can be restored.
The classification of Türkmen within the Oğuz group of Turkic languages has never
been in dispute, but its position vvithin this group remained somewhat vague until
recently. Beginning in 1969, Gerhard Doerfer and his associates investigated a number
of the dialects of Turkmen and Oğuz groups living in Iran and Afghanistan, and
published their materials in several works.47 His analysis of the materials on the
dialects of Khorasan and Khorezm vvhich previously were classified as "minör" or
"marginal" Turkmen dialects, led him to the conclusion that these comprise an
independent group vvithin Oğuz to vvhich he applied the geographical teım "Khorasan
Turkish." At the same time, Doerfer proposed a substantively new classification of the
Oğuz group of Turkic languages. According to his "Oğuz genealogy," the Oğuz Turkic
"language" is divided into westem and eastem branehes comprising five Oğuz "dialect
groups," each shading into the other aeross the geographical speetrum.48

Westem Oğuz D. Eastem Oğuz


1. Turkish (= West Oğuz) 4. Khorasan Turkish (= East Oğuz)
(a) West Rumeli dialects 5. Turkmen (= North Oğuz)
(b) East Rumeli dialects
(c) West Anatolian dialects
(d) East Anatolian dialects
2. Azeri (= Central Oğuz)
(a) Northem Azerbayjan dialects
(b) Southem Azerbayjan dialects
3. Afshari (= South Oğuz)
(a) Afshar of Kabul
(b) Kashkay, Aynallu
(c) Sonkor (transitional to Azeri)

46 Here, it may suffice to mention the comparative Turkic studies of IHep 6 aK 1970-1994, which çite
Türkmen data. The works of Doerfer (especially 1975-76, 1976a, 1990a) and Johanson (1978-1993)
are essendal for Oğuz historical lingusitics.
47 Bozkurt 1975, Doerfer 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 1977, 1991, 1992-93, Doerfer-Hesche 1989, 1993,
Doerfer-Hesche-Ravanyar 1990, Fâszy 1977, Tulu 1989, 1993.
48 See the diagram in Doerfer 1990a: 19, as well as other specifications o f this classification in Doerfer
1975-76: 81-94, 1976a: 137-138, 1976b: 247-248, 1977: 191-197, 1990a: 13-20, 1991: 107-109, 1993:
20-21, and Doerfer-Hesche 1989: 62.
20 Türkmen Referenee Grammar

Doerfer further classified the dialects of "Khorasan Turkish" into four groups: (l)
northwestem dialects of Bojnurd and surrounding areas of Khorasan province and the
Gorgan-Etrek region; (2) northeastem dialects of Zeyarat, Shirwan, Kuchan, Daragaz,
Jonk, Langar and other localities of Khorasan, ineluding dialects in southvvestem
Türkmenistan (Nohur, Ânew, Hasar), along the middle course of the Amudarya
(Kırach, Sayat, Mukn, and others), and in Karakalpakistan; (3) southem dialects of
Soltan-abad, Ruh-abad and surrounding areas of Khorasan province; and (4) the dialects
of Khorezm (Urgench, Khiva, Klıazarasp) vvhich Uzbek dialeetologists improperly cali
"Oguz-Uzbek."49
Doerfer’s classification of Oğuz in general and eastem Oğuz, in particular has much
to recommend it. His classifîcatory divisions are based on a geographical criterion
which captures the impression of many investigators that the Oğuz dialects form a
continuous speetrum from Türkmenistan to the Balkans in eastem Europe, and his
£ramework also refleets aspects of the ethnohistorical development of Oğuz peoples. At
the same time, this classification raises several questions that require further researeh.
First, it is diffîcult to distinguislı among the Oğuz peoples of Khorasan and
Khorezm between descendants of the medieval Oguz-Turkmen (whose dialects may
belong to "Khorasan Turkish") and modem Turkmen (whose dialects may belong to
Turkmen proper). It is the case that many, if not the great majority, of the Turkic-
speakers of Khorasan and Khorezm actually are Türkmen in the modem sense of that
vvord. They not only trace descent from the modem Turkmen tribes (Teke, Ârsan,
Yomut, Salır, Sank, ete.), but their movements from the vvestem half of the Trans-
Caspian plateau into areas of Khorasan and Khorezm since the 16th century has been
established. What has not been established is vvhether the Oğuz ethnic groups settled in
Khorasan and Khorezm at the time of the in-migration of the modem Turkmen groups
also identifıed vvith or vvere designated by the ethnonym Turkmen, and if so, vvhether
they were designated "Turkmen" according to the medieval concepts ("Oğuz =
Turkmen" and 'Turkmen = Müslim") or because they belonged to the same tribes as
thöse of some modem Turkmen groups (for example, Salır). From the ethnohistorical
perspeetive, then, many of the Turkmen of Khorasan and Khorezm in fact are modem
Türkmen in the same sense that the Teke, Yomut, and so on, of Türkmenistan are
modem Turkmen. Because Turkmen dialeetologists define their dialects as Turkmen on

49 Doerfer 1977: 183-204 (with map), Doerfer-Hesche 1993: 20-21, 24. The terms "Oguz-Uzbek" (an
Oğuz Turkic language), "Kipchak-Uzbek' (a Kipchak Turkic language) and "Karluk-Uzbek" (the
basis o f S ta n d ard Uzbek) were introduced by the Uzbek linguist V.V. Reshetov as a poliücal means of
consolidating ali the Turkic dialects spoken vvithin Uzbekistan under Standard Uzbek as a national
language; cf. PeuıenroB 1955, PenıeT0B-Eİ0a6flypa*M0H0B 1978: 36*42. The Oğuz dialects are spoken
in the eight southem districts o f Khorezm (Urgench, Khiwa, Khanka, Khazarasp, Bagat, Yanggi-arik,
KoshkÖpir, Shavvat), in the Törtköl district o f Karakalpakistan, in the Karakol and Alat districts of
Bukhara, and in the vicinity o f Turkestan and Chimkentin southem Kazakistan; see A 6&ynnaeB 1961,
1967, Dobos 1974; Doerfer 1977: 194-197, Magpa^HMOB 1983.
Introduction 21

a tıibal basis, it may be that the dialects of the Türkmen of Khorasan and Khorezm also
could be defîned as Turkmen dialects on that basis.
Second, caution must be exercised toward ciassifications based on linguistic features
like those cited by Doerfer to characterize "Khorasan Turkish" as an eastem Oğuz
language or dialect group distinct from Turkmen.30 The inherent flaw in ali linguistic
ciassifications is that selection of any sıngle linguistic feature or any set of i'catures is
an entirely arbitraıy process, because a given linguistic feature of itself is not ınherently
more significant than any other linguistic feature. What proof could be advajıced that
the feature, say, of the use of the variant -ya:(r)/yâ:(r) (Teke, Yomut, Salır, Gökleng,
Alili) as opposed to the variants -yo:(r)/yö:(r) (Ârsan, Chowdur), -o:(r) (Sank) or
-(ı)ya(r)/(i)yâ(r) ("Khorasan") of the present indefinite tense suffixsı impedes mutual
intelligibility any more strongly than the interdental (apical) fricatives [0] and [8]
(Teke, Yomut, Salır, Sank, Gökleng) as opposed to the dental (dorsal) fricatives [s]
and [z] (Chowdur, "Khorasan')?52
These reservations aside, Doerfer’s classification of Oğuz is preferable to previous
ciassifications in the sense that it provides a framework which reflects geographical and
historical facts and, at the same time, provokes further research.

50 Doerfer 1977: 191.


51 EepAHeB 1970: 284-295; Doerfer 1977: 169-170.
52 According 10 EepAHeB İ970: 145-146, ıhe interdental fricatives [0] and [5] occurin ali dialeus except
Nohur, Ânew, Hasar, Kırach, Sakar, Esgi, Olam and Alili, and those in Karakalpakistan and S ıavropol,
vvhere ıhe dental fricatives [s] and [zj are found. However, according lo personal observatioıt at least
some Ârsan from around Chârjew use only {s] and [z], perhaps under the influence of nearby
'Khorasan" dialects. According to Euckukob İ949: 141, 162, the Stavropol Trukhmen use [s! and [z],
excepi in some cian-tribaî names (e.g. /Balar/for Salır).
22 Turkmen Referenee Grammar

The Study of Turkmen


The grammar of modem Turkmen and its dialects has been studied in a systematic way
only in the 20th century.53 Prior to that time, a few travelers in the region published
remarks on the Turkmen and their speech, but these lacked the accuracy of trained
observation and were insufficient to establish the study of Turkmen.54
Among such older recordings, hovvever, should be noted the works of the Russian
Turkologists Ilja Berezin (1818-1896), who collected material on the dialect spoken in
Astrabad province of Iran in the early I9th century, and Nikolaj Il’minskij (1822-
1891), who recorded some specimens of Yomut and Esen-ili (Chovvdur).55 Both
Berezin and the Hungarian Orientalist Armen Vâmbery published extracts from
manuseripts by Turkmen classical vvriters, but their remarks on this language possessed
little relevance to modem Turkmen.56
After the Russians had Consolidated their adminstrative hold on the Trans-Caspian
territory, manuals for leaming Turkmen, along with small glossaries and sample
folklore texts, began to appear at the end of the 19th century and in the fîrst decade of
the 20th century. However, the first grammar and dictionary (both based on the Ahal
Teke dialect) which retain a good reputation were published by Ivan Beljajev (?-
1920).57

The Foundations o f Turkmen Linguistics


The study of Turkmen gained a solid footing within the fıeld of Turkic studies when
Aleksandr Samojlovich (1880-1938) began his many years of study of spoken Turkmen
vvith a field trip to leam the Teke dialect in 1902. Thereafter, he published numerous
studies devoted to the monuments of classical Türkmen writers (vvritten in Chagatay),
as vvell as to folklore and historical legends (recorded in Chagatay), vvhich he often
supplemented vvith remarks on the spoken language.58
Aleksandr Poceiujevskij (1894-1948) and Nikolaj Dmitrijev (1898-1954) stand out
as two pioneers in the study of Turkmen in the early Soviet period. In the years 1927-
1936, Poceiujevskij conducted a series of field expeditions to record and deseribe

53 The history of Turkmen suıdies in Russia and ıhe Soviet Union is treated at length in Asumob 1969,
EacKaKOB 1965, EepflH eB İ'97Ö: 35-41 a n d IIouenyeBCKHİf 1975: 74-82; a ls o s e e K o hohob 1982: 240-
243, Muxamedova 1974, MyxueB-KypeHOB 1988, Mupa^oa 1989 and Maptmpoa 1977.
54 For example, word-îists from the dialect o f the Stavropol Tnıkhmen were recorded as early as the 18th
century and appeared in the travel account of 3.A. Güldenstâdt (1773) and in the comparative
dictionary of P.S. Pallas (1787); see the references in EacKaKOB İ965: 21, K o ho ho b 1982: 69, 89, 93,
101. In addition, A.V. Starchevskij published a word-lisı from Turkmen dialects (1878); see EepflueB
1970: 35-36.
55 Beresine 1845, Schiefner İ859.
56 E epeaH H 1849,1857: 88, Vâmbery 1879.
57 Eenflee 1913, 1915; also note IÜHMJceBHM 1899 and Ara 6 eKOB 1904.
58 CaMoünoBHU 1906-1929; see A ephhh l978a-6 and ^MirrpHeBa 1978.
Introduction 23

Türkmen dialects, work which was summarized in his monographs on Turkmen


dialects and. Turkmen phonetics, both of which appeared in 1936. In addition, he
composed a detailed examination of Turkmen syntax and investigated comparative
aspects of case, tense and comparison in the Oğuz languages. Thanks to the re-
publication of these basic works in 1975, Poceiujevskij’s work continues to be highly
valued.59
Nikolaj Dmitrijev, basing himself on frequent investigation of the speech of
Turkmen students in Leningrad, published several early studies of aspects of Turkmen
phonology and lexicology, but his majör work on Turkmen syntax was published in a
posthumous collection of his articles.60 Othenvise, his study of Turkmen bore fruit in
his contributions to the first Soviet comparative grammar of Turkic languages vvhich
appeared after his death in 1954.61 Dmitrijev’s work is noted for its important role in
establishing a grammatical framework for the deseription of Turkic languages during
the Soviet period.
The Soviet Turkologist Nikolaj Baskakov also made significant contributions to
Turkmen studies, with his deseription of the dialect of the Stavropol Trukhmen, and
especially with his organizational and editorial participation in the compilation of
Russian-Turkmen and Turkmen-Russian dictionaries and the "Academy" grammar of
Standard Turkmen.62
In the 1950s and 1960s, a cadre of Turkmen linguists which included P. Azımov,
H. Baylıyev, D. Berdiyev, M. Hamzayev, M. Hıdırov, M. Hudaykulıyev, B. Kamyev,
K. Shamıradov and oth ers, investigated the grammar and lexicon of Standard Tıırkmen,
vvhile J. Amansanyev, S. Arazkulıyev, M. Afajanov, H. Bagıyev, R. Berdiyev, S.
Kiirenov, G. Mengeliyeva, N. Nartıyev and others, devoted dissertations and
publications to the deseription of Turkmen dialects.63

The Three Capstones o f Turkmen Linguistics


In the 1960s, the work of these Russian and Turkmen linguists began to culminate in
the appearance of three majör syntheses of the grammar, lexicon and dialects of
Standard Turkmen.
The rpaMMamum mypKMeucKozo st3um ("Grammar of the Turkmen Language"),
produced by a collective of scholars at the Institute of Linguistics of the Turkmen
Academy of Sciences in 1970 and 1977, represented the capstone of decades of

59 IIoıjenyeB C K K # 1936-1948, a n d 1975; s e e K o n o n o v 1975.


60 D m itr ije w 1928, 1929, İ933, 1962a. H e a ls o w r o ie ı h e im r o d u e tio n a n d lin g u is tic n o te s to Jleö eflO B
1954.
61 #MHrcpHeB 1955-1961; c f. C e B o p ra e 1971 and M yxaM efloB a 1971a.
62 EacKaKOB 1949, EacKaKOB-XaM 3aeB 1956, E acK aK O B -K appueB -X aM 3 aeB 1968, EacKaKOB-XaM 3 aeB-
M a p u a p o s 1970.
63 F o r b r ie f b io g ra p h ic a l s k e te h e s o f th e s e a n d o th e r T u r k m e n s c h o la rs , s e e M y xueB -K ypeH O B 1988.
24 Turkmen Referenee Grammar
O

grammatical studies.64 The first volüme of this grammar covered the phonology and
morphology of Standard Turkmen and was published in Russian. As a collective vvork,
its chapters on individual aspects (nouns, gerunds, and the like) of Turkmen grammar
were written by the leading Turkmen linguists of the time (B. Chanyarov, M.
Hamzayev, H. Baylıyev, M. Hudaykuhyev, S. Kürenov), or by their most promising
students (M. Charıyev, B. Hojayev, T. Tâchmıradov), and the work was edited by
N.A. Baskakov. The second volüme covered the syntax of phrases and simple
sentences and was published in Turkmen. its chapters were written by a collective of
leading Turkmen linguists (A. Borjakov, B. Chanyarov, M. Charıyev, B. Hojayev, M.
Hudayguüyev, T. Tâchmıradov) as vvell. The projected last volüme of this series on the
syntax of complex sentences never appeared. The rpaMMamum mypKMeHcmzo sa n m
not only established the essential deseriptive framevvork and grammatical categories of
Turkmen, but also defined (and continues to define) the official "Academy" view toward
the norms of Standard Turkmen.
The TypKMeHCKO-pyccıcuü cMeapb ("Turkmen-Russian Dictionary") of 1968 similarly
made the weaLth of the Türkmen lexicon available to ali non-Tmkmen students of the
language.65 Based on the earlier TypKMen duAUHutf ce3Ayzu ("Dictionary of the
Turkmen Language"),66 also produced by the collective of the Institute of Linguistics
of the Turkmen Academy of Sciences, this dictionary constinıtes a referenee lexicon
that houses ali of the vocabulary used in Standard Turkmen.67 At the same time, as its
predecessor, the TypKMeHcıco-pyccKuü cjıoeapb provides the great service to non-Tıarkmen
of indicating long vowels in brackets beside each entry.
As pointed out above (see 17-18), the TypKMen duAumaj duajıeKniAepuHuş ouepKu
("Sketehes of the Dialects of the Turkmen Language"), vvritten by R. Berdiyev, S.
Kürenov, K. Shamıradov and S. Arazkulıyev, built on the ground-breaking vvork of
Poceiujevskij and a series of dissertations vmtten by Turkmen linguists on mdividual
dialects, to summarize the comparative phonology, morphology and lexicon of ali
majör Turkmen dialects spoken vvithin Türkmenistan.
Since the publication of these three Capital works, Türkmen linguists like G.
Achılova, A. Annanurov, S. Aranazarov, Soltansha Atamyazov, B. Chanyarov, N.
Durdıyev, W. Mesgudov, A. Mollayev, A. Nurmuhammedov, A. Öwezov, M.
Penjiyev, T. Tâchmıradov, and others, have continued the study of the grammar,
lexicon and dialects of Turkmen.

64 EacK aK 0 B-X;iM3 acB-LIüpij>iP0 B 1970, H a p u s ıp o B -C a p u e B 1977a.


65 EacKaKOB-KappueB-XaM3aeB 1968.
66 XaM3aeB 1962.
67 The 1968 dictionary entered ali bul a dozen or so o f the words contained in the illustrative material of
ıhis referenee grammar, and ıhe 1962 dictionary cited only one of ıhese.
Introduction 25

Turkmen Linguistics in the West


Outside of Türkmenistan and Russia, the Turkmen language has received relatively
little attention thus far. The first Turkmen grammar to appear in the West foımed a
chapter by the French Turkologist Louis Bazin in the Philologiae Turcicae
Fundamenta (1959), a basic referenee vvork which contains systematically presented
grammars of each of the Turkic languages.68 The fact that this seholar accomp sbed his
task in a mere nine pages may stand as an evaluation of its utility. Bazin cited
Turkmen examples in transeription only and appended a text for reading.
In 1960, G.K. Dulling of Great Britain, a vvorker at the Central Asian Research
Centre in Oxford which specialized in "Sovietology" as it applied to Turkic peoples and
languages of the Soviet Union, published a 47-page Introduction to the Türkmen
Language.69 Dulling’s approach to the study of Turkmen was refleeted from the
opening paragraphs in such judgments as the following: "Unfortunately, bonowing is
an essential feature of Turkmen, which is, basically, an extremely poor language...For
this reason, any of its dialects will be strongly influenced by other, and more
sophisticated languages spoken in the same area. Little vvonder, therefore, that
"Standard" Turkmen is rapidly becoming more and more russianized," and "Apırt from
the DIWAN of Maqdum Quli there has been little or no literatüre. This is yeı another
reason why the language is so impoverished, since it has little or nothing other than
oral tradition on which to fail back."70 Dulling regarded Turkmen as a poor relative of
Turkish and frequently couched his comments on Turkmen grammar in terms of its
deviation from that language. Fortunately, these comments are brief (35 pages), since
they contain errors of interpretation. Appended to the pamphlet are selected pasısages for
reading, which constitute the only useful portion of this work because they inelude
three samples of texts in Latin seript. In a word, Dulling’s pamphlet is offens :ve, and
amounts to a colonialist sneer peeking through the pretensions of Sovietology.
After this rocky start, the study of Turkmen in the West made progress with tlıe
appearance of Oskar Hanser’s Turkmen Manual.71 The grammatical deseription in this
manual is based on the rpaMMamum mypKMencKOzo sam a, but is presented in such a
laconic form that its elarity and accessibility are limited. The most useful feature of
this work is its citation of ali examples both in the Turkmen alphabet and in
transeription, vvhich were verified by linguists at the Institute of Linguistics of the
Turkmen Academy of Sciences during Hanser’s two trips to Türkmenistan in 1971 and
1974. The Turkmen Manual also ineludes a variety of sample texts in the Turkmen
alphabet, accompanied by a glossary, and an index. Since its appearance, Hanser’s
manual has represented the only work of any utility on Turkmen grammar for those
vvho do not read Russian or Turkmen.

68 Bazin 1959.
69 Dulling 1960.
70 Dulling 1960: ii.
71 Hanser 1977.
26 Türkmen Referenee Grammar

Besides these grammars, only a few publications on individuai aspects of Türkmen


grammar,72 as well as a teaching manual73 and collecdons of texts,74 have appeared in
European languages other than Russian.

72 Aschnin 1961, Baitschura 1976, Benzing 1939, Dmiırijev 1929, 1933, Menges 1939, Rasânen 1960,
Zajqc2±owski 1971.
73 Tyson-Clark 1994. This manual vvas prepared for the U.S. Pcace Corps in Türkmenistan, and vvas
intended for use by Turkmen teachers ırained in communicatjve techniques, and not by students. It
ccmıalns cuîtural materials, samp]e diaiogs and grammatical explanations and paradigms.
74 Frank 1995, Gabain 1959, Reichl 1982.
SOUND SYSTEM

In describing the sound system of a language, linguists establish the basic sounds,
vvhich usually are called phonemes, that distinguish meanings and then describe the
actual and variant pronunciations or allophones of those basic sounds. These variant
pronunciations may be explained as due to the influence of surrounding sounds, rather
than to changes in meanings.
The Türkmen sound system consists of sixteen basic vowels and nineteen basic
consonants. Another eight consonants exist for the component of Russian vvords in
Turkmen. Each of these meaningful sounds has variant pronunciations based on its
surroundings. As an example, the basic sound b (vvritten 6) is pronounced just as
English b vvhen it appears at the beginning of a vvord, but is pronounced like English v
wben it appears betvveen vovvels and in some other circumstances. This variant
pronunciation of b occurs under the influence of the surrounding vovvels vvhich are
voiced (like the consonant b), but vvhich are uttered as air escapes the mouth (unlike
the consonant b). When altemate pronunciations of a sound may be explained like this,
they are regarded as variants or allophones of the same basic sound or phoneme.
The sound system of a language is independent of its vvriting system. Many
alphabets, ineluding that of English, represent the basic sounds of a language rather
poorly (for example, in English 'fish' and 'rough' the basic sound f is spelled
differently). The current Türkmen alphabet (see 74-77), vvith only a few exceptions,
provides a coırespondence of one letter to one basic sound for most sounds of the
Turkmen sound system.
28 Turianen Referenee Grammar

PHONOLOGY
The Türkmen sound system consists of the follovving basic sotınds or phonemes,
which are presented here and throughout this referenee grammar vvithin slash marks:

Short vowels: /a, e, ı, i, o, ö, u, ü/


Long vovvels: /a: â:, ı:, i:, o , ö:, u:, ü:/
Consonants: /b, p, d, t g .k , m, n, i), 1, r, 5, 0, 5, j, c, h, y, w/
Russian consonants: /z, s, i , c, s’s’, f, X, V/

In the phonetic deseriptions that follow and throughout this referenee grammar, the
sounds of the Turkmen language are vvritten vvith transeription symbols that represent
the pronunciation of the basic sounds betvveen slash marks (/ /). The variant
pronunciations of basic sounds are vvritten betvveeen square brackets ([ ]), and the
International Phonetic Alphabet (= IPA) and Cyrillic letters of the Turkmen alphabet
vvithin parentheses.1 Comparisons to American English sounds are provided, but it
should be obvious that when a Turkmen basic sound does not exist in the American
English sound system, the comparison betvveen them can be only a rough
approximation and that even pronunciations of that approximation may vary from
speaker to speaker of American English.

Deseription of VoweIs
Turkmen has sixteen vowels, eight of vvhich are pronounced vvith short duration and
the other eight vvith long duration. Vovvels may be deseribed according to the
follovving features: the position of the tongue in the mouth (high, mid, lovv), the
movement of the tongue in the mouth (front, çenter, back) and the shape of the lips
(unrounded, rounded) during their pronunciation. The sixteen vovvels may be
represented in a chart such as the follovving.

Front Back
Unrounded Rounded Unrounded Rounded

High /i, i:/ /ü, ü:/ /i, ı:/ /u, u:/


Mid /e/ /ö, ö:/ /o, o:/
Lovv /a:/ /a, a:/

i The IPA symbols derive from a spectrographic study of the speech o f the Ahal Teke speaker
Ogulsona Ishankuîıyeva that was conducted by Andrea Word of the Department of linguistics at
Indiana University for the Türkmen Language Project.
Phonology 29

/a/
The lovv back unrounded vovvel /a/ is pronounced similarly to English 'a ' in 'hah!',
and may occur in any position of a word (aT a /ata/ 'grandfather', canaK ,'0apak/
'lesson'. Variants o f this vovvel inelude the high centered vovvel p], pronounced
somewhat shorter, that occurs before /y/ in the suffixes -ap/Hap /-ya:r/yi:r/ and
-hh/üsh /-ya:n/yâ:n/ (acaap /ya0aya:r/ [ya6*ya:r] 'she creates'), and the mid rounded
vowel [o] that occurs before /w/ at the end of a word (n a n a s /palaw/ [palow] ’palaw
[rice dish]'). (IPA /a/, Cyrillic a)

/a:/
The low back unrounded vowel /a:/ is pronounced like /a/, but vvith long duration
(approximated by saying 'aaah', as at the doctor’s office), vvith the tongue low ;r in the
month and vvith the root of the tongue farther back than for short /a/. This long vovvel
may occur in any position of a vvord (a3UK /a:8ık/ 'provisions', Manana /makarla/
'article', jrçyfla /}uda:/ 'very, quite/). (IPA /aa/, Cyrillic a)

/e/
The high-mid front unrounded vovvel /e/is pronounced approximately as Englith 'e' in
'pet', and may occur in any position of a vvord (3rHH /eğin/ 'shoulders', Meflemı
g e d e n i:/ 'cultural', Kene /köcö/ 'Street'). Because long /e:/ occurs only as a ıesult of
contraction in tvvo vvords (6ep /be:r/ 'she vvill give', re p /ge:r/ 'he vvill coım'). the
long variant is not regarded as a distinet phoneme. Variants of this vovvel inelude the
high centered vovvel p], pronounced somevvhat shorter, that occurs before />/ in the
suffixes -ap/ttap /-ya:r/yâ:r/ and -aü/ttaıı /-ya:n/yâ:n/ (m ııjıettap /isleya-.r/ [i: iîl'-yâtr]
Tıe vvorks'), and the mid front rounded vovvel [ö] that occurs before /vv/ at the end of a
vvord (HapjrçeB /Cârjevv/ [Ğârjövv] 'Chârjevv'). (IPA /e/, Cyrillic 3, e)

/â:/
The lovv-mid front unrounded vovvel /â:/ is pronounced as English 'a ' in 'pat', but
vvith long duration. It may occur in any position of a vvord (ap /â:r/ 'man', Hane /na:ce/
'vvhat', HYHÜ3 /dünyâ:/ 'vvorld'). Short /â/ is pronounced vvith the lips spread vvider and
the tongue raised slightly higher in the mouth. It is not considered to be a distinet
phoneme because it occurs only in a fevv compound Turkmen vvords composed of tvvo
verb forms (anejiMeK /âkelmek/ 'to bring to' < anbin renMeK /ahp gelmek/ to take
and come', aKHTMen /âkitmek/ 'to take to' < ajibin mTMeK /alıp gitmek/ 'to take and
go') and in some of the borrovvings from Persian or Arabic (nıaxep /sâher/ 'city'.ı. (IPA
/jeje/, Cyrillic a)

hl
The high back-tovvard-center unrounded vovvel /ı/ is pronounced approximaıely as
English 'u ' in 'put', but vvith unrounded lips, and may occur in any position of a vvord
30 Turianen Referenee Grammar

(MHxa /inha:/ Tıere', rtlJTbm /gılıc/ 'sword', ç a p tı /6a:n/ 'yellow'). The variant [*],
which is a high centered vovvel that is pronoıınced very short, frequently occurs
betvveen consonants in unstressed syilables or in one-syllable words (cbirbip /6ıgır/
[0*gır] 'cow‘, ru T /git/ [gh] 'rare')- (IPA /ın/, Cyrillic bi)

hil
The high back-toward-center unrounded vovvel /ı:/ is pronounced like /ı/, but with long
duration. This long vovvel basically is a semi-diphthong [ıy], but vvith the tongue
farther tovvard the front of the mouth than for short /ı/. It may occur in any position of
a vvord, although it is confined to Persian-Arabic vvords in final position ( m c / ı : 9 /
'smell', y3MH /u8ı:n/ 'long', caxtı /öahı:/ 'generous'). (IPA /ınm/, Cyrillic w)

m
The high front unrounded vovvel /i/ is pronounced approximately as English T in 'pit',
and may occur in any position of a vvord ( h k h /iki/ 'tvvo', ü m j ih k /yilik/ 'marrow',
3jımı /elli/ 'fifty'). The variant [*], vvhich is a high centered vowel that is pronounced
very short, occurs betvveen consonants in unstressed syilables or in one-syllable vvords
( k h i d h / k i s i / [k%i] 'person', 6wp /bir/ [b’r] 'one'). (IPA / ı / , Cyrillic h )

İUI
Tlıe high front unrounded vovvel /i:/ is pronounced like /i/, but vvith long duration and
basically like a semi-diphthong [iy], vvith the tongue farther tovvard the front of the
mouth than for short /i/. This long vovvel may occur in any position of a vvord,
although it is confined to Persian-Arabic vvords in final position (Mm /i:?/ 'work',
HeTHJKe /neti:je/ 'result', MeaeHH /medeni:/ 'cultural'). (IPA İni, Cyrillic h)

Jol
The mid back rounded vovvel /o/ is pronounced approximately as English 'o a ' in
'coat', and may occur in any position of a vvord (opTa /orto/ 'middle', rojıatt /goloy/
'near'). The variant [*], vvhich is a high centered vovvel that is pronounced somevvhat
shorter, occurs before /y/ in the suffixes -ap/Hap /-ya:r/ya:r/ and - hh/Hsh /-ya:n/yâ:n/
(ro a ra sp /go:8goya:r/ [go:5g1ya:rl 'she moves'). (IPA /o/, Cyrillic o)

/o:/
The mid back rounded vovvel /o:/ is pronounced like /o/, but vvith long duration and
vvith the tongue farther back in the mouth than for short /o/. This long vovvel may
occur only in the root of a vvord ( o h /o:n/ 'ten', gogaK /do:dok/ 'lips'). (IPA /oo/,
Cyrillic o)
Phonology 31

lol
The mid front rounded vowel /ö/ is pronounced approximately as English 'e' in 'pet'
but with rounded lips, and may occur in any position of a word (eKy3 /ökiiS/ 'ox',
k&mbk /köm ök/ Tıelp', KO'ie /köiö/ 'street'). The variant [a], which is a high front
rounded vowel that is pronounced somewhat shorter, occurs before İyi in the suffixes
-np/Hap /-ya:r/yâ:r/ and -sm/Raıı /-ya:n/ya:n/ (CenMeflap /bö:lmöya:r/ [bö:lm“yâ:r] lıe
does not drnde"). (IPA /ce/, Cyrillic e)

löıl
The mid front rounded vowel /ö:/ is pronounced like /ö/, but with long duration and
with the tongue farther back in the mouth than for short /ö/. This long vowel may
occur only in the root of a word (en /ö:l/ 'wet', tteHe /yö:nö/ 'but'). (IPA /<eoe/,
Cyrillic e)

lul
The high back rounded vowel /u/ is pronounced approximately as English 'u ' in 'put'
but vvith more rounded lips. It may occur at the beginning of and within, but not at the
end of a vvord (ynu /ulı/ 'big', 6ypyH /burun/ 'nose'). (IPA /u/, Cyrillic y)

/u:/

The high back rounded vowel /u:/ is pronounced like /u/, but with long duration and
essentially like a semi-diphthong [uw].2 This long vovvel may occur only in the root
syllable of a Turkmen word (yKM /u:kı/ 'sleep', rypT /gu:rt/ 'wolf') and in the second
syllable of Persian-Arabic vvords (ycyn /u0u:l/ 'method', Ma3iwyn /ma5mu:n/
'contents'). (IPA /wj/, Cyrillic y)

lâl
The high front rounded vovvel /ü/ is pronounced approximately as English 'i' in 'pit'
but with rounded lips, and may occur in any position of a vvord (Y3yıvı /iiSiim/ 'grapes',
kymydi /kümtis/ 'silver', nYPnu /dOrlii/ 'various'). (EPA /y/, Cyrillic y)

lû:l
The high front rounded voweI /ü:/ is pronounced like /ü/, but vvith long duration and
basically like a semi-diphthong [üw], This long vowel may occur at the beginning and
vvithin, but not at the end of a word (yön /ü:n/ 'voice', 6yrn n /büttirn/ 'vvlıole'). (IPA
/ vy/, Cyrillic yü)

2 See rpaMMamma 35 for üıe characterization of ju-.l and /ü:/ as "semi-diphthongs."


32 Turkmen Reference Grammar

The Vowels e lel and a lâ:l


The vowels e /e / and a /a :/ are distinct phonemes in ihe Türkmen sound system wMch
contrast according to their heighth of pronunciation (e /e/ is front high-mid and a /a:/ is
firont low-mid) and to their length (e /e/ is sbort and a /â:/ is long), Moreover, the short
vowel e /e/ has a iong variant e /e :/in two words (6ep /be:r/ < öepep /berer/, re p /ge:r/
< re jıe p /geler/), while the long vowel a /a:/ has a short variant a /â/ in several basic
words o f both Türkmen and Persian origin (aKMTMeK /âkitm ek/ 'to take to', aKejiMeK
/âkelm ek/ 'to bring to', axüH /ahli/ 'ali', axTHMa.ii /âhtim a:l/ 'probably', m a x e p
fsahe.il 'city'). Given these facts, it would be strictly correct to view the Türkmen
vowel system as consisting o f nine contrasting pairs of vowels:

Short: a /a / e /e/ a /â / m hl H /i/ 0 / 0/ e /ö / y /u / Y /“/


Long: a /a :/ e/e:/ a/â:/ ıı /ı:/ h /i:/ 0 / 0 :/ e /ö :/ yM Y« /ü:/

On the other hand, the vovvels e /e/ and a /â:/ possess certain characteristics that
make them appear to contrast in the same way as the other short-long pairs of vowels
in the sound system. One characteristic is that e /e/ regularly is replaced by a /â:/ when
a suffix beginning with a vowel is added to a noun or verb stem ending in the vovvels
a/e /a/e/, producing a long vowel a/a /a:/a:/; for example, rapa(MaK) /gara(mak)/ 'to
look at' > rap a p /gara:r/ Tıe will look at', umjıe(MeK> /i:sle(mek)/ 'to work' > ıımnap
/i:sla:r/ 'she wiU work'. In the same way that a /a/ is replaced by a /a:/ in these cases,
so e /e/ is replaced by a /â:/.
Another characteristic is that e /e/ and a /â:/ occur as part of the original sound
system, unlike e /e:/ and a /â/. It will be noted that e /e:/ represents secondary length
that results from contraction (6ep /be:r/ < 6epep /berer/, rep /ge:r/ < rejıep /geler/),
while a /’i / represents secondary shortness that results firom a few fusions of Türkmen
words (aKMTMeK Akitmek/ 'to take to' < ajıu n rHTMeK /ahp gitmek/ 'to take and go',
3Kejı.YieK /akelmek/ 'to bring to' < aiiu n reJiMeK /alıp gelmek/ 'to take and come')
and firom borrowing Persian-Arabic words which generally retain their vowel qualities
in Türkmen (axiin /ahli/ 'ali', axTHMan /âhtima:l/ 'probably', maxep /saher/ 'city',
ete,). For these reasons, it will facilitate the presentation and understanding of Türkmen
long vovvels and vowel harmony by treating the Türkmen vowel system as comprising
eight contrasting pairs o f vowels:

Short: a lal e /e / M hl H /i / 0 / 0/ e /ö / y /u / Y/ü/


Long: a /a :/ a/â:/ M /ı:/ h /i:/ 0 /o:/ e /ö:/ y /u:/ Y« /ü:/
Phonology 33

Long Vowels in Root Syllables


Each of the eight Türkmen shoıt vowels may be said to have a long vowel coııtıterpart.
Seven of the eight long vowels are formed in the mouth in the same position.i as their
short counterparts, but they are pronounced with twice the duration. The eighth long
vowel a /a:/ is pronounced with the tongue positioned somevvhat lower than its short
counterpart e /e/. The long vowels are heard distinctly, although upon initiai « p o su ıe
to the language they may sound like a kind of stress placed on a syllable.
Linguists cali the long vowels in the roots of originally Türkmen words primary
long vowels" because this Length is a presetvation of the length that existeıi in the
language from which Türkmen and other related Turkic languages have develo red över
millennia.3 At the same time, some long vowels of one-syllable Türkmen wnrds are
"secondary long vowels," that is, they appear as the result of sound changes m at have
occurred över time. For example, the long vowel üı the word flajı /da:l/ 'i: not' (<
*dâgil) represents secondary length that arose when the consonant between che two
vowels w as lost. The change in this woıd belongs to the history of the Türkmen
language, but the same process operates today in several circumstances (see 'i 8). The
long vowels that appear in originally Persian or Arabic words also may be coıısidered
secondary long vowels or words with v/hat may be called "inherent length" (see 36).
Hovvever, regardless of their origin, such long vowels are inherent in Standard Türkmen
words and some suffixes.
Seven of the sets of Türkmen primaıy short and long voweis exist in a srries of
"minimal pairs," that is, two words whose meanings are distinguished only by the
length of their vowels. Such pairs comprise one-syllable words, including the
unsuffıxed roots of verbs which serve as the informal or second person singular
imperative (for example, reJiMeK /gelmek/ 'to come', Ten! /Gel!/ 'Come!'). As pointed
out above, the long vowel e /e:/ occurs only in two contracted verb forms, w hile the
short vovıiel a /a/ occurs only in two fused verbs and a few borrowings. Thus, cmly the
variants e /e/ and a /â:/ are contrasted in the list below, even though they do net exist
in minimal pairs (nor do e /e:/ and s /a/ or e /e:/ and a /â:/).
The table on the next page provides minimal pairs for words containing short and
long vowels in their roots. It will be obvious from the examples in this list (which
could not be extended much farther) that the potential for ambiguous readings of vvords
with long vowels is small in written Türkmen. Many of the minimal pairs contrast
noun and verb stems which normally appear with distinet elasses of suffixes and in
different funetions in a sentence. Moreover, a number of the contrasted vvords are
infrequently used or confined to certain contexts (for example, ayp /dür/ 'pearl' and
MYÜH /mii:n/ 'shyness' are confined to belles-lettres).

3 See, for example, Q]ep6 aK 1970: 47-59, 1994: 49-53, with full references lo the literatüre on this
subjecl.
34 Türkmen Referenee Grammar

Short and Long Vowels in Root Syilables


Short Vowel Long Vowel
lal a r /at/ horse /a:/ aT /a:t/ n am e
aHMaK /aîmak/ to open a n /a:5 / h un gry
ra 3 MaK /gaSmak/ to d ig ra 3 /ga: 5/ g o o s e

lel öepMeK /bermek/ to give /§:/ 6 au ı /bâ:s/ f iv e


reH /jgerj/ strange r s a /ga: 5/ dirt
o t /el/ hand s p /a:r/ man

M rH3Maıc /gıSmak/ to heat /ı:/ rb i 3 /gı: 8/ g iri, d au gh ter


HCMaK /ıömak/ to move mc /ı:0/ sm e ll
r a p /gır/ barren steppe r a p /gı:r/ g r a y h orse

IV mt /it/ d o g /i:/ HTMeK /i:tm ek/ to push


6nnMeK /bilmek/ to know 5 mji /bîri/ w a ist
w ra e K /£igmek/ to tie a knot « m r/ci:g / ra w

lol ot /ot/ grass lo:l ot /o:t/ fire


H o m a K /£ogm ok/ to pour u o r /co:g/ heat
r o j i /gol/ arm r o n /go:l/ lo w p la ce

löl eMMeK /öCm ök/ to e xtin gu ish löıl e>ı /ö:£/ re v en g e


en M eK /ölm ök/ to d ie e n /ö:l/ w e t
eTMeıc /ötm ök/ to pass ot /ö:t/ b ile

lal yMMaK /ucm ok/ to fly lu:l y u /u:c/ tip, point


ry p T /gurt/ d ry e h ee se ry p T /gu:ıt/ w o lf; w orm
T yrM aK /tutm ok/ to h o ld T yT /tu:t/ m u lb e rry tre e

lül flyp /dür/ pearl lü:l AY^pMeK /dü:rmök/ to roll


HYUiMeK /düsmök/ to come down HY^ın /dü:s/ dream
MynMeK /m ünmök/ to get on MY^H /mii:n/ shyness

In a few cases, the primary long vowel of a Türkmen root becomes short in
combination with other elements, or the reverse. Loss of length is noted in the numeral
o h /o:n/ '10', whose vowel is short when combined with the numerals '1' to '9 ' in
counting: o h 6 n p /on bi:r/ '11', o h h k h /on iki/ '12', ete. It also is noted with the
modal vvord e n /yo:k/ 'there is/are not', whose vowel becomes short when the
conditional svffix is added: erca /yog0o/ 'if not', as well as when the word x h j i /hi:l/
Phonology 35

'kind, quality' is part of the fonnations xep xhjih /her hiii/ 'ali soıts o f and h 3 XHJIm
/narhili/ 'how?, what?' The opposite case, or lengthening of a root vovvel, occnrs when
the third person possessive suffıx is added to the numeral 6 np /bir/ '1', resulting in
6Mpn /bi:ri/ 'someone, one of', and when this numeral is used in the combinations
'11, 21, 31, ete,' (oh 6 np /on bi:r/ '11', ete.). The vowels of the demonstrative
pronouns 6y /bu ~ bu:/ 'this' and my /su ~ su:/ 'that' are pronounced short in
combinations but long in isolation.

Long Vowels in Non-Rooı Syllables


In exceptional circumstances, long vowels occur in the non-root syllables of originally
Türkmen vvords, where it may be difficult to establish whether they are primary or
secondary in origin. One case involves the long vowels m /ı:/ and m /ii:/ which occur in
the second syllable of several Türkmen words, üıcluding y3tiH /u8ı:n/ 'long', hkm h
/yakım/ 'near', ÖyTMH /biitü:n/ 'whole' and y^HH /ii£ü:n/ 'for'. Here, the long vowels
probably resulted from a merger of the roots of these vvords with a suffix /*-m/m/ that
occurred long ago. Such a merger may be seen clearly in words of the type eftnaH
/öyla:n/ 'in the aftemoon', where the instrumental suffix + h h /h h /+ı:n/i:n/ has been
attached to otine /öylö/ 'aftemoon'.
Long vowels also occur in some Türkmen suffibces and particles. In some instances,
these long vowels clearly are secondary in origin; for example, the suffix +jıan/ji3n
/+la:p/lâ:p/, which forms approximate numerals, results from the merger of two
suffixes, one o f vvhich ends and the other begins in a vowel (-malne /+la/le/ plus
-un/un /-ıp/ip/). However, this explanation will not account for ali the suffixes and
particles in the following list whose vowels show inherent length.

instrumental suffix + h h /hh /+ı:n/i:n/


Directional suffix + lik /hk /+ı:k/i:k/
Relation suffix +flaKBl/fl3 KH /+da:kı/dâ:ki/
Comparative suffix +paK/psK /+ra:k/râ:k/
Approximation numeral +nan/j»n /+la:p/la:p/
Present indefinite -ap/üap /-ya:r/yâ:r/
Negative present perfect -aHOK/eHOK /-ano:k/eno:k/
1 plural imperative -ajn>m/enun /-ah:i)/eli:g/
Desiderative -asgıu/aem /-a:yadı/â:yedi/
Suffix of pennission -att/ait /-a:y/â:y/
Present participle -sm/iisH /-ya:n/yâ:n/
Negation partide -Maii/MSH /-ma:n/ma:n/
Qualification partide -Ka/K3 /-ka:/ka:/
Emphasis partide -«a f m /-da:/da:/
Appeal partide -a/s /-a:/â:/
36 Turkmen Referenee Grammar

With ıhe exceptions noted above, Turkmen words with long vovvels in non-root
syilables are Persian or Arabic in origin and reflect the vowel qualities of their Persian-
Arabic prototypes. The majority of Persian-Arabic words entered Türkmen through the
medium of the Central Asian literary language called Chagatay, which Turkmen writers
used from the 18th century through the early 20th centuıy. Written in Arabic seript,
that language incorporated the Persian-Arabic vocabulary associated vvith the Islamic
heritage of many Central Asian peoples.
The Arabic seript contains three letters (â, ı, û, where the maeron sign indicates
length) that were used to write long vowels in Persian and Arabic vvords in this literary
language. Just so, Turkmen vvords of Persian-Arabic origin have long vovvels in the
same positions; for example, TaKaT /ta:kat/ 'enduranee' (Persian t â q a l < Arabic
t â q a h ), aaıvıaH /8ama:n/ 'time' (A z a m a n ) , ö m ı a /bina:/ 'building' (A b i n â '); M iın e
/mi:wâ/ 'fruit' (P m i v a h ) , HeTHj^e /neti:je/ 'result' (A n a t î j a h ) , Meltemi /m edeni:/
'cultural' (A m a d a n î ) ; M33 MyH /ma5mu:n/ 'contents' (A m a 4 m û n ) , yMyMaH
/umu:mon/ 'generally' (A ‘u m ü m a r i) , and so on. In borrovvings that became integral
components of everyday speech, the vovvel fî/ became /ı:/ to confonn to the rules of
vovvel hannony, as in x a K M K a T /hakı:kat/ 'truth' and r a a l i m l i /gadı:mı/ 'ancient'.
Long vowels also are found in Persian prefıxes and suffixes (see 520, 541).
Phonology 37

Description of Consonants
H e Standard Turkmen la n g u a g e , both w ritten and spoken, has nineteen consonants.
Speakers who pronounce Russian words as they are pronounced in Russian ha ve eight
additional consonants in their sound system (see 40-42).
Consonants may be described according to the following features: restriction of air
in forming the consonant (stop = closed passage followed by reiease, fricative =
restricted passage, affricate = closed then restricted), place vvhere the consonant is
fonned (bilabial = both lips, labiodental = lower lip and upper teeth, dental ~ teeth,
dentoalveolar = upper teeth and ridge above them, alveolar = ridge above upp;r teeth,
palatal = hard area in roof of mouth, velar = soft area in back of mouth beyoııd hard
palate), shape or movement of the tongue (liquid = air flowing around the tongııe, flap
= tongue striking alveolum), vibration of the "voice box" or larynx in the throat
(voiceless = no vibration, voiced = vibration), and others.
The consonants are presented in the following table (with Russian consonants in
parentheses) according to their primary place (labial, ete.) and manner (stop, ete.) of
articulation.

Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Gloıtal

Stops t. P d, t fi. k

j. c
Affricates
(c)

(v,f) 5, e s (x)
Fricatives
(z, s) (z, i ’s’)

Nasal stops m n t)

LiquidtFlap 1 r

Semivov/els w y
Aspirate t
38 Turkmen Referenee Grammar

Jbl
The voiced bilabial stop /b/ is pronounced as English 'b ' in "b in ' only at the
beginning of a word (Bam /ba:s/ 'five'). The variant [v], vvhich is a voiced labiodental
fricative that is pronounced as English V in 'vine', occurs between vowels and after
consonants (06 a /o:bo/ [o:vo] 'village', Topöa /to:rbo/ [to:rvo] 'sack'). The variant [p]
occurs after the consonant /p/ within a word (randa /tapba/ [tappa] 'suddenly'). (IPA
fb/, Cyrillic 6 )

¥
The voiceless bilabial stop /p/ is pronounced as English 'p ' in 'spin' and occurs in al!
positions of a word (nec /pe0/ 'low', canaK /öapak/ 'lesson', Kon /köp/ 'much'). (IPA
/p/, Cyrillic n)

/d/
The voiced dental stop /d/ is pronounced similarly to English 'd ' in 'deep', except that
the tongue touches the teeth and not the ridge above the teeth. It occurs in ali but final
positions of a word (nanı /da:3/ 'stone', anarn /a:dam/ 'person', Hinna /iSda:/
'appetite'). The variant [t] occurs after the consonants /p/ and /t/ (nerıjjep /depder/
[depter] 'notebook', xarrjıa /hatda:/ [hatta:] 'also'). (IPA /d/, Cyrillic n)

m
The voiceless dental stop /t/ is pronounced similarly to English 't' in 'steep', except
that the tip of the tongue touches the teeth and not the ridge above the teeth, which
reduces the "explosion" of aır. This consonant occurs in ali positions o f a word (Taae
/ta:5e/ 'new', raTM /gatı/ 'hard, very', 3 T /et/ 'meat'). (IPA /t/, Cyrillic t )

>e/
The voiced velar stop Igl is pronounced as English 'g ' in 'geese' in initial position
only (r »3 /gö8/ 'eye'). The variant [7 ] is a voiced velar fricative that occurs non-initially
betvveen vowels and after consonants except /k / ( a r u 3 /agıS/ [ayıS] 'mouth', epraH
/yorgon/ [yoryon] 'bedding', 6 aTra /batğa/ [batya] 'dirt', Rar /da:g/ [da:^] 'mountain').
English lacks an equivalent or approximation to the sound [7 ]. It is produced by
holding the back of the tongue elose to the velum while emitting air with voicing. The
variant [k] occurs after the consonant /k/ within a word (neKra /pökgii/ [pökkü] 'ball').
(BPA /g/, Cyrillic r)

İki
The voiceless velar stop /k/ is pronounced as English 'k ' in 'sk i' and occurs in ali
positions of a vvord (Kon /kö:l/ 'lake', nKbin /yakı:n/ 'near', asK /ayak/ 'foot'). When
this sound occurs before back vowels, its articulation is farther back on the velum, just
as it is farther forvvard when it occurs before front vowels. (IPA /kİ, Cyrillic K)
Phonology 39

İmi
The bilabial nasal stop /m/ is pronounced as English 'm ' in 'm eat' and occurs in ali
positions of a word (myh /mii 13/ 'thousand', kymyui /kümüs/ 'silver', T a r a m /tagam/
'taste'). (IPA /m/, Cyrillic m)

İn i

The dental nasal stop /n/ is pronounced as English 'n ' in 'neat' and occurs in ali
positions of a word (H axap /nahar/ 'meal', ©hym /ö:nüm/ 'product', 6 oh>h /boyun/
'neck'). (IPA /n/, Cyrillic h)

¥
The velar nasal stop /rj/ is pronounced as English 'ng' in 'sinğ' and occurs only within
and at the end of a word (flenıo /degiS/ 'sea', rnn /gi:rj/ 'wide'). (IPA /g/, Cyrillic u)


The dental liquid /I/ is pronounced as English T in 'leap' and occurs in ali positions
of a word (jıafötiK /la:yık/ 'good', yjiM /ulı/ 'big', jjhji /dil/ 'tongue'). (IPA /I/,
Cyrillic ji)

M
The alveolar flap İri is pronounced approximately as English 'tt' in 'better' and occurs
in ali positions of a word ( p a s tı /ra:5ı/ 'satisfied', c a p u /0a:rı/ 'yellow', HCMHp
/demir/ 'iron'). This sound is produced by making one or more flaps of the tip of the
tongue against the roof of the mouth in initial and middle position, and two or more
flaps in final position. (IPA /r/, Cyrillic p)

İSİ
The voiced interdental fricative /S/ is pronounced as EngEsh 'th ' in 'then' and occurs
in ali positions of a word (3aT / 8a:t/ 'thing', y3MH /u 8ı:n/ 'long', ny3 /du:8/ 'salt ').4
(IPA 151, Cyrillic 3)

/e/
The voiceless interdental fricative /0/ is pronounced as English 'İh ' in 'thin' and occurs
in ali positions of the word (e y ü t / 0 ü:t/ 'milk', ycyjı /u 8 u:l/ 'method', HaMbic
/na:mı0/ 'honor, shame'). (IPA /0/, Cyrillic c)

4 The interdental fricatives /ö / and /5/ abo may be called "apical," since they aıe pronounced vvith the
öp (apex) o f the tongue, while the dental fricatives /s/ and /z/ may be called "dorsal," since they are
pronounced with the back (dorsuni) o f the tongue retraeted.
40 Türkmen Reference Gramın ar

İsi
The voiceless alveolar fricative /s/ is pronounced as English 'sh ' in 'shin' and occurs
in ali positions of a word (m axep /sâher/ 'city', auıun /ya:sıl/ 'green', nam /da:s/
'stone'). The consonant /s/ is lengthened to /ss/, which is written with the letter m, in
a few Türkmen vvords («meK /issek/ 'two-year old sheep', su^eK /essek/ 'ass! (curse)').
(IPA ///, CyriJlic ra)

İJİ
The voiced dental-alveolar affricate /]/ is pronounced as English 'j' in 'juice' and occurs
at the beginning of and within, but not at the end of a word (jrçaiı /ja:y/ 'place', rHaüe
/gi:je/ 'night'). (IPA /dj/, Cyriliic »,)

Icl
The voiceless dental-alveolar affricate /c/ is pronounced as English 'ch' in 'chin' and
occurs in ali positions of a word («ıejı /£öl/ 'desert', kumu /ki£i/ 'small', rtiJTtiM
/gdıc/ 'svvord'). The variant [s] occurs before the consonants /d/, /s/ and /l/ (renflH
/gecdi/ [gesdi] 's/he passed', ryÖMCY3 /gii:c0ü6/ [gü:s0ü5] 'povverless', caqjibi / 6 aclı/
[0aslı] "having hair'; see the preceding). (IPA /y/, Cyriliic lı)

Ihl
The voiceless aspirate /h/ is pronounced as English 'h ' in 'heat' and occurs in ali
positions of a vvord (xep /her/ 'every', ıuaxep /sâher/ 'city', pyx /ru:h/ (also [ururh])
'spirit'). (IPA Ihl, Cyriliic x)

¥
The palatal semivowel /y/ is pronounced as English 'y ' in 'yes' and occurs in ali
positions of a word (iituı /yıl/ 'year', Goioh /boyun/ 'neck', att /a:y/ 'month'). (IPA
Ijl, Cyriliic tt, and in combination with vowels a, e, e, 10; see 76-77)

M
The bilabial semivovvel /w/ is pronounced as English 'w ' in 'win' and occurs in ali
positions of a word (B a rT /wagt/ 'time', x a B a /hawa/ 'yes', nanaB /palaw/ 'palaw (rice
dish)'). (IPA /w/, Cyriliic b)

Pronunciation o f Russian Consonants


The sound systems of Türkmen and Russian differ impoıtantly in their inventories of
basic sounds. The Russian consonants /z, s, z, c, î ’î ’, x, f, v/ are not in the phonemic
inventory of Standard Türkmen. Hovvever, many Türkmen, particularly those who were
raised or who live in the Ashgabat tegion, also have studied m Russian schools or at
Phonology 41

higher educational establishments where they have leamed to speak Russian vvell. They
not only employ a substantial component of Russian vvords when speaking Tjrkmen,
but they also pronounce them to greater or lesser degrees according to the Russian
sound system. Even those who have little or no knovvledge of Russian may use
Russian words, often in an approximately "correct" pronunciation. In these senses, then,
the consonants /z, s, z, c, S’s’, x, f, v/ are part of their inventory of phonemes.
Turianen speakers may pronounce these Russian consonants as such, or th ey may
pronounce the closest equivalents in the Turkmen inventory of sounds, a phonetic
process called approximation. Due to the varying levels of knovvledge and appropriate
use of Russian, as well as to factors that arise firom sociai situadons, it is impossible
to establish rules for use of the consonants /z, s, i, c, î ’5 \ x, f, v/ even for the speech
of an individual Turkmen. However, the follovving remarks may serve as a guideline.

İzi
The voiced dental fricative /z/ is pronounced as English 'z' in 'zoo' in Russiaıı words
by some speakers (Mara3Hiı /magaSin/ 'store') and in Turkmen words in some : ialects
(for example, those of the Chârjew area). Generally, however, Türkmen pronounce the 3
of Russian vvords as /8/ (3anofl /8awut/ 'plant', r a 3 e T /gaSet/ 'nevvspaper'). (IPA /z/,
Cyrillic 3)

İsi
The voiceless dental fricative /s/ is pronounced as English V in 'sin' in Russian vvords
by some speakers (caıvıojıeT /samolot - flamolot/ 'airplane') and in Turkmen words in
some dialects (for example, those of the Chârjevv area). For the most part, Turkmen
pronounce the c of Russian vvords as /0/ even in consonant clusters (ctoji /u00ol/
'table', Kacca /ka60a/ 'cashier', KoncTiiTyuHH /kon0titu0iya/ 'constitution'). (IPA /s/,
Cyrillic c)

lil
The voiced alveolar fricative İzi is pronounced as English 's' in 'treasure' in Russian
vvords by some speakers (* y p n a jı /zumal/ 'journal'), although many Turkmen
pronounce dıis sound as /J/ (« y p n ajı /jurnal/ 'journal'). Even though the sound /z/
occurs in a very few Turkmen onomatopoeic or sound symbolic vvords (m ujkjkuk
/mızzık/ 'pulp'), it is not vievved as a disdnct phoneme in the Turkmen sound system.
(IPA İzi, Cyrillic jk)

İd
The voiceless dental affricate /c/ is pronounced as English 'ts ' in 'cats' in Rııssian
vvords by some speakers (uupK /cirk/ 'circus'). Generally, hovvever, Turkmen
approximate the affricate n as /0/ (qwpK /©irk/ 'circus', yeMCHT /Bement/ 'cerrıent').
(IPA /ts/, Cyrillic ı<)
42 Türkmen Reference Grammar

ls’s’1
The voiceless and palatalized alveolar fricative /s’s’/ is pronounced approximately as
English 'sh sh ' in 'dısh sbaped'. Thıs consonant occurs in Russian words or proper
names in the speech of some speakers (hihhk /yas’s’ik/ 'box', lHeHpHH /5 ’s’edrin/).
(IPA ISSI, Cyrillic m)

1x1
The voiceless velar fricative /x/ is pronounced as 'ch ' iıi English-German 'Bach' and
occurs in the pronunciation of Russian words by many speakers of Turkmen
(maxMaTt>ı /saxmatı/ 'chess'), as well as in some dialects of Turkmen. This consonant
is common because even some speakers of the Teke dialect pronounce /x/ instead of /h/
before consonants and at the end of some words (MaxMan /maxmal/ 'velvet', m m x
/mı:x/ 'spike'). (IPA /xl, Cyrillic x)

M
The voiced labiodental fricative /v/ is pronounced as English V ûı 'vine' in Russian
vvords by some speakers (BaroH /vagon/ 'wagon'). Most Turkmen, however, pronounce
b as /w/ (BaroH /wagun/ 'wagon', 3ason / 8awut/ 'plant'). (IPA /v/, Cyrillic letter b)

lîl
The voiceless labiodental fricative /f/ is pronounced as English T in 'fish' in Russian
words by some speakers (TenetJjoH /telefon/ 'telephoneO, as well as in some dialects of
Turkmen (for example, Yomut). Many Türkmen pronounce cj> in Russian words as İp/,
but pronunciation of this sound in Russian vvords varies both by speaker and by word;
for example, few speakers would substitute /p/ for /f/ in the words /film/ 'film'
or MarHHT0 (}j0 H /magnitofon/ 'tape-player', while most do substitute /p/ for Hl in
4>a6pHK /pabrik/ 'factory', TeJie<J)OH /telepon - telpun/ 'telephone', map4> /sarp/
'scarf', and other words. The sound /f/ also occurs in two Turkmen onomatopoeic
vvords (Yt}).neMeK /üflömök/ 'to blow' < 'to make the noise ycjı /üf/', and yd<}> /üwf/
'ooph!'), but is not viewed as a distinct phoneme in the Turkmen sound system. (IPA
HL Cyrillic 4>)
Phonology 43

Syliabie Structure
Each Türkmen word is composed of one or more syllables whose structure may be
described according to their sequences of vowels (= V) and consonants (= C). A basic
distinction may be made between syllables which are "öpen," that is, end in a vowel,
and those which are "closed," that is, end in a consonant. The follovving types of
syllables exist in Türkmen words:

V a-flaM /a:-dam/ person, 3 -x;e /e-je/ mother


vc aT /at/ horse, hü-m ut /iy-mit/ food, yc-ca /u0-0o/ master
cv 6y /bu:/this, Ka-Ka /ka:-ka/ father, cyM-apt /0ü:-jü/ sweet
cvc re3 /gö8/ eye, rtıc-ra /gı:0-ga/ short, MeK-^en /mek-dep/
school
vcc YHc /ünO/ attention, aJiT-MHiu /alt-mıs/ sixty, aÜT-MaK
/ayt-mak/ to teli
cvcc flepT /dö:rt/ four, Barr /wagt/ time, cohk / 0ör)k/ bone

Türkmen syliabie structure does not permit words to begin with two consonants.
Therefore, a vowel (usually /j/ or /i/, but also /uf) is inserted before or between
consonants in Russian borrowings that begin with two consonants (prothesis), or
occasionally, a consonant and a vowel change places (meıathesis). An inserted vovvel is
not represented in writmg, whereas a few cases of metathesis have become Standard
forms (for example, Typöa /türbo/ < Tpyfia /truba/ 'pipe')-

Russian Written Türkmen Spoken Türkmen

mıaH /plan/ plan iman /pılan/


MneH /elen/ member MIKH /çilen/
Knacc /klass/ chair Knac /kıla©/
KpoBaTt /krovat! bed KpOBST /kırawat/
cTyn /stul/ chair cıyn /u 00ul/
ctoji /stol/ table CTOJI /u 00ol/
44 Turkmen Reference Granunar

Stress
Stress is the pronunciation of one syllable of a word with greater force or energy than
the other syllable or syllables of a word. The strength of this stress may vary according
to intonation or to the quickness of speech.
Pronounced in isolation, the Turkmen vvord receives stress on the last syllable. If a
vvord consists of one-syllable, then no additional emphasis is placed on its
pronunciation. When suffîxes are added to a vvord, the stress falls on the last syllable .5
Exceptjpns to this rule of stress include some originally non-Turkmen words and a
few suffbces or particles which are not stressed. When a word consists of three or more
syllables, a secondary or expiratory stress is placed on the fîrst syllable, but as a rule
the short vowels of closed fîrst syllables are so reduced in length that this stress may
not be perceived. In the examples below, primary stress is indicated by the sign^ ahove
the affected syllable, and secondary stress by the sign' above the syllable.

yo u CH3 /0i5/
fro m yo u CH3fleH | /0iS8en/
clo u d ö y jıy T /bulut/
clo u d y S yn yT Jiu /bulutlı/

Street n en e /köcö/
streets Keuenep /k ocölör/
its streets KeuenepM /köcölöriî/
on its streets KeuçnepHHfle /köcölörünnö/

teli! aifr! /ayt!/


to te li aiİTMaK /aytm ak/
h e ’ 11 te li aflflap /aydâr/
see! rep! /gör!/
to se e repM eK /görm ök/
th ey s a w rep n y n ep /gördü lör/

Compound words consisting of grammatical constructions (see 506-507) receive


stress on the last syllable of the second component, vvhich is the regular placement. A
secondary stress usually falls on the first or second syllable of the first component of
compounds of three or more syllables.

old man auryntı /yâ:sulî/


east tynaorap /günnogor/
hospitable MtKMaHceep /mı:hn)â:n8öyör/

5 Upon initial exposure to spoken Türkmen, one may perceive ıhe daraiion of a long vowel in a root as
a kind o f scress, but ıhis is a natural emphasis rathcr ıhan stress (for example, ot }o:xj 'fire', but otjiu
/o :üî/ 'tıain').
Phonology 45

Word combinations that are paired vvords receive stress on the last syllable of each
component.

night and day ru se-rp m ıe /gi:je-günnü:S/


big and small yntı-KMMH /ulı-kicı/
parents aTa-3He /ata-ene/

Set expressions show two pattems of stress. Those that consist of tvvo ur three
syilables receive stress on dıe first syllable, vvhereas combinations of more than three
syilables receive stress on the second syllable of the first component.

snow-white aıı-aK /ap-a:k/


no one xım kum /hı:c kim/
in no way xaitcu /hı:c hayöı/
to spend xapu otmck /hare etmek/
to supply yms,yn snıeK /üpjün etmek/
therefore wona repa /soıjo görâ:/

A number of suffixes and particles do not receive stress, so that the word str:ss falls
on the syllable before them. One group of these consists of the forms of the second
person imperative mood, vvhich emphasize command and request by stressing the root
of the verb. They inelude the suffixes of the 2 fonnal/plural imperative ( i,ih/hh
/-ırj/iıj/), the insistent imperative (-ruH İnm /-gm/gin/), the polite imperative (-c a n a /
ceHe /-0âna/0ene/) and the negation partide (-Ma/Me /-ma/me/).

please take it aman /â lırj/


please work Mimrarç /l:slâ:g/

you gotta take it ann.m /algın/


you gotta vvork MiıraerHH /i:slegin/

vvould you take it ancaHa /alOana/


would you vvork umneceHe /i;sle8ene/

don’t take it! ajaıa /alma/


don’t vvork! m inene /i:sleme/

don’t take it (plural) aswıan /âlma:i]/


don’t work (plural) mımsMsu /i:slemâ:q/
46 Türkmen Reference Grammar

The singular and plural personal endings that are added to the present indefînite
(-sp/ftap /-ya:r/ya:r/), the futııre indefinite (-ap/ep /-ar/erf), the subjective past
indefinite (-ungtıp/nnnMp /-ıpdır/ipdir/) and other tense suffixes do not receive stress.

Itake anapLiH /alyâ:nn/


you take ajwpciiH /alyâ:r8u)/
we take aımpuc /alyâ:n0/
you take ajıapcunti3 /alyâ:r0ırjı8/

Fil work HllDKpHH /ı:slâ:rin/


you'11 work HiımspcHH /i:slâ:r8it]/
we’ll work munspMc /i:slS:ri0/
you’U vvork mımspcHiflD /i:slâ:r6ii]i8/

A variety of particles never receive stress, including the quesrion partide (- m u / mm


/-mı/mi/), along with the particles of confirmation (-flup/aHp /-dır/dir/), assertion
(-MumİMMm /-mis/mis/), speculation (-MtiKa/MHKa /-mıka:/mikâ:/), emphasıs (-«a/fla
/-da:/dâ:/), and connection (xeM/-aM/eM /hem/-am/em/>. Other particles which do not
receive stress include -a/a /-a:/a:/, -xa/xa /-ha:/hâ:/, -Ka/ıca /-ka:/kâ:/, -fla/fle /-da/de/
and -jıa/ne /-la/le/.

Did she work? UumeamiM? /İrsledimi?/


Is he at home? Oji ettfleMH? /Ol öydomii?/

He is a teacher. On MyraJuıtiMfltıp. /Ol mugollıîmdur./


She must be busy. On mımHflitp. /Ol i:slidir./

Then I’ll take it. MeH anapMH-fla. /Men alânn-na:/


Then you’U work? CeH rauneaçeK-flo? /0en î:slejek-dâ:?/

Fil take it, too. MeHeM antapbin. /Menem alânn./


Bahar also vvorked. Eaxap xeM HiuneflH. /Bahar hem ırSIedı./

They say he’s vvorking. MııiJiefispMHUt. /î:sleyâ:rmis./

Stress is placed on the first syliabie of some Persian ■Arabic structure words and of
some interrogative pronouns of two syllables.

now X33Mp /hâ:5ir/


ali xeMMe /hemme/
likely MerepeM /meğerem/
where? HMpe? /ntre?/
how many? ııaqe? /nâ:ce?/
MORPHOPHONOLOGY

Certain sounds of a Türkmen vvord ehange when its structure changes due to the
addition of lexical or grammatical suffixes. Typically, the last vowel and/or consonant
of the word and the first consonant and/or vowel of the suffix undergo these changes.
Becaııse such changes affect the phonemes (basic sounds) of the morphemes (stems and
suffixes) when these are combined, they belong to a distinct category of description,
that of morphophonology or morphophonemics.
In Turkmen, most morphophonemic changes take the form of assimilations. An
assimilation occurs vvhen phonemes of stems and sııffixes become more similar or
identical to one another, particularly at the juncture vvhere they meet. Some of these
changes are reflected in the Türkmen writing system and some are not. In this seetion,
morphophonemic rules are presented for the changes which Turkmen vowels and
consonants undergo. The spelling rules which do or do not represent these changes are
treated under Orthography (see 79-85).

Vcmel Harmony
One of the most distinctive features of the Turkmen sound system is vowel harmony.
According to this process, vowels of words are pronounced in a way that makes ehem
more similar to one another and thus in "harmony" with one another. Only a paıt of
such pronunciations are reflected in the Turkmen writing system.
Vowei harmony operates accorâmg to oppositions between vovvels, that is, to
contrasts in their place and manner of pronunciation. As pointed out above, Türkmen
vovvels may be classifıed according to vvhether they are pronounced in the front or in
th e back ("non-front") of the mouth, with the tongue high or low ("non-high") in the
mouth, or with rounded or unrounded ("non-rounded") lips. These oppositions are
represented in the foüovving chart, İt should be noted that the vovvels a ja:/ and e JeJ,
although distinct in pronunciation (the tongue is positioned lower and farther back in
the mouth in pronouncing a /a.:/ than in pronouncing e /e/, and the first voweI nearly
alvvays is long in opposition to the second short vovvel), have the same features from
among the oppositions that gövem vovvel harmony. Characterizations of the vovvels
according to these oppositions are provided in the chart (see 48).
48 Turkmen Referenee Grammar

Characterization of Vowels According to Oppositions

Vovvels Front Back High Lovv Rounded Unrounded

a /a-a:/ a /a-a:/ . a /a-a:/ a /a-a:/

m h-v.l h /ı-ı:/ h /ı-ı:/ m /ı-ı:/

a /â:/ s /â :/ a /â:/ a/â:/

e/e/ e/e/ e/e/ e/e/

h /i-i:/ M/i-i:/ M /i-i:/ M/İ-i:/

o /o-o:/ o /o-o:/ o /o-o:/ o /o-o:/

o /ö-ö:/ e /ö-ö:/ e /ö -ö :/ e /ö-ö:/

y /u-u:/ y /u-u:/ y /u-u:/ y /u-u:/

Y/ü/ Y/ü/ Y/ü/ Y/ü/

Y« / 1i:/ yM/ü:/ Y» /ü:/ Yö /ü:/

Fronı-Back Harmony
Turkmen vvords typically contam vovvels belonging to one set (= one of the columns
above) or combination of sets of vovvels. The basic type of vovvel hannony that is
found in nearly ali Turkmen vvords may be called "front-back hannony," because these
vvords have vovvels that belong either to the set of front vovvels or to the set of back
vovvels.
Grammarians also refer to front-back vovvel hannony as "palatal hannony" or
"palatal-velar harmony" because front vovvels are articulated at the hard palate in the
front or "roof' of the mouth, vvhile back vovvels are articulated at the soft palate or
velum in the back of the mouth.
Morphophonology 49

Front Vovvels Back Vovvels


a, e ,m, e , Y, yH a, bi, o, y
/a:, e, i—i:, ö-ö:, ii, ü:/ /a-a:, ı-ı:, o-o:, u-u:/

sneM /a:lem/universe, world raByH /ga:wun/ melon


ryH3 /güna:/ fault, sin C L irtıp /Sığır/ cow
ceMM3 /0emi6/ fat OKaMaK /okomok/ to read
mine / i q ı p / needle oioh /oyun/ game
Kene /köcö/ Street yjifci /uh/ big
r y ü m m /gü:£lü/ powerful, strong 6ynyT /bulut/ cloud

M eH 3»;eM e rYJinepH öepflHM. Oji OHyn KaKacbiıman copaflbi.


/Men ejeme güllörü berdim./ /Ol onurj ka:ka8ınnan 6 o:rodı./
I gave the flovvers to my mother. She asked her father.

Rounded-Unrounded Harmony
Many Türkmen vvords also observe "rounded-unrounded harmony," which is based on
the pronunciation of ali or some of the vowels in Turkmen words with or v/ithout
rounding of the mouth.
This type of vovvel harmony also is referred to as "labial harmony" becıuse it
involves changing the manner of pronunciation by rounding the lips or labiae.

Rounded Vovvels Unrounded Vovvels


o, y, e, y, yS a , a, e, bi, m
/o, o:, u, u:, ö, ö:, ü, ü:/ /a, a:, a:, e, ı, ı:, i, i:/

Tonap Aopor/ group canKMH /öalkın/ cool


6ypyn /burun/ nose Kace /kâ:0e/ teacup
KeHe /kö:nö/ oid repeK /gerek/ necessary
Y3yM /iiSüm/ grapes TMpe /ti:re/ tribe

OHyn ro3yHM ropsYM. CeH MaÖHeK caTMH anapcbiHMU?


/Onurj göSünü gördüm./ / 0en câ:ynek öatuı alaröıgmı?/
I saw her eyes. Will you buy a teapot?

Vovvel Harmony Rules


Vovvel harmony is govemed by two rules which, with the exceptions noted bel o w for
long vovvels in non-root syllables, apply to ali syllables of a vvord, including the
syllable(s) of its suffix(es). The first rule holds that if the first syllable of ;i vvord
contains a back vovvel, then ali subsequent syllables contain back vowels, or if the first
50 Turkmen Referenee Grammar

syllable of a vvord contains a front vowel, then ali subsequent syilables contain front
vovvels. The second rule holds that if the first syllable of a vvord contains a rounded
back or front vovvel, then ali subsequent syilables contain rounded back or front vovvels
("rounding rule").

horse aT /at/
on the horse axna /atda/
horses auıap /atlar/
your horses aTnapHHM3 /atlanrjıS/
on your horses aTnaptn<M3Ba /atlanrjıSSa/
request flaner /dileg/
in the request »tireme /dilegde/
requests flHJiemep /dilegler/
your requests HHneraepMHM3 /diIeglerirjiS/
in your requests flHnernepHHrafle /dileglerigiSSe/

house eM löyl
in the house ettfle /öydö/
houses eönep /öylör/
yourhouses ı eönepmtro /öylörür|ü5/
in your houses etaepmpoae /öylöriirjü55ö/
ear lyiBK /gulok/
in the ear zynaıcaa /gulokdo/
ears rynaıaıap /guloklor/
your ears lyjıaKuaptffiiBo /guloklorurju5/
in your ears rynaKnapunnsna /gulokloruıjuSSo/

Exceptions to the rounding rule of vovvel harmony involve the long vovvels a /a:/
and a /a:/, the vovvels u /ı-ı:/ and h /i-i:/, and borrowed vvords and suffixes. The
rounding rule does not apply to the long vovvels a /a:/ or a /a:/ or to vowels in
syilables follovving a syllable containing the long vovvels a /a:/ or a /a:/.

Türkmenistan TYpKMeımcTaH /Türkmönü00a:n/


Turkmenistan’s TYPKMeHHcraHMH /Tiirkmönü00a:nıq/
hereads oıcaap /okoya:r/
they read OKaapnap /okoya:rlar/
she had not finished ryTapMaımu /gutonna:nnı/
they had not finished ryrapMaHjjttnap /gutormatnnılar/
he laughs rynttap /gillyâ:r/
they laugh rynifspnep /gülya:rler/
vvhich is producing emiYpösH /ö:nnüryâ:n/
vvhich are producing GHflYpİtsHnep /ö:nnüryâ:nler/
Morphophonology 51

Teke speakers of Standard Türkmen apply the nıle of rounded-unrounded harmony


differeatly to the vowels ti /ı-ı:/ and h /i—i:/. Generally, they apply Öle rounding rnle
consistently to the short vowels h /i—i:/ in ali syllables, whether open or closed, and to
the short vowel ti /ı/ in closed syllables.

neck 6 ohjh /boyun/


on her neck 5oıonbnma /boyununno/
ear lynaK /gulok/
in his ear ryjıariMfla /gulogunno/
big yjıtr /ulı/
size, bigness ynyjttK /ululuk/

section 6 en yM /bö:lüm/
in her section öenyMMHHe /b5:lümtinnö/
heaıt ttypeK /yürök/
in his heart ÜYperaHHe /yürögünnö/
sweet cyflaçH /0 ü:jü/
sweetness cyta^ynHK / 0ü:jülük/

for yuMH /ücü:n/


whole 6yTHH /bütii:n/
possible MYMKMH /mümkürn/
in the day ryHHH /günü:n/

corpse e jm /ölü/
pocket yçfîM /jübü/
various flYpJDf /dürlü/
her face 0Y3H /yü5ü/
hesaw repflH /gördü/

However, speakers of the Teke dialect generally do not apply the rounding rule to
the long vowel M /ı:/ in closed syllables or to the short vowel bi /ı/ in final, open
syllables.

lo n g . y3bIH {uhv.nl
c a p ab ility yK trn /ukı:p/
upw ard e ra p tK /yo k o n rk/

go o d roBM /gow ı/
b ig ym ı /u hl
train OTUM /o:tlı/
h is arm ronbi /golı/
sh e re a d OKaflM a /o k o d ı /
52 Türkmen Reference Grammar

Vowel Harmony in Borrowed Words


Turkmen has borrowed numerous words from Persian, Arabic and Russian, which are
languages without vowel harmony. The majority of the Persian-Aıabic borrovvings have
been assimilated into the Turkmen sound structure, so that they conform to the back-
front rule of vowel harmony. Few Russian words have been assimilated, although they
may happen to conform by their original structure. Nonetheless, the front-back rule of
vovvel harmony operates with the addition of suf&tes even to unassimilated borrowings
that contain both back and front vowels. In these words, if the last syllable contains a
back vowel, then back vowels follow in suffixes. Conversely, front vovvels follow a
front vowel of the last syllable.

our literatüre 3fle6HflTEIMİI3 /edebiya:tımıS/


our society x;eMruernMM3 /jemgıyetimiS/
in the building of ömıacHHua /bina:0 mna/
nevvspapers ra 3 em ep /gaSetler/
from the store MaraarameH /magaSinnen/
its director flMpeKTOpLZ /direkton/

In addition, vowels of syllables following a rounded vowel (o /o-o:/, o /ö-ö:/, y


/u-u:/, y /ü-ü:/) are rounded in Persian-Arabic vvords.

beautiful OBaflaH /owodon/


wish, desire xeB ec /höwö8/
in the period of M exnem H fle /möhlötünnö/
old K&üe /kö:nö/
opportunity n ypcaT /pur0ot/
traditions fleccypnap /de00u:rlor/
in the law of KaHynBinna /ka:nu:nunno/
joyless p y x cy 3 /ru:h0u5/
thankful myKYpnM /sükürlü/
directorship MyflHpJIHK /müdii:rliik/

Due to the several vaıiables that operate in the Russian component of Türkmen (see
40-42), even one and the same speaker may vary in the application of the rounding rule
to Russian vvords and the addition of suffûces to them. Some Russian borrowings have
been fully assimilated into Turkmen and are treated as Türkmen vvords (for example,
n o T p a T /potrot/ < noflpaa 'contract', Typöa /türbo/ < T pyfia '(water) pipe').
Generally, those vvords in broadest use for everyday purposes and for the longest period
have tended to conform more fully to the Türkmen sound system, and even very
Russianized speakers apply the rounding rule to them.
Morphophouology 53

tons TOHHanap Aonnolor/


moyies KHHOJiap /kinolor/
days off oTflux ryHnepH /otduh günlörü/
at the plant of aaEOAtiHfla / 6awudunno/
at the farm of Konxo3UHfla /kolhoSunno/

Speakers vary firom situation to situation in their treatment of Russian wcırds that
typically appear in joumalistic or technical literatüre, or that have to do witb tlı; social
and political structure.

in the structure of cocraBMHHa /öo8tawjnna - 0 o8tow unno/


in the sector of ceK T opu nn a /0ektonnna - Oektorunno/
constitution KOHcnnyıytfl /kon0titu0iya ~ kon0tinı0uyo/

Vovvel Harmony in Suffvces


With the exception of sufSxes that contain the long vowels a/s /a:/â:/ or u /h /:./i:/, ali
Türkmen suffixes potentially have four variants according to their vowel(s), defending
on whether they are added to words with front or with back vowels, or to vvords vvith
rounded or vvith unrounded vovvels.
One group of suffixes vvith four variants consists of those whose only or first
vowels are the mid vovvels a/e /a-o/e-ö/.

Plural +nap/nep /+lar-lor/ler-lör/


Dative case +a/e /+a-o/e-ö/
Locative case +fla/fle /+da-do/de-dö/
Ablative case +flaH/flen /+dan-don/den-dön/
Equative suffix /+ca-co/£e-cö/
Companion suffix +flam/flexu /+das-dos/des-dös/
Verb-forming suffix +na/ne- /+la-lo-/le-lö-/
Adverb-forming suffix +apw/epH /+an-orı/eri-örii/
Defmite future /-jak-jok/Jek-]ök/
1 singular imperative -aîtbm/eiİMH /-ayın-oyun/eyin-öyün/
1 dual imperative -amı/ejiH /-alı-olı/eli-ölü/
1 plural imperative -anHu/erom /-alı:rj—olı: rj/eli: rj—ölü: g/
3 conditional -ca/ce /- 0a- 0o/0e - 0ö/
3 subjunctive -caflfcl/eeflH /- 0adı- 0odı/0edi- 0 ödü/
Suffix of obligation -Manu/MenM /-maü-moü/meli-mölü/
Verbal noun -ac/ec /-a0-o 0/e0 -ö 0/
Past participle -a«/eH /- an-on/en-ön/
54 Turkmen Referenee Grammar

A second group of suffixes with four variants consists of those whose only or first
vowels are the high vovvels u lu /ı-u/i-ü/.

Genitive case +mh/hh /+ırj-io/uıj-üi)/


1 singular possessive +mm/ hm /+ım-um/im-üm/
2 singular possessive + ım /m /+ııj-urj/ii)-üj]/
Ordinal numeral +biHa;tı/MH»;n /+mjı-unjı/in]i- 1injü/
Association suffxx +IJMK/J1MK /+Iık-luk/Iik-lii k/
Privation suffix +CM3/CH3 /+8ı5-eu8/ei5-0ü8/
Passive voice -ttn/raı- /-ıl-ul/il-ül-/
Reflexive voice -bm/m- /-ın-un/in-ün-/
Cooperative voice -bw/wm- /-ıs —us/is —ü5-/
Causative voice -m p /m p - /-dır-dur/dir-dür-/
Verbal noun -huu/um /-ıs-us/is-iis/
Gerund -hm/mı /-ıp-up/ip-üp/
2 plural imperative -uıt/m, /-ırj-urj/irj-tiıj/
3 singular imperative -CbIH/CHH /-0ın- 0un/0 in- 0 iin/
3 plural imperative -cbmnap/cMHnep /-0 mlar- 0unlor/0inler-0ünIör/

Because of the rule that the vovvel ti /ı/ is not rounded in open final syilables, the
following suffixes have only three variants.

Accusative case +hl/lf l+l/i-ü/


3 possessive +h / h /+I/İ-Ü/
Agent suffix + hm/*ih /+cı/ci-cü/
Attribute suffbc +ntı/nM /+ h/li-lü/
Relation suffbc +kh /kh /+kı/ki-kü/
3 past indefînite -m /m /-dı/di-dü/

Several suffixes that contain the long vovvel w /»:/, vvhich is never rounded, exist in
only three variants.

Directive suffix +hk/hk /+ı:k/i:k-ü:k /


Instrumental suffıx +mh/hh /+ı:n/i:n-ü:n/

Those suffixes vvhose first or only vovvel is one of the long vovvels a/a /a:/â:/,
vvhich are never rounded, have only tvvo variants.
Morphophonology 55

Relation suffix +flaKtl/fl3KH /+da:kı/dâ:ki/


Comparative suffuc +pax/p3K /+ra:fc/ra:k/
Approximation numeral +nan/n3it /+la:p/lâ:p/
Approximation numeral +naıı/ji3iı /+la:n/la:n/
3 present indefînite -ap/ifsp /-ya:r/yâ:r/
3 desiderative -asHH/seflîi /-a:yadı/a:yedi/
Suffîx of permission -aft/sft /-a:y/a:y/
Infînitive in dative case -Mara/Msre /-ma:ga/ma:ge/
Present participle -sth/Msh /-ya:n/ya:n/
Negation partide /-ma:n/mâ:n/

Only a very few suffixes do not observe these rules of vovvel harmony, including
one or both vovvels of the negative present perfect (-aH O K /eH O K /-ano:k/eno:k/) and
noun-forming (-yBİ\B /-uw/iiw/, +}rçara3 /+jaga5j) suffîxes, and of various Persian
derivational suffîxes (+ı>ıcTan/ncTaH/YcTaH /+ı00a:n-i08a:n/ü00a:n/, -Ban /-wac/,
+aap /+da:r/, ete.).
56 Türkmen Reference Grammar

Vowel Lengthening

Secondary long vowels (see 33) arise under several conditions. First, if a suffix
beginning with a vowel is added to a word ending in a vowel, then the two vowels
fuse into a long vovvel, Second, loss of a consonant between two identical vowels
produces a long vowel. Hıird, the vovvel of a last syliabie becomes long upon the
addition of several case and family name suffixes. With the exception of the vowel a
/a:/, which nearly always represents a long vovvel, the length of these secondary long
vowels is not indicated in the spelling of Türkmen words.

Fusion ofTvvo Vovvels


Addition of the first and second person possessive suffixes (+hm(li3)/hm(h3) /+ım(ı8)/
im(i8)/, + u h (u 3)/mh(h3) /+ıi](ıS)/ii)(iS)/) in singular or plural to a vvord ending in a
vowel lengthens that vowel.

raim my door rantiM /gapı:m/


door our door ranMMH3 /gapı:mıS/
your door rantın /gapı:r)/
your door (plural) raımiHbB /gapı:qı8/

Kene my Street K0H3M /köcâ:m/


Street our Street Keq3M113 /köcâ:mi8/
your Street K0H3Iİ /köcâ:rj/
your Street (plural) K0M3HH3 /köcâ:i]i5/

For unclear reasons, this process does not occur vvith the addition of possessive
suffixes to most of the basic kinship terms: aııe /ene/ 'grandmother (father’s line)', aTa
/ata/ 'grandfather (father’s line)', MaMa /ma:ma/ 'grandmother (modıer’s line)', 6 a 6 a
/ba:ba/ 'grandfather (mother’s line)', 3W,e /eje/ 'mother', Kaıta /ka:ka/ 'father', naÜ3a
/daySa/ 'aunt (mother’s line)', naübi /da:yı/ 'uncle (mother’s line)', ara /a:ga/ 'older
brother' and eune /yegge/ 'wife of older brotlıer'.

3»;e my mother 33K,eM /ejem/


mother our mother a*;eMM3 /ejemiS/
your mother 3X.cn /ejeıj/
your mother (plural) 3JK,eHH3 /ejeıjiS/

KaKa my father KaKaM /ka:kam/


' father our fadıer KaKaMbB /ka:kamı8/
your father KaKan /ka:katj/
yoar father (plural) KaKanti3 /ka:kaıgıS/
Morphophonology 57

Addition o f the fîrst and second person possessive suffixes to the verbal nc un suffix
(-Ma/Me /-ma/me/) also lengthens its vovvel.

S3Ma my vvriting SBMaM /ya 5ma:nı/


vvriting our vvriting SI3MaMbI3 /ya 8ma:mı8/
your vvriting H3Man /ya 8ma:ıj/
your vvriting (plural) «3MaHbI3 /yaSmaırjıS/

renMe my coming rejiM3M /gelma:m/


coming our coming reJiMSMjo /gelmâ:mi8/
your coming renMSH /gelma:ı]/
your coming (plural) rejiM3HM3 /gelmâ:rji5/

Addition o f the future indefînite tense (-ap /ep /-ar/er/), past participle (-aH/eH
/-an/en/), imperative mood (-aföbm/eiiHH /-ayuı/eyin/, -ajibi(n)/e.nM (n) /-alı(;g>/eli(:rj)/.
-mh / hh /-ır/it]/), gerund (-tın/ıın /-ıp/ip/) and other suffixes to a verb stem ending in a
vovvel results in a long vovvel.

snuaMaK s/he wili live souap /ya:sa:r/


to live vvho üved anıaH /ya:sa:n/
let me live amaitbLH /ya:5a:ym/
let us live »mantın /ya:sa:lı:i)/
live! (plural) sunan /ya:sa:i)/
living aman /ya:sa:p/

HiuneMeK s/he vvill vvork Muuıap /i:sla:r/


to vvork vvho worked HUIH3H /i:sla:n/
let me vvork MUinSÜHH /i:slâ:yin/
let us vvork HU1J13JIHH /i:sla:li:i)/
vvork! (plural) HUUI3H /i:sia:rj/
vvorking Huınsn /i:slâ:p/

Lı addition, the vovvels o f the suffixes + u k / h k /+ı:k/i:k/, + m h /h h /+ı:n/i:n/,


+naKu/p(3KM /+da:kı/dâ:ki/, +paif/paK /+ra:k/râ:k/, -ap/ftap /-ya:r/ya:r/, -ancii/eHOK
/-ano:k/eno:k/, -aJlun/ejiM H /-alı:i)/eli:r)/, -aü /aii /-a:y/â:y/, -aaflbr/aeflH /-a:yadı/
â:yedi/, -Hn/üaH /-ya:n/yâ:n/, + Jia n /n a n /+la:p/lâ:p/, +naH /naH /+la:n/lâ-.!t/, and
various particles, have inherent length vvhether they are added to a vvord end üıg in a
consonant or to one ending in a vovvel (see 35, 54). W hen added to a stem ending in a
vovvel, the initial vovvel o f the suffbces + l i k / h k /+ı:k/i:k/, + u h /m h /+ı:n/i:n/,
-anoK/enoK /-ano:k/eno:k/, -ajıtın/ejiH H /-alı:r)/eli:rj/, -afi/aft /-a:y/â:y/ and -aaflbi/
aejııı /-a:yadı/â:yedi/ may be said to replace that final vowel.
58 Türkmen Referenee Grammar

Fusion ofTw o Vowels with Loss o f Consonant


Addition of the future indefmite suffix -ap/ep /-ar/er/ to a verb ending in n /!/ or p /r/
results in the loss of the ji /!/ or p /r/, leaving two vowels which fuse into a long
vowel. This long vovvel is not represented in writing. Each of the verbs in the tables
below may exist both in a foraı of the future indefmite with -ap/ep /-ar/er/ and in a
contracted form of the present continuous tense (see 225-228). At a stage intermediate
between the tvvo forms, the consonant drops and the resulting pair of vovvels fuses into
a long vovvel. The contracted present continuous tense forms of oTypMaK /oturmok/
and HTM3 K /yatmak/ are produced by adding the no longer produetive future indefinite
variant *-ır/ir to the root (thus OTbip /otı:r/ < *otur-ır, STbip /yatr.r/ < *yat-ır).
Hovvever, it is unclear why the long vovvel in H T bip /yatt:r/ developed from a form
(*yatır) in vvhich no contraction took place.

Verb Future Indefmite Present Continuous


auMaK /almak/ ajıap /alar/ ap /a:r/ < *a(l)ar
to take he’ll take he’s taking
SepMeK /bennek/ 6 epep /berer/ 6ep /be:r/ < *be(r)er
to give she’ll give she’s giving
SoJiMaK /bolmok/ öojıap /bolor/ 6op /bo:r/ < *bo(l)ar
to become it vvill be it’s being
r e ıiM e K /gelmek/ renep /geler/ rep /ge:r/ < *ge(ljer
to come he’ll come he’s coming
ıyrapMaK /gutormok/ lyrapap /gutoror/ ryrap /guta:r/ < *guta(r)ar
to fmısh he’ll finish he’s fînishing
flypMaK /durmok/ flypap /duror/ flyp /du:r/ < *du(r)ar
to stand she’ll stand she’s standing
MepMeK /yörmök/ itepep /yörör/ flep /yö:r/ < *yö(r)er
to vvalk he’ll vvalk he’s vvalking
OTypMaK /oturmok/ OTypap /oturor/ on»ıp /otı:r/ < *otu(r)ır
to sit he’ll sit he’s sitting
utncapMaK /çıkarmak/ rçbncapap /cıkarar/ Mtncap /cıka:r/ < *cika(r)ar
to take out she’ll take out she’s taking out
HTMaK /yatmak/ srrap /yatar/ jrrbip /yatı:r/ < *yatır
to lie dovvn she’ll lie dovvn she’s lying down

A few combinations of vvords nearly always are pronounced vvith a long vovvel that
results from contraction: 6 y ryn /bu:n/ 'today', my ryH /su:n/ 'today', and CHpHryn
/birü:n/ 'day after tomorrow'.
Morphophonology 59

Vovvel Lengthening with Case Suffixes


Addition o f the genitive (+lih/hh /-j-ııj/iq/), accusative (+m/m /+ıfıf) and dative (+a/e
/+a/e/) case suffîxes to a word ending in a vowel lengthens that vowel. This process
also applies to those kinship terms which escape vowel lengthening vvith the addition
of possessive suffıxes (see 56). As noted elsevvhere, the shortened genitive case variant
+H /+i]/) is preferred in spoken Türkmen after a word ending in a vovvel ( ra n tın
/gapr.i}/, komsh /kö£a:ıj/, 3 JK.3H /ejâ:rj/, KaKaıj /ka:ka:i]/, and so on; see 1 2 1 ).

raıiLi Genitive ranMHBn* /gapımıt)/


door Accusative ranLiHLi /gapımı/
Dative rana /gapa:/
Kene Genitive K em m m /köcâ:niıj/
Street Accusative K6M3HK /köca:ni/
Dative /köcâ:/
33«;e Genitive 3^3100* /ejâ:nii)/
mother Accusative /eja:ni/
Dative 37KŞ /eja;/

Kana Genitive KZKamm /ka:ka:nır|/


father Accusative KaKfflhl /ka:ka:nı/
Dative KaKa /ka:ka:/

Addition of these case suffbces to the verbal noıın in -Ma/Me /-ma/me/ lengthens its
final vovvel.
H3Ma the vvriting’s H3Main.ru /ya8ma:nııj/
vvriting the vvriting 83MaHH /ya5ma:nı/
to the vvriting A3Ma /ya8ma:/
rejiMe the coming’s renMaHHH /gelmaınir)/
coming the coming renMaiffl /gelma:ni/
to the coming reımıa /gelmâ:/

Vowel Lengthening with Family Name Suffixes


Addition of the Russian family name suffixes +O B a/eB a /+owa/ewa/ (vvomen) and
+oB/ea /+ow/ew/ (men) results in the lengthening of the vovvel in the last syliabie of a
name.
MaMMer /Mâ:mmet/ MsMMeflOBa /Mâ:me:dowa/
Fenan/Gelli/ FemneBa /Gelli:yewa/
Pex;en /Rejep/ Pex;e6 oB /Reje:bow/
'lap tı /Cam/ ^aptıeB /Ca:n:yew/
60 Türkmen Referenee Grammar

VoweI Loss
In combination with certain consonants the high vowels u / m JıJi/ and y/y /u/ü/ (never
the mid vowels a/e /a/e/) of a second elosed syllable of a word may be dropped when a
suffbc consisting of or beginning with a vowel is added. This loss of a vowel also may
occur in the third syllable vvith the addition of the verbal noun suffbc -liiu/hui /-ıs/is/
to a verb stem (see 335). One way to deseribe this loss is that it occurs when the vovvel
in the vvord is preceded by one of the sonorants 6 /b/ [v], r /g/ [y], m /m/, H /rj/, p /r/,
B /w/ or H İyi, and occasionally by h /n/ and sı /l/.1

c+ v+ c Word + Suffix Vowel Lost

6 /b/[v] raötıp+tt /gabır+ı/ ra 6p n /gabn/his grave

r /g /M arH 3+ tiM /agı5+ım/ a ra u M /agSım/ my mouth


o ryn + H M/ogul+mı/ onıyM /oğlum/ my son
CUTBIP+HMH3 /0ıgır+ımıS/ CBirpBiM tB /0ıgnmı5/ our covv
srac-ep /egiö-er/ 3rcep /eg0 er/ it vvill diminish
m /m / raMtiaı+H /gamıs+ı/ raMiUH /gam sı/ its reeds
TOMyc+bi+Haa TOM cyıma AomSunno/
/tomu0 +ı+nda/ in its summer
KeMyp+H+HneH KeM pyHflen /kömrünnön/
/kömür+i+nden/ from its co a l

H/ıj/ ManM3+tı /marjı8+ı/ M3H3I.I /marjSı/ its kemel


ennn-ep /yerjil-er/ eHJiep /yerjler/ he’ll be defeated
P /r/ 6ypyH +B m /burun+ıi]/ öypHyn /bumur)/ your nose
repYH-Mn /görün-ip/ repHyn /gömüp/ appearing

1 The official formulaıion of ıhe vovvel loss rule was ıhe following: ~Wiıh ıhe addition of a suffix
beginning with a vovvel 10 stems of two-syllable vvords ending in 3 /5/, ji (il, H Mi, p A/, c /0/, uı /s/, and
vvith a high vovvel which is pronounced short and whose first syllable is open, the high vowel of the
last syllable drops out, if the preceding consonant is voiced" (Pe 30Aw ifiuı 1956: 6 , ^apuapoB 1973:
208). Azımov deseribed the vovvel loss rule more succinctly: ~If a suffbc beginning vvith a vowel is
added to two-syllable stems consisting o f a first open syllable vvith a short vovvel and a second elosed
syllahle wiüı a high vowel and final a /8 /, j i fil, h /tı/, p /r/, c / 0/, ın /s/, then the high vovvel of the second
syllable drops out' (A 3 u m o b 1966: 95). Hovvever, examples cited farther on for the retention of
vowels contradict both fonnulations, although the official version is very elose. The "Academy'
preseripdon held that a vowel is îost if it appeaıs ( t ) betv/een sonorants (M /m/, m /n/, *1 /tj/, ji /I/, p /r/, ti
/y/), (2) betvveen fricatives (c / 8/t 3 /§/, m fsl and also the fticative allophones [v] of 6 /b/ and b /w/, [7 ]
o f r /g/, and [x] of x /hf), (3) between a sonorant and a fricative, or (4) betvveen a fricative or
sonorant and voiced A /d/ or a ç ffl (TpaMMamuKa 61-62). EssentiaUy coırect, the complexity of this
formulaıion may be less accessible than the guidelline offered here.
Morphophonology 61

b / vv/ xoay3+HH /howu8+ır)/ xoB3yn /how8uıj/


the artifıcial welTs
Ayoyn+H /düwün+i/ flY°HH /düvvnü/ its knot
K0BYUI+HHH3 /kÖWÜS+İr|İ8/ KeBUiynH3 /köwsüqü5/ your shoes

tt/y / roıoH+tı /goyun+ı/ roÜHM /goym/ his sheep


flyıon-ap /duyul-ar/ flyflnap /duylor/ it will be felt
6 aWup+u /bayır+ı/ 6 aöpu /bayn/ its hill
rapaÜLiııı+fci+Hfla rapaSuibiHHa /garaysmna/
/garayıs+ı+nda/ in her view

The vowels m /h /ıfı/ and y /y /u/ü/ of a second syllable do not drop when they are
preceded by one of the voiceless consonants n İp/, t /t/, K IkJ, c / 0/, or ın /s/, or by the
voiced consonants 3 181 or jk, /j/.

C+V+C Word+Suffix Vowel Retained

n /p / rony3+tuı /gopuS+ıg/ rony 3bm /gopuSuıj/


your mouth harp

T /t/ aTH3+HM /atı8+ım/ aTH3biM /atıSım/ my plot of la nd


TYTYH+HHH3 /tÜtÜn+İt)İ8/ TYTyHHHH3 /tütünür|ü8/
yoursmoke

K /k/ aKMfl+HM /akıl+ım/ aKboibiM /akılım/ my intelligence


fleKyH+H /dökün+i/ fleKyuH /dökünü/ its fertilizatioıı

c / 8/ 6 acbip-un /ba 0ır-ıp/ Bactıpbtn /ba0 ınp/ covering

UI /s/ roıuyjı-bin /gosul-ıp/ rouıynbin /gosulup/ joining

3/8/ si3buı-ap /ya8ıl-ar/ H3biJiap /yaSılar/ it will be writtcn

/]/ ryJKYK+M /güjük+i/ rya^Y™ /güjügü/ his puppy

Exceptions to Üıese guidelines regarding vovvel loss include the retention of the
vowels u / h Jı/il and y /y /u/ü/ of a second syllable when the first syllable conains a
long vowel.
62 Turkmen Reference Grammar

Word+Suffıx Vovve/ Retained


aran+H /a:gıl+ı/ arHJibi /a: gılı/ its corral
6anMK+H /ba:lık+ı/ Gasihiru /ba:lıgı/ its fish
öenyH-Mn /bö:lün-ip/ 6enyHYn /bö:lünüp/ being dıvided
öepyK+M /bö:rük+i/ 6epYTH /bö:rügü/ his skullcap
raByH+MUBra /ga:wun+ırjı5/ raBynyny3 /ga:wunurju6/ your melon
HaMtıc+H /na:mı0+ı/ HaMtıcM /na:mı9ı/ her honor
Marap-HH /£a:gır-ırj/ MartıptiH /ca:gınrj/ please invite
Mafltrp+H /ca:dtr+ı/ MajıtıpH /ca:dın/ their tent

The vovvels m / h /ı/i/ and y/y /u/ü/ in a second syliabie also are retained before the
consonants t /t/ and i /£/.

Word+Sufpx Vowel Retained


C8 BYT+H /0öwüt+i/ ceBYflM /0öwütü/ his willow tree
8hiht +h /yigit+i/ thınınu /yiğidi/her young man

MOMyn+u /coımıc+ı/ MOMy^H /£omujı/ its stinkvveed


mnH«j+H /gılıc+ı/ r t u ı u ^ u /gıhjı/ his sword

The vovvel loss nıle does not apply to the vowels m/ h /ı/i/ and y/y /u/ü/ in the
second syliabie of a word whose fîrst syliabie is closed.

Word+Suffix Vowel Retained


6 anflBip+w /ballır+ı/ 6 anflbipH /ballın/ his shin
YcrYp-un /İi0gür-ip/ YcrYpraı /ii0gürüp/ coughing
Morphophonology 63

"Consonant Harmony"
Certain consonants in combination with certain other consonants become either more
similar or identical to one another. This process of becoming similar is called
assimilation and has the effect of bringing consonants closer in pronunciation with one
another, that is, in "harmony" with one another. In Turkmen, the sound changes
sometimes referred to as "consonant harmony" are a form of consonant assimilation.
Assimilation often occurs when two consonants meet at the juncture between vvord
and suffix or between word and word (sandhi). Such assimilation may be of two types:
Progressive, in the sense that the final consonant of the word affects the initial
consonant of the suffîx or next vvord ( c + t / 0+t/ > / 00/), or regressive, in that the initial
consonant of the suffbt or word affects the final consonant of the word ( t + c /t+ 0/ >
/00/). The rules for pronunciation of Standard Turkmen incorporate a number of
assimilations which operate in the majority of Turkmen dialects.2
A prominent group of these prescribed assimilations affect the consonant n /d / in
combination with the consonants h /n/, jı /1/3 /8/ and c /0/, (progressive assimilations:
H+fl /n+d/ > /nn/, Ji+fl fl+dj > /İl/, 3 +fl / 8+d/ > / 88/, c+a / 0+d/ > /00/), and the
consonant c /0/ in combination with the consonants 3 /S/ and t /t/ (regressive
assimilations: 3 +c /S+0/ > /00/, t + c /t+0/ > /00/). Assimilations also affect the
consonants m /£/ and w, /]/ when preceded by the consonant m f s / (progressive
assimilations: m+K, /s+jj/ > /ss/, h+'J /c+c/ > /ss/. m+jk, /c+J/ > /ss /).3 Such changes
are noted in the speech of nearly ali Türkmen speakers, although they are not reflected
in writing. Most of the regressive assimilations of consonants within the vvord at the
juncture betvveen syllables or betvveen vvords are reflected in the vvriting (see 84-85), but
there are a few exceptions ( c + t / 0+t/ > / 00/, m +6 /m+b/ > /mm/).
Standard assimilations that occur vvithin the word, at the juncture between word and
suffix, and at the juncture between word and word, are presented in the tabîe (see 64).
Even though prescrib ed for the Standard language, certain assimilations only occur
in a restricted number of dialects: M+H /m+d/ > /mn/ (3JlMMRe /elimne/ 'in my hand')
occurs only in the Teke, Kırach and Nohur dialects and in the northem subdialect of
Yomut; h + ji /n+1/ > /nn/ (rynnep /günnör/ 'days') occurs only in the Man subdialect
of Teke and in the Stavropol dialect; 3+Jl fz+lf > 155/ (ny3Jitı /du:S8ı/ 'salty') operates
only in the Yomut dialect; and h + 6 /n+b/ > /nm/ ( oh 6 np /onmi:r/ ~ [onvi:r] '11')
and h +6 /rj+b/ > /j]m/ (ceHMH ÖMJien / 0enirjmilen/ ~ [Oenirçvilen] 'with you') occur
only in the speech of those who do not consistently observe the rule that the consonant
6 /b/ is pronounced [v] betvveen vowels and after consonants (see 38).4

2 rpaMMamuKa 58-60, Sep^HeB İ9 7 0 :218-234.


3 Jn this case the phonetic rule that /c/ has the allophone [s] before /d/, /s/ and /!/ (see 40) extends to /c/
and /J/, so that first the combinations /c+c/ and /c+c/ become [sc] and second [sc] becomes
/ss/ through progressive assimilation.
4 rpaMMamuKa 59, Bep^neB 1970: 220-223.
Türkmen Referenee Grammar

Consonant Assimilations
H+fl /n+d/ becomes /nn/ stuıtnifla /ya:sınna/ at the age of
GenyHflH /bö:lünnü/ it was divided
rynaM3 /günnü:8/ daytime

n+a A+d/ becomes /İl/ KenRe /kö:llö/ in the lake


rennu /gelli/ she came
eıiflaıu /yo:llos/ companion

3+A /5+d/ becomes /SS/ re3fleH /gö 88ön/ from the eye
H3flUM /yaSSım/1 wrote
flY3fle>m /düSSeci/ non-domestic

c+fl / 0+d/ becomes /00/ 6acflbiM /ba00un/1 pressed


KJiacfla /kla00a/ in elass
ecflYPMeK /ööBürmök/ to grow (tr.)

3+c /8+0/ becomes /00/ repKe3cnH /görkö00ün/ let her show


H3ca /ya00a/ if he writes
bi3cw3 /ı:00ıS/ without trace

T+c /t+0/-becomes /00/ nrrcHH /gi00in/ let him go


nrree /gi00e/ if she goes
3TCH3 /e00i8/ without meat

rn+JK, /s+j/ becomes /ss/ ryıır*;ara3 /gussagaS/ little bird


aıras;aK /assak/ she will eross

m+ m /c+c/ becomes /ss/ aravibl /agassı/ carpenter

q+2K, /c+j/ becomes /ss/ reqjK,eK /gessek/ they will pass


yujfsâK /ussak/ it will fly

c+ t /0+t/ becomes /00/ flocryM /do:00um/ my friend

m +6 /m+b/ b e c o m e s /mm/ Xo^aM 6 a3 /Hojomma:8/ Hojambaz


Morphophonology 65

Consonant Voicing
Another kind of assimilation occurs when a voiceless consonant becomes voict:d when
surrounded by vowels, which are always voiced. The unvoiced consonants n İp/, t /t/,
k İki and /£/ at the end of a one-syllable vvord containing a long vowel become
voiced 6 /bl, n /d/, r /g/ and jk /]/, respectively, with the addition of a suffix
consisting of or beginning with a vowel. This assimilation is reflected in the w:iting.

n İp/ becomes 6 /b/ ran+M /ga:p+ı/ r a ö t ı /ga:bı/ h is s a c k


flY®n+M /dü:p+i/ flyü öH /dü:bü/ its bottom
MY^n+e /dü:p+e/ AYÜöe /dü:bö/ to th e bottom

t /t/ b e c o m e s a / d / aT+H /a:t+ı/ a fltı /a:dı/ h e r nam e


o T + ii /o:t+ ı/ o flu /o:dı/ its fire
o t+m /o:t+a/ Ofla lo-.doj to the fire

k / k İ b e c o m e s r /g/ re K + e jıe /gö:k+ ele/ r e r e n e /gö:gölö/ green , r a ./


m k+m /i:k+ i/ htm /i:gi/ h e r sp in d le
MK+e /i:k+e/ Hre /i:ge/ to th e sp in d le

m /£/ becomes w, /j/ ryÜM+M /gü:c+i/ r y tt* ,n /gü:jü/ h er strengtlı


yn+M /u:c+ı/ y x , u /u'.ji/ it s tip
y u + a /u:£+a/ y aç a /u:jo/ to the tip

On the other hand, voiceless consonants remain unvoiced at the end of a one-
syllable word with a shoıt vowel.

n / p / re m a in s n /p/ T o n + H /top+ı/ T o n u /topı/ h e r b a ll


c a n + H /0ap+ı/ c a m .1 /0apı/ its h an d le
c a n + a /6ap+a/ ca n a /0 apa/to the h an d le

t /t/ re m ain s t /t/ aT+bi /at+ı/ a r a /atı/ h is h orse


ot+ m /ot+ı/ OTbi /otı/ its grass
oT + a /ot+a/ o r a /oto/ to the grass

k /kİ re m a in s k fkj MyK+H /yük+i/ MyKiî /yükü/ its lo a d


K6K+H /kök+ i/ K6KH /kökü/ its root
KOK+e /kök+e/ K eK e /kökö/ to th e root

1 16/ re m a in s lı /£/ cah+ u / 0a£+ı/ c a m ı /©acı/ h e r h air


roM+H /go£+ı/ tohh /gocı/ h is ram
ron+a /goc+a/ r o « a /goco/ to th e ram
66 Türkmen Reference Grammar

The unvoiced consonants n /p/, t /t/, K /k/ and m /£/ at the end of a two-syllable
word become voiced 6 /b/, a /d/, r /g/ and jk /}/, respectively, with the addition of a
suffix consisting of or beginning with a voweJ.

n /pl becomes 6 /b1 KHTan+M /kita:p+ ı/ KHTaötı /kita:bı/ her book


MeKflen+H /m ekdep+i/ MejmeÖH /mekdebi/ his
schooî
M eKflen+e /m ekdep+e/ MeKfleöe /mekdebe/ to the
school

t /t/ becomes n /d/ Mh it it + m /yigit+i/ üuntnu /yiğidi/ her


young man
6eBeT+H /böwöt+i/ ÖBBeflH /böwödü/ its dam

k /k/ becomes r /g/ rynaK+u /gulok+ı/ rynan .1/gulogı/his ear


epfleK + n /ö:rdök+ i/ epflern /ö:rdögü/her duck

M/£/ becomes jk 1)1 araM+M /aga£+ı/ a ra k tı /agajı/ its tree


rbinhm+u /gıhc+ı/ rmtHagM /gılıjı/ his sword

In the consonant clusters pT /rt/, hik /sk/, hm /nc/ and pM /rc/, the voiceless
consonants t A/, k /k/ and m/c/ become voiced v/ith the addition o f a suffix consisting
o f or beginning with a vowel.

pT /rt/ becomes pa /rd/ MepT+e /mert+e/ Mepne /merde/


to the brave man
rypT+a /gu:rt+a/ rypfla /gu:rdo/ to the wolf

iük /sk/ becomes m r /sg/ huik+ h /ısk+ı/ ttıu m /ısgı/ her love
kbuik+ m /kösk+i/ KeıurH /kösgü/ his palace

hm /nc/ becomes hjk. /nj/ flaflHH+BIM flaflHaçHM /dayanjı/


/dayanc+ı/ her support
em-ifep eH5K,tep /yenjyatr/
/yen£-ya:r/ he is beating

plı /rc/ becomes pjrç /rj/ 6oplı+bi /bo:r£+ı/ 6opx,Bi /bo:rjı/ her duty
öypn+M /bur£+ı/ Bypa^tı /burjı/ his pepper
Morphophonology 67

The consonant voicing rule also applies to the final t /t/, k /k/ and m /c/ of an
adjective when the comparative suffbc (+paıc/p3K/+ra:k/ra:k/) is added, and the final T
/t/ and k M of a verb stem when the present indefinite (-np/top /-ya:r/yâ:r[) or present
participle (-sui/üsh /-ya:n/yâ:n/) suffbces are added.

+paK/paK /+ra:k/ra:k/ orçaT+paK onaflpaK /ox}odıa:k/


/orjot+ra:k/ finer, better
aK+paK /a:k+ıa:k/ arpaK /a:gra:k/ vvhiter
ceitpeK+paK ceöperpsK
/0eyrek+ra:k/ $eyregrâ:k/rarer
ntM+psK /gi:c+ra:k/ itokjisk /gijrâ:k/ later

-ap/ttap /-ya:r/yâ:r/ aÜT-ap /ayt-ya:r/ aflaHp /aydya:r/ she telis


flapHK-ap flaptcrap /da:ngya:r/
/da:nk-ya:r/ she vvorries
nrr-itap /git-ya:r/ ntfltop /gidyâ:r/ he goes

-sm/tim /-ya:n/ya:n/ aÜT-HH /ayt-ya:n/ aftflHH /aydya:n/vvho telis


flaptnc-SH flaptıraH /da:ngya:n/
/da:rik-ya:n/ vvho vvorries
niT-ifsH /git-yâ:n/ ntaftsH /gidyâ:n/ vvho goes

With the addition of a suffbc consisting of or beginning with a vovvel, the


consonant T /t/ becomes H /d/ at the end of one-syllable verb stems containing a long
vovvel and, for unclear reasons, at the end of the verbs rHT(MeK) /git(mek)/ '(to) go'
and 3 T(MeK) /et(mek)/ '(to) do', vvhich contain a short vovvel. This consonant remains
unvoiced vvith ali other verbs vvhose root vovvel is short.

t /t/ becomes 3 /d/ flaT-tm /da:t-ıp/ flafltm /dardıp/ tasting


TytİT-Hn /tü:t-ip/ Ty^ayn /tü:düp/ combing
nrr-Hn /git-ip/ ntHMn /gidip/ going
3T-MIT /et-ip/ 3flnn /edip/ doing

T /t/ remains t /t/ raT-Hn /gat-ıp/ raTtnı /gatıp/ mixing


TyT-BÜI /tut-ıp/ TyTyn /tutup/ holding
er-rat /yet-ip/ enin /yetip/ reaching
HT-Hn /it-ip/ hthit /itip/ pushing
car-tnı /8at-ıp/ ca ran /Satıp/ selling
68 Türkmen Reference Granunar

At the end of two-syllable verb stems, the consonants T İt/ and k IkJ become n /dİ
and r /g/ with the addition of a suffhc consisting of or beginning with a vowel or the
consonants M İyi and p /r/: OKa^np /okodya:r/ 's/he will have (someone) read' <
OKaTMan /okotmok/ 'to have (someone) read', » ap u ra p /da-.ngar/ 's/he wiü w ony' <
aaptiKMaK /dazrıkmak/ 'to worry'. However, if the combination Ji+fl /1+d/ results
from such voicing, then this combination does not assimilate to /İl/; for example,
HY3eJiflfiap /dü 8öldya:r/ 'he corrects' < HY3 ejiTMeK /düSöltmök/ 'to coırect' and
HY3eJWHJiMeK /düSöldülmök/ 'to be corrected'.
Morphophonology 69

A d d in g th e C o n s o n a n ts ü İy i, c İQİ, h İn i

Türkmen syllables consist of sequences of (consonant plus) vowel plus consonant (plus
consonant), and never of vovvel plus vowel. Thus, when a suffix consisting of or
beginning vvith a vovvel is added to a word ending in a vovvel, generally that
combination results in the dropping of the final vowel or in the fusing of the two
vovvels into a long vovvel (see 56-57). In three cases, a consonant is inserted betvveen
the tvvo vovvels to avoid the unacceptable sequence, for which reason they a:s often
referred to as "buffer" consonants.
The consonant Wİyi is inserted between the final vovvel of a verb and the: verbal
noun suffbc +um/Hm /+ıs/is/.

+üum lim m snua+Hiıı /ya:sa+ıs/ fliuafemı /ya:sayıs/ living


/+yıs/yis/ Muıne+Miu /i:sle+is/ jnuneÜHiıı /i:sleyis/ vvorking

The consonant c /0/ appears betvveen the end of a noun ending in a vovvel and the
third person possessive suffbc +m/ h /+ı/i/.

+CU/CH Kana+tı /ka:ka+ı/ KaKacbi /ka:ka0ı/ her father


/+ 01/0İ/ nye+H /düyö+i/ flyecıt /diiyöBö/ his camel

The consonant h İn/ is inserted betvveen the final vovvel of a vvord and the genitive
(+lih/hh /+ıq/ii}D and accusative (+bi/n /+ı/i/) case sufîixes. As noted above, addition
of these case suffbces results in the lengthening of the final vowel of the vvord (see 59).

+hlih/ hhh KaKa+bin /ka:ka+ır)/ KaKanbin /ka:ka:nırj/


/+ nııj/nii]/ the father’s
otjem+hh /o:tlı+ırj/ otjimhmh /o:tlı:mi)/
the train’s
AYe+HH /düyö+i g/ flyftsHHn /düyâ:nii)/
the c a m e l’ s
:*;y 6 m+ mh /jübü+ii)/ 3k;y6hhhh /jübü:nüi]/
the pocket’s

+ hm/ hh KaKa+H /ka:ka+ı/ KaKaH u /ka:ka:nı/ th e father


l+m/m/ o t jim + h /o:tlı+ı/ otjihhm /o:th:nı/ th e train
aye+H /düyö+i/ BYK sh m /düya:ni/ the c a m e l
x ;y 6 m+ m /jübü+i/ JSyÖHHH /jübü:nü/ th e p o ck et
70 Turkmen Reference Grammar

The consonant h /n/ also appears before ali case suffixes when they are added to a
word ending in the third person possessive suffıx +bi/n /+ı/i/.

+ hu h / hhh KaKact[+btn /ka:ka9ı+tıj/ KaKacbiHMK /ka:ka6 mıi]/


herfather’s
nyscM+m /düyö9ü+irj/ flYecHHHn /düyö9ünüıj/
his camel’s

■fHu/HH KaKacu+u /ka:ka0ı+ı/ KaKacbiHbi /ka:ka0ını/


/+nı/ni / herfather
AYecH+H /diiyö0ü+i/ HyecHiiH /düyö0ünü/
his camel

+Ha/He KaKacbi+a /ka:ka8ı+a/ KaKacbtHa /ka:kaÖma/


/+na/ne/ to her father
flyecH+e /düyö9U+e/ nyecHHe /düyö9iinö/
to his camel

+Hjja/Hj|e KaKacbi+fla /ka:ka8 ı+da/ KaKacbiHfla /ka:ka9ınna/


/+nda/nde/ on her father
HyecH+fle /diiyö9ü+de/ KYecmme /düyö9ünnö/
on his camel

+Hnan/HHen KaKactı+flaH /ka:ka9ı+dan/ KaKactiHflaH /ka:ka8ınnan/


/+ndan/nden/ from her father
AyecH+fleH /düyö9ü+den/ ayecHHfleH /düyö9ünnön/
from his camel

In rare cases when a contracted form of the partide xeM/-aın/eM /hem/-am/em/ is


added to a vvord ending in a vovvel, the consonant h fn/ is inserted between the vovvels;
for example, HT+H+eM /it+i+em/ > HTHHeM /itinem/ 'his dog, too'.
Morphophonology 71

Syllable Loss
In spoken Türkmen, it is common to drop certain syilables or sequences of consonants
and vowels in some combinations of words or words and suffixes or particles. Such
"clipped" pronunciations also may be found in printed materials, especially those vvhich
reflect spoken Türkmen. The follovving clipped fonns are vievved as acceptable norms
of Standard Turkmen.

here 6 y epne /bu yerde/ > Ebpfle /bâ:ıde/


afew Sup hkh /bir iki/ > SııpKM /birki/
a couple ÖHp h k m yM /bir iki üc/ > 6mpky*i /birküc/
after that oHnaH con /onnon 0orj/ > o h coh /onBor)/
doing so, thus ıııeftne 3flnn /leyle edip/ > uıeöjHHn /seydip/
to take to am in n r m e k /alıp gitmek/ > aKMTMeK/âkitmek/
to bring to anun renMes /alıp gelmek/ > sKenMeK /akelmek/
to serve, to give to ajibin öepMeK /alıp bermek/ > aSepMeK /abermek/

One of two identical syilables may be dropped in spoken Turkmen, especially vvhen
the second person possessive (+mh/ hh /+ıi)/ii)/) and genitive case (+mh/ hh /+ııj/ir|/)
suffixes are combined.

in the vveek xenfle+fle /hepde+de/ > xerme /hepde/


of your land ep+nn+MH /yer+irt+ii)/ > epn}( /yerio/
ofyourdress KeÜHeK+MH+HH /köynök+irj+ii]/ > KetaerıiH /köynögüi]/

Loss of the consonant h İni and first vovvel of the genitive case suffix + u h /h h
/'+ırj/ig/ is common in pronoun forms.

my MeH+nn /riien+İJ)/ > Men /mei)/


mine MeH+HH+KH /m en + ig+ ki/ > MeHKiı /meıjki/
your ceH + n n /0en+irj/ > cei( /0erj/
yours ceH+MH+KH /0en+irj+ki/ > ceHKM/0erjki/
hers, his, its OH+yn/on+urj/ > on /or)/
its, Üıis one’s Myn+yn /mun+ur)/ > M yn /mui)/
its, this one’s uıoH +yn /son+ut]/ > rn on /sorj/

This process also affects other forms of the pronouns, vvhich occasionally appear in
vvriting to reflect spoken Turkmen.

of these 6 ynap+wn /bulor+ırj/ > öynan /buloq/


also its/his/er onyn xeM /onur] hem/ > orçuaM /orjıjom/
those of yours o n a p + tın ti3 /olor+ıi]i5/ > onaunbi3/oloqrju8/
72 Turkmen Reference Grammar

The initial x Ih/ o f the partid e xeM/-anı/eM /hem/-am/em/ 'too, also' is lost and the
rem ainder is merged to the preceding word. Usually, this m erger is vvritten in the
Standard language.

I, too MeH xeM /men hem/ > MeHeM /menem/


the boy, too onıaH xeM /oglon hem/ > oraaHaM /oglonom/

When the partide xeM/-aıvı/eM /hem/-am/em/ 'too, also' follows a word with the
third person possessive suffix +li/m l+ı/ij or the past indefinite suffix -fltı/nn /-dı/di/,
both the voweI u lu /ı/i/ of these suffixes and the consonant x /h/ of the partide are lost
(see 113). Suchjnergers often are found in written Turkmen.

his wheat, too öyrflaiı+tı xeM /bugdoy+ı hem / > SyrflaaM /bugdoyom/
its good, too roBH+ctı xeM /gowı+0ı+ hem / > roBycaM /gowu0om/
there was, too Gapflbi xeM /ba:rdı hem/ > ĞapflaM /barrdam/

Most Turkmen speakers pronounce the present indefinite tense suffîx -np/Bap
/-ya:r/yâ:r/ in a short form with the loss of the final consonant p M and first vovvel
ulu /ı/i/ or sequence c u /ch /6ı/0i/ of the personal ending (see 222-223).

afiT-sp-im /ayt-ya:r-ın/ > aiiflHH /aydya:n/ I ’m speaking


aÜT-Hp-cun /ayt-ya:r-®ııj/ > aüflHH /aydya:ıj/ you ’re speaking
aÜT-ap/ayt-ya:r/ > aüfla /aydya:/ s/ he’s speaking
airr-sp-tıc /ayt-ya:r-ı0/ > aüflsc /aydya:0/ vve’re speaking
aÜT-Hp-ctn<H3 /ayt-ya:r-0ır)i5/ > aiiflanua /aydya:ıjı8/ you’re speaking
aöT-ap-nap /ayt-ya:r-lar/ > afiflsuıap /aydyarlar/ they’re speaking

As a rule, the final h /n/ of the past participle suffix - m im /-an/en/ plus the vovvel
u lu h h l of possessive suffixes is dropped in spoken Turkmen. Such clipped forms
also may affect the plural suffix +Jiap/nep /+lar/ler/ in some dialects of Türkmen.5

/gelemden 0oq/ < ren+eH+HMfleH con /gel+en+imden 0oq/ after I came


/aydamıSSa/ < aJİT+aH+HMti3+fla /ayt+an+ımı5+da/ vvhen we spoke
/remontcılai)/ < peMOHTHtı+jıap+tın /remontcı+lar+ııj/ of the repairmen

5 This loss is most typical o f noıthem Yomut, Gökleng, Alili and Nohur; see Eep^HeB 1970:238-240.
ORTHOGRAPHY

Standard Türkmen serves as a national language for the peoples of diverse origin who
formerly identified themselves with tribal groupings and their distinct dialccts that
together form the Türkmen language. The writing system, grammar and lexicca of the
Standard language currently in use were formally instituted in the years arourıd 1940
and have remained the norm in social and cultural life up to the present.
That Standard language is based primarily on the speech of Türkmen who ıdentify
themselves as belonging to the Teke Türkmen in the Ahal and Man prov nces of
Türkmenistan, although it incorporates into its norms some linguistic features of
speakers of the Yomut Türkmen as vvell. However, even though its prescrib:d form
embodies mostly Teke and a few Yomut features, Standard Türkmen also di.splays a
certain level of abstractness that differs from these rcal spoken languages.
In formulating the rules of the writing system of Standard Türkmen, hmguage
planners realized that to represent exactly the speaking pattems of any single group in
the written and spoken forms of a national Standard could promote separatenes.'i among
the various groups of Türkmen. Consequently, they tried to "neutralize" the variant
speech patterns existing in the dialects, including even in that of the Teke, by adopting
spelling rules that would permit any speaker of Türkmen to pronounce a vvrittcn word
according to her or his own pattem. The rules which they adopted, vvith a few
subsequent tefinements, are consistent and regular, and constitute the orthography of
Standard Türkmen.

The Türkmen Alphabet


The national language of the Türkmen has been vvritten in three alphabets sincı: 1923,
and another change of script looms on the horizon. During the years 1923-1928,
Türkmen was written in the Arabic alphabet, but with various diacritics and spelling
rules that permitted this script to represent the Türkmen sound system. liecause
Türkmen inteliectuals had differing views on the spelling rules of this Standard and on
which of the dialects ought to serve as its basis, the lack of a unifying prınciple
actually impeded standardization, as well as the drive for literacy among the Tuı İçmen.1
Already in 1925, some Türkmen linguists had joined the Latinization movement,
which was then gaining momentum for the adoption of a single Latin alphabet as the
basis of vvriting the Turkic Standard languages of the Soviet Union. In Febru.ıry and
March 1926, Turkic-speaking inteliectuals assembled in Baku for the First Ali Union
Turkological Congress, where a "Unified Turkic Latin Alphabet" was formulatsd and
adopted for most Turkic languages of the Soviet Union.2 A Türkmen commiti.ce was

1 See Hapunpoa 1972: 149-150,155-156 (table of alphabets), and Fieıman 1991:57-68.


2 For the Baku conference, see Baldauf 1993: 387-457, Herman 1991: 79-81, 213-221.
74 Türkmen Reference Grammar

formed for the application of this alphabet to Türkmen in 1927, and samples of its
results began to appear that same year. The govemment of the Türkmen SSR formally
adopted the new alphabet in January 1928, and implemented its teaching in primary
grades in the 1928-1929 school year.
The Latin alphabet eonsisted of forty letters, including sixteen for vowels (with
long vovvels being represented by doubled letters) and thirty-four for consonants. In
May 1930, the principle of representing long vowels was removed from this alphabet,
and in June 1934, certain letters that represented letters in the Arabic script (q, o^)
instead of Türkmen sounds were removed. Because this alphabet already had the letter
h for the Türkmen sound /h/, the letter x was removed in 1936, leaving the Latin
alphabet vvith thirty letters. Generally, use of the Latin alphabet stimulated cultural
development in Türkmenistan, but did not promote leaming of the Russian language,
one of the primary goals of Soviet nationality policy.
By 1939, as vvith the other Turkic languages of the Soviet Union, measures were in
effect to svvitch Türkmen from the Latin to the Cyriliic alphabet. The govemment of
the Türkmen SSR formally d e c re e d the implementation of the new alphabet in
govemment affairs beginning in June and in the education system beginning in
September 1940. The new alphabet contained thirty-eight letters, including ali thirty-
three letters of the Cyriliic alphabet used to write Russian and five modified or new
letters to represent Türkmen sounds not in Russian. That alphabet has been used to
write Standard Türkmen ever since, and is presented in the table, along with the way
each letter is pronounced in alphabetical order (see 75).
In 1993, the Türkmen govemment officially adopted a new alphabet based on Latin
script, to be implemented gradually from 1996 until the year 2000 (see 86).

Letters o f the Türkmen Alphabet


The Türkmen alphabet currently in use consists of tbirty-six Cyriliic letters and two
signs. This alphabet includes twenty Cyriliic letters to represent Türkmen sounds that
have identical or close counterpaıts in the Russian sound system: a /a/, 6 /b/, r /g/, n
/d/, m Hl, vt IH, Wİyi, k /k/, n IH, m İm/, h /n/, o /o/, n İpi, p /r/, t /t/, y M q /c/,
in lî/, u /ı/, 3 /e/. Four Cyriliic letters representing sequences of /yİ plus vowel or
palatalization of preceding consonants in Russian were adopted to represent four
Türkmen sequences of İyi plus vovvel: e /ye/, e /yo/, to /yu/, fl /ya/. Four Cyriliic
letters represent different sounds in the Türkmen and Russian sound systems: b
/Türkmen w ~ Russian v/, 3 /6 ~ z/, c /6 ~ s/ and x /h ~ x/. Three CyriUic letters were
modified and two introduced to represent Türkmen sounds not in Russian: jrç fil, h /r)/,
o /ö/, and \ /ü/, 3 /a:/. Three Cyriliic letters and two signs represent sounds and
conventions found only in the Russian component of Türkmen: <f> /fI, q /c/, m /s’s’/,
and b I’I, % / ”/.
Orthography 75

The Turkmen Alphabet

Letter Pronunciation Letter Pronunciation

A a a n n ne
B 6 6e P P 3p
B B ee C c 3C
r r ze T T me
fl de y y y
E e e Y Y Y
E e e <D $ 3g5
X X otce X X xa
3K, X otçe n n; ife
3 3 3e ne
M M u m m ma
İî M Übl m m U4a
K K m 'b t*

JI n 3A BI BI bl

M M 3M B B*

H H 3H 3 3 3

n n 3H 9 3 3

0 0 0 TO 10 m

e e e 51 H sı

*signs without soıınd value


76 Turkmen Reference Grammar

The Letters fo r Vovvels


The Cyrillic letters a , 3 (beginning a word) - e (after a consonant), a, bi, h , o, e , y, Y.
each represent a basic vovvel in Tuıkmen: /a, e, â:, ı, i, o, ö, u, ü/, respectively. At the
same time, the letters a , m , h , o , e , y, each represent a short and a corresponding long
vovvel: /a-a:, ı-ı:, i—i:, o-o:, ö-ö:, u-u:/, respectively. In two cases, the letter e may
represent long /e:/, and in a few cases the letter a may represent short /â/ (see 32). By
conventions of the Turkmen alphabet, the combination \Vı represents long /ü:/, and the
letters a , e , e , m represent /ya-ya :, ye, yo-yo:, yu-yu:/ (see below). The combination
yö always represents /ü:/ and never /üy/ when it ends a one-syllable vvord: Kyiî /kii:/,
not *küy 'thought', and Tyil /tü:/, not *tüy '(body) hair'. Finally, the letters a , e, m , h,
may represent rounded vowels in non-root syllables under the rounding rule of vovvel
harmony: /o, ö, u, ü-ü:/, respectively (see 49-51).

The Letters fo r Consonants


The Cyrillic letters 6 , n, r , t , r, k , m , h , h , n, p, m, m, it each represent a basic
consonant or phoneme: /b, p, d, t, g, k, m, n, rj, 1, r, s, j, c, yİ, respectively. Variants
or allophones of these consonants are vmtten with the same letters. The letters 3 , c, x,
b and each represent a consonant phoneme in the Turkmen system (/S, 6 , h, w, p/,
respectively), but also a different consonant for Russian words in the pronunciation of
some speakers (/z, s, x, v, f/, respectively) (see 41-42). The letters m, u and JK
represent phonemes for Russian vvords as pronounced by some speakers (/s’s \ c, z/,
respectively), although two of these are pronounced as basic Turkmen sounds by many
speakers (M/9/ and * /j'/; see 41), and the other appears in a few Turkmen vvords for a
lengthened /ss/ (nam u /passı/ 'smasher (soubriquet)', xamujiHaMaK /hassdlamak/ 'to
hiss'). The letters fl, e , e and jo at the beginning of vvords and after vovvel letters
represent the sound İyi combined with vovvels /ya, ye, yo, yu/, respectively (see
below). The "soft" and "hard" signs b and ’b of the Turkmen alphabet are used in
Russian vvords to reflect a modifîcation of the preceding consonant, but in Russian and
Persian-Arabic vvords to ensure that the letter e is pronounced /ye/ (see belovv).

The Letters jt, e, e and w


Adoption of the Cyrillic letters h , e , e and io introduced unnecessary difficulties for
Turkmen orthography. At the beginning of vvords these letters represent fl /ya-ya:/,
e /ye/, e /yo-yo:/ and io /yu-yu:/, vvhile after vovvels, they represent a /ya-yo-ya:/, e
/ye-yö/ and ıo /yu-yu:/.

m /ya:n/ side asıc /ayak/ foot


ep /yer/ earth flye /duyö/ camel
en /yo:l/ road (not in non-root syllables)
ıopT /yu:rt/ country 6okjh /boyun/ neck
Orthography 77

Complications that arise firom the use of these letters inelude the fact that words
beginning vvith /y/ are entered separately in five (ineluding ft /yİ) different seetions of
dictionaries and other referenee works. Moreover, such combinations of /y/+ vovvel are
vvritten on the basis of tvvo different principles, one based on the representation of tvvo
sounds vvith one letter, and the other based on the representation of distincı sounds
vvith distinet letters:

a /ya-ya:/ e /ye/ e /yo-yo:/ w /yu-yu:/


Hu /yı-yı:/ ün /yi—
yi:/ Ha/yâ:/ fte /yö-yö:/ Uy /yü-yü:/

The most troublesome consequence of the employment of these letters, hov/ever, is


that addition of suffixes frequently requires revvriting letters for nev, sound
combinations. For example, the combination of the dative case suffix (+a/c /+a/e/)
vvith the final ii /y/ of a vvord is spelled vvith a/e /ya/ye/, as in /ja:y/ 'place' >
K,aa /ja:ya/ 'to the place', eti /öy/ Tıome' > ee /öyö/ 'to the home'. Similarly, the
combination of a final ti /y/ of a verb vvith the initial a/e /a/e/ of verb suffixes requires
revvriting, as in flyü(Maıc) /duy(mok)/ 'to feel' plus the future indefmite -ap /-ar/ >
nyap /duyor/ 's/he vvill feel'. When a noun ending in Mu /yı/ or e /ye/ appeaı;; in the
dative case, the result is spelled a /ya:/ and tia /ya:/, respectively, as in ryiiu /guyı/
'vvell' > rya /guya:/ 'to the vvell' and Aye /düyö/ 'camel' > /düyâ:/ 'to the camel'.
Another example of revvriting involves the combination of final İİ /y/ of a vvord vvith
initial y /u/ of a rounded variant of a suffix, as in ro ii(M aK ) /goy(mok)/ 'to place' plus
the second plural imperative -yu /-uq/ > foran /goyurj/ 'place (it)!' This type of
revvriting also is observed in reverse, âs in to io h /goyun/ 'sheep' plus tlıs third
possessive + u/h /+ıfi/ > roÜHbi /goynı/ 'his sheep'.
Such examples illustrate the many complications introduced into the orthography
by the use of the letters a , e , e and io , particularly in the vvriting system of a language
that has primary long vovvels, vovvel lengthening and rounded vovvel harmony, along
vvith orthographic rules for vvriting each of these.

The Signs b and t


The Cyrillic signs b and t» are used before the letters a , e , e , K) to indicate their
pronunciation as /ya, ye, yo, yu/ in the Russian vvriting system, a funetion vvhich they
continue before the letter e in the Turkmen vvriting system. In some compound s and in
Russian and Persian-Arabic borrovvings, the sign t. is preseribed (although either l o r ı
may appear in the spellings of individual vvriters) to indicate that e follcwing a
consonant is to be pronounced /ye/ instead of /e/.

aırterep /elyeter/ accessible Hecue /ne8ye/ credit


AyHteBM /dünyövvü/ secular *»pT>eK/câ:ıyek/ quarter
78 Türkmen Reference Grammar

Variam Spellings
The spelling of individual words may vary according to individuals, but also due to
decisions adopted över the course of the decades that Standard Türkmen has been in
use. Differences may be noted especially between official spellings and their spellings
in publications, although such variants do not always entaıl a difference in
pronunciation.

Standard Spelling Variant Spelling

Kefîan /kebarp/ skewered meat Ke6 a6 /kebarp/(Russian Ke6 a6 )


uuocsp /sikiiır/ hunt ııiHKap /sika:r/
OpcıeT /Oıöyet/ Russia OpctıeT /Oröuyet/
TyneH /tüpöi]/ gun TyneH /tüpön/
rmpeMeK /titremek/ to shudder TMTpMMeK /titrimek/
Orthography 79

Turkmen Orthography
The Türkmen alphabet based on Cyrillic script has adequate means at its disposal to
spell Turkmen as it is pronounced by any defined group of Türkmen, for example, by
those who identify themselves as Teke. As an illustration of its potential, one may
consider that the vvords spelled o K aap n ap 'they read', repeHOKJiap 'they haven’t
seen', r83nepnHfle 'in her eyes' and rYHjjH3 'daytime' easily could be spelled
*0K0fiaapjıap /okoyaarlar/, * re p e H 0 0 K ji0 p /görönooklor/, *ro3JTepYHHe
/göSlörünnö/ and *ryHHYY3 /günüliS/, respectively, to represent their actual
pronunciation in the Teke dialect.
However, in seeking to avoid the appearance that Standard Turkmen actuaüy was the
offîcial language of only one group of Turkmen, language planners tried to "neutralize"
the various differences in pronunciation that typify the spoken varieties of Turkmen.
They did so by adopting a set of conventions or spelling rules for representing Standard
Turkmen words and, at the same time, proposed a set of pronunciation rules which, for
the most part, applied to the majority of Türkmen dialects.
The spelling rules or orthography of Standard Turkmen are taught in primary
schools throughout the country. They are presented in the Turkmen language primers
used in these classrooms, each progressively more complicated through the grade
levels. In the follovving section, these rules are described as they pertain to
morphophonologica] processes that affect spoken Turkmen.

Vowel Harmony
The spelling rules of the Standard language represent front-back harmony fully, but
with a few exceptions noted below do not represent rounded-unrounded harmony at ali.
However, a representative speaker of the Standard language knows how to pronounce
the vowels written to reflect the rounded vowel harmony operative in his or her dialect.
The following table presents a summary of these rules as they apply to the Teke dialect
(explanations and exceptions are provided below).

First Syllable Second Syllable Third+ Syllable


Written/Spoken Written Spoken Written Spoken

a /a/o-a:/ a /a/o-a:/
e /e/ö/ e /e/ö/
0. y. y/yft 3 /a:/ 3 /a:/
/o-o:, ö-ö:, u-u:, ü/ii:/ M M M /ı/u-ı:/
M /«:/ H /i/ü-i:/ü:/
y /u-u:/
Y /u/
80 Türkmen Reference Grammar

Rounded Vowel Harmony and the Letters a and ela


An orthographical rule o f the Standard language requires that the rounded vovvels /o-o:/
and /ö-ö:/ are written only in the first syllables o f Türkmen words. Thus, the rounded
vovvel harmony o f spoken Türkmen is'not represented in vvriting in regard to these
vovvels in non-fırst syllables, where they alvvays are written a/e /a-o/e-ö/.
o raaH /oglon/ boy onnaHJiapbiHa /oglonloruno/ to h is boys
ryap /guyor/ s/he will pour oT yp ay n c /oturjok/ (s/he) vvill sit
epfleK /ö:rdök/ duck epfleniMfleH /ö:rdögümdön/ fro m m y duck
fly e /düyö/ camel re p a çe K /görjök/ (s/he) vvill se e

Addition of the first and second person possessive suffîxes and the genitive and
accusative case suffixes to a vvord ending in /o/ or /ö/ lengthens these vovvels to /a:/ or
/a:/, which are vvritten a and a, respectively (see 56, 59). When the third person
possessive suffix and the locative and ablative case suffixes are added to a vvord ending
in /o/ or /ö/, these vovvels remain short and are vvritten a and e, respectively.
o 6 a /o:bo/ v illa g e o6aM /o:ba:m / my v illa g e
oöaHHH /o:ba:nuj/ the v illa g e ’ s o6arç /o:ba:r)/ y o u r v illa g e
oöaHH /o:ba:m / the v illa g e o â a c u /o: boöı/ his/her v illa g e
o6 a /o:ba:/ to th e v illa g e o6aM H3 /o:ba:mı8/ o u r v illa g e
o6 afla /o:bodo/ in th e v illa g e o 6 ai(ti3 /o:ba:r)i5/ y o u r v illa g e
oöaflaH /o:bodon/ fro m the v illa g e o 6 a cw /o:bo0ı/ th eir v illa g e

K en e /köcö/ Street koh sm /kö£â:m/ my Street


K8M3HMH /köcâ:nir)/ the street’ s K enan /koca: rj/ y o u r Street
KGH3HM/kö£â:ni/ the Street KenecH /kö£ö0ü/ her/his Street
K0M3 /köcâ:/ to the Street k s h 3MH3 /köcâ:mi8/ ou r Street
K en efle /köcödö/ on th e Street k o tsu iö /kö£a:rji8/ y o u r Street
KGMeflen /köcödön/ from th e Street KenecM /kö£ö0ü/ th eir Street

It should be recalled that these rules apply only partially to kinship terms (see 56,
59), and that the long vovvels /a:/a:/, vvhich are vvritten a/a, are never rounded in second
and fuıther syllableş, nor are the vovvels of suffixes foUovving them.

Rounded Vovvel Harmony and the Letters u and u


A Standard spelling rule *equires that the short high rounded vovvel /u/ be vvritten as y
in closed second syllables (ending in a consonant). The letter bi is vvritten in open
syllables (ending in a vovvel) to represent the short high unrounded vovvel /ı/, and in
closed second syllables to represent the long high unrounded vovvel /ı:/.
ronyufla /golunno/ on his arm fly3JiynbK /du:81uluk/ salinity
roBM /govvj/ good ynbi /uh/ big
erbiH /yogı:n/ thick y3biH /u 8ı:n/ long
Orthography 81

Ih e rule for vvriting the short high rounded vovvel /ü/ requires that y be vvritten in
elosed second syilables. The letter H is vvritten to represent the short high rounded
vovvel /ii/ in open syilables and the long rounded vovvel /ü:/ in elosed second syilables.

My3YHfle /yiiSiinnö/ on her face CYÜTJrynHK / 0 U:tlülük/ milkino ss


asm /öİli/ corpse /jiibü/ pocket
YMHH/ücü:n/ for 6yTMH /bütü:n/ whole

Addition of the first and second person possessive suffbces and the genin ve and
accusative case suffixes to a word ending in jıj or /ü/ lengthens these vovvels to /ı:/ and
/ii:/, vvhich are vvritten ti and m, respectively (see 56, 59). When the third person
possessive suffîx and the locadve and ablative case suffbces are added to a worc ending
in /ı/ or /ü/, these vovvels remain short and are vvritten y and y, respectively.

roHUibi /gorjsı/ n e ig h b o r ronıııUM /gogsr.m / my n e ig h b o r


roHUibin /goıjsı:i)/ the n e ig h b o r’ s ro H iu tm /gor)sı:r|/ y o u r n eigh bı >r
ronııiHHM /gor)sı:nı/ the n e ig h b o r roH U iyctı /goıjsuOı/
his/her neighbor
ronuıa /gorjsa:/ to the neighbor ronuiLiMbi3 /gor|Sj:mı8/
our neighbor
ronuıyfla /gorjsudo/ on the neighbor ronuibinı>[3 /goj]Si:i]i5/
your neighbor
roHmyflaır /gorjsudon/ ronıuyctı /gotjsuOı/
from the neighbor her/his/their neighbor

x,y6 M/jiibü/ pocket * y 6 hm /jübü:m/ my pocket


5k;y6hhhh /jübü:nürj/ the pocket’s JK,y6 nn /jübü:rj/ your pocket
^YÖmhm /jübii:nii/ the pocket ^yöycH /jübü0 ü/ her/his pockeı
».yös /jüba:/ to the pocket 5k.y6 mmi.I3 /jübümUS/ our pockc:
açyöyae /jiibüdö/ in the pocket j^yönubB /jübüıjüg/ your pockc.:
j^yÖYfleH /jiibüdön/ from the pocket >k;y6 ycm/jübü0ü/ their pocket

Rounded Vowel Harmony and the Letters y and y


Standard Turkmen orthography provides that the rounded high vowels y /u/ (also /u:/
in borrovvings) and y /ü/ may be vvritten only in first and second syilables. Iıı such
cases, the vvriting of these rounded vovvels in second syilables refleets their rounded
vovvel hannony in spoken Turkmen.

ofly n /odun/ vvood t o io m /toyum / m y party ( t o ü /:oy/)


KöMyp /köm ür/ c o a l e ö y n /öyür)/ y o u r h ou se ( e ü /ö>/)
lOMyıu /yum uş/ ta s k ryuıyM /gusum / m y bird ( ry ın ,'gus/)
k y m y u i /küm üs/ s ilv e r { ifa y n /yü5ür)/ y o u r fa c e ( f r p İY° 5/)
82 Turkmen Reference Grammar

The high rounded vovvels y/y /u/ü/ are written in second or further syllables
following the semivovvel b / w / of a syllable with an unrounded vowel.

raByH /ga:wun/ melon reByuı /gii:wu5/ cud


TanaByT /tapa:wut/ difference rypjıeByıc /giirlöwük/ thunder

The high rounded vowels y/y /u/ü/ are written in third or further syllables of
compound words.

/Ogulluröun/ Oguldursun (< oryn+flypcyn


O ry n n y p c y H
/ogu]+dur0 un/ let the son stand [that is, may the son not die])
romaByM /gosavvuc/ handful (< rom+asy^ /gos+avvuc/ pair + palm)

The high rounded vovvels y /u-u:/ are written in the second and further syllables of
borrovved vvords.

KaHyH /karnini lavv MaKcMMyM /m aksim um / maximum


M a3M yH /ma5mu:n/ contents HHCTHTyT /in 8titut/ institute
fleccyp /de00u:r/ custom napaunoT /paraşüt/ parachute

Rounded Vovvel Harmony in Suffixes


Standard vvritten Turkmen does not represent rounded variants of suffıxes containing
the vovvels /o/ö/ under any condition, nor of rounded variants of suffbces containing the
vovvels /u, ü-ü:/ when they constitute the third or further syllable in a vvord. The
follovving lists provide the orthographic variants of grammatical and a fevv lexical
suffixes along with their pronunciations.

Suffixes Written With Two Variants


Plural +nap/nep /+lar-lor/ler-lör/
Dative case +a/e /+a-o/e-ö/
Locative case +fla/fle /+da-do/de-dö/
Ablative case +flan/flen /+dan-don/den-dön/
Equative case +>«Aıe /+ca-co/ce-cö/
Companion suffix +flaın/fleuı /+das-dos/des-dös/
Verb-forming suffix +na/ne- /+la-lo-/Ie-lö-/
Definite future -^an/açeK /-jak-jok/jek-jök/
1 singular imperative -atom/ettHH /-aym-oyun/eyin~öyün/
1 plural imperative -aJitm/eHHH /-alı: 13—olı: rj/eli :rj—ölü:rj/
3 conditional -ca/ce /- 0a- 0 o/0e- 0ö/
Past participle -aH/eH /-an-on/en-ön /
Orthography 83

Suffixes Written With Four Variants in Closed Second Syllables


1 singular possessive +HM/HM/yM/yM /+un/im/um/üm/
2 singular possessive +fcm/Hn/yû/YH /+ırj/İJG/ux]/ürj/
3 possessive +M/H/y/y /+1/İ/U/Ü/
Genitive case +tm/nK/yH/yn /+ırj/iq/urj/Ui]/
Association suffbc +ntnc/nHK/nyK/nyK /+lık/lik/luk/lük/
Privation suffîx +CBI3/CH3/Cy3/Cy3 /+0ıS/0i8/0u8/0ü8/
Passive voice -tuT/MJi/yn/yn- /-ıl/il/ul/ül-/
Reflexive voice -HH/HH/yH/yH- /-ın/in/un/îin-/
Cooperative voice -HUi/HUi/ynı/ym- /-ıs/is/uS/iis-/
Causative voice -flMp/fliıp/flyp/flyp- /-dır/dir/dur/dür-/
Gerund -wn/ym]ynj'{n /-ıp/ip/up/üp/
2 plural imperative -MH/mt/yH/yn /-1I]/İI)/UI]/ÜI]/
3 singular imperative -cbm /cH H /cyH /cyH /- 0m/0 m/0nn/0ün/
3 plural imperative -ctmnap/cHHnep, /-0mlar/0inler/,
-cyHJiap/cyHnep /-0unlor/0ünlör/

Suffixes Written With Twa Variants in Closed Tfıird+ Syllables


1 singular possessive + l im /hm /+ım-um/im-üm/
2 singular possessive +bIH/wil /+ıxj-ur)/iq-1ii]/
3 possessive + m /h /+ 1 -U /İ-İİ/
Genitive case +hmjmı
Ordinal numeral + w h » ; i>i/iih 5k;m /+ınjı-unjı/inji-ünjii/
Association suffîx +nwK/jnnc /+lık-luk/lik-liik/
Privation suffix +Cbl3/CH3 /+0ı8-0uS/0iS-0ü8/
Passive voice -mji/ hti- /-ıl-ul/il-ül -/
Reflexive voice -m h /hh - /-ın-un/in-ün-/
Cooperative voice - m u i /hui- /-ıs-us/is-üs-/
Causative voice -flblp/flHp- /-drr-dur/dir-dür-/
Gerund' -btnjm /-ıp-up/ip-üp/
2 plural imperative -h m jm /-ıi]-u rj/irj-üjj/
3 singular imperative -cmh /chh /-0 m - 0un/0in- 0ün/
3 plural imperative -cMHJiap/cMHJiep /-0 uılar- 0unler/,
/-0 inlor- 0ünlör/
84 Turkmen Reference Grammar

Suffbces Written With Two Variants in Open Last Syllable


3 possessive + w/ m /+ 1/İ-Ü/
Accusative case +bi/n /+ 1/İ-Ü/
Agent suffix + hmAm /+cı/ci-cü/
Attribute suffix + s n jjm /+ 11/ 1İ-Üİ/
Relation suffix +kli/kh /+kı/ki-kü/
Adverb-forming suffix +apw/epM /+an-orı/eri-örü/
3 past indefinite -m im /-dı/di-dü/
1 dual imperative -aiDbi/enii /-ah-olı/eli-ölü/
3 subjunctive -cafltı/ceflM /- 0adı- 0odı/0edi/- 0ödü/
3 possessive verbal noun -actı/ecH /-a6ı-oQı/e9i-ö8ü/

Suffbces With Long Vowels Written wiıh al 3 la:lâ:l or ulu l+ı:l+i:l


Relation suffix +flaKL[/fl3KJl /+da:kı/dâ:ki/
Comparadve suffix +paK/p3K /+ra:k/ra:k/
Approximation numeral +nan/nan /+la:p/lâ:p/
Approximation numeral +JlaH/lI3H /+la:n/lâ:n/
3 present indefinite -ap/üap /-ya:r/yâ:r/
Infinitive in dative case -Mara/Msre /-ma:ga/ma:ge/
Present participle -HH/ÖSH /-ya:n/yâ:n/
Negative gerund -MaH/MSH /-ma:n/mâ:n/
3 desiderative -aflflbi/seflH /-a:yadı/a:yedi/
Suffix of permission -afi/aü /-a:y/â:y/
Instrumental suffix +MH, +HH /+ı:n/, /+i:n-ü:n/
Directive suffix +MK, +IİK /+ ı:k/, /+i:k-ü:k/
1 plural imperative -ajdbm/ejntH /-alı:ıj-oh: xj/eli: rj—ölü: r)/

Consonant Assimilations
The Standard assim ilatio n s o f con son an ts th at o c c u r in m ost d ialects and are p rescrib ed
fo r th e Standard sp o k e n la n g u a g e are n ot rep resen ted in th e vvriting system (se e 63-64).
Some o f th e p h o n e tic a ssim ila tio n s th at o c c u r a t th e ju n c tu re b e tw e e n s y lla b le s o f
vvords (Kenöe /kep be/ [kep p e] 'h u t', flenaep /depder/ [d ep ter] 'n o te b o o k ', n eıcra
/pökgü / [p ök kii] 'b a ll') are n o t rep resen ted in vvriting, a lth o u g h th e Standard la n g u a g e
h as adm itted se v e ra l su ch assimilated fo rm s.3

3 See MapuapoB 1973: 209.


Orthography 85

*usıa) m a s t e r
y c c a /u 0 0 o / (< x a c c a /h a 0 0 a / ( < * hasta) s ic k
MiııeuHMp /i-.seîjrjir/ ( < *i:seygir) a c t iv is t a n n a ı ı /a g g a l/ ( < *ar)gat) s c y th e
TyM M eK /tlîm m ö k / ( < *ıümbek) m o u n d ryM M e3 /g ü m m ö S / ( < *gümbez) dom e

The rule of consonant voicing betvveen vovvels for the most part is represented in the
writing system (see 65-68). Exceptions are confined to bonowed vvords, some of vvhich
may be pronounced without consonant voicing by some speakers.

M arayM ara /maglu:ma:dı/ its infoımation


3fle6 nHTtı /edebiya:dı/ its literatüre
xeKVMeTH /hökiimödü/ its government
33ieTHU /eSyedii)/ your torment
KaHarara /kana:gadı/ her/his patience
ra3eTH /gaSedi/ its nevvspaper
ÖHJieTiın /bildijj/ your ticket

Occasionally, "correct" spellings of such words appear in various publications; for


example, 3 fle6 n flH b i /edebiya:dı/.
86 Turkmen Referenee Grammar

The "New Turkmen Alphabet"


In keeping with other steps to remove the legacy of Soviet policies that superficially
"Russianized" the Turkmen language, the Turkmen government has adopted a new
alphabet to serve a s the graphic basis of Standard Turkmen. According to a decision
ratifıed by the Turkmen Parliament in April 1993, the current Cyrillic alphabet will be
replaced by one based on Latin letters.4
Official plans adopted in June 1993 called for full implementation of the "new
Turkmen alphabet" by the end of 1996, but in practical terms this process may take
years to complete. In order to make the public aware of the new alphabet, the Turkmen
government began to introduce it on Street signs, names of buildings, newspaper
headings and the new currency. Turkmen State television began to offer elasses on the
new writing system, and the Ministry of Education introduced the new seript in the
first grades of primary schools and printed some new textbooks in this alphabet.
The new Turkmen alphabet marks a departure from the past, rather than a
continuation or reform of the "Unified Turkic Latin Alphabet" used to write Standard
Turkmen and other Turkic languages in the years 1928-1940. This is evident in the
modified forms of a number of letters which were not used in that alphabet.
The majority of the thirty letters in the new alphabet are identical in shape and
sound to their counterparts in the Latin alphabet as it is used to write several European
languages. Of the nine letters for vowels, five (a, e, i, o, u) are identical, three (â, ö, ü)
have familiar diacritics, and one (y = /ıf) is a known spelling convention. Of the
twenty-one letters for consonants, sixteen (b, d, f, g, b, j, k, 1, m, n, p, r, s, t, w, z)
are identical, three (ç = /c/, ş = /s/, ? = /z/, ii = /q/)s have familiar modifications, but
one (capital ¥, lower case y = /y/) is highly unconventional. Apart from the confusing
use of y for /i/ and y for /y/, the proposed new alphabet has a routine appearance.
The orthography of the "new alphabet," as represented thus far in publications, does
not deviate from the orthography of the current Turkmen alphabet. Therefore, the Latin
letters of this alphabet essentially constitute a transliteration of their Cyrillic
counterparts.

4 See CeeroB-Pe^e6oB 1993 for documentation on the adoption of the new alphabet, along with îessons
and sample texıs.
5 At the time of its initial promulgation in 1993, the new alphabet used the "dollars and cents* signs for
Capital and lower case /s/ and the "pound” signs for pzj (CeeroB-PeaçeÖoB 1993: 14, 27). These were
changed to ş and %in early !995.
g r a m m a t ic a l Sy s t e m

The description of Türkmen grammar presented here is based on the analysıs of words
and the elements which create new words or relate them to one another within a
sentence. Those elements or forms which may be analyzed as expressing distinct lexical
or grammatical meanings commonly are called morphs, and their analysis is refeıred to
as morphology. As an iliustration, in English 'cats' and 'birds', the elements 'cat' and
'bird' have lexical meanings, while the element V indicates a plııral number. Ali three
elements may be called a morpheme because they consist of sounds or phonemes that
distinguish a grammatical meaning. The morpheme (s) is pronounced differently in
each word, as /s/ after the voiceless consonant /t/ and as /z/ after the voiced consonant
/d/. The description of such altemant pronunciations belongs to Morphophonology (see
47-72).
At the same time, in English 'mouse' and 'mice', we fînd a second way to express
the grammatical category of plural number in English, that is, through the replacement
of the diphthong /ou/ vvith the diphthong /ai/. This means that the English plural
morpheme has at least two variants or allomorphs: {s} and {ai}. Such an analysis also
may be perfoımed on the structure of vvords as they appear in dictionaries; for example,
the English adjective 'mousey' is formed by adding the lexıcal morpheme {y} to the
noun 'mouse' (cf. 'mud' > 'muddy', 'meal' > 'mealy', ete.), and the English noun
'mouser' is formed by adding the morpheme {er} to the homonymous verb '(to)
mouse' (cf. '(to) erase' > 'eraser', '(to) build' > 'builder', ete.).
The same principles of analysis are follovved in this reference grammar, but the
terms root or stem and suffix or prefix are used instead of the term morpheme. As an
iliustration, the Turkmen lexical morpheme {göz} 'eye' is called a root or stem when
grammatical or lexical suffixes are added to it; for example, /gözlör/ 'eyes', /gözlü/
'having eyes'. The Turkmen grammatical morpheme {1ar} is used to express the
grammatical category of plural number, but is called the plural suffix, and its
pronunciations /lar, 1er, lor, lor, nar, ner, nor, nör, Sar, Ser, Sor, Sör, ete./are referred to
as variants of the plural suffix. In the same way, the Turkmen lexical morpheme {lı} is
used to form adjectives from nouns and other adjectives, but is called the attribute
suffix, vvith its variants /lı, li, lü/. c
The distinct forms that express grammatical meanings are treated in this part of the
reference grammar, vvhereas those that express lexical meanings are presented in the
Lexicon.
88 Tuıkmen Referenee Grammar

INTRODUCTİON

This introduetion presents an overview of the structure of Türkmen vvords according to


their use as parts of speech and to their structure. Only brief deseriptions and a few
examples are provided, but references are given to those chapters where these subjects
are treated in greater detail.

Parts of Speech
Words may be divided into elasses according to their fonns, meanings and funetions
vvithin sentences. Most ciassifications of English vvords recognize articles, nouns,
pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjeetions as
distinet parts of speech, vvhile some add determiners or various other elasses.
Based on their forms and meanings, Turkmen vvords may be classified into nouns,
adjectives, quantifiers, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, modal vvords, interjeetions,
postpositions, auxiliary nouns, and conjunctions, vvhile particles constitute a distinet
elass. O f course, other ciassifications are possible.

Content Words
From the vievvpoint of their funetion, vvords may be divided into content vvords and
structure vvords. Content vvords are those vvhich have a meaning when they appear
alone, even vvhen their meaning derives solely from context (for example, T en.' in
response to the question 'How many fingers do you have?'). On the other hand,
structure vvords typically do not have an independent meaning. Content vvords inelude
the nouns, adjectives, quantifiers, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, modal vvords and
interjeetions.
Nouns name people, places, things, abstraetions, and so on. In Turkmen, nouns
exist as simple and derived vvords, and also as compound and combined vvords (see
97). Nouns do not have special shapes or elements that identify them as such, but
nouns and some other parts of speech may take number, person and case suffîxes. In
addition, certain derivational suffixes appear only vvith nouns.

3Ji /el/ hand, hands en /yo:l/ road


3J1HHK /ellik/ gloves enflaıu /yo:llos/ companion, mate
othtjihk /elya:glık/ handkerchief ejı6aıum,ı /yo:lbascı/ leader

Adjectives attribute qualities of color, shape, size, emotional characteristics, and so


on, to nouns. In Turkmen, adjectives do not have a distinetive marker and do not take
number, person and case suffixes, although certain lexical suffîxes appear only vvith
them (see 143). They precede the vvords they modify, but do not shovv agreement in
number. Adjectives also may appear as predicates of sentences.
Grammatical System 89

6ynyrnH xoB a /bulutlı howa:/ cloudy weather


XoBa 6 ynynn,ı. /Howa: bulutlı./ The weather is cloudy.

Numerals as well as pronouns for 'ali', 'some' and 'none' deteımine the q»antity of
persons, places, things, and so on, and thus may be called "quantifiers." Türkmen
quantifiers behave as adjectives in appearing before the nouns they quanti::y and in
lacking agreement in nıımber (see 151). Quantifıers are distinguished only by their
lexical meanings and functions within a sentence, although ordinal numerals have a
special marker. Numerals and quantifying pronouns cannot be formed from other parts
of speech.
hkh /iki/ tw o h km id ^ m /ikinji/ secon d
x e p aflaM /her a:dam / e v e ry person xhm xa*ıaH /hi:c hacan/ n ever

Pronouns substitute for nouns and adjectives except that they do not rııme the
persons, things, qualities and so on. Türkmen pronouns are distinct lexical items, and
include personal, demonstrative, reflexive and interrogative pronouns (see 181).
Türkmen lacks distinct words for Tıe, she, it'. Instead, it expresses ali of these vvith the
third person pronoun on /ol/. The reference must be determined from other t/ords in
the sentence or from context. Most, but not ali pronouns may take number, person and
case suffixes.
MeH /men/1 6y /bu:/ this H3Me? Aıâme?/ what?
6 h 3 /biS/ w e 63 /ö:6/ s e lf khm? /kim ?/ w h o ?

Verbs typically are the words that convey the action of a sentence. Turkırun verbs
include both simple and derived verbs, as well as compounds consisting of nouns and
auxiliary verbs (see 209). Formally, a verb may be distinguished by the facı that its
root or stem functions as the informal or second person imperative. In additicn, verbs
may take tense/aspect, mood and personal suffîxes.
iiopMeK /görmök/ to see repeııiMeK /görösmök/ to struggle
Fep! /Gör!/ See! Tepem! /Görös!/Fight!
roBtı repMeK /gowı görmök/ to like repeıu 3Tmck /görös etmek/
j to struggle

Ad verbs associate qualides of manner, degree, and so on, with verbs, adjectives and
other adverbs. Türkmen adverbs lack distinctive formal markers, but they always
precede the words they modify (see 359).
r a r a rw 3raH /gatı gıSgm/ extremely hot
epeH aKtınnbi /örön akıllı/ very intelügent
MeH muHMH SyTHHJiei} ryTapflUM. /Men i:simi bütü:nlöy gutordum./
I have completely finished my work.
90 Türkmen Referenee Grammar

Modal words express the speaker’s attitude and emotional stance toward statements,
ranging from affîrmation and negation to certainty and supposition. Turkmen modal
vvords have distinguishing lexical meanings, but no other formal markers (see 377).
Bap. /Ba:r./ Yes, there is. E k . /Yo:k./ No, there is not.
3n6eTfle. /Elbetde./ Certairily. EenKM. /Belki./ Perhaps.

interjeetions are utterances that express basic feelings or reactions tovvard a statement
or circumstances. Formulaic greetings and the like also may be called interjeetions.
Türkmen interjeetions are distinet lexical units that lack formal markers (see 403).
Bax! /VVah!/Aw! (regret) CanaMÎ /0ala:m!/ Hi!
Be! /Be!/ Wow! (wonder, disgust) Car 6 on! /0ag bol!/ Bye!

Structure Words
Structure vvords are those vvhich gain a meaning when they appear with other vvords. In
Turkmen, structure words are the postpositions, auxiliary nouns and conjunctions.
Turkmen postpositions form a part of speech that is equivalent to English
prepositions which express relationships betvveen parts of a sentence. Turkmen differs
from English in that postpositions are placed in the position after (post-) the nouns
they are related to rather than before (pre-). Postpositions do not have distinetive
formal markers (see 405). Auxiliary nouns properly are content words, but their lexical
meanings are connected vvith position and express relationships in space like those of
English prepositions (see 427).
floc-ryM 6nJien /do00um bilen/ with my friend
AMBffleps 6oıoHfla /Amıderya: boyunno/ along the Amudarya
Meran antiHfla /menig yatnınna/ beside me

Conjunctions join two or more vvords, phrases or sentences together. The majority
of Turkmen conjunctions are distinet vvords borrovved from other languages and their
use tends to be confined to vvriting and formal speech (see 433).
3MMa /emma:/ but Be /we/ and
MyHKM/çünkü/ because 3 rep /eger/ if

Particles
Particles are one- or two-syllable elements that are added to vvords to express the
speaker’s attitude and feeling about a statement. Such nuances of mood range from
assertion to confirmation. Most Turkmen particles share characteristics with suffîxes,
and a [ew appear as separate elements (see 457).
KeÜHera ra su n . /Köynögü gıSıl./ Her dress is red. [statement of fact]
KeÜHera r-bratmntıp. /Köynögü gıSıllır./ Her dress is red. [confirmation]
Grammatical System 91
O

Word Structure
From the point-of-view of their structure, Türkmen words may be regarded as simple,
derived or combined. Except for verbs, which are cited vvith the infinitive suffix
(-MaK/MeK /-mak/mek/), this shape is the foraı in vvhich they appear in a dictionary.
Turkmen words are composed of roots or stems to vvhich may be added one or more
elements that are called "suffîxes" because they are attached after (sttf-fıx) as opposed to
before (pre-fix) or within (in-fix) the word. Each suffix typically has a single meaning
and cannot occur alone. its meaning may be lexical in the sense of forming words vvith
nevv meanings (lexical suffixes like +jıtı /+lı/ in ay 3 /ibi /du:Slı/ 'salty' < Ay3 /du: 8/
'salt'), or grammatical in the sense of marking the functions and relationships of vvords
vvithin a phrase or sentence (grammatical suffixes like +fle /+de/ in Kenene /köcödö/
'in the Street' < Kene /köcö/ 'street').
The root of a noun, verb or other part of speech is its most basic element vvhich
carries its primary lexical meaning. The root may serve as a part of speech by itself
(simple noun, verb, ete.), or as the basis from vvhich a vvord vvith a nevv meaning is
formed through the addition of lexical suffixes (derived noun, verb, ete.) or through its
combination vvith another root or stem (combined noun, verb, ete.).
The stem of a noun, verb or other part of speech is that element- vvhether equivalent
to a root or to a derived form of the root or a combination vvord- to vvhich grammatical
or further lexical suffixes are attached (see belovv), or vvhich forms combinations vvith
other roots or stems.

Simple Words
In Turkmen, simple vvords may consist of a single syllable and be nouns, adjectives,
quantifiers, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, modal vvords, interjectıons, postpositions and
conjunctions.
flauı /da:s/ stone Ken /köp/ much
aK /a:k/ vvhite 6 ap /ba:r/ there is
6 am /bâ:s/ fiv e Baıc! /Wa:k!/Ow!
6 m3 /biS/ vve co h /Sor)/ a fter

rırr(M eK) /git(m ek)/ (to) g o Be /vve/ and

A few tvvo-syllable Turkmen vvords vvhose second syllable is not a recognizable


suffıx also serve as simple vvords.
araM/agac/tree r o B tı /govvı/ g o o d
rapa(M3K) /gara(mak)/ (to) look Mepe(MeK) /yörö(mök)/ (to) vvalk

In addition, Turkmen vvords borrovved from other languages may have two or more
syllables, but also may be regarded as simple vvords: KHTan /kita:p/ 'book' (Arabic),
Mauıuıı /masırn/ 'car' (Russian), «})0T0 rpacJj /fotoğraf/ 'photographer' (Russian).
92 Türkmen Reference Grammar

Derived Words
Derived words are composed of roots plus one or more suffixes whose forms are
distinct and whose lexical meanings are recognizable. When lexical (or grammatical)
suffixes are added to a root, it may be called a stem.

Root Stem
r©3 /g ö 8 / e ye IB 3/göS/ eye
(n oun root: r e 3 /gö8/) (noun stem: r e 3 /göS/)
re3CY3 /gö 00ü8/ blind
(noun stem: r e 3 c y 3 /gö00U8D
re3JieM eK /göSlömök/ to look for
(verb stem: reane- /gö81ö-/)

repMeK /görm ök/ to see repM eK /g ö rm ö k / to se e


(verb root: r e p - /gör-/) (ve rb stem : r e p - /gör-/)
repyH M eK /görünm ök/ to appear
(ve rb stem : rep yH - /görün-/)
r e p e n /görö£/ p u p il ( o f e ye )
(n oun stem : T ep en /göröc [)

The addition of suffixes such as those in the above examples affects the meanings of
the vvords themselves, and not (vvith a fevv exceptions) their relationship vvith other
words that are components of a phrase or sentence. For that reason, they are called
lexical suffixes (see 517).

Combined Words
Compound, combination and other types of words act as vvords in the same way as
sünple and derived words (see 506). True compounds represent the fusion of two vvords
and their meanings into a word vvith a nevv reference; for example, flysTopöa
/du:Sto:rbo/ 'salt shaker' (< ny3 /du:8/ + T o p ö a /to:rbo/ 'salt sack'), Keımeöaın
/kepcebas/ 'cobra' (< Keıme /kepçe/ + 6 am /bas/ 'spade head'), and others.
Combination words also may be treated as whole words with distinct meanings
based on their components; for example, o t - h Hm /ot-iym/ 'fodder' (= o t /ot/ 'grass' +
mİİm /iym/ 'food'), aiium - 6 epnm /alıs-beris/ 'trade' (= an uın /alış/ 'taking' + 6 epıım
/beris/ 'giving'), c y B - n y B /0uw-puw/ 'vvater and such' (cy B /0uw/ 'water' + rhyming
pair-vvord n yB /puw/), and others.
Türkmen words also may be formed by other means. For example, rednplicated
vvords contain two components, the first or second of which partially or fully repeats
elements of the other component (for example, an-aK /ap-a:k/ 'snow vvhite' < a n /a:k/
'vvhite'). These and other cases are discussed in the Lexicon (see 510).
Grammatical System 93

Words and Grammar


Many grammatical meanings are expressed through the forms of vvords, eitheı in their
simple, derived or combined forms, or in their grammatical forms. Grammatical
meanings may be grouped into grammatical categories, many of vvhich are expressed by
adding grammatical suffixes to words.

Grammatical Suffixes
When words appear in phrases and sentences, they form relationships vvith other vvords
and components in order to express grammatical meanings. The grammatical funetions
of Turkmen words within phrases and sentences are indicated by adding sul'fixes to
them. These endings are called grammatical suffixes because they add grammatical
meaning or establish the relationships of words to one another as members of phrases
and sentences, but they do not change the Iexical meanings of the vvords. Such ;uffrxes
indicate number, person, case, tense, aspect, mood and other grammatical categories.

Lexical Meaning Grammatical Meaning

Hin /i:s/ work Hiu+fle /i:s+de/ at vvork (locative)


HiuneMeK /i:slemek/ to work Hurjıeiısp /i:sleya:r/ s/he works
mu™ /îrsci/ worker humh Hiunetop /i:sci i:sleyâ:r/
the worker works

In addition to using grammatical suffixes, Turkmen expresses the meanings of


various grammatical categories through vvord order and other means such as
compounding, verbal constructions, and the like.
Turkmen grammatical suffixes added to nouns express only one grammatical
funetion; for example, the accusative case suffix +bi/n /+ı/i/ marks only the ıJefinite
object of a sentence (and not its number, person, and so on).
On the other hand, most grammatical suffixes added to verbs refer to several
grammatical categories; for example, the suffîx - u h / h h /-ın/in/ marks the sin g u la r
number and first person, as opposed to the suffix -bic/nc /- 10/İ 0/ vvhich marks the
plural number and first person in tense suffixes (rejıü a p n H /gelyâ:rin/ 'I go' vs.
re jıtiap u c /gelyâ:ri0/ 'we go'). Indeed, it is a convention to çite verb tense suffixes
according to their third person singular form; for example, the past indefinitf: suffix
-Atı/flH /-dı/di/ is the same as its third person singular form.
Despite their expression of several categories in one form, Turkmen gram raaticai
suffixes retain their basic forms because their vovvels do not change to expres; those
categories, as in English (for example, number in 'mouse-mice', tense in 'ruıı-ran',
ete.).
94 Turkmen Reference Grammar

Grammatical Categories
The various ways in vvhich vvords relate to and depend on one another vvithin a phrase
or sentence may be described in teıms o f grammatical categories. Such categories
indicate whether a word has one or more references (number), distinguishes between
speaker and those spoken about (person), marks the relationship of one noun or phrase
to another noun or phrase (case), specifies the time of an action or State expressed by a
verb (tense), expresses the duration of an action (aspect), reflects the attitude of a
speaker toward an action or State (mood), or makes other distinctions. While
grammatical categories are the same for ali languages, a given language expresses each
of them in its individual fashion.
Turkmen nouns may have inherently collective (cy Ü T /0ii:t/ 'milk') or fixed (rhdi
/di:s/ 'tooth, teeth') references, but most are inherently singular in number and may be
made plural through the attachment of the suffix +jıap/jıep /+lar/ler/. In addition,
Turkmen possessive suffixes and pronouns exist in singular and plural forms (for
example, + u m /h m /+ un/im/ 'my' vs. +HMM3/HMH3 /+ımı8/imi8/ 'our', and M eH
/men/ T vs. 6 m /biS/ 'we'). Verb suffixes also exist in singular and plural forms that
usually differ for each person (see 214).

Tw3nap rMTOH(nep). /Gı:81ar gitdi(ler)./ The girls left.


T£>!3Jiapw repnynep. /Gı:51an gördiilör./ They saw the girls.

Turkmen indicates first, second and third persons in the pronouns, as well as in
nouns by adding possessive endings and in verbs by adding personal endings.

n>i3 /gı:8/ d au gh ter rtrafciM m y d au gh ter


eü /öy/ house enyn /oyüıj/ your house (singular)
KHTan /kita:p/ book KirraStı /kita:bı/ her/his book
OKaMaK /okomok/ to read OKafltrM . /Okodum./1 read. (past)
SepMeK /bermek/ to give BepflHU. /Berdii)./ You gave. (singular past)
mTMeK /gitmek/ to go I htuk. /Gitdi./ He/she/it went.

Turkmen expresses five cases by means of suffixes and a sixth by the lack of a
suffix. The nominative case (without suffix) marks the subject, either indefinite or
definite, while the accusative case marks only the definite object with a suffuc (+tı/n
l+ı/İD. The genitive case indicates the possessor of a thing, person or action, and is
marked by a suffuc (+mh/hh /+ıi]/ii]/) only when possession is definite or specific. The
dative case indicates purpose or direction tovvard a goal and marks the indirect object of
a sentence with a suffix (+a/e /+a/e/). The relationship of an action to a place or time is
indicated by the locative case (suffîx +nalne l+da/de/), while direction away from the
source of a quality or an action is indicated by the ablative case (suffix +H'aH/p(eH
/+dan/den/).
Grammatical System 95

KHTan rbi3biKntı. The book is interesting.


/Kitâ:p gıSıklı./ [nominative case-subject]
KHTan oKaap. He’s reading a book.
/Kita:p okoya:r./ [accusative case-indefinite object]

KüTafibi OKafltı. She read the book.


/Kita:bı okodı./ [accusative case-defînite object]
Oııyn Kjrra6ı,ı n>i3Hioıw. His book is interesting.
/Onur) kita:bı gıSıklı./ [genitive case]
ÎK,opactiHa KHTa6tı 6 epflH. She gave the book to her friend.
/To:ro0uno kita:bı berdi./ [dative case]

K nT anxanaaa KirraStı oKafltı. He read the book at the library.


/Kita:pha:nada kita:bı okodı./ [locative case]
KHTanxaHaqaH KHTa6u She got the book from the library.
/Kita:pha:nadan kita:bı allım./ [ablative case]

Türkmen expresses past, present, and future tenses of verbs through the addition of
suffixes (see 217). Ali of these suffixes also inherently express the aspects of indefinite,
continuous or perfect duration of action; for example, the past indefinite (-/j m / r u
/-dı/diD, past continuous (-HpBbi/MapnH /-ya:rdı/yâ:rdi/) and past perfect (-u rm u /
unun /-ıpdı/ipdi/) tenses.

On OKaflH. /Ol okodı./ She read.


On OKaapflii. /Ol okoya:rdı./ He was reading.
On OKarmtı. /Ol oka:pdı./ She had read.

Türkmen indicates the aspect of duration of action within the tense suffixes added to
verbs (for example, onap /oka:r/ in the following example), but also describes the
beginning, process, cessation and other characteristics of action through constructions
consisting of two verbs that may be called descriptive fonnations (see 311). The first
verb in such a formation indicates the main action (for example, onan /oka:p/ <
oKaıuaK /okomok/ 'to read' in the following examples), while the second verb
describes the action (for example, Gongu /boldı/ 'it became' = finished action in the
follovving example).
96 Türkmen Referenee Grammar

Oji a p rn p Kirra6 H o K ap. He’ll read the book tomorrow.


/Ol erti:r kita:bı oka:r./ [indefinite aspect]

On Kirra6H o n a n ayp. She’s reading the book.


/Ol kita:bı oka:p du:r./ [continuous/regular action]

On KMTaöH oKan fionjjıj. He finished reading the book.


/Ol kitarbı oka:p bollı./ [finished action]

Turkmen expresses action in the indicative mood through the addition of tense
suffixes (for example, present indefinite -n p / to p /-ya:r/yâ:r/>, but also in the imperative
(for example, informal/plural command - m h /h h /-ırj/ir)/), conditional (-ca /ce /-0 a/6 e/),
subjunctive (-ca n u / ce flH /- 0adı/0edi/), desiderative (-a a jıu /a en H /-a:yadı/a:yedi/) and
other moods with suffixes for each of these (see 267). In addition, various kinds and
nuances of mood are expressed with modal formations, words and particles (see 301,
377, 457).

repMeıc /görmök/ to see (infinitive)


Oji repfop. /Ol göryârr./ He sees.
Tep! /Gör!/ See, look!
Tep YU-1 /Görü]]!/ Please see!
repee /gör0ö/ if she sees
repceflH /görâödü/ if he vvould only see
NOUNS

Nouns are words that name people, places, things, phenomena, states, processe:,, ideas,
and so on. They may be grouped into nouns designating items and notions tha: may be
counted (couru nouns like 'apple', 'idea', ete.) and those that, typically, may not
because they designate some inherently indivisibie substance or notion (mas.; nouns
like 'water', 'happiness', ete.).
In general, Türkmen nouns behave as English nouns. They may funetion as nny paıt
of a sentence, that is, as subject, attribute, object or predicate.

SUBJECT

MeıgjeımeH nrrflH.
M y ra jijib iM
/Mugollum mekdepden gitdi./
The teacher left sehool.

ATTRİBUTE

By M y ra ju jb iM tın canatcnapu ru sb iıcn b i.


/Bu mugollumui) öapaklan gıSıklı./
This t e a c h e r ’s lessons are interesting.

OBJECT

MeH M y ra JiJifc iM u repflyM. /Men mugollumı gördüm./


I saw t h e t e a c h e r .

PREDİCATE

/Gurba:n mugollum./
T y p ö a n M y r a ju ıtiM .
Gurban is a teacher.
98 Türkmen Reference Grammar

Types of Nouns
According to their meaning and ııse, nouns may be grouped into common (aam /da:5/
'stone', aKMJi /akıl/ 'intelligence') versus proper (ry jı /gül/ 'Göl' [female name]),
3ftpan /Eyran/ 'Iran') nouns, and concrete (cyB /0uw/ 'water', MaıntiH /masx:n/ 'car')
versus abstract (caH / 0a:n/ 'number', yırnır /am vt/ Tıope') nouns. In structure,
Turkmen nouns may be simple (en /yo:l/ 'road'), derived from nouns or verbs (e m u
/yo:lcı/ 'road-worker') or combined with other words (enCaniMbi /yo:lba5cı/ 'leader' <
eii /yo:l/ + Banmu /basçı/ 'leader').

Simple Nouns
In Turkmen, simple nouns consist of one syllable and (when a root and suffîx are not
recognizable) two-sy!lables, or one or more syllables in the case of a bonrovved vvord.
Simple nouns express common (nar /da:g/ 'mountain', a c u p /a0ır/ 'century') and
proper (Ep /Yer/ 'Earth', M upaT /Mıra:t/ 'Mırat' [male name]) nouns, as well as
concrete (meM /sem/ 'candle', ryjıaK /gulok/ 'ear') and abstract (ott /o:y/ 'thought',
raxap /gahar/ 'anger') nouns.

Derived Nouns
Turkmen nouns also may be derived from other nouns (co 3 jıy K /0öSlük/ 'dictionary'<
C83 /0ö5/ 'word', huimm /i:§£i/ 'worker' < Mm /i:§/ 'work') or from verbs (ra n tı /gapı/
'door' < ran(Maıc) /gap(mak)/ '(to) close', 6 hximm /bilim/ 'knowledge' < 6 HJi(MeK)
/bil(mek)/ '(to) know') through the addition of lexical suffixes (see 518-526). Such
derived nouns express common/proper and concrete/abstract notions as well.

Combined Nouns
Many Turkmen nouns consist of compound (anKran /ayakga:p/ 'shoes' < aaK /ayak/
'foot' + ra n /ga:p/ 'sack') or combination (ru3-ornaH /gı:8-oglon/ 'children' < ru 3
/gı:S/ 'girl' + oriiaH /oglon/ 'boy') words (see 506-508). The latter type may consist of
two words of independent meaning ( a y s - T a r a M /du:5-tagam/ 'food' < ny3 /du:8/ 'salt'
+ Taraıu /tagam/ 'taste'), two words of vvhich one possesses an independent meaning
and the second is a partially reduplicated form of the first (nara-Myra /5a:ga-cu:ga/
liftle ones, children' < Hara /£a:ga/ 'child'), or two words neither of which either
occurs indenpendently or has an independent meaning (aübijj-catiujı /ayıl-9ayıl/
'clear', ceTaHna-cettpaHna /9eta:nna-0eyra:nna/ 'sometimes').
Nouns 99

Grammatical Categories of Nouns


Türkmen nouns may express three grammatical categories through the addition of three
kinds of grammatical sufixes. These suffixes express the grammatical categories of
number, person and case. Number refers to the number of persons speaking, of persons
spoken to, and persons or items spoken about; person identifies the referenee of the
speaker to persons, things, states or aetions spoken about; and case relates nouns to one
another as parts of a sentence.

NUMBER Plural suffix xam>uıap /harlılar/ carpets

PERSON Possessive suffixes XaJILtHapi>IMM3


/ha:lılanmı5/ our carpets

CASE Case suffixes xanunapna /harlılarda/


on the carpets

These grammatical suffixeş each have a distinetive form and are added in a specific
order to the noun stem: number, person, case.

XajiE,ınapfciMbi3Aa.
/Ha:lılannu 68a./

Noun Number Person Case


x a jıtı -f-nap +BIMH3 +«a
/ha:h +lar -Hım5 +da/
carpet -s our on

It is on our carpets.
100 Turkmen Reference Grammar

Number
Number is a grammatical category that expresses the number of persons, places or
things, or eveff the number of speakers involved in a statement. Number may be
singular (one of something), dual (two and only two of something) or plural (two or
more of something).
The Turkmen language expresses singular and plural number in nouns. Without a
plural suffix, a Turkmen noun typically is singular. Moreover, some Turkmen nouns
are inherently singular because they designate items or places that are unique.

AmraöaT /Asgabat/ Ashgabat Mapc/Maıfl/ Mars


TypKMe /Türkiye/ Turkey TyH /Gün/ (the) Sun

Other Turkmen nouns may have an inherently plural meaning because they refer to
collectives or to items that come in pairs or sets, or they designate a whole that cannot
be divided into units or that cannot be counted more than once. These nouns include
names of body parts, articles of clothing, dry products, liquids, metals, grains, food,
fruit, berries, and various living or lifeless things.

arı /el/ hand, hands KSByuı /köwüs/ shoe, shoes


fly3 /du:5/ salt anı /y a :s/' tear, tears
yH /u:n/ üour cyB /0uw/ water
cyÜ T /0ü:t/ milk flauı /d a:s/ stone
öyrflali /bugdoy/ wheat fleMHp /demir/ iron
y3yM /ü8üm/ grape, grapes HeÖMT /nebit/ oil

Such nouns may be made concrete or divided into parts by placing an attribute
before them.
Hap3K,aH an a eT e reMeHflHTHHM öııımn, a m a K tı noflarbiHbi flHuuıeflH. (G)
/Narjan apa ötö ge£ennigini bilip, asa:kı do:dogum di:sledi./
Realizing that she had given away too much, Narjan-apa bit her lower lip.

Paired noun combinations express a general plurality of the corresponding paired


subjects, especially when preceded by an adjective or quantifier.

K en a a n -n ,i3 /köp a ya:l-gı:8 / m a n y w o m e n and girls


ÖHpHane orjıaH-rti3 /bim a:£e oglon-gı:8/ s e v e ra l b o y s and girls

Reduplicated words such as K3H /kan/ 'much' or M yaan /cuwol/ 'sack' denote an
indefinite plurality that can be equivalent to English 'a lot of'.
K3H-K3H ryppYH /ka:n-ka:n gü m iıj/ a lo t o f ta lk
M yBan-nyBan yH /£ uw o l-£ uw ol u:n/ a lo t o f flo u r
Nouns 101

Plural Suffbc
In Turkmen, a plural noun or pronoun may serve as any part (subject, object, predicate,
ete.) of a sentence. The most common means of expressing the plural num :er is by
adding the plural suffbc +jıap/jıep /-flar/ler/ to a noun or pronoun.

Mhjdih flan-fleccypjıap 6 m m nporpaMMaMbi3bin 3 cactum a aypap. (N)


/Milli: dâ:p-de06u:rlor biSirj programma:mızır) e6 a:0ınna durya:r./
National traditions lie at the base of our program.

Tamım Ea6 axaH0 Bflartı


İIp a H M oM M afloB , fle p - n y ıiB i E a6 ax aH O B ,
aııcaM6 ntlMti3tın HJieHJiepH. (N) /Yaran Momma:dov, Dörtgulı Ba:baha:nov,
Tâ:sli Ba:baha:nov dağı anöamblımıSır] cilenleri./
Yaran Mommadov, Dörtgulı Babahanov, Tâshli Babahanov, and people like that,
are the members of our ensemble.

Marajıap 6 h3hh reJi*;eniMM3 axtıptı! (BG) /Ca:galar biSirj geljegimiz a:hm./


Children are our future, after ali!

On KacejıepM floımypfltı. (BG) /Ol kâ:6 eleri do:llurdı./


He filled up the bowls.

On artıp ryunep remtn rMTflM. (O) /Ol ağır güniör geçip gitdi/
Those difficult days did pass.

rynjıep rbicraıibin, rH*,e/ıep y3aap. (TP2.3) /Güniör gı:ögalıp gi:jeler u5cya:r./


The days are getting shorter, the nights longer.

When serving as the subject of a sentence, a noun without suffixes usually is


interpreted as singular and indefinite or definite. However, when serving as the object
of a sentence a noun vvithout suffıxes is singular or plural and indefinite.

KMTan rtBtncıibi. The book is interesdng.


/Kita:p gıSıklı./ ~ A book is interesting.

KüTannap rtrabiKnu. Books are interesting.


/Kita:plar gıSıklı./ ~ The books are interesting.

Kurran OKaaptm. I’m reading a book.


/Kita:p okoya:nn./ ~ I’m reading books.

KHTaıuıapu oKaaptm. I’m reading the books.


/Kita:plan okoya:nn./
102 Turkmen Reference Grammar

Unlike in English, the plural suffîx is not added to a Turkmen noun when it is
preceded by a numeral or by an indefinite pronoun in a fixed combination.

Mkh anaM H6epraı, 06a xa 6 ap 3T. (G) /İki ardam i:berip, o:ba: habar et./
Send two men and let the village know.

Yn ryH rence-fle, 3mpeT 06a flonaHMafltı. (TJ)


/Üc gün ge£0e-de, Esret o:ba: dolonmodı./
Although three days have passed Eshret has not retumed to the village.

ypyıu typantı öapu, 6 wp Tonap ryH rettnnlıjH. (BH)


/UruŞ turolı bâ:ri, bir topor gün gecipdi./
A lot of days had passed since the war began.

fl,HHe 6h3hh MeflHiınHa HHCTjnymMM3fla oKyBiıap ajrrbr ütiJi novau 3fliisp.


(TP12.3) /Dirje bi8ir) mediOina in0titutumu86o okuwlor altı yıl dowa:m edya:r/
Only in our medical institute do studies continue for six years.

Adding the plural suffix to a noun denoting a general category expresses a general,
uncounted number.

3 mm3 aflaMJiap O H yn r t r a M a u ı r a u ı ^ t f n . n a ı fle p p e B T a H a fltm a p . (G)


/Emma: ardamlar onuıj gı:5 masgaladıgmı derrew tanadılar./
But people understood immediately that this was a girl.

E a T tıp flb rp M ep T Jie p xeM x o b ii j ih s n n a f tn a p n a T a H a n a p . (G)


/Ba:tırdır mertler hem howp!ı yagdaylarda tanalya:r./
The heroıc and the brave are both recognized in times of danger.

3ne TonpaKÎ ATa BaTaıı! lOp-r! Ey 6 aKtun.in.iH euyTOe xeMMejıep fleiianp. (N)
/Ene toprok! Ata vvatan! Yu:rt! Bu ba:kılıgıi] örjiinnö hemmeler değdir./
Motherland! Fatherlandl Country! One and ali are equal before this etemity.

Hfy e p fle a x m TypKMenjıep Taüna-Tatina 6onyn amaımupnap. (TV 10.1)


/Su yerde â:hli türkmdnlör ta:ypa-ta:ypa bolup ya:sa:pdırlar./
Here, ali the Turkm en lived as dans and tribes.

3n6eıae, 6 y m r a otaaHHUitncntı arceK, xeMMejıepHrç 63x 6nflioıe 6 onap.


(TV12.4) /Elbetde, bu i:si oylonusukh e00ek, hemmelerii] bâ:hbi:dine bolor./
Of course, if we do this in a vvell-thought out way, it will be to the benefit of
everyone.

Some speakers may attach a plural to a noun designating a body part or a collective,
vvhile others may not. Such a case may occur in one and the same sentence.
Nouns 103

AflaMJiaptm My3H YifrraifflH. (G) /A:damlanrj yüSü ü:tga:pdi./


The faces of the people had changed.

O rarun 6wp 6yp>ryHfla fty3H-re3H ennerom, neıcrejıepH, HOflaKJiapu rapa raH


6 ojmh rojK,a hkm 6yKYnHn orbipflH. (N) /Otogug bir burcunno yü8ü-göSü yellenip,
cekgeleri, do:dokIorx gara ga:n bolon gojo iki bükülüp otıtrdı./
In one of the comers of the room an old man whose face and eyes were swollen,
whose cheeks and lips were bloodied, sat bent över.

MeHe 6h3 ıusxep aflaMJiaptma ceperrceK, onna a3ax;MK YİhnreuiHK 3aT repyn
6nnepMC. (TV13.2)
/Yö:nö bi8 saher a:damlanna 0ere00ek, onno a:8ajık ü:tgösük 8a:t görüp bileriG./
But if we take a look at city people we can see then that some things are a little
different.

When attached to a noun denoting a liquid, plant product, metal, berry or the like,
the plural suffıx expresses the totality or whole complex of the homogeneous iteni.
Without the plural suffix, the noun indicates only a portion of the item.

3pTHp Hpflen MattnaptiHtı ıpmn yrpaMara X33Mp 6onflynap. (G)


/Erti:r i:rden ca:ylannı içip ugroma:ga hâ:8ir bollulor./
Having had their tea early in the moming, they were ready to start off. [sense: 'tea
and the things eaten with the tea']

IHom a ranna amıaK y^hh my BarrflaH epjıep 3Kuııre TaSap 6onMaın>r. (N)
fSonco galla almak ücü:n Su vvagtdan yerler ekiie tayya:r bolmoh./
To get such a yield the land should be ready for planting starting now.

By j w t h h h HcaMaK ym m h orçaT u c n u Be caranfliraçM omaptiH (SyanBiH, eB U ianıiH ,


amnaruH, 6eMneKnnepnn) s m b ip tm a ıı cyBnapu ynaHtmflH. (N)
/Bu icgi:ni yaOamak ü6ü:n oıjot ı:01ı we Oagaldıjı otlorurj (buyonur), yowsonur|,
yannagııg, beylekilerirj) yatınlan 0uwlon ulonullı./
W ater in which fragrant herbs (liquorice, absinth, cameltlıom, and such) were
placed was used to prepare this drink.

Bm3 Mat} mıifenMsK nanaB, ıuexnaT, rapa3, MftrM-HMrHncpfleH flYpnH-OTMeH 3aT


renim Gauuıaflbi. (TV16.2) /BiS ca:y icyâ:ncâ:k palaw, söhla:t, garaS, iygi-
icgilerden dürlü-dümön Sa:t gelip başladı./
While we were drinking tea, palaw, shöhlat [mutton dish], in a word, ali kinds of
food and drink started coming.

Ilarra SaaactiHfla narT ajıap ceprannı rypaflbmap. (TV7.3)


/Pagta baSa0mna pagtalar Gerilip gu:rodulya:r./
At the cotton collection point the cotton is spread out and dried.
104 Turkmen Referenee Grammar

The plural suffix +Jiap/nep /+lar/ler/ may intensify the meaning of a noun by
indicating that it has a repetitive nature; for example, 'colds' in the sentence below
signifies that repeated cold spells add up to severely cold weather.

TbnntiH coByKJiapHUfla 6y öaTrantiKJiap flonapfliinap. (G)


/Gısırj 6owuklorunno bu batgalıklar dorjya:rdılar./
In the severe cold of winter these bogs became frozen.

Iltmıtıpflamtın aniHiitaH i'YppYHJiep 6ynapı>ın reBHyHe apaMafltı. (G)


/Pısırdasıp edilyâ:n gürrürjlor buloruıj göwniinö yaramadı./
They didn’t like the whispering and talking going on.

Attaching the plural suffix to a sumame expresses the totality of family members
and the household associated with that name. The same meaning may be created by
attaching the plural to a noun belonging to a person.

Ü iirH aıc 6ojihh ep TypöaH aram ın eüJiepnHfleH 6np a3aagbtK aHbirpaKfltı. (G)
/Yıgnak bolyam yer Gurba:n a:gamıg öylörünnön bir a:8ajık acıgra:kdı./
The place where the meeting was taking place was a little bit farther from Gurban-
aga’s lıome.

“MeHHn BaTaHBiM T YpKMeHJicTaH11aTJU>ı caxbina#a Xo*aM6a3 3Tpa6Bnn.cn


BypflanHK o6acbinfla suııasiH Il0A0CHJibHHK0Bnapun Mauırajıacbi öapafla ryppyn
33Hnep. (N)
/'Menii) Watanım Türkniönü00a:n" a:tlı 0ahı:pada Hojomma:5 etra:bmıi] Burdoluk
o:bo0unno ya:saya:n PodoOiInikovlani] masgalaOı ba:rada gürrürj ediler./
On the page entitled "My Homeland is Türkmenistan," there’ll be a discussion
about the Podosilnikov family who live in Burdalık village of Hojambaz district.

Specific shades of meaning are created when the plural suffix is used vvith nouns
designating parts of the body or items associated with the body. Usually, this suffix
heightens the effect of expressions involving those body parts or other items that
commonly are not thought of as plural.

IIfoxflH-meKep flnjuıepflen ce3ne rapa re3 renıın. (G)


/5â:hdi-seker dillerden 0ÖSİÖ gara gö5 gelin./
Speak with a cheerfiıl, sweet tongue, black-eyed young vvoman.

Eteap 6aMbin caqnaptnn.ı yönıypıın, re3yHM TerejıeflaHflim t msjdimhm . (G)


/NaSar ba:yıq ©açlarını ir.sürüp, göSünü tegeleya-.nnigi mâılimdi./
One could sense that Nazar-bay’s hair vvas standing on end and his eyes were
becoming round. [sense: 'each hair on his head']
Nouns 105

Addition of the plural suffîx to the end of reduplicated sets of vvords inıensifies
their inherent plural meaning.

xapMaa-xapMaH raByH -rapntranap /harm an-harm an ga:wun-garpı81ar/


piles of m elons and vvatermelons

A new meaning that includes the meanings of both nouns is created when the plural
suffix is attached to the second component of paired or redundant noun combıjıations
that denote general categories of items.

K p o B a n .m xeM y c r y u n e e p ra H -flc c tiK J ia p u p e ^ e n a n ro ü fly n a p . (G )


/Kerevvatırj hem ü06Unnö yorgon-ya09ıklan rejelâ:p goydulor./
And they also placed the bedding in proper order on the bed. ['covering(s) and
pillovvs']

When attached to a concrete, specific noun, or to a noun denoting an indissoluble


unit with a collective meaning, the plural suffix denotes an indefinite quantity.

MeMflaıuıap MHC-aq.mccı>i3 ıınnsn HTtıpfltınap. (G)


/Meydarnlar m0-jin00ı8 ii)lâ:p yatı:rdüar./
Fields lay sighing vvithout any sign of life.

flaıuapfla 6onca ra3aanap aTapbimpflbi. (G) /Dasarda bol0o ga:8anlar atarılyarrdı./


And outside, kettles were being set up.

Approximation may be indicated through the plural suffix. In such cases, the noun
to vvhich it is attached is understood as singular, but its occurrence is not specific.

By BarTJiap ryÜ3 aönaptiHbin öamjıapLiflbi. (G)


/Bu vvagtlar gü:8 a:ylanmi] başlandı./
This time vvas the beginning of the Autumn months. ['these times vvere ths
beginnings']

SMMaKbi con-conJiap KenyH cyBbi 6wp ryjtıpaT öHiıeH 6ynaın,m 6aıujıaHMbiuı.


(BH) /Emma:kı 0oi)-0or|lor kö:lür| Ouvvı bir gudrot bilen bulonup basla:nm ıs./
But then later on, by some povver, the vvater of the lake apparently started to mm
muddy.

MeH 6y aflaMbi e^jıep Ken re36K repyıiflitM. (BH)


/Men bu ardamı örjlör köp geSek göriipdüm./
I had seen this man many times before. [sense: 'at some previous time']
106 Türkmen Referenee Grammar

IIIojı epnepne repcenH3, HeMe, copanmuptm, S e n ıo M xyflaft 6apflbip-fla, öejncsM


Tantmctm-fla, xob. (TV13.3) /Sol yerlerde görf)ör)ü5, neme, 0o:rosdurur), belkâ:m
huda:y ba:rdır-da:, belkâ:m tapıl9mna, ho:w./
If you see him anyw here, you know, ask around, maybe there really is a god,
hey-maybe he really should be found.

E hshh nMKpMMH3Me, TypKMeH co3M 6H3HH 3paMti3bin 6 mphie«;h MYHfcmnbm.nn>rH


opTanaptum a, raKMtınan 1,5 Myn ütuı veMecst MyH/faH en 6onca repeK.
(TV13.5) /BiSirj pikrimiSce, türkmön 0ö8ü biSir] era:mı8ıi) birinji mürjyıllıgımi]
ortolorunno, takmı:nan 1,5 müıj yıl cemeOi munnon öi] Sıkan botöo gerek./
In our opinion, the word Turkmen probably evolved in the middle of the first
millennium A.D. or about 1.5 tlıousand years ago. [sense: 'somewhere in the
middle']

Forms o f the Plural Suffu:


Türkmen forms the plural number by adding the suffbc +jıap/jıep /+lar-lor/ler-lör/ to
the stems of nouns and some other parts of speech.
For paradigms of nouns with plural, possessive and case suffixes, see 576.
Nouns 107

Person
Person identifies the person speaking or an associated item (first person singular), the
person spoken to or an associated item (second person singular), or the thing or person
spoken about or an associated item (third person singular). In the plural number, person
refers to the speaker and one or more other persons or item associated with them (first
person plural), the persons spoken to or an item associated with them (second person
plural), or the things or persons spoken about or an item associated vvith them (third
person plural).
Turkmen distinguishes first, second and third persons in both singular and plural
number in several ways. The indication of person in a sentence may be expressed
through personal pronouns, possessive suffixes, personal pronouns in the genitive case,
and/or personal endings added to verbs.

MeH T a n tm . /Men ta:lı:p./ l a n a student.

MeKfleöHM ynbi. /Mekdebim ulı./ My school is large.


MeHHH MeKfleöHM yjıtı. /Meniıj mekdebim ulı./ My school is large.
MeKfle6e rnqMspHH. /Mekdebe gidyâ:rin./ I go to school.
MeH MeKfleöe rHflftapMH. /Men mekdebe gidyâ:rin./ I go to school.

Possessive Suffuces
Turkmen indicates possession of a thing or action through the addition of possessive
suffixes that vary according to singular and plural, and to first ('my' and our'), second
('your') and third person singular and plural ('her/his/its' and 'their'). In the second
person, distinctions are made betvveen singular and plural, formal and informal, while
in the third person, the suffix is the same for both singular and plural.
The first person possessive suffixes (+ mm / hm /+ım/im/ and +m m m 3 / h m h 3
/+unı8/imi8/) indicate that a thing belongs to the person or persons speaking.

ranaMMM /galamım/ my pencii flocTyMbt3 /do:88umu8/ our friend


ry/ıyM /gölüm/ my flower flenjıepMMJO /depderimiB/ our notebook

A noun vvith a first person possessive suffix may function as the subject, object or
predicate of a sentence.

MeHHH mhhm my ifcuı yHHBepcMTeTM ıyrapap. (G )


/Meniıj inim su yıl univer8iteti gutoryarr./
My younger brother graduates from the university this year.
108 Türkmen Reference Grammar

CanaıcrıaptiMa KeMeK 6 epepB(H. (H) /©apaklanma kömök bererdi./


She used to help me vvith my lessons.

Yh MaraM 6ap. Yıibi orayM eüneneH, n.i3biMfc[ flypMyma iftncapnMM. (O)


/Uc ca:gam ba:r. Ulı oğlum öylönön, gr.Bımı durmuso çıkardım./
I have three children. My oldest son is married, I married off my daughter.

MHe uıy ajjaM 6jq h h y n tı floıcropuM ta. (G) /İne su a:dam biSirj ulı doktorumuS./
And this man is our great doctor.

- Konxo3tiMM3fla Yn MYHneH roBparayaK xojK,annrfciMti3 6 ap. (TP12.2)


/"KolhoSumuSSo üc müıjdön gowra:gJık hojolugumuS ba:r."/
"We have a bit better than 3,000 farms on our collective faım."

The second person possessive suffbces (+ u n lm \ /-4-ırj/irj/ and +bmbi3/nı<H3


/+ııgı8/ir)i5/) indicate that a thing belongs to the person or persons spoken to. Besides a
distinction between singular and plural (compare older English 'thine' and 'your'), the
usually singular suffix (+ mh / hh /+ırj/irj/) also may be used to refer infonnally to more
than one person.

ranaMHH /galamıi)/ your pencil flocTyuta /do:60ur)u5/ your friend


mumu /i:sixj/ your
work 3*;enM3 /ejerjig/ your mother

Nouns ending in the second person possessive suffix may serve as the subject,
object or predicate of a sentence.

Athhi eneH Sonca, on Hiuyjibi flHeHHn khm 6ojwp? (G)


/Ata: q ölörj bol0o, ol ya:sulı diyenii) kim bolya:r?/
If your faüıer died, who is that old man you’re talking about?

KaıcaM sadene ö y n e K coBcaHM SauıaTTbm MÖepflM. (G)


/Ka:kam ejeıje yüpök 0ow0onı basatgıc i:berdi./
My father sent your mother a silk fabric for a head coveıing.

-.Shkbi renim raaeH khm? - Oji cemin hiuhh asii, x,oBnyflan »ibik. (N)
/T aıjkı gelip giden kim?" "Ol Oenii) i:sii) da:l, hovvludon cık."/
"Who’s that vvho just left?" "It’s none of your business, get out of my yard."

MtıxMaHbin hht cyB HneHflHp eflMaıı. (TV 17.3)


/Mı:hma:mi) ci:g 0uw icennir ödyâ:n./
I think your guest must have drank some untreated water.
Nouns 109

Ch3kh rynep üy3YH113 XMlJ Barr mchiih re3yMMH enY«fleH nrrMe3. (G)
/0İ5İI) gülör yüSüıjüB hi:c wagt menit) göSümüıj öıjünnön gitmeS./
Your laıighing face will never disappear from my eyes.

Eonsp, car 6onyn. X@KMaH roıonti3a BapaptiH. (N)


/Bolya:r, 0ag bolurj. Hökmarn toyui]u5o barann./
Goodbye, then. I’ll defınitely come to your wedding.

The third person suffix (+u / h /+ı/i/) is the same for both singular and plural and
indicates that a thing belongs to a person or persons spoken about. To dişti r.guish a
plural possessive 'their', the pronoun forms ojıapurç /olorur)/, uıojıapun /soiorur)/ or
m yjıapun /sulorurj/ 'their' may be placed before the vvord.

MaınuHU /masıtnı/ his/her car


onapiin MamtiHU /oloruıj ması:nı/ their car
MauiLiHJiapu /ması:nları/ her/his ears
o jıa p u H Maıubimıaptı /oloruıj m ası:nnan/ their ears

OHyn e t e /onug öyü/ h is/her h o u se


on ap bin eJİH /olorui) öyü/ their house
oHyn eÖJiepH /onug öylörü/ her/his houses
o jıa p b iH eftnepM /olorui] ö ylö rü / th eir h ouses

A noun ending in a third person possessive suffix may appear as the subject, object
or predicate of a sentence.

Pyxbi reTepRiiflH, ÜYperw xp u m u . (G) /Ru:hı götöriillü, yürögü jo:sdı./


His spirits were lifted, his heart was filled with joy.

AMaııtm ennaııuıapu önneH 6«ne yrpaMaftıibiHa OHyn 3»;ecıı tu o ^ a jıtiK c tı 3nanflfci.


(G) /Ama:nırj yorlloslon bilen bile ugromoysuno onur] eje0i ı:njalık0ı81annı./
A man’s not going off togedıer vvith his companions has his mother vvorrkd. ['his
not going off']

OHyn 6axactı söbUiMaımtıp. (G) /Onuq baha0ı yaSılmannır./


Ils price must not have been vvritten.

-EepeKennaî-flHİfaın, aflaMCtı rBirtıptmatıp. - JHııltMeK, cen omqa, 3*;eMMn


6ıi3KHKiifle HiuaMarbraa rapniH flan-R3. (N) /"Berekella:!," diyip, a:dam0ı
gı:gırıpdır. "Diymek, 0en onno, ejemirj biSirjkide ya:samagına garsı dâ:l-dâ:.7
"Bless you!" her husband shouted. "That means you really don’t mind my mother
living vvith us, then?"
110 Türkmen Reference Grammar

AMaHryn 3>se am.naiapi.iHa ryBaHap. (O) /Ama:ngül eje agtıklanna guwonya:r./


Amangül-eje is proud of her grandchildren.
MeH oHyn ca3biHa x ö k m 3 h (BH)
/Men onurj 0a:8ma hökma:n diisüna:ymeli./
Ht’s absolutely necessary that I understand his music.
BenKH, o jıa p tiH ce3uepnrçneH ry jıara n a sacantr 6onap. (G)
/Belki, olorurj 0ö8lörünnön gulogurjo yakam bolor./
Perhaps, there’ll be something pleasant for your ears in their words.
MeH o n a p t ın eityufle flH n .i-iltin .w a H öonapflbiM . (N)
/Men olorurj öyünnö yıgı-yıgıdan bolya:rdım./
I was at their house frequently.
Ch3 öspfle repÜ3nn3 onapun nara BamJHfla oMnasnı oiİHaBa>nıaptntti repifaiflö.
(TV13.3)
/0i8 bârrde göryâ:rjiS olorui] ca:ga wagtınna oynoya:n oynowa:clanıu görya:r)i5./
You see here, you see the toys with which they played in their childhood.
3 a T TeneM enH flan cy B ynMH. 3M M a u ıy cyB re m ıp e n jıe p n ynHH, u ıy jıa p t m
6 m TeneMenH 6onaptıc. (TV17.2)
Typ 6acb m a, ıpaH Tbm a, ın o n a
/8a:t tölömölü dâ:l 0uw ücü:n. Emma: su 0uw geçirenleri ücü:n, sulonır)
turbo0uno, kırantma, sorjo bi8 tölömölü bolya:n0./
We don’t have to pay a thing for vvater. But for th e ir bringing in this water, and
their pipes and th eir faucets, for this we have to pay.

Turkmen expresses 'to have' through a construction in which a noun ending in a


first or second person possessive suffix co-occurs with the modal word 6ap /ba:r/
'exists, there is/are' or its corresponding negative eK /yo:k/ 'does not exist, there are/ıs
not'. Literally, such a construction may be translated 'my (your, ete.) X exists' = 'I
(you, ete.) have', or 'my (your, ete.) X does not exist' = 'I (you, ete.) don’t have'.

By epfle 6H3HH :*;aMl>lMU3 6ap. (G) /Bu yerde biSig ja:yımı8 ba:r./
Here, w e h a v e o u r house.
- Cch n ypM yuıa HbiKflbiHMbi?- flHÖıın, on TynnapnaH copaflbi.
- Ü eH e eTeH ilt m attpbmbnıiflHK. Ce6s6H naraM bra eK^bi. (H)
/'0en durmuSo îıkdırjmı?" diyip, ol Gülna:rdan 0o:rodı.
"Cıkıpdım. Yö:nö ötön yıl ayrılısdık. 0ebâ:bi Sa:ga:mı8 yo:kdı."/
"Are you married?" he asked Gülnar.
"I was married. But last year we got divorced. The reason is we had no children."
- T o b m KapMU 6 ap, flepMaıtnH. (BG) /"Gowı kâ:riq ba:r, d erm a:ncı."/
'T o u h a v e a good profession, druggist."
Nouns 111

Baranına Bejin, my ann>nDK,M ryH Mernm muihm 6ap, Saptın 6nn:*;eK flan.
(TV3.4) /Bağışla weli, sn altınjı gün menirj i:sim ba:r, banp biljek da:l./
Sorry, but Fm busy this Saturday, and I won’t be able to go. [1 have bıısiness' =
T m busy']

This same constıuction is used when a noun ending in the third person possessive
suffix +m/h /+ı/i/ enters into possessive relationship with a preceding noun or pronoun
ending in the genitive case suffix + tın/ hh /+li]/ir|/ (see 116).

0M secıtHHH Maflfltı Saöntıru 6ap, MeHe pyxtı Taüflan BenHH x;yfla raptm. (N)
/Öy eyeöinii] maddi ba:yhgı ba:r, yö:nö ru:hı ta:ydan weli:n juda: gan:p./
The home-owner has material wealth, nonetheless, he’s very poor from the
spiritual point-of-view. c

ByjıapflaH 6amra-fla MycyjiMaHUH 6ep»;aü stmcjim nap3napu öapfltıp. (TP 13.4)


/Bulordon basga-da mu9ulma:nııj berja:y etmeli parSlan ba:rdır./
Muslims also have other obligations they must fulfill besides these.

- UletaMH? CeHfloıptı 6HjrftopcnnMH ouyu 6apflbirbiHH? (TV17.5)


/'Seylemi? 0en dogn bilyâ:r9iıjmi onur) batrdıgını?"/
"Really? Do you know for certain that they have one?"

- Tapa3, x e p aflbin, aflaMbiH afliiH tıu aM , ui3X epnn aflbiHbinaM 6wp TapbiXbi
Öap-fla. (TV8.1)
/'Gara8, her a:dıi), a:damıi) atdınırjam, saherii] a:dmııjam birta:rı:hı ba:r-da:."/
'İn shott, every name, both a person’s name and a city’s name, has some history."

When a demonstrative pronoun (6y/my /bu:/su:/ 'this', on/nıoJi /ol/sol/ 'that')


precedes a noun ending in a possessive suffix, the most appropriate English equivalents
are 'this/that o f mine (yours, ours, ete.)'.

By nHKHpım roBbi mncHp. (G) /Bu pikirii) gowı pikır./


This idea of yours is a good idea.

Ouyu AMepHKa 6y canapbi Tapw xM c a n a p fliip . (N )


/Onui) Amerika: bu: 0apan ta:rı:hı 0apardır./
This trip of his to America is a historic trip.

Xep a » M en my * ,a iib iM a c t m h u i 6sm M aııaT T e n e ite H . (TV9.3)


/Her a:y men su ja:yıma yetmiş ba:s manat tölöyâ:n./
Each month I pay seventy-five manats for this place of mine.
112 Turkmen Referenee Grammar

By xaJlbiJiapuMH3 6H3fle enaeH 6spi(, actıpnap 6spıı floKamm renmı, 6m3HH 6y


3HenepMMH3flen, MaManaptLMBBflaH r a n a H 6 m s 6np 3n-xyHspn 6onap. (TV10.2)
/Bu ha:lılanmıS biS5e öıjdön bâ:ri, aöırlar bâ:ri dokolup gelip, bi5irj bu
enelerimiSSen, ma:malamm5San ga:lan bi5e bir el-hitaâ:ri bolya:r./
These carpets of ours have been woven among us since olden times, for
centuries, and have been left to us as a handicraft by our motheıs and
grandmothers.

Forms o f the Possessive Suffixes


Türkmen indicates the first person possessive by adding the suffix +um/hm /+ım-
um/im-iim/ to the stems of nouns in the singular and +mmli3/hmm3 /+ ım ı8 -
umu5/imi8-ümü8/ in the plural. The second person possessive suffbc is +uh/mk( /+ıi)-
ur)/ir)-üq/ in the singular, and +MHM3/HHH3 /+ıi}i8—ur|u8/irjiS— iirjtiS/ in the plural. In
contrast, the third person possessive suffbc is +bi/n /+ı-u/i-ü/ after words ending in a
consonant and + c m / ch /+0ı/0i-0ü/ after words ending in vowels for both the singular
and the plural. The element c /0/ appears only in this suffbc (see 69).'
The rules of Standard Turkmen orthography apply to the representation of long
vovvels that arise vvith the addition of the first and second person possessive suffbces
(see 56). When these suffbces are added to nouns ending in a/e /a/e/ or m/ h /ı/i/, these
final vovvels become long a/a /a:/a:/ or bi/n /ı:/i:/. With the addition of the third person
suffbc, these final vowels remain short.
When the first person plural suffbc is added to a front vowel word ending in the
letter M /y/, the vowel of the suffbc is dropped (not eftyMH3 /öyiimüS/, but ettıyıy3
/öymüS/ 'our home'). Although this spelling rule vvas not applied to the second person
plural suffbc, such forms appear by analogy to the first person plural (both etiynH3
/öyürjüS/ and eöny3 /öyrjüS/ 'your home' may be found).2
The partide xeM/-aın/eM /hem/-am/em/ 'too, also, and' frequently is placed after a
noun vvith a possessive suffix; for example, Men KaKaMaM /men ka:kamam/ 'my

1 Turkmen has several unexpected third person possessive foım s. The word aflaıncu /a:dam0ı/ 'her
husband' probably represents a contraction o f a double possessive *a:dam +ı+st, vvhich developed
över the course o f Turkmen language history. Because of the frequency of usage of an expression
like *a:damt 'her husband' in Turkmen society where wives often addressed their husbands by this
circumlocation, the form may have come to designate 'husband' by itself. This led to the new
formation with the third person possessive *a:damısı, later contracted to the present form (through the
vowel loss nıle, see 60). Several other words also show this exceptional feature, possibly as a result of
analogous developments: a rm a M C U /ağsamBı/ 'the evening before' (< *agsam +ı+sı), 6npcB /bir6i/
'someone' (< * b i:r+ i+ si), x a licu /hayBı/ 'which one' (< *hay+t+sı), xepcu /herfli/ 'each one' (<
*her+i+si).
2 This spelling rule appears to have been adopted as a concession to the Yomut component in the
Standard language, as the loss of the connecting vowel is typical only of the northem subdialect of
Yomut, the dialects o f Âısan, Gökleng, Sarık, Alili, Ânew and Karakalpakistan; see EepflHeB 1970:
241-242.
Nouns 113

father, too' is a merged form from MeHHH KanaM xeM /meniıj ka:kam hem/. When
placed after -the third person possessive suffix, this suffix essentially "disiippears,"
making it difficult to recognize the possessive reiationship. The following t:xample
contains four such merged forms (o H yn KeınÖeıu /onurı kesbem/ < OHyn nem 6u xeM
/onurı kesbi hem/, KajıöaM /kalbam/ < (oHyıö Kajıöbi xeM /(onuıj) kalbı hem/, re3eıvı
/göSöm/ < (onyn) re3H xeM /(onurj) gö8ü hem/, Ky3eM /yüSöm/ < (onyn) ti \ 31ı xeM
/(onuıj) yüSü hem/:

AflaMHH lopflbi Hane re3en 6onca, 0Hyn KeıııGeM, K ajifiaM , My3eM, re3eM u ıo m a
3cce rs3ejı 6oJiap. (N ) /A:damııj yu:rdı nâ:ce göSöl bol0o, onur) kesbem, kulbam,
yüSöm, göSöm sonfio e00e göBöl bolya:r./
However beautiful is the country of a person, that’s how beautiful is h e r sotıl and
h e r h e a r t a n d h e r fa c e a n d h e r e y e s.

For paradigms o f nouns vvith plural, possessive and case suffixes, see 570, fi 75-576.
For the use o f the third person possessive suffîx + li/m /+ı/i/ in the possessive
reiationship, see 116-121.
114 Turkmen Reference Grammar

Case
The grammatical category of case expresses the relationships between parts of a
sentence, that is, between the subject, object, predicate, attribute and adverbiai
modifier. English has the vestige of a dative case in the pronominal form 'Whom?' that
indicates 'of who' or 'to who' ('Whom do you vvish to see?')-however, few speakers
actuaily use this form.
In contrast, five cases may be distinguished formally in Turkmen through the
addition of suffixes, while a sixth case (the nominative case) is distinguished by its
lack of a formal marker. Three of these cases (nominative, genitive, accusative) indicate
relationships between components of phrases or sentences, while three (dative, locative,
ablative) specify relationships in space and time between these components.

Nominative Case
The nominative case identifies the subject of the predicate of a sentence, and answers
the questions 'Who?', 'What?' and 'Where?' Turkmen does not add a suffix to the
nominative case. Because both subject and indefinite object lack a formal marker,
sometimes word order, context or other clues must be used to distinguish between the
two in a sentence (see 122).

O nap HMfliuıep. /Olor icdiler./ They drank.


~ Hmptnep. /~ İcdiler./ [subject]

Onap naft HMflMnep. /Olor ca:y icdiler./ They drank tea.


~ HaH MHHHnep. / - Ca:y icdiler./ [indefinite object]

The subject in the nominative case may be understood as either indefinite or definite
depending on the Iexical meaning of a word, the presence of attributes, or the context.
There may be one or more (homogeneous) subjects of a sentence.

Maranap 6 h3MH rera;erM M H 3 axb ipw ! (BG) /C atgalar biSii] g e ije g im iS a :h ın !/


Children are o u r future, after a lil [in d efin ite su b ject]
Anjınap KDpflaMaHtiH ettyHe nıpannep. (BH)
/Aya:llar Yu:rdoma:nıg öyünö girrdiler./
The women entered Yurdaman’s lıome. [definite subject]
E h 3 MaJÎ MMİİ3HM3K n a n a a , m o x n a T , r a p a 3 , n ü rn -n q rn J ie p fle H HYPJn*-OTMeH 3aT
rejiHn öauiJiafltı. (TV16.2) /Bi8 ca:y i£yâ:nca:k palaw, söhla:t, garaS, iygi-
icgilerden dürlü-dümön 8a:t gelip baSladı./
While we were drinking tea, palaw, shöhlat [mutton dish] in a word, ali kinds of
food and drink started coming. [homogeneous subjects]
Nouns 115

When a noun appears as the predicate of a sentence, it also stands in the nominative
case.

3rep 6apcan, uıo Taöfla ranwm.ru ca m u c u MeHHH floranbiMflup. (G)


/Eger baı6ar), so ta:yda gapırmrj Oakcıöı meniıj dogonumdur./
If you get there, the guard at the door there is my brother.

XaKMKaTHaHaM, xeKyMflap caxbt aaaM. (N)


/Hakı:katdanam, hökümda:r 0ahı: ardam./
As a matter of fact, the sovereign is a generous person.

Bh3 6up ap3yBHHJi aftarmıap, msm anaıvuıap. (N)


/Bi6 bir ar5uwcul ardamlar, yaSyarn ardamlar./
We are a people full of fantasies, people who write.

When a speaker addresses another person, the name or proper name of the one
addressed stands in the nominative case.

AHxanbiM, MeH uıy suctiHfla oöaM boa n rra;e K . (G)


/Aryharnun, men su yakırnna orbarmıSa gitjek./
Ayhanım, Fil go to our village very soon.

C h 3 , H3U>K,binap, BaTaH flHeH nyftraHU flepeTMejiM. (N)


/9i8, yaSıjılar, Watan diyen duygırm dörötmölii./
You writers have to create the feeling called Homeland.

HeMen, MeH cöhh Ken Barrnan repMeflHM. (TV7.1)


/Ğemen, men 0eni köp wagtlarp görmödüm./
Chemen, I lıaven’t seen you for a long time.

Proper names may be followed by a noun in the nominative case that fuıther
identifıes the status, occupation or qualities of the person. These "sobriquets" are part of
the proper names and take possessive and case suffixes.

Typ6aH ysbm /Gurbarn-uSırn/ Tali Gurban


tîapbt ara /Carn-arga/Older Brother Chan
Te3en flafea /Gö8öl-day8a/ Aunt Gözel
Hypflbt cepflap /Durdı-Öerdarr/ Leader Durdı
MbipaT Ken /Mırart-kel/ Bald Murat
Perden HaMantHHK /Rejep-na£alnik/ Boss Rejep

Many nouns which form part of noun-plus-verb combinations stand in the


nominative case; for example, the compound agoran /Jogarp/ 'answer' and GepıvteK
116 Turkmen Referenee Grammar

/bermek/ 'to give' = 'to answer', or u ru m /yagıs/ 'rain' and a r a a K /yağmak/ 'to
precipitate' = 'to rain'.

reıiHH arnaK 6aıcun, oBaflaH KennecHHH hsotm cumcmı, OHyn coparnaptma agoran
GepiıapflH. (G) /Gelin asa:k bakıp, owodon kelle9ini nâ:Sli öilkip, onuıj
6o:rogloruno joga:p beryâ:rdi./
The young woman was answering his questions, looking downward and shaking
her pretty head flirtatiously.

By ftbuı nruuı Ken arRbi. (T) /Bu yıl yagıs kop yağdı./
It rained a lot this year.

Genitive Case
The genitive case identifies the possessor of a person, place, thing, action or State, and
answers the questions /Whose?/Of who?', 'What’s?/Of what?' and 'Of where?' When
the possessor is made specific, the possession is definite ('the cigarette’s smoke' or 'the
smoke of the cigarette'). When the possessor is not further identified or specified, the
possession is indefinite ('cigarette smoke' or 'smoke of cigarettes').
Turkmen indicates the genitive case through a construction of two nouns, with the
first noun aeting as the possessor and the second noun as the possessed. The genitive
case suffix +bin/nn /+ıi)/ir)/ is added to the first noun in order to identify the definite
possessor in this "possessive relationship" of the two nouns.
Stated in another way, the possessive relationship has definite and indefinite
variants. The definite variant of the possessive relationship indicates that the possessor
is a known, specific or identified person, place, thing, state or action. Use of the
indefinite variant of the possessive relationship indicates that the possessor belongs to
a class but is not a diserete, specific or identified member of the elass.

Definite Possession
As a general rule, the genitive case suffix is added to the noun which serves as the
possessor in the possessive relationship when that noun is specified, identified or
othervvise deflned. Thus, in tlıe definite variant of the possessive relationship, the first
noun receives the genitive case suffix +bii(/nu /+ıq/irj/ and the second noun the third
person possessive suffix +bi/n /+ı/i/.

Ona MnaçajiMK 6epMetoH, yıcycbmu TyTflypMaaıt flepT-axBaııaT AHHaryn aratı


ru3bin biuiKbifltı. (N ) /Orjo ı:njalık bermeyam, u:ku6unı tutdurmoyam dert-
ahwa:lat A:nnagül a:tlı gı:8ıi] ıskıdı./
The torment vvhich gave him no peace and would not let him sleep vvas his love
for the girl named Annagül.
Nouns 117

flauıapfla 6ouca meMajıtiH ryBBYJiflucH ryüımemm, etıyn upan,vıacbi apTflpfltı.


(G) /Dasarda bol0o sema:lır) giiwwüllii0ü gü:clönüp, öyürj uanma0ı artya-.ıdı./
As the ro ar of the wind rose outside, the vibration of the house was becoming
stronger and stronger.

IIM n e narram .1 flennuran 6acı»iJiaıma, narTaHtnf reopYMH Kimenflsp, xc:vi-fle oji


roBbi epneuıüsp. (TV7.3) /Şeyle pagtanı depgilâ:p baOılanna, pagtamıi) gcwrümü
kicelyâ:r, hem-de ol gowı yerle§ya:r./
When the cotton is stamped down like this, the volüme of the cotton decı cases
and it sits well.

When either the first noun or the second noun in a possessive relaticııship is
preceded by an attribute that makes its meaning more concrete or specifîc, :he first
noun receives the genitive case suffix +u ii J h h /+uj/ii)/.

aran îtnpataıapbi /agac yapraklan/ tree leaves


6y a r a c ı n Hnpaıcnapbi this tree’s leaves
/bu agajıi] yaprakları/
6m3hh 0ÜYMM3KH HHMHaaKbt araagbm the leaves of the tree
Hnpaıcnapbi /bi5ir) öyümüSüi] beside our house
ya:nınna:kı agajıi] yapraklan/
araktın rypaH smpaKJiapbi the dry leaves of the tre s
/agajıq gu:ra:n yapraklan/

MaıuuHnapun pe3MHnepM a ctfıajıtT tın ks epıiH^e ti3 rajifltıpapfltı. (G)


/Ması:nlanıj reBinleri aSfaltıi] ka: yerinne ı:S ga:llırya:rdı./
The wheels of the cars were leaving tracks in some spots of the asphalt.

T o B p y jıaH Gajıurtın bicbi renMspm- (BG) /Gowrulon ba:lıgıq ı:0ı gelyâ:rdi./


There was the s m e ll o f fr ie d fish.

By yrypaa ra p a ıııc b i3 ıopayMi,i3i>ın Te.neKeqHJiepH-fle Ken mim öHnıpun Gıuıa^eK.


(TV 11.4) /Bu ugurdo garasBiS yu:rdumu8ui) telekecileri-de köp i:s bitirip bi ljek./
In this regard, the e n tr e p r e n e u r s o f o u r in d e p e n d e n t c o u n t r y also will bc able
to accomplish many things.

raflbiMbi AMyJi, X33HpKM ni3xepn, ui3xepınme eTMHiu MMJiJieTHn


BeKMJiH aınaHp. (TV12.5) /Gadı:mı Amu:l, hâ:5irki Ca:rjew saheri, sâherinııe
yetmiş milletig weki:li ya:saya:r./
Ancient Amul, the modem city of Charjew-representatives of seven ty
nationalities live in the city.
118 Turkmen Reference Grammar

On epfle TypKMcHiın mhjijih TaramnapM 6onap. (TV3.5)


/Ol yerde türkmönüi] milli: tagamlan bolor./
There vvill be Turkm en national dishes there.

When proper names are the possessor in a possessive reiationship they receive the
genitive case suffix.

Illon xa6ap Aftnajıapbin ettyHe 6aptm eT^M. (G)


/Sol habar A:ynalarıq öyünö barıp yetdi./
That news reached the house of Ayna and her famiiy.

ATantifl3biH nHKHpH Kaöyn KMJitmmı. (TJ)


/Atanıya:8ırj pikiri kabu:l kılmnı./
The opinıon o f A tanıyaz was accepted.

WHxa, tam u BenaHUH orıibi enmıep. O h h eftneıiflupMeım 6onap, rtısnaptı


eroıuep, onapM jjypMyıua MbiKapManu 6onap. (TV16.3)
/inha:, inni Wepa:mi] ogh yetiser. Onu öylönnürmölü bolör, gı:81an yetiser, olort
durmuio çıkarmalı bolor./
Now W epa’s son here will come of age. It vvill be necessary to get him married,
and his daughters will come of age, and it vvill be necessary to marry them off.

Two or more noun phrases may be linked together in a possessive reiationship.


When this occurs, the presence of a third person possessive suffix +m/ h /+ı/i/ followed
by a genitive case suffix + lih/hh /+ır]/it]/ indicates that the noun vvith the possessive
suffix is possessed by a preceding noun.
In the first of the following examples, the presence of + c u /+6ı/ in the noun phrase
TYPKMeH xa/ibicb!Htm /türkmön ha:lı0mır)/ indicates that xajibi /ha:lı/ 'carpet' is
possessed by the indefinite possessor TypKMeH /türkmön/ 'Turkmen'. At the same
time, the presence of + h h h /+nır|/ indicates that the vvhole phrase TypKMeH
x ajıu cb i+ n b in /türkmön ha:lı0ı+nır|/ 'Turkmen carpet' is the definite possessor of
HymeK+H /düsök+ü/ 'background'.

A xaKMKbt TypKMeıı xajjLictiHUU aymera ruattn 6ojiMantı. (TV12.4)


/A hakı:kı türkmön ha:lı0mıi] düsögü gıSıl bolmoh./
But the background of a genuine Turkm en carpet should be red.

3HMeMe KMTa6biH aBTopii H3bi2K;bi lOcyn Xa{ibiaonbin nornaH ryHyHHH 60


tibuınuruııa öartcurnan, KHTan cepnfcif ryparmtı. (N )
/Enceme kita:bırj avvton yaSıjı Yu0up Hayı:dovui] doglon gününü i] 60 yıllığına
bagısla:p, kita:p 0ergi0i gurollı./
In honor of the 60th anniversary of the birthday of the w riter Yusup Hayıdov,
author of several books, a book display was organized.
Nouns 119

3jiiih MaHaflBin apKa itYsyHRe TYpKMeHHCTaHUH rep6n, metfne xeM ranbiMbi


»AtırapjiHKJiepHHHH öııpn epnemaMpıuıeH. (TP2.2) /Elli manadır) arka yü8ünnö
Törlanönü00a:nırj gerbi, şeyle hem gadıırnı yardıgârrliklerinii] birri yerlesdirilen./
On the back face of the 50 manat are placed the seal of Türkmenistan as vvell as
one of its ancıent monuments. ['one of Türkmenistan’s ancient monuments']

İndefinite Possession
As a general rule, the genitive case suffix is not added to the noun which serves as the
possessor in the possessive relationship vvhen that noun is not specified, identified or
othervvise defined. Thus, in the indefinite variant of the possessive relationship, the
first noun stands vvithout a suffix, while the second noun receives the third person
possessive suffix +m/m /+ı/i/.

K ojtxo3 Gauınurbi MbixManbin muoıp flepactnma {tYsMsımHnöiH (G)


/KolhoS baslığı mırhmarnıi) pikir derya:0ınna yüSyârnligini billi./
The collective farm head understood that the guest was lost in his thoughts.
[Tıead of an (unspecified) collective farm']

K ojixo3bih 6amjibirbi khmmmhimh - ATaMtıuiMH. (G)


/KolhoSurj baslığı kimmisin - Atamışın./
They say Ata Somebody is head of the collective farm. ['head of the collective
farm' under discussion]

TyÜHYKfleH HYiııfisH ryHYH mexnecM OHyn flapaiibi KeMHentufle, an ninnime


oJ?Haapflbr. (G) /Tiirnükdön düsyârn giinüi] söhiöSü onug dara:yı köynögünnö, el
irSinne oynoya:rdı./
The ray of sunlight, coming from the smoke hole of the yurt, was playing on her
silk dress and needlevvork. ['work that bands do']

fleBneT enöani'ibi/ıapbi Barnibr-BamiKaa rejıep-reuep aypap. BaTaH Sonca


ranap. (N)
/Döwlöt yorlbascılan wagtlı-wagtmna geler-gecer duror. Watan bol0o garlar./
State leaders will come and go in their time. As for the Homeland, it vvill remain.
['leaders of a State']

Formations of this type are a common way to create lexical items in Turkmen. In
the table (see 120), phrases that express indefinite possession are contrasted vvith their
counterparts that express definite possession.
120 Turkmen Reference Grammar

indefinite and Definite Possession


indefinite Possession Definite Possession

ryn uxexJiecM ryuyn ıııoxnecn


/gün söhlö 0ü/ /günüıj söhlöOii/
sun beam ray of the sun

Tyccecn •dudimhh Tyccecn


/Silim tü80ö0ü/ /cilimii] tü 00ö 0ü/
- cigarette smoke smoke of the cigarette

Hye uajıtı flyüaHHH Mantı


/düyö ca:lı/ /diiyâ:nir) ca:h/
camel's milk the camel's milk

flepa cyBfci flepsiHbin cyBbi


/derya: 0uwı/ /derya:nırj 0uwı/
river water water of the river

MeKflen flifpeKTopbi MeKfleÖHH flHpeKTOpbi


/mekdep direkton/ /mekdebii] direkton/
school director director of the school

n t*;e apbi raajaHHH spbi


/gi:je ya:n/ /gi:jâ:niıj ya:n/
midnight half of the jıight

M ocraa TeaTpnapu MocKBaHbin TeaTpnapu


/Moskwa teatırlan/ /Moskwa:nırj teatırları/
Moscovv theaters the theaters of Moscow

fleMMpra3tiK enn fleMsıpra3birbin eım


/demirga 8ık yeli/ /demirgaSıgıi] yeli/
north wind wind of the north

EBpona fleBJiernepM EBponaHbiH fleBnemepM


/Yevropa döwlötlörü/ /Yevropa:mrj döwlötlörü/
European states states ofEurope
Nouns 121

Some phrases created by indefinite possession may occur only or predomiııantly in


the indefinite construction without the genitive case suffix.

OKyB ÜMJIfcl ra3 ne^çn flHlU flOKTOpH


/okuw yılı/ /ga5 peji/ /di:s dokton/
school year gas stove dentist (= doctor of t>:eth)

THKHH MaiUblHbl Maranap Şartı 06a xoac,ajıtırt[


/tikin ması:nı/ /ca:ga]ar ba:gj/ /o:bo hojolugı/
sewing-machine kindergarten agriculture

Some formations of indefinite possession are perceived as compound vvords; for


example aTar3tı /atagSı/ 'wire-cutter' (< aT + arbi3+tı /at+agı8+ı/ 'horse’s moı ch') and
caq 6 aru / 0acba:gı/ 'hair-band' (< can + 6 ar+bi /0ac+ba:g+ı/ 'hair’s bandı. Such
formations differ from true compounds like asKran /ayakga:p/ 'foot-wear, sîıoes' (<
aHK + r a n /ayak+ga:p/ 'foot vessel') (see 506).

Forms o f the Genitive Case


The forms of the genitive case suffix are + bli(/n n /+ıxj-ur|/ii)-ür)/ after one-syllable
nouns ending in consonants and +hmh/hhh /+mr)-nur)/nig-nür)/ after nouns ending in
vowels. Addition of the variant + h u h / h m h /+mıj-nur)/nir)-nüg/ lengthens the final
vowel of a vvord (see 59).
In the spoken language, the variant +u /+q/ is the preferred form for nouns ending
in a vowel; for example, Kanan r u 3 bi /ka:ka:i) gı:Sı/ 'the father’s daughter', 3 w,an
n»i3bi /ejâ:i) gı:8ı/ 'the mother’s daughter'.
For paradigms of nouns vvith plural, possessive and case suffixes, see 571-576.

Accusative Case
The accusative case identifies the direct object of a sentence, and ansvvers the qıiîstions
‘The who?', 'The what?' and 'The where?' When the direct object is not further
identified or specified, it is an indefinite object (T see birds' or 'I see a bird'). When
the direct object is identified as a specific person, place, thing, State or action, it is a
definite object ('I see the bird' or 'I see the birds').
Turkmen adds the suffix +bi/n /+ı/i/ to a noun in order to ıdentify the ıJefmite
object of a sentence, whereas an indefinite object stands without this suffix.

3pTHp arıuaMflaıı rn*,3 roÜMaıı, orjıaııu 6n3e erop. (O)


/Erti:r agsamdan gi:ja: goyma:n, oglom biSe yetir./
Not later tlıan tomorrow night, bring the boy to us.
122 Türkmen Referenee Grammar

EryMa-6eüjıeKHMe rapaM aH, nyjıtı 3mme T yrn ypflbi-fla: - MeH XöKMaH aflaM
- flHitflH. (N) /Yo:gumo-beylekime garama:n, pulı elime
ÖonapbtH, rep ep c H n !
tutdurdı-da: "Men höfcmarn a:dam bolorun, göröröüıjî" diydi./
Disregarding my "no"s and such, he put the money in my hand and said T ll
definitely become a man, you’ll see!"

Word order or other clues usually distinguish between the subject and indefmite
object of a sentence, both of vvhich stand vvithout a formal marker in Turkmen (see
114). As a rule, the subject stands at the head of a sentence, while the object follovvs it.
When the subject is expressed in the person marker of the verb, then the grammatical or
the lexical meanings of the words identify the object.

Ojıap HtiflHiıep. /Olor iddiler./ They drank.


- M’mmıep. /~ icdiler./ [subject]

Onap 'JaM Hununep. /Olor ca:y icdiler./ They drank tea.


~ Mali HMflHJiep. /~ Ğa:y icdiler./ [indefinite object]

Onap nattbi mfliınep. /Olor ca:yı icdiler./ They drank the tea.
~ H aüu mçiHJiep. /~ Ca:yı icdiler./ [definite object]

Turkmen makes a regular distinetion betvveen a definite and an indefmite object, as


illustrated in the following sets of examples.

E m3 narTanbi öbiraMboaaH con narra Meramflap. (TV7.3) [öbiraMbra <


{ii>ıraHbiMM3] /BiS pagta:nı yıgamıSSan 0or) pagta cekilyâ:r./ [yıgamıS < yıganımıS]
After vve’ve picked the cotton, the cotton is vveighed. [definite: 'the cotton' being
discussed]
OHfla x e p ryHfle n s q e KHnopaK n a rr a Hbiranbe? (TV7.3)
/Onno her günnö na:ce kilora:k pagta yıgya:rjı8?/
Then about how many kilos of c o tto n do you pick each day? [indefinite: the
specific amount picked out of 'cotton as a vvhole']
ÜeHe MeH cemin TeneıjıoH HOMepmvı 6nJieM0K-na. (TV3.3)
/Yö:nö men 8enirj telefon nomerirji bilemo:k-da:./
But I don’t know your telephone number. [definite: specifically 'your telephone
number']
anenMMjıe ııajjorpbi Hovıep antmflttpbm. (T17.5)
/Dü:n jatj edenimde nâ:dogn nomer ahpdınn./
When I called yesterday, I apparently got a vvrong number. [indefmite: 'a vvrong
number' out of ali the possible wrong numbers]
Nouns 123

Illon KapTOMKaHUSM a n u n , «L im a, MeH nbuıaH epfle snuasrn. MeH CH3e


flenonnM. IlbuıaH epuMeM arap ap » mittim Saptarı aUnaUMaıaı. (TV9.4)
/Sol kartocka:i]i5ı alıp, "inha:, men pıla:n yerde ya:saya:n. Men 8iSe degisli. Pıla:n
yerimem a:gırya:r" diyip banp ayda:ymah./
You should take th a t card o f yours (to the doctor) and go and say "Here, I live in
such-and-such a place. I’m supposed to see you. And my such-and-such a place
hurts." [definite: specifically 'that card of yours']

Ohcoh moHfla, rapa3, nm epfle Goncan uıynyn $BiBi>*;aK MepeK KapTOMKa Gepitap,
öepepjjMJiep. (TV13.3) /On9or] sonno, garaS, sâlıerde bol9oq sunuıj ya:lıjak cörök
kartoSka beryâ:r, bererdiler./
And then, in short, if you’re in the city, they give bread ration card s about this
size, they used to give them. [indefinite: 'cards' as a category]

Y3YJKH 3a n u con c e ım e c e n e M , BaptıGııp, eHKH flypıcyHH 6epM e3. OnjjaH ©ıpH


OHfcl 6aııifla Y3Me3nMre ManbnıiMajiM. (N) /ÜSülön 5a:dı 0og 0eple0ei]em, barnbir,
örjkii durkunı bermeS. Onnon ötrü onı basda Ü8mö51iigö çalışmalı./
Even if you attach th e broken-ofî thing later, it won’t produce the former shape.
Because of this, you should try not to break it to begin with. [definite: specifically
'the broken-off thing']

rennanti5K,bi renH M anan 6apaHfla, onyn ycryHUeH 3aT ce«ıifepnep: c y ^ n , ıceıce,


rotııme, OBHyK ınaHtı, otaBaM. (TV15.3) /Gelna:üjı gelni ahp baranna, onuıj
ü00ünnön 8a:t 0ecya:rler: 0ü:jü, kö:kö, pişme, ownuk sayı, oynowa:c./
When those taldng the bride have brought the bride, they strew things över her:
candy, cookies, pastries, coins and toys. [indefinite: 'things']

Cen xaücbi waiibi otmshh x anasın? Tokmh, rapaMH? (TV17.3)


/0en hay9t ca:yı icmârni ha:laya:ıj? Gö:kmü, garamı?/
W hich kind o f tea do you like to drink? Green or black? [definite:'vvhich
(specifıc kind of) tea']

Eh3 Mail jmMohhsk naJiaB, mexnaT, rapa3, Hİtra-ırarunepneH flYP™"flYMeH 3aT


r e n r a 6 aumaflbi. (TV16.2) /Bi5 ca:y icya:ncâ:k palavv, söhla:t, garaS, iygi-
icgilerden dürlü-dümön 8a:t gelip başladı./
While we were drinking tea, palaw, shöhlat [mutton dish, in a word, ali kinds of
food and drink started coming. [indefinite: unspecifîed 'tea']

Xa3Hp ep«n KeırycM 06a xoac;ajn>ırtma xbi3MaT Bflfcp, ceSsÖH cyB 6ap. By cyBbi
TaparyM KaHantı re ıu p te p . (TP12.2) /Hâ:8ir yeril] köpü0ii o:bo hojoluguno
hıSmat edyâ:r, 0eba:bi 0uw ba:r. Bu 0uwı Garagum kanalı getiryâ:r./
Now most of the land serves agriculture, because there is vvater. The Garagum
Canal brings this w ater. [definite: 'this water' just referred to]
124 Turkmen Reference Grammar

MbixMam>m mır cyB ımeHflHp eflHsu. (TV17.3)


/Mı:hma:nu] ci:g 0uw icennir ödyârn./
I tlıink your guest must have drunk some u n treated w ater. [indefinite: not an
identified poıtion of 'untreated water']

If a numeral precedes a noun serving as object of a predicate and the noun stands
without the accusative case suffix + u/n /+ı/i/, then the object is understood as
indefinite.

- 0 3 y M e 6np T33e caraT a n actiM renfiap. (TV5.4)


/'ÖSümö bir ta:Se 0a:gat ala9ım gelyâ:r."/
1 feel like buying myself a new watch."

Xep afi MeH my açaübiMa eTMHin 6am MaHaT ToneöaH. (TV9.3)


/Her a:y men su ja:yıma yetmiş bâ:s manat tölöyâ:n./
Each month I pay seventy-fi ve m anats for this place of mine.

If a numeral precedes a noun serving as object of a predicate and the noun stands
with the accusative case suffix +m/h /+ı/i/, then the object is understood as definite.

OHyn ca3M 6wp aaaMbi rynflYP1511 oTbip, önp aj*aMbi araaflbin o ra p . (BH)
/Onur) 0a:8ı b ir a :d am ı gü llü riip otı:r, b ir a :d am ı a :g la d ıp otı:r./
His music is making one person smile and an o th e r person cry. ['one person' of
a specific audience]

TapbixMHJiapun MaKnaMartına repa, renepan CKOöenes Feıcflene ranacmma oh


fom m yu a^aMU ruptınfltıp flutİHiı naıc sflmıfiap. (TVI3.3)
/Ta:n:hcılanr| caklamağına görâ:, general ökobelev Gö:kdepe gala:0mna on ba:s
müi) a:damı gırıpdır diyip cak edilyâ:r./
According to historians, it is surmised that General Skobelev slauglıtered 15,000
people at the fortress of Gökdepe. ['15,000 people' of Gökdepe’s population]

Nouns that caıry a first, second or third person possessive suffix are definite and
marked vvith the accusative case suffix +bl/n /+ı/i/.

Tapa3, aTacuHbi e ıo ıp e p e 6 ax ajta TarmtıpMaj^aK öojıapflbiM . (N)


/GaraS, ataöını yekirere bahana tapdırmajak bo!ya:rdım./
In short, I was trying not to let him find an excuse to torment his grandfather.

Eh3hh 6aünbiKJiapuMbi3bi e3yMM3fleH copaMaH, anten rMflüapflHJiep. (N)


/BiSirj ba:ylıklanmı8ı ö:8ümü88ön 0o:roma:n, ahp gidyâ:rdiler./
They were taking away o u r riches without asking us.
Nouns 125

Apacca<]biiiı>iK aY3rYHnepnnn M aran tum an eBperM enn. O hcoh ynarıaııcon sjhhhk


öonyn ranap. (BH) /Ara60acılık düSgiinlörünü £a:galıkdan övvrötmöiü. On9oq
ulolon0orj ennik bolup ga:lya:r./
One must teach t h e r u l e s o f c l e a n l i n e s s from childhood. Later, after one j;rows
up, it becomes a habit.

MeueM HeMOflaHbiMbi anfltiM. (BG) /Menem cemoda.-nımı acdım./


I also opened my suitcase.

When preceded by a definite pronoun (6y /bu:/ 'this', 03 /ö:8/ 'own', H3Mi /na:me/
'what', 3XJIH /â:hli/ 'ali', ete.), a noun serving as an object receives the accusative case
suffbc.

9 x j ih r o H iH jıa p ij «ara cypaynep. (G) /Â:hli goyunlorı da:ga öürdülör./


They drove a l i out to the mountains.
o f th e sh e e p

MeH 6y aflaMLi ennep Kerı reaeK repyı^HM. (BH)


/Men bu a:damı öıjlör köp geSek görüpdüm./
I had seen this m a n many times before.
KeteK H3M e w ,o r a n S ep^ernun 6nnMeflM. (BH)
/Keyik nâ.-me jogarp berjegini bilmedi./
Keyik didn’t know w h a t t o a n s w e r . ['what answer he should give']

M ene M y n a fle p e K o n fle B iıe m e p n n 03 n y n y ııt ı n tiK a p M a » ;a K fltırn öapafla


KeımnHaM a T an an 3T.au. (N) /Yo:nö m u g o d ere k ol d ö w lö tlö riiq ö:8 pulum
cık a rm a ja k d ıg ı barrada k ep i:ln a :m a talap e td i./
But instead of this they demanded a guarantee that other states vvould not issue
th e ir ow n m oney.

Forms of ıhe Accusative Case


The accusative case is formed by adding the suffbc +tı/n /+j/i-ü/ to stems ending in a
consonant and + h u / h h /+nı/ni-nü/ to those ending in a vovvel. Addition of this suffix
to nouns ending in a vovvel lengthens that vovvel (see 59).
When the partide xeM/-aın/eM /hem/-am/em/ 'also, too' is added to a vvord ending
in the accusative case suffix, both the suffbc itself and the x /h/ of the partide oıay be
lost.

TejiHHKSH reÖMejM, * ,o p a 6 a M . (TV 13.2) [açopaöaM < açopaöM xeM]


/Geliııkâ:r| geymeli, jora:bam./ [jora:bam < jorarbı hem]
While you’re a bride, you have to wear it, the socks too.

For paradigms of nouns ending in plural, possessive and case suffbces, see 571-576.
126 Turkmen Reference Grammar

Dative Case
The dative case identifies the indirect object of a sentence, and answers the questions
'To whom?', 'To what?' and 'To where?' its most common functions are to express the
goal or purpose of the action described by the main verb, whether the goal or purpose
is a person, place (destination), thing, State of beüıg or another action.
Turkmen indicates the dative case by adding the suffix +a/e /+a/e/ to a noun serving
as the indirect object of a sentence. It may function to express action directed 'to', 'in'
or 'on' a person, place or thing.

MvepjpKH oTyparaapMH öapMHbin carraırtnıa Hnmtnep. (G)


/î£erdâ:ki oturonlorut) ba:rınır) Sağlığına icdiler./
They drank to the health of ali those sitting inside.

AHHarymm T bi3bi;ı Touıyn ryjınyrbnıa niflenmıe Mbin aptiM SonyrmH. (G)


/A:nnagulı:i] G 181I Gosur) gulluguno gidenine yıl ya:run bolupdı./
It had been one and a half years since Annagulı went to serve in the Red Army.
['to the service of the Red Army']
IIIoji Maxan floııyHbt arrome acrbiHX,aK aTbiııan Xomnbt Monna HlUHKfleH rap flH.
(G) /Sol mahal do:num eğnine yaögmjak atman Hoslı mo:llo i:sikden girrdi./
At this moment Hoshh-molla came through the door with his coat draped on his
shoulders.

EHe KennecmiH flccura roıon, TYKeroaccHa ronoıpe nrrflH. (G)


/Yene kelleOini ya00ıga goyup, tiikönükSiiS pikire gitdi./
He put his head on the pillow again and became absorbed in endless thought.

TyHyn r a 3n.n 1 uoryııa xep xhjih açaımapnap xeM epyn 6auraanflbi. (N)
/Günüg gıSgın corguno her hi:li ja:nna:rlar hem ö:rüp basla:pdı./
And every son of living thing had begun to appear in the warm rays of tlıe sun.

ryuycTaH Meım koms 'ibiKHimaM yrpaTflbi. (BG)


/GiilU00a:n meni koca: cıkyatncam ugrotdı./
GUlüstan saw me off to the Street, ['until going out to the Street']

On "Auıra6 aT” MbiXMaıtxaHacbiıifla epneumn, 'iafi Hnencon, uıaxepe resenen^e


'ibiKflbi. (BH)
/Ol "Asgabat" mı:hma:nha:na0mna yerleşip, ca:y icenOoi), sahere geSelenje cıkdı./
After he settled in at the Ashgabat Hotel and drank some tea, he went for a walk in
the city.

When the action is directed toward a person or thing, tlıe typical English equivalent
of the dative case may be 'for'.
Nouns 127

E h3 öaöpaMa TaMspjifcK repyn flepyc. (G) /Bi8 bayrama tayya:rlık görüp yö:rü9./
We’re making preparations for the holiday.
M e n e o n x h m xaH aH , x m KHMe T a u p tm n K a c tın a KeMeıc GepM eifapflH. (O )
/Yö:nö ol hi:5 hacan, hi:c kime tarjrıyalkaOına kömök bermeyâ:rdi./
But he never helped anyone for a "Thank you."
Xep aM MeH my *;aMuMa cm m u 6suı MaHaT TeneüaH. (TV9.3)
/Her a:y men su jaryıma yetmiş ba:s manat tölöya:n./
Each month I pay seventy-five manats for this place of mine.
BenaHMH M am ran a cu H axapa, hthbi mK m u tc rapj(e3c;HHHH aptıctiH M xapax;aT
BflüsHHHp. (TV16.3) /W epa:nıi] m a sg a la ö ı nahara, y a g n ı iy m ite gi:rdeji:nir)
y a :n 0 m ı h araja:t edyârnnir./
Wepa’s wife probably spends half of the income on meals, that is, on food. [or:
'for meals', 'for food']

When the predicate of a sentence is a transitive verb like ajiMaK /almak/ 'to take, to
buy', caTMaK /Satmak/ 'to seli' or others, then the noun in the dative case denotes the
price of the item and the preceding word its value.

Opa3 6y k o c t k >m h KtıpK MaHafla anutı. (T) /Ora:8 bu koötumı kırk manada allı./
Oraz bought this suit for forty manats.

In time expressions, placing the dative case suffîx on the nouns aif /a:y/ 'month',
İİm ji /yıl/ 'year', r y H /gün/ 'day', xenne /hepde/ 'week', caraT /9a:gat/ 'hour' or
MMHyT /minut/ 'minute' indicates the period during vvhich the action will take place.
its English equivalent is 'for (a period of)'.

B y KHTaöH KHTanxaHaflaH 6am ryH e an^tiM . (N)


/Bu kita:bı kita:pha:nadan ba:s günö allım./
I took this book from the library for (a period of) five days.

Turkmen also expresses the goal of an action in the sense of 'in order to do
(something)' by means of the construction (Verb)-Mara/Mare (Verb) /(Verb)-ma:ga/
ma:ge (Verb)/, which consists of the infinitive suffix -Man/MeK /-mak/mek/ plus the
dative case suffix +a/e /+a/e/, whose addition results in the lengthening of the vowel.
A less common but equivalent construction is a verb with the infinitive suffix
-MaK/MeK /-mak/mek/ (without the dative case suffîx) followed by the postposition
YMHH /ücü:n/ '(in order) to' (see 331, 411).

On f ln n e 6 axtiM paK o6a e T M are xoBnyrstpBfci. (BH)


/Ol diqe bahımra:k o:ba: yetma:ge howlugya:rdı./
He was rushing to get to the village even sooner.
128 Turkmen Referenee Grammar

Taptın n>i3binM eüyHe rerapeıı ryuyufleH 6y ana aantıntı 6aünapa xajıtı


flO K aM ara H6epM3HHMp. (G) /Gan:p gıSılı öyiinö getiren gününnön bu yaıja:
ayaıimı barylara ha:lı dokoma:ga i:bermâ:nnir./
Starting from the day the old man brought home the gold, he didn’t send his wife
to the rich people to weave carpets.

In this construction, the verb in the infinitive suffıx may stand with a possessive
suffix followed by a dative case suffıx (for example, -M artiMa, -M a ru fa , - M a r t ı n a
/-magıma, -magııja, -magma/, ete.). The English equivalent of this formation is 'for
(my/your/its, ete.)'.

IHy K a p H ca&ıan ajnvıartına u s M e ceGan ö o j i h h , k m m H T e p r a ö ep flM ? (O)


/Su ka:ri 6ayla:p almagırja nâ:me 0ebâ:p bolh, kim itergi berdi?/
What was the reason you chose this profession, who gave you a push? ['for your
choosing']

3pTMp MepxeMeTJm MHXMaHtni JIe6an BenaaTtına canapa yrpaMartiHa


rapaıııtuıap. (TP12.5)
/Eıti:r merhemetli mx:hma:nıi] Lebap weia:yatına Sapara ugromoguno garasılya:r./
Tomorrow it is expected that the gracious guest vvill set off on a trip to Lebap
province. ['waiting for his setting off']

The dative case most frequently is used to indicate the goal of action expressed by
certain verbs, especially those of motion, action, vision and the like. In addition,
several verbs consisting of a noun and the auxiliary verbs GepMeK /bermek/ 'to give
(to)' and 3TMeK /etmek/ 'to do (to, for)' require the use of the dative case. English
equivalents o f such formations sometimes do not inelude the prepositions 'to/for/in/
at/on'. Common verbs of this type inelude the following:

6aKMaK /bakmak/ to look at AYiUYHMeK /düsünmök/ to understand


6apMaK /barınak/ to go/come to eTMes /yetmek/ to reach, to get to
öejiMeK /böılmök/ to divide into 5f;an 3TMeK /jaq etm ek/ to cali
rapaınMaK /garasmak/ to wait for MÖepMeK /i:bermek/ to send to
renMeK /gelmek/ to come to canMaK /öalmak/ to put in
mpMeK /gi-.rmek/ to go in cepeTMSK /öeretmek/ to look at
nmneK /gitmek/ to go to c tiH 3TMeK /0ı:n etmek/ to keep
an eye on
remıeK /göcmök/ to move to MartıpMaK /c a :g ırm a k / to invite
flonaHMa /dolonmok/ to retum to MtlKMaK /ç ık m a k / to go out (to)
Nouns 129

By xaH 6ojıan Munise 6aK-a. (G) /Bu ham bolon yiğide bak-a:./
Just look at this young man who became khan.
- Cm3 Mapa 6apapcLinti3MLi mUpyml (TV2.1)
/'0İ5 Mara: baıya:r0ırjıSmı diydim?"/
"I said are you going to Marı?"

flHHJieMeK xaKMHfla aöflaHtiMfla xhm ö itp m m Tonapnapa fiojlMeüapuH. (N )


/Dirjlemek hakınna aydanımda hi:c bi:rini toporloro bö:lmöyâ:rin./
When I teli them about listening, I don’t divide any of them into groups.
Mne, utOHyn on Mupafla ıınepsen rapamaputı. (G)
/İne, sonur) ücü:n-nö ol Mıra:da ilerden garasya:rdı./
You see, that’s why he was expecting M ırat from the south.
TyTyıu 06 a 6 onyrı onap t o h rejiflMJiep. (G) /Tutuş o:bo bolup olor toyo gelliler./
They came to the toy as an entire village.
Aaımap lOpflaMaıikin eMyHe rifpftHJiep. (BH)
/Ayarllar Yu:rdoma:nııj öytinö gi:rdiler./
The women entered Yurdaman’s home. ['entered into']
iK.au mu - ceH cupKaB, OKan ömiMepcMH, 6ap florropa tht. (G)
/farjcı, 0en 0 ırkaw, oka:p biLmeröis], bar doktoro git./
Jangchı, you’re sick and you vvon’t be able to study. Go on, go to the doctor.
- XaBa, Ajcflene 3Tpa6tma reqyn renflHK ceGaSn oryjuıaptrM my epfle n a m
3aB0fltmfla HiUJieiisp. (TVİ 1.3) /"Hawa, A:kdepe etra:bma göçüp gellik öebaıbi
ogullorum su yerde pagta Sawodunna i:sleya:r."/
"Yes, we moved to Akdepe district because my sons vvork in the cotton plant
here."
Ym ryH reqce-fle, SuıpeT 06a aonanM aatı. (TJ)
/Ü£ gün gec9e-de, Esret o:ba: dolonmodı./
Although three days have passed, Eshret has not returned to the village.
JHypflbi ApTbirbtH öonmyna nvulYllMeffl1: «On flsuMpsn iıepeH 6 onMaca-fla
ÖMpHflHp?» (G)
/Durdı Artıgıg bolsuno dülünmödü: "Ol da:lirâ:p yörön bolmo8 o-do bkridu '"/
Durdı didn’t understand Artık’s behavior: "I wonder if he’s gone out of hi;;
mind?"
On K6M3HMH «jaTpuraHa eTMn caKJiaHfltı. (BG)
/Ol köcâ:niıj catngına yetip Saklarını./
He reached the intersection of the Street and stopped. ['reaclıing to']
130 Türkmen Reference Grammar

Emce, ceH Tost nrraçeK öojıcan, Mana »çaH 3T, öonapMM? (Tl 5.3)
/Bi:ke, öen toyo gitjek bol0og, marja jarj et, bolya:ımı?/
Bike, if you’re gonna go to the toy, cali me, okay? ['make a cali to me']

Tobh MeKfleöe nfiepceMMHKSM? Cnop-r 6am » rbi3tnuıaHHbipcaMMbncaM?


(Tl 6.4) /Gowı mekdebe i:ber6emmikâ:m? IBport bilen gı5ıklannn8ammıka:m?/
I wonder if I should send him off to a good school? Should I get him interested
in sports?
O hh iuoji caraflHtı e 3yHfle ca-n>ırm>ı apaGacuna canbin, ee 6 aKaH yrpaTflbinap.
(G) /Om sol 0a:gadırj ö:8ünnö Batıgcı araba0ına 0ahp, öyö bakan ugrotdulor./
They put him in the seller’s cart at that same hour and sent him toward home.

İîeHe ÖH3 nrexep aflaMuapuna cepeTceK, oıtna a3ax;tiK yihTeımtK aaT repyn
6nnepnc. (TV13.2)
/Yömö bi8 saher a:damlanna 0ere00ek, onno a:8ajık ü:tgösük 8a:t görüp bileri©./
But if we take a look at city people, then we can see that some things are a little
different.

flypflbiT03en 6 ıuıeH rypneuıwn oTbtpKaM, 6np re3yM 6ımeH flaıu-TOBepere xeM


chh anttapüHM. (TV16.2) /DurdugöSöl bilen gürlösüp otı:rka:m, bir göSüm bilen
das-töwörögö hem 0ı:n edyâ:rdim./
Wlıile sitting there talking with Durdıgözel, I also k ep t one eye on the
suıroundings.

Men ceHH anrbm*;bi ry n nornan ryHyMe MarupMaKMbi. (TV3.4)


/Men 0eni altınjı gün doglon günümö £a:gırmakcı./
I wouid like to invite you to my birthday (party) on Saturday.

X hm xaücbmn3 K6M3 MbiKMaH. (G) /Hic hay0ır)i8 koca: cjkma:i)./


None of you should go outside. ['Don’t any of you go out to the Street'.]

Forms o f the Dative Case


To mark the dative case, the suffix +a/e /+a-o/e-ö/ is added to words ending in
consonants and the variant +ah /+a:/â:/ to words ending in vowels. The long vowel of
the latter variant represents a fusion of the dative case suffıx with the final vowel of the
word (see 56). In borrowed words ending in o /o/ this vovvel is lengthened to /o:/.
When the dative case suffıx is added to a vvord ending in the third person possessive
suffix + m / h l+ı/ü, the variant +Ha/He /+na-no/ne-nö/ is used (see 69).
For paradigms o f nouns with plural, possessive and case suffîxes, see 571-576.
Some postpositions require the use of the dative case on the preceding noun (see 416).
The dative case also appears vvith the past participle to form a time phrase ('since...';
see 502).
Nouns 131

Locative Case
The locative case identifıes the location of a person, place, thing, state or action in time
or space, ancTanswers the questions 'In/on whom?', In/on what?' and 'In/on where?'
Türkmen expresses the locative case by attaching the suffix +ga/fle /+da/de/ to a
noun, pronoun, adjective, numeral, verbal noun or participle serving as the subject,
object or adverb modifier of a sentence. One of its basic functions is to indicate 'where'
the action takes place, for which the English equivalents 'in', 'on' or 'at' are
appropriate.

TyH H iutm rapaHKbi flyııiflH, acMaHfla UbinuM3nap n arp aK a n t t 6onn w . (G )


/Gün yasıp gararjkı düsdü, a8ma:nna yıllıSlar patrak ya:h bollı./
The sun set, it became dark and the stars began twinkling in the sky like popcom.
E Y p ry T ım epm c ntpeH öaflbiHa, rapanıcH fla Bep^ a orçaT c m h 3flifn ÖHJiMeflK. (G)
/Bürgüt ice rirk girren bardına, g a ra g k ıd a Berdâ: oıjot 0ı:n e d ip b ilm ed i./
The moment Bürgüt came into the room, he couldn’t see Berdi well in the
darkness.

Hly ryHJiep 6onca, 3aaoflbin TapbKU H fla yıaı 6up BaKa 6onyn renilsp. (N)
/Su güniör bo!0o, 8awodui) ta:n:hınna ulı bir wa:ka bolup gecyâ:r./
And these days, a great event is taking place in the history of our plant.

M eH onaptiH eifyH ne übirbi-ifbirbiaaH 6onapfli>iM. (N )


/Men oloruıj öyünnö yıgı-yıgıdan bolya.-rdım./
I was at their house frequently.

On “AuıraSaT" M bixM anxanacbm na epneıunn, ^ati Hnencou, ıım epe reseneıraçe


MbiKflbi. (BH)
/Ol "Asgabat" mı:hma:nha:na0mna yerleîip, ca:y icenSorj, sahere geSelenje cıkdı./
After he settled in at the Ashgabat Hotel and drank some tea, he went for a walk in
the city.

I la r r a fturuM BiH oa s n r y t i ^ n xeM MauiHH r y ü x ,u y m m m u p . (TV7.3)


/Pagta yıgımmna el gü:jü hem ması:n gü:jü ulonulyatr./
Both manual labor and machine povver are used in the cotton harvest.

TÖHimcHfle maxepHH enantfei TpaııcnopTbiHaa raraaM aK ymhh TS3e r e n e r n e p


nfpH3H/mn. (TV 11.2)
/TibiliÖide sâheriıj yo:logcı tranOpoıtunno gatnamak ücü:n ta:8e tölöglör gi:ri8illi./
New fees have been introduced for travel on city passenger transport in Tbilisi.
132 Turkmen Reference Grammar

The locacive case suffix +Aa/fle /+da/de/ also is added to nouns or noun phrases to
indicate relationships in time vvhich ansvver the question 'when does the action take
place?' English equivalents are 'in', 'on' and 'at'.

5K,aMaJi HypflbieBHa, sprap florpii caraT Y^fle Mana rapam un. (G)
/İama:l Durdı:yevna, erti:r dogrı 0a:gat ücdö marja garasırj./
Jamal Durdıyevna, wait for me at three o’clock sharp tomonovv.

Onapbm ÖMpM - «Tapa anTMH» MMXMaHxaHactı 2 1 - hjkji OKTHĞpfla aMMüHtı. (N)


/Olorurç bi:ri-"Gata altm " nu:hma:nha:na0ı 21-nji oktyabrda acilli./
One of them-the Black Gold Hotel-was opened on October 21.

OKymap 1993-ks;h ftbuihm, 15-idk;m ceırraöpb iH n a Saııraarap. OıcyBHH M e x n e n ı


2 - 5 afi. (N) /Okuwlor 1993-njü yılııj 15-nji öentyabrınna baslanya:r. Okuvvurj
möhlötü 2-5 a:y./
Classes begin on the 15th of September, 1993. The study period is 2-5 months.

O ji 6a3appap, 5aüpaM'n.uıtiK ryunepMuge HJiaTa xti3MaT 3flep. (N)


/Ol ba:5arlar, bayramcılık günlörünnö i:la:ta hıSmat eder./
It will serve the people on Sundays and holidays.

Illon Mmuıapfla Maranap 6enyMMHe MyflHpjiHK 3TflM. (N)


/Sol yıllarda ca:galar bö:lümiinö mUdü:rliik etdi./
In those years, he was director of the children’s department.

M ap T fla flyp M ym ryp flyjc: M aiıjja o K y B tı ry T a p fltiK . (O )


/Martda durmuş gurduk: mayda okuwı gutorduk./
We got married in March, we graduated in May.

- M eH 19 4 0 -k x;m ü b in u n ceHTflöpb a ü tn iA a , y p m y n e p a n s h l i m n ı m fly p a n


B a rriiH R a apMHH fh t a h m . ( T V 1 1 .3 ) /“M e n 19 4 0 -n jı yılır) 0 entyab r a :yın n a,
urusurj örâ:n yarjı g id ip duron w ag tın n a a ım iy a : gitd im ."/
"I left for the arnıy in September, 1940, just when the war was starting to get
going." ['at a time when the war']

C o B e r fleBpyHAe ra3eTJiepfle aabuiMaflbiK MaKananap H3XMJBfflH? (T l2.5)


/0owet döwrünnö gaSederde yaSılmadık maka:lalar nâ:hilidi?/
What kind of articles were not written in newspapers in the Soviet period?

The locative case suffıx + 3 a/fle /+da/de/ may be attached to the vvords ryH /gün/
'day', x e n jje /bepde/ 'week', a ft /a:y/ 'month' and f it in /yıl/ 'year' to indicate that an
action is performed 'every (day, month, year)', or that the same result is achieved
'each/a (day, month, year)'.
Nouns 133

Atina rencen aaK HepcHH, ryHHe rencen Tasnc. (G)


/A:yda gelOeıj ayak iyerflirj, günnö gelSei) tayak./
If you come every month you’ll be a guest, if you come every day you’U be a
pest. [ I f you come every month, you’ll eat a leg, if you come every day, iı ’ll be a
stick'.]
Cm3 xenaefle Hane ryn ıımneiıanıo? (TV12.3) /Öi5 hepdede nâ:£e gün i:sley ı :j]i5?/
How many days a week do you work?

MeH xeM MaııırajıaMii3fla ynycu SoııanbiM cefisıum, mue nrrMSHKsM, ryH le


etaepM cynypjın, Haxap 6HiiDipHn, eMnaarotre Haxap Taflbmnan raaösH. (TM 6.2)
/Men hem masgala:mıS8a ulu0ı bolonum 0eba:pli, i:se gitmâ:nka:m, günnö öylörü
Süpürüp, nahar bisirip, öylâ:nlige nahar ta:yuıla:p gidyâ:n./
And because I’m the oldest in our family, each day before I go to work, I s weep
the rooms, cook, and start preparing food for the aftemoon.

The suffbc +JiaKbi/flaKH /+da:kı/dâ:ki/, which combines the locative case su::fix and
the relation suffix + kli/ kh /+kı/ki/ (see 540), links two words together, such (hat the
second person or item is located 'in/on/at' the first person or item. The consıraction
may be understood literally as 'X which is in/on/at Y'.

3İİÖ3M KopHflopfla npHMycbuı ycryHflaKM natoeK naKbip-jıaKbip 3flnn raftHaı.ıara


öaıunaflu. (G) /Eyya:m koridorda primu0ui) Ü00iinnâ:ki cârynek lalar-iakır ı:dip
gaynama:ga başladı./
The kettle on top of the primus in the hallway already started to boil with a
hissing sound.
K hto orayM EaiipaM MocKBanbin LL(eıiK}tH aflbiHflaKM Teaıp ynHimmecmue
OKan fiep. (O) /Kici oğlum Bayram Moskwa:mi) Ssepkin a:dmna:kı teatır
uciliseOinne oka:p yö:r./
My youngest son Bayram is snıdying at the Theater Studio named Shchepkin in
Moscow. [literally: 'the one in the name of']
Pecny6jDocaHWn nrıaTtuibin m m ju im cocTaBbinaaKbi e3repHiıuıepM 4-iok;h
Ta6nımaflaH repMeK 6onap. (TV13.1) /Rc6publika:mq i:Ia:tmıi] milli:
0o6towunna:kı öSgörüslörü 4-njü tabii8adan görmök bolor./
One may see the changes in the national composition of the population of th s
republic in Table 4.
Hly ryHKH ryıı MeH eme TypKMeHHcraHjıaKU öhjihm eHereMa öapafla 6npKiı a r ta
ryppyn 3flnn 6ep:x;eK. (TP12.3) /Su:nkı gün men 0i8e Türkmönü80a:nna:kı bilim
0i0tema baırada birici agı8 gürriiıj edip berjek./
Today, I vvill make a brief presentation to you about the educatiönal system in
Türkmenistan.
134 Türkmen Referenee Grammar

TypKMeHHCTaHfla e n - e w ıe p r t r a n a p a opaH auiK a, xaT«a oh flepT-oH 6aux


H u m aptın jjaK a #ypM ym a utacapaH 3iceHnep. (TVI 6.1)
/Türkmönü09a:nna ög-öıjlör gı:51arı örâ:n ya:ska:, hatda: on dö:rt-on bâ:s
ya:slannna:ka: durmuso cıkarya:n ekenler./
In the past in Türkmenistan, they vvould many off girls while very young, even
those vvho vvere fourteen- or fifteen-years old. ['while at the ages of fourteen or
fifteen']

The locative case suffix also occurs as part of a constnıction indicating possession
of an iteni, equivalent to English 'to have'. A common way to express 'to have'
involves adding a possessive suffix to a noun or pronoun in a sentence vvith 6 a p /ba:r/
'there is' or eK /yo:k/ 'there is not' ('A' belovv; see 379, 383). The same formation
vvith a personal pronoun in the locative case can express a general fact of possession or
existenee ('B' belovv) or a sense of immediacy in the sense of possessing something
now or to emphasize possession ('C' belovv). Use of these variant constructions varies
from speaker to speaker.

A B C

IlyjıyM S ap . Menne nyn 6ap. Menfle nyjıyM 6ap.


/Pulum ba:r./ /Menne pul ba:r./ /Menne pulum ba:r./
I have (some) money. I h av e m oney. I have my money.

KHTaöHM 6ap. MeHjje KHTan 6ap. Menne KHTaöbiM Sap.


/Kita.-bım ba:r./ /Menne k ita :p b a:r./ /Menne k ita:b ım ba:r./
I h ave a book. I h a v e a b ook. I h a v e m y b ook.

E r a n e c a n a ö o p n y K 6 o ıu o T a r 6 ap. (BG) /BiSSe 0arja b o :rlu k bos o tog ba:r./


We h a v e a sp are room fo r y o u .

En3fle TypKMeH 3JBin6 MÜnrçqe 38 caH tı x ap n , 36 c a m ı c e c 6 ap. (TV1.1)


/BiSSe türkmön elipbiyiıuıe 38 Banı harp, 36 0anı 0e0 ba:r./
We have 38 letters and 36 sounds in the Turkmen alphabet.

- CoHantın Tenec|)OH HOMepHHH aüfltın öepceHe. MeH^e eK. (TV17.4)


/'0ona:mi) telefon nomerini aydıp beröene. Menne yo:k./
"Would you teli me Sona’s telephone number? I don’t have it."

CH3fle aBToöycnap Barrtmua yrpaapMM? (T9.2)


/9i68e aw tob u 0 1or vvagtınna ugroyarrm ı?/
Do the buses leave on time in your country? ['among you']
Nouns 135

When follovved by the postposition hum /ya:iı/ 'like', a noun with the suffix
+flaKtı/flaKH /+da:kı/da:ki/ indicates a situation 'as that in/on/at X ' or 'like that
in/on/at X'.

florptı, ıueftne Hoöaraap GeMnetcH flYKaHJiapMH xeM KaGMpmme ra6aT renttspjpt,


fieHe «uıeKep» AyKaHbiHRaKU hjim a n tı^ tm a p tm (caTic*;6inapHH xeM )
HepBHcıme flertian noöaTa, MerepeM, 6auıra epfle as raöaT rejuıen 6onca repeıc. (N)
/Dogn, şeyle no:botlor beyleki düka:nlanq hem kâ:birinne gabat gelyâ:rdi, yö:nö
"seker" dükarnınnarkı ya:lı alıjılanrj (0atıjılani] hem) nerviöine degya:n no:boto,
megerem, basga yerde a:8 gabat gelnen bol0o gerek./
True, such lines also have been encountered in some other shops, but probably
lines like those in the "sugar" shops vvhich make buyers nervous (salespersons too)
are being encountered rarely in other places.
Antı-TynaHMH cohm 1991-ıragn ütınnajaı u n u xej»KtntntH ium xaflj>ıcanap SıuıeH
ryTapMara 3XTMMajı. (TV11.2) /A:pı-tupa:nuq 0oqı 1991-nJi yılla.-kı ya:h
hela:k£ilikli ha:dı:0alar bilen gutormogı ahtima:l./
It’s probable that the results of the hurricane will end with dısastrous events like
those in 1991.

Forms o f the Locative Case


To express the locative case, the sufîix +fla/fle /+da-do/de-dö/ is added to words
ending in consonants or vowels, except that the variant +Hfla/Hae /+nna-nno/nne-nnö/
is added to those ending in the third person posssessive suffix + u /n /+ı/i/ (see 69).
For paradigms of nouns with plural, possessive and case suffıxes, see 571-576. The
locative case also may be added to the past participle to form a time phrase ('when...';
see 503).

Ablative Case
The ablative case identifies the source, origin or starting-point of an action, State or
quality, and answers the questions Trom whom?', Trom what?' and Trom where?' its
fimctions have in common the idea of separating or distinguishing two or more
persons, places, things, states or actions.
Turkmen expresses the ablative case by adding the suffix +nan/p(eH /+dan/den/ to a
noun, pronoun, adjective, numeral, verbal noun or participle serving as object or adverb
modifîer of a sentence. its basic function is to indicate the concrete source, place of
origin or starting point 'from' which an idea, action or motion comes.

Ara o ryn jjaH , 3He rtranaH aMptuifltı.(G)


/Ata ogullon, ene gı:88an aynili./
Father was separated from the son, mother from the daughter.
136 Türkmen Reference Grammar

MHe, my r a n tm a n r a p , x j w 3aTflan ropKM a. (G)


/İne, su gapıdan gi:r, hi:c 6a:tdan gorkmo./
Now, go through this door and don’t be afraid of anything. ['fear from anything']

Y r y p c tr a BojıaÜM actm a-#a ceH 03y u x a K re a y n ^ e n suihtahhm m ? (G)


/Ugur6 u8 bola:yma0ın ya:-da 0en ö:Sürj hak göSünnön esitdirçmi?/
Maybe it’s not true, or did you hear it yourself from reliable sources?

Bonca epHHfleH T yp y n , xouınauibin MbiKbin niTflM. (H)


ü ıiK a n
/Yalka:p bolöo yerinnen turup, hoslosup çıkıp gitdi./
Yalkap, however, stood up and went out to welcome them. ['got up from his
place']

ApaccaMWJU.ncflY3ryHJiepnHH qarajıUKflaıı OBpeTMemf. Oncorç yjıanaHCOH sufliiK


6onyn r a n a p . (BH) /Ara00acıhk düSgünlörünü ca:galıkdan öwrötmölü. onBorj
ulolon0oıj ennik bolup ga:lya:r./
One must teach tlıe rules of cleanliness from childhood. Later, after one grows up,
it will be a habit.

ApaflaH yn -flep T flbin re*fflH, oBaflaH o n ıa n fla n x a6 ap eK. (O )


/A:radan üc-dö:rt yıl gecdi, owodon oglonnon habar yo:k./
Three or four years passed in the meantüne, and there was no news from the
handsome young man.

BejıaartınAan Hbucap. HeÖMT^arflMÖMBeM rnonyn


S cacan aM ra 3 -n e 6 n r BaJiKaH
y'ttiH flMÜHJiMsp. (TV8.1) /E0a:0a:nam ga8-nebit Balkan wela:yatınnan cıkya:r.
Nebitda:g diyibem sonurj ücü:n diyilyâ:r./
And gas and oil basically come out of tlıe Balkan province. That’s why they also
cali it Nebitdag ("Oil Mountain").
By x a n t n ıt ı Susun xajibi’ i t ı rbi3JiapbiMbi3 AtviepıiKaHbin 63111 üy 3 Mbumbirbina
S arb im n an , c o b r i t flOKaflbnıap. E y ııy n e3ymne, HeMe, ry p x a n fla H c e 3 n e p a3binn>ı.
(TV12.4) /Bu h a:lı:n ı biSir) h a :lıc ı gı:61arımı8 Amerika:nıi] bâ:s yü 8 y ıllığ ın a
b agıslarp, 0owgot d o k o d u lo r. Bunui] ö:Sün n ö, n em e, Gurha:nnan 0ö81ör yaS ılg ı./
Our c a rp e t-w e a v in g girls w o v e this carp et as a g ift in h o n o r o f the 500-year
a n n iversa ry o f America. On this v e r y on e, umm, w o rd s from th e Koran are
vvritten.

M ıue rHTM3HK3M on ap bi MBMara BarrbiM öonM aap, Miufleıı reneM fleH coh
lOBapbUt. (T16.2) [reneM flen < reneHMMflen] /İ:se gitm â:n kâ:m o lo n y u w m a :g a
vvagtım b o lm o yarr, i:sd en ge le m d e n 0otj y u w y a :n n ./ [ge le m d e n < gelen im d en ]
I don’t have time to wash tlıem before I go to work, I wash them after I come fr o m
work.
Nouns 137

By xajıtuıapLiMM3 6w3fle eımeH Gap», acbipnap 6apjt flOKantm remin, 6 m3 hh 6y


3HenepHMH3fleH, MaManapLiMbi3flaH ranaH ÖH3e 6mp 3Ji-xyn3pM 6onap. (TV10.2)
/Bu ha:Manmı5 biSSe örjdön bâ:ri, a6ırlar bâ:ri dokolup gelip, biSirj bu
enelerimiSSen, ma:malanmıSSan ga:lan biSe bir el-bünâ:ri bolyarr./
These carpets of ours have been woven among us since olden times, for centuries,
and have been left to us as a handicraft by our mothers and grandmothers. ['left to
us from our mothers and grandmothers']

In their primary meanings, certain of the verbs in the examples cited abovı: requiıe
the use of the ablative case.

agupMaK/ayırmak/to separate (from) copaMaK / 6o:romok/ to ask (from)


reJiMeK /gelmek/ to come (from) TypMaK /turm ok/ to get up (from)
ropKMaK/gorkmok/to be afraid (of) mbikmsk /çık m ak / to com e out
(from)

One of the functions of the ablative case is to indicate that a person or thing
'originates from' or 'stems from' a certain people, place or thing.

EejiKH, CH3 an ım MHcaHJiapflaHctmiB. (G) /Belki, 0i8 yagsı m0a:nlardanthr)iS./


Maybe you’re from good people.

CM3e MsjııiMflMp, 6h3mh TypKMeH 6eÜMK maxtıpbiMLi3 6onaH Mam.iMryıxı.[


reıcnen TnpecHHHeH öonaıı. (TV4.2) /0i6e mâ:limdir, biSirj tiirkmön beyik
sa:hı:nmı8 bolon Magtımgulı gö:klöıj ti:reöinnen bolon./
You might know that Magtımgulı, our great Turkmen poet, was from the Gökleng
tribe.

A noun ending in the ablative case suffix +Ran/Ren /+dan/den/ may be \mcerstood
as the cause of a condition or action.

- Aü Mene, mnacH aflajıapMu, H3Me-MM? (G)


/'Ay yö:nö, i:sden ya:dalya:rmı, nâ:me-mi?7
"Oh, maybe he’s tired from work or something."
03eM 'JbtM-rM3Lin, yTaHx;MHflaH ahiim TyTyntnmbip. (N)
/Ö:8öm cım-gıSıl, utonjunnon dili tutulupdur./
And she was beet-red and apparently couldn’t speak because of her shame.

The ablative case suffix +flaH/jjeH /+dan/den/ is added to a noun to indicate that the
item or person it designates is made out of or consists of some material or qualiıy. The
word biöapaT /ıba:rat/ 'consists of' also may be placed after a noun ending in the
ablative case suffix.
138 Türkmen Reference Grammar

FaScactı nuıaütmaii. His shutters are made o f tin.


/Gab0a9ı gala:yıdan,/
Ceproınt flapaJh>maH. His door curtain is made of biue silk.
/Serpigi dara:yıdan./
A t ra stım KYMyu^eH. His horse stake is made of silver.
/At gaSıgı kümüsdön/
En a3Hrii ıriİMHiufleH. (G) His road provision consists of fruit.
/Yol a:5ıgı iymisden./
Hecwn 6onca, Kspxana Hine 6aumarçna flyHÜs cTarçuapTbiHa raöaT renösH rronaTnan
ra n tı Be neiDKjıpe SnoKnaptiHH TaüapjıaMaK’iH. (N)
/Ne9i:p bolöo, ka:rha:na i:se baslanna dünya: ı89andartına gabat gelya:n polotdon
gapı we penjire bloklorum tayya:rlamakcı./
God willing, when the enterprise starts to work, it intends to produce Steel door
and vvindovv units which will accord with world standards. ['doors and windows
made from Steel']

Xs3H p rajjaHMH flMBaptnn.1 flHKenflifeH 6pHrananaptm 4-CHHHeH 3 -chhhh


MUiMKnepH epjra rypnymtiKMtmapfltı. (N) /Ha:5ir ga la:m q d i:w a :n m d ik e ld y a :n
b rig a d a la n ıj, 4-9ün n ön 3-0Unüxj i:sc ile ri y e rli gu rlu su k cu lord ı./
Now, the workers of 3 o u t o f 4 of the brigades who are restoring the walls of the
fortress are local builders.

E h3 ıa ü ırqfl3OT3K nanaB, mexnaT, rapa3, HHrH-HMrHflepaeH flYP™-flYMeH 3aT


renun 6anmafltı. (TV16.2) /BiS ca:y icya:nca:k palaw, söhlatt, garaS, iygi-
icgilerden dürlii-dümön 5a:t gelip başladı./
While vve were drinking tea, palaw, shöhlat [mutton dish], in a word, ali kinds of
food and drink started coming.

TypKMeHHCTaHtm TeppsiTopHHCbiHtın eTMinıı nponeırm usrenmcneH, hthm


TaparyM MennyrMuaen tıG apar. (TV8.5) /Türkmönü98a:nııj tenitoriya9ınıi]
yetmiş pro8enti ca:gelikden, yagm Garagum cölliigünnön ıba:rat./
Seventy percent of Turkmenistan’s territory consists of sand, that is, of the
Garagum desert.

Illy ryHKM oöa ctracaTMHtm ayftn Ma3Mym>ı flaiixaHtın, MapBaHttn anHHfleıı anHaH
3aTnapw, 3pkhhjihthhh raitraptm 6 epMeKf(en u6apaT. (TV11.5)
/Su:nkı o:bo 0ıya:9atınıq dü:p ma 8mu:nı dayharnıg, carwa:nır) elinnen alnan
8a:tlan, erkinliğini gaytanp bermekden ıba:rat./
The fundamental concept of today’s agricultural policy consists o f giving back the
things taken from the hands of the farmer and the livestock-breeder and their
freedom.
Nouns 139

The ablative case in the meaning 'than' also is used to form comparative
expressions. The item compared to is placed in the ablative case (see 147).

By KetİHEK ıny KeüııeKfleH oh MaHaT rtiMMaT.


/Bu köynök su köynökdön o:n manat gımmat./
this shirt that shirt-than ten manat expensive
This shirt costs 10 manats more than that shirt.

©3H afltnmaH xeM y n u .


/Ö:8ü ardm nan hem u h ./
self-his name-his-than even big
His person is even greater than his name.

C m e TennefleH-ae rtiMMaT aa m a p tı SepflMM. (G)


/0i5e teıjrjeden-de gımmat 8a:tlan berdim./
I gave you things even more valuable than money.
HYKaHjjaH KapTOtnca ÖoıoHMa 11.400-nen K e n p s K aflaM aatnc ajrap. (N)
/Diika:nnan kartofika boyunco 11,400-Sön köprâ:k a:dam a:8ık alya:r./
More than 11,400 people get food with ration cards at the store.

İtene, flHKbi n»B minen xac yÜTTeııiHK, asçecH 6nnen (N)


/Yö:nö, yaıjkı gı:8 illen ha:0 ü:tgösiik, eje0i bilen gidipdir./
But that girl is quite different than the others, it seems she left with her
mother.
- Konxo3biMfci3fla yn Myıınen roBparaçMK xo:x;anHrbiMi>i3 6ap. (TP12.2)
/"KolhoBumuSSo üc mütjdön gowra:gjık lıojoiugumuS ba:r."/
"We have a bit better than 3,000 farms on our collective farm."

In forming fractions and decimal numerals, the numerator stands in the nominative
case and the denominator in the ablative case (see 163).

jjepTflen yH /dörrtdön üc/ three-fourths


four-from three = three (parts) from (the vvhole number) four

OHflan 6sıu /omnon bâ:5/ point five (0.5)


ten-fromfive = fıve (tenths) fitim (one and ten) tenths
140 Turkmen Referenee Grammar

OKOHHaTenBHO, ıuyHM K en e öonaH fla m y rfie-T o yq$eH 6 n p n sjh >


i 6 on a p .
K m e n e p . (TV10.2)
/Okoncatelno, sum keçe bolonno su gde-to üedön bi:ri ya:lı bolor. Kiceler./
In the end, when it becomes felt, it vvill be around one-third (in size). It vvill
shrink. [Russian oKOHuaTenfcHO 'fmally, in the end', rfle-T o 'around']

The ablative case expresses the degree or limit of an action or motion. Often, the
noun ending with this suffbc is preceded by a numeral.

Typ öaH r a n Ke^a flyuıyn, TorcaH KMJiOMeTpnen cyp fliı. (G)


/Gurba:n gi:rj köcâ: düşüp, tog0on kilometirden 0ürdü./
Gurban, fin d in g h im s e lf in a w id e Street, d ro v e at n in e ty k ilo m ete rs.

Another funetion of the ablative case occurs when buying or selling amounts or
individual items of goods that are sold in bulk or numbers. When asking 'how much' a
given item costs, the seller figures the cost per kilo or other unit, so that the
approximate English equivalent would be 'each' or 'per (kilo)'.

- A, my narraHLin khjiocei Hsvte, xs3itp narra 6axacw? - Eaxacii mkh MaHaTnaıı


(TV7.3) /"A, su pagta:mr) kilo8ı na:ce, hâ:5ir pagta bahaöı?" "Baha0ı
T e n s n OTBip.
iki manatdan töla:p otı:r."/
"And how much is a kilo of this cotton, the price of cotton now?" "They’re paying
the price of two manats per kilo."

I H e itn e 3 T ceı\, o 3 a n , ceırraöpt a ü fla m k h M aH aT»aH 6ep3s,eK flHMflMHep r a ı n o c t r a a .


M u m OKTflöpt aflfla y i M anaTflaH 6 e p x ;e K m ü n n o r u p n a p . (TV7.2)
/Şeyle e00er), o5ol, ©entyabr a:yda iki manatdan berjek diydiler kiloOuno. İnni
oktyabr a:yda üc manatdan berjek diyip otı:rlar./
So, before, in September, they said they would pay tvvo manats for each kilo.
Now, in October, they’re saying they’ll pay three manats per kilo.

When it is used in a time construction with the word ene-^e /yene-de/ 'and more',
the ablative case suffbc +flaH/fleH /+dan/den/ denotes 'in another (space of time)'.

E H e-a e 6np aüjjaH 6 h 3m»( rapamcti3ntımMH3 m k h s ıu a a p . (N )


/Yene-de bir a:ydan bi5ir| Garas0ı81ıgımı5 iki ya:saya:r./
In another month, our independence will be two-years old.

To express the starting- and ending-points of an action ('from X to Y') Türkmen


adds the ablative case suffbc to the first noun of the construction and the dative case
suffbc to the second noun.
Nouns 141

ApTHK AÜHaHH 6oünan-6ama cinuıan MbiKaHflan con, ene 6npa3 flypaçarüHbi,


artiHBi cyp^eniHM Shjimsh, hkm apa#a cepre^eH raımM. (G)
/Artık A:ynam boydon-basa 0ı:nla:p cıkannan 0og, yene bira:5 durjogum, .ıtını
öürjögünü bilmâ:n, iki a:rada 0erge8Sa:n ga:llı./
After examining Ayna from head to foot, Artık remained in doubt, not knowing
whether to ride off on his horse or to stay for a while. ['from body to head ]

CoBeT KocMoııaBTJiapbiHbm. flaöapacbi artonaH-araa, MJifleH-HJie, lopTAaıı-ıopfla


eTflH. (G)
/0owet ko0monowtlorunurj dabaraOı agı58an-ag6a, ilien-ile, yu:rtdon-yu:rdo yetdi./
The triumph of the Soviet cosmonauts passed from mouth to mouth, from people
to people, from country to country.

The combination of certain verbs vvith nouns ending in the ablative case have
meanings that cannot be predicted from the meanings of their components. Such
combinations are similar to English verbs like 'to put up with', 'to get down un', and
so on. For example, the Turkmen equivalent to English 'to hug him around tlıe neck'
is OHyrç öoiİHynaaH ry}K,aKjiaMaK /onurj boynunnon gujoklomok/ 'to hug from his
neck', and its equivalent to English 'to enter through the door' is ranuflaıı i'hpmck
/gapıdan gi:rmek/ 'to enlet from the door'. The meanings of such combinations are
provided in dicdonaries.

Forms o f the Ablative Case


To mark the ablative case, the suffix +nan/jteu /+dan-don/den-dön/ is added to words
ending in consonants or vovvels, except that the variant +HnaH/ıınen /t n n an -
nııon/nnen-nnön/ is added to those ending in the third person posssessive sufiix +ulu
/+ı/i/ (see 69).
For paradigms of nouns vvith plural, possessive and case suffixes, see f '71-576.
Some postpositions require the use of the ablative case on the preceding noun (see
421). Tlıe ablative case also appears v/ith the past participle to form a time, phrase
('after...'; see 425, 503).
ADJECTİVES

Adjectives form a paıt of speech that expresses attributes or qualities of persons, places
and things. They may indicate color, shape, size, feel, taste and other features;
relationships in space or time; the presence or absence of some quality; emotional and
physiological states; and many other features that answer questions like 'What kind
of?' m i c h ? ' /What?' and 'How?'
In Turkmen, adjectives behave very much as they do in English. Generally, an
adjective functions as an attribute which is placed before the noun it qualifies.

r a p a M a n a n ı /g a ra m a s ı:n / re 3 e n m ra /göSöl c a :g a /
b la c k c a r b e a u t if u l c h ild
K e n r e c a n / k e lte 0 a c / c y f ta y t an M a /6 ü :jü a lm a /
sh o rt h a ir s w e e t a p p le
aM aflaM /a :c a :d a m / T 33e 3 n H n 6 w ii /ta:Se e lip b iy /
hungıy p e r s o n n e w a lp h a b e t
y sa K » p T /u 8 o k y u :r t / y 3aK r y H /u S o k g ü n /
d is ta n t c o u n tr y lo n g d a y
lOM nıaK MepeK / y u m s o k c ö r ö k / r a n O T ar /g i:r j o to g /
s o f i b re a d s p a c io u s ro o m

As in English, an adjective or adjectives may modify the noun expressing the


subject or the object of a sentence.

©UKH anqaK, reımeMceıc KaıcaarçaH flsn sjihhm. (N)


/Öykü alçak, geplemOek Ka:kaja:n dâ:l ya:lıdı./
He didn’t seem like the old sociable, talkatıve Kakajan.

On a ru p r-yımep retim ntTflH. (O) /Ol ağır günlör geçip gitdi./


Those difficult days did pass.
LlHxa, MenMH rapııiMMfla opTa Gottntı, rapare3ejıeK ü h th t oTiip. (N)
/inha:, menir) garsımda orto boylı, garagöSölök yiğit otı:r./
Here in front of me sits a black-eyed young man of medium heîght.

0 nflYpw n»;eK 6eH3HH tuiMbi 3cacnanaı>ıpManapa re p a , 3KonorwKH Taiiflan x;yna


ap acca , aıuaitbmı yıiHH 3tt«ucw3 6 onap. (N)
/Ö:nniirüljök benSin ilmi e0a:01anmrmalara göra:, ekologiki ta:ydan juda: ara00a,
ya:sayıs ü£ü:n 8ıya:n0ı8 bolor./
According to scientiffc tests, the gasoline that will be produced will be very clean
ecologically and will not be harmful for the living.
144 Turkmen Referenee Grammar

Onyn AMepHKa 6y canapbi T a p u x u canapfltıp. (N)


/Onur) Amerika: bu 0apan ta:n:hı Sapardır./
This trip of his to America is a historic trip.

An adjective also may serve as the predicate of a sentence ( O H y n c a H b i K e jr r e


/Onurj ©acı kelte/ H is hair is short'), or as an adverb ( O j i n p p s K reJiflM /Ol irrâ:k
gelli/ 'She came sooner'), but very rarely as a subject or object.

XoBntmttn ınm rapanKbi. (G) /Howh:mıj ici gararjkı./


I t ’s d a rk inside of the courtyard.

TapnaBan yuypcu3 OBaflaH aT 6 onyn eTHiıiflM. Ö3eM ynyrtra kmmmh onaT


runbiKjjMAbi. (N)
/Garlawa:c ucur0u5 owodon at bolup yetisdi. Ö:8öm ulugı:8 kimi:n oqot gdtklıdı./
Garlavach grew up as an extremely beautiful horse. She also was weli-behaved
like a grown girl.
By ryH xoB a canKUH. (BG) /Bu:n howa: 0alkm./
The weather is cool today.

When Turkmen adjectives serve as attributes, they do not take suffixes of number,
person or case. When they fiınction as subjects or objects of a sentence, they may take
these suffixes.

floKyn aıjflaH xa6apbf eK. (G) /Dokui) a:edan haban yo:k./


The full know nothing of hunger.

rbi3UJiJiap aıuıapbi ennMnep. (G) /GıSıllar a:klan yerjdiler./


The reds beat the whites.
Adjectives 145

Types of Adjectives
Türkmen a d je c tiv e s m a y be sim p le a d je c tiv e s ( flo r p u /d ogn / 'tru e '), a d jectives d erived
fro m n o u n s, v e r b s and o th e r a d je c tiv e s th ro u gh d e r iv a tio n a l s u ff ix e s ( ö y jıy T J it ı
/b u lu tlı/ 'c lo u d y ' < öyjıyT /b u lu t/ 'c lo u d ') , or c o m b in e d words (K w T iır e 3 J iM
/yitigöS lii/ 'v ig ila n t ' < ü h t h /yiti/ 'sh a r p ' + re a .iH /göSlü/ 'e y e d ') .

Simple Adjectives
Turkmen has a wide range of one- or two-syllable adjectives, along w:ıh those
borrowed from Persian and Arabic, that may be called simple adjectives. They
designate colors ( a n /a:k/ 'white', r a p a /gara/ 'black'), densities (ıOMiuaK /yumsok/
'soft', ra T b i /gatı/ Tıard'), tastes (avK,u /a:jı/ 'bitter', cyft}K,n /6ü:jü/ 'sweet'), physical
characteristics ( K e p /kö:r/ 'blind', a r c a K /agSak/ 'lame'), location in spacc ( y a a n
/u6ok/ 'far', h k u h /yakı:n/ 'near'), character (M eıcu p /mekir/ 'clever', c a x ı,; /0ahı:/
'generous'), ete.

Derived Adjectives
In addition to simple vvords vvithout suffixes, Turkmen adjectives may be cre:.ıed vvith
derivational suffixes. Some of the most common of these suffixes are thosı: vvhich
indicate the presence of a quality (+ Jitı/nn /+lı/li/), the absence of a quality (+ı:bi3/cn3
/+0ı8/8i5/), the reiationship of a quality ( + k m /k h /+kı/ki/), the result of an action
(- l ik /h k /-ık/ik/) or the quality of an action (-a p /ep ) (see 538-544).

ryÜH /gü:c/ strength rYÖHJiM /gü:clii/ stron g


cyB /0uw/ vvater cyB cy3 /0uw0u8/ a n d
en /öi)/ front part eHKM /örjkü/ p rev io u s, past
aHMaK /açmak/ to open anbiK /acık/ op en , clear
rynMeK /gülmök/ to laugh ry n e p / g ü lö r / la u g h in g

Combined Adjectives
Turkmen adjectives also may be formed through combinations of vvords, eitheı of two
adjectives vvith or vvithout adjectival suffixes, or of compound adjectives and other
parts of speech.

KyMYiıı chmjih aÜHeK /kümiiS 0i:mli â:ynek/ silver-rimmed glasses


yuH-KHMii aflaMnap /ulı-kiöi a:damlar/ people big and small
e3MrTbfflpnH asm /ö:8ıgtıya:rh aya:l/ independent vvoman

Some nouns and compounds also behave like adjectives because they c itribute
qualities to other nouns that they precede.
146 Turkmen Referenee Grammar

Bam übmjikiK raıaıt /ba:5 yıllık pılan/ fıve-year plan


m kh raT / i k i g a t ja :y / tw o -s to ry b u ild in g
3MTÖ3 aflaM /a:£gö8 a:dam/ greedy person (Tıungry-eyed person")

Tıırkmen has a construction (borrowed İroni Persian) that places an adjective after a
noun ending in the third person possessive suffbc +m/h /+ı/i/. For example, when
serving as an adjective, the phrase caqw Kejrre /0acı kelte/ in cam>ı Kejrre aajı /Sacı
kelte aya:l/ 'short-haired woman' may be interpreted as '(woman) whose hair is short' =
'short-haired'. English equivalents like 'short-haired', 'long-tailed', lıigh-handed', ete.,
often may be found for this construction.

caMM K ejrre asın /öacı k e lte aya :l/ short-haired w om a n


('w o m a n w h o se h a iris sh o rt')
3JIH ryÖMJDi aflaM /eli g ü :c lü atdam/ stron g-h an d ed m an
('m an w h o s e hands are strö n g')
aarfci yJibi o n ıa H /ay a ğı u lı go lo n / b o y w id ı b ig fe e t
( 'b o y vvhose fe e t are b ig ')

Besides such formations, Turkmen also may create adjectives through the process of
partial reduplication of the form of an adjective (an-aK /ap-a:k/ 'snow white'; see 150,
510).
Adjectives 147

Comparative Degree
The comparative degree of adjectives is used to compare two persons or things and to
indicate the one vvhich possesses the greatest amount of a compared quality or attribute.
Türkmen forms the comparative degree in three ways: one vvith a suffix that expresses
the possession of more of the quality of an adjective; a second by vvord order that
indicates the possession of more of the quality of an adjective than the compared item;
and the third through a combination of the fîrst two vvhich expresses the possession of
more of the quality of an adjective and more of that quality than the compared item.
Adding the suffix + p a n : / p 3 K /+ra:k/ra:k/ to an adjective or adverb forms a
comparative adjective possessing 'a little' or 'somevvhat' more of the quality expressed
by the adjective.

cyii»;H /0ü:jü/ svveet cyft^ypaK /0ü:jürâ:k/ a little svveeter


yntt /ulı/ big, old yjibtpaıc /ulıra;k/ a little bigger, older
Ken /köp/ much KenpsK /köpra:k/ a little more
rtiMMaT /gımmat/ expensive rfctMMaflpaıc /gımmadrark/ a litde more expensive

Use of an adjective with the suffix + p a n / p a K /+ra:k/râ:k/ by itself implies


comparison, although the compared item need not be stated.

I a p n t ,i 3 cyibî;n, raByH c y iİJK y p aK . (T)


/GarpıS 8ü:jü, ga:wun eü:jürâ:k./
Watermelon is svveet, but melon is svveeter.
Mene «HflH 6y HcnenHMJra M a jrrp a K Me3yn3flMece, Meran TaıcaflHM eTeHOKflbi.
(H) /Yö:nö inni bu İ01egimi8 caltra:k cö5üla:yme0e, menit) ta:kadım yetenorkdı./
But if this wish of ours is not fulfılled a little more quickly, my patience is just
going to run out. ['isn’t going to be sufficient']
A3paK JurrapaK flHÖMecen, OKyBbiıihi tobu OKaap. (TV4.4)
/A:8ra:k yaltara;k diymeOeg, okuvvum govvı okoya:r./
He might be a little bit too lazy, but he studies vvell.

A second comparative formation consists of the item of comparison follovved by the


compared item vvith the ablative case suffix +flan/floıı /+dan/den/, follovved by an
adjective vvithout tlıe suffix +paK/paK /+ra;k/râ:k/.

On flHBaH rantmaıı ran. On Meıifleıı yntı.


/Ol diwan gapıdan gi:ıj./ /Ol mennen ulı./
that couch door-ıhan wide he I-ıhan big
That couch is wider dian the door. He is older than me.
148 Turkmen Referenee Grammar

This structure stresses the fact that the item of comparison possesses more of the
quality of the adjective than the compared item.

TaByH rapntoaaH cyüjk,». (T) /Ga:wun garpıSSan 9ü:jü./


Melon is s w e e t e r th a n watemıelon. [~ Melon is more sweet than watermelon.]

Cıee Tenneflen-fle rbiMMaT 3aTJiapbi öepflHM. (G)


/0iSe ter|i)eden-de gımmat Sa:tlan berdim./
I gave you things even m o r e v a lu a b le t h a n money.

A third formation combines features of the previous two foımations. In this


construction, the item of comparison is followed by the compared item with the
ablative case suffix + gan /fleH /+dan/den/ and then by the adjective with the
comparative suffîx + paıc/p3K /+ra:k/râ:k/.

Oji MenfleH y3HH. On Mennen y3tmpaK.


/Ol mennen u5ı:n./ /Ol mennen u8ı:nra:k./
he l-than tali he l-than tall-er
He is taller than me. He is (a little) taller than me.

Ysym anMaflan riiMMaT. Y3yM anMaflaH mMMaflpaK.


/ÜSüm almadan gımmat./ /Ü8üm almadan gımmadra:k./
grapes apple-than expensive grapes apple-than expensive-a little
Grapes are more expensive Grapes are (a little) more expensive
than apples. than apples.

This formation stresses the fact that the item of comparison itself possesses 'a
little', 'rather' or 'somewhat' more of the quality of the adjective in addition to
possessing more of that quality than the compared item.

TaByn rapntBflaH CYİİJKyp3K.(T) /Ga:wun garpıSSan 9ii:jiirâ:k./


Melon is (a little) sweeter than watermelon.

MtırnaK 6oimh ep Typ6an arantın eönepHHflen 6«p a3a»;wK a<ıtırpaKfli,ı. (G)


/Yıgnak bolya:n yer Gurba:n a:ga:nır) öylörünnön bir a:8ajık acıgrarkdı./
The place vvhere the meeting was taking place was a little bit more open than
Gurban-aga’s home.
Adjectives 149

Superlative Degree

The superlative degree is used for comparison betvveen more than two persons cır things
in order to identify the one vvhich possesses the greatest amount of the compared
quality. The most common way to form the superlative degree in Turkmen consists of
placing the vvord hu /ir)/ 'most' before an adjective that usually precedes a noun

By Aıura6axna un 6eibuc
/Bu Asgabatda ir) beyik ja:y./
this Ashgabat-in most tali building
This is the tallest building in Ashgabat.

As a rule, the best English equivalent to this construction is the suffij; '-est',
although an expression like 'most X ' sometimes is appropriate.

By - my tumhh hmiihh3KH hh ynw (G) /Bu: - su ta:mır) icinna:ki iq v.U ja:y./


This is the largest room in this house.
Gtifle un khmhm TYJiYCTaH JfsaH rajiflLi. (BG)
/Öydö it) kicim Giilü00a:n ja:n ga:llı./
My littlest one, dear Giilüstan, stayed at home.

MepKe3HH mh repH YK m ı epnepHHfle epneınflsH ÖMpHsue K3pxaHaJiapbin flaııibiHM


MepMep flanibi ÖHJieH 6e3eHapHC. (N) /MerkeSirj ir) gö rn liklü yerlerin n e yerl£-..iyâ:n
b im â :c e kâ:rh a:n alarııj d asu ıı m erm e r d a:sı bilen be5eya:ri8./
We are decorating vvith marble the exteriors of several enterprises located in ıhe
most prominent places of the Çenter.

The modal vvord xac /ha:6/ 'most' often indicates that an adjective or ndverb,
especially one ending in the comparative suffix +pan/p3K /+ra:k/râ:k/, possesses the
superlative degree of a quality.

xac onaapaK /lıa:0 oıjodra-.k/ most excei!ent, finest


xax OBaflaHpaK /ha:8 owodonra:k1 most beautiful, loveliest

This formation is equivalent to English 'the most X' or to the 'most' in an


expression like 'most interesting' or 'most delightful'.

Xac nrabK epH-fle, rnon Saiıntırtm xeMMecn Opa36M6nHHH Mauırajıacbma


flermunH. (G)
/Ha:0 gı5ık yeri-de, sol ba:ylıgır) hemmeöi Ora:8bi:bi:nir) masgalaSına degiiili./
The most interesting thing is that ali that vvealth belongs to Orazbibi’s fam; ly.
150 Turkmen Reference Grammar

OHyn 6apMarı.iHfla xac oeaaaHpaK üy3YK Sapflbi. (T)


/Onur) barmagınna ha:9 owodonra:k yü8ük ba:rdı,/
She had the most beautiful ring on her finger.

Several adverbs may be used to indicate the superlative degree or various heightened
degrees of a quality. These include especially mman /i/jıjârn/ 'really, very', but also
o p a n /örâ:n/ 'very' and raTbi /gatı/ 'extremely, quite'.

nnH3M öeftmc x;aM /iggârn beyik/ a really tali building


epsn kmmh mt /örârn kici it/ a very small dog
raTbi inme 6nn /gatı imce bi:l/ an extremely thin waist

Another way to express an intensified quality of an adjective is through the lexica!


device of partial reduplication (see 510). In this process, the first syllable of an
adjective is partially duplicated, and the resulting syllable is placed before the
adjective.

aK / a : k / vvhite an-aK /a p - a :k / snow-white


capw /0a:n/ yellow can-capbl /0ap-6a:n/ bright yellow
florpbi /dogrı/ correct noc-florptı /do0-dogn/ absolutely correct

Sometimes an adjective may be fully reduplicated and placed before a noun to stress
the heightened degree of a quality. Many such nouns may be understood as coliectives
equivalent to English plurals.

cY ^H -cyS^n mMmht /Öü:jü-6ü:jü iymit/sweet, sweet food (extremely sweet)


6eöKK-6eÖHK *;aîf /beyik-beyik ja:y/ tali, tali buildings (extremely tali)
ym ı-ynu flaın /uh-uh dars/ big, big rocks (extremely big)

Eepan ara 6onca ouyu sniiaH Manbuibi-Maıibuibi ryppYHnepHne anK-TanK Bonyn


ranflbi. (G).
/Berdi a:ga bol0o onuıj edyârn marmlı-marmlı gümirçlörünö aıjk-tarjk bolup ga:llı./
As for Berdi-aga, he was stili amazed by the extremely profound conversations
he’d had. ['meaningful-meaningfur]
- Ey apTCKMHH OKaMaflbiK a 3iıınTMeflMK TYpKMeH a 3 -a 3 n u p . (N)
/'Bu ertekini okomoduk ya: esilmedik türkmön a:5-a:S8ır.7
"There are extremely few Türkmen who have not either read or heard this fairy
tale," ['few-few']
GMjraHfleH c o n r e r y n M y sy u e T o n 6 a K -T o n 6 a K aK 6 y n y r n a p renflH. (BG)
/Ö y lâ :n n e n ö o q g ö rg ü r j y ü S ü n ö to p b o k - t o p b o k a rk b u lu tlo r g e lli./
In the aftemoon, big bunches of white clouds covered the face of the sky.
['bunch-bunch']
QUANTIFIERS

The term "quantifiers" refers to numerals, pronouns and other vvords that function to
determine the quantity, whether definite or indefinite, of a person, place or thing.

Numerals
The Turkmen numeral system consists of Cardinal (6Hp /bir/ '1', hkh /iki/ '2', ete.)
and ordinal (fiupıiH^H /birinji/ 'first', h k h h ^ h /ikinji/ 'second', ete.) numerals, as
well as forms for expressing collectives (hkmmh3 /ikimiS/ 'two of us', ete.),
distributions (ıiKHReH /ikiden/ 'in tvvos', ete.) and approximations (Garnnep /bârsler/
'about five', ete.), its means of counting numbers is the same as that of English
(fturptiMH 6wp /yigrimi bi:r/ '20 and 1' = '21', ete.).

Cardinal Numerals
Cardinal numbers identify vvhether a noun, pronoun or adjective refer to one or more
units. They are the primary (or "cardinal") units of a number system.
Turkmen has a zero-based number system vvith distinet vvords for the primary
numerals (1-9), units of ten (10-90) and units for multiples of ten (100, 1,000,
1, 000 ,000).

1 6 ııp /bir/ 10 oh /o:n/


2 hkm /iki/ 20 üıırpHMH /yigrimi/
3 YM/ü£/ 30 OTy3 /otu 8/
4 flepT /dö:rt/ 40 KBipK /kırk/
5 6 sııl /bâ:s/ 50 3jniH /elli/
6 a n r a /altı/ 60 anTHtnıı /altm ış/
7 eflH /yedi/ 70 eTMHîiı /yetmiş/
8 ceKH3 /6eki8/ 80 eerceH /0eg0en/
9 flOKy3 /dokuS/ 90 ToreaH /togdon/

The vvords M y3 'h u n d r e d ', M y n 'th o u s a n d ', m h jijih o h 'm illio n ', M M n jiM a p n
'billion' and TpH JiJiH O H 'tr illio n ' also serve as C ard in al n u m e ra ls. Counting in th e
hun d red s o r thousan d s req u ires plaeing a simple unit b e fo re üy3 or MYH-
The construction for counting units ('one, two', ete.) betvveen tens ('ten, tvventy',
ete.) consists of a decade number follovved by a primary number. Generally, numbers
betvveen tens are pronounced as one vvord. The numeral oh /o:n/ in the combinations
for '11-19' is pronounced vvithout long vovvel as /on/, vvhereas the numeral 6np /bir/ in
the combinations '11, 21, 31', ete. is pronounced vvith long vovvel as /bi:r/.
152 Turkmen Reference Granunar

11 oh 6ııp /on bi:r/ 21 ÜHrpMMH 6wp /yigrimi bi:r/


12 oh mkm /on iki/ 22 Bmiphmm mkm /yigrimi iki/
13 oh yH /on üc/ 33 0Ty3 y i /otug ü£/
14 oh flepT /on dö:rt/ 44 KtıpK flepT /kırk dö:rt/
15 oh 63iii /on ba:s/ 55 3iınM 6sm /elli bâ:s/
16 oh anTbi /on altı/ 66 anTMum a n r a /altmış altı/
17 oh eflH /on yedi/ 77 eTMMiu eflH /yetmiş yedi/
18 oh ceKH3 /on 0ekiö/ 88 cerceH ceKH3 /0eg6en 0eki6/
o 19 oh floKy3 /on dokuS / 99 TorcaH floxy3 /togSon dokuS/

Unlike in English, Turkmen has distinct vvords for the tens from 20 to 50 that are
not based on the simple units.

two HKM/İkİ/ twen-ty flıırpHMM /yigrimi/


three YM/üc/ thir- ty OTy3 /otuS/
four flepT /dö:rt/ for- ty KJbipK /kırk/
five 6sm /bâ:s/ fif -ty 3HJIM/elü/

Hovvever, one may detect common elements betvveen the units 6-9 and the tens 60-
90 in both Turkmen and English.

six ajiT-M /alt-»/ six-ty anT-Miim /alt-m ıs/


seven efl-M /yed-i/ seven-ty er-Miım /yet-mis/
eight ceKM3 /0eki6/ eight-y cerc-eH /0eg0-en/
nine flOKy3 /doku 8/ nine- ty Torc-aH /togö-an/

As quantifiers, the Cardinal numerals for the primary units serve to count the
number or specific quantity o f things or persons. They may take possessive and case
suffixes, Unlike in English, nouns preceded by numbers do not take the plural suffbc.

Ory3-KbipK rc K T a p TeBepeıc epe my üfcin ryÜMiYK öyrflafi 3KMenı


njıaımamflbipun o n ıp u c . (TVİ 1.4)
/Otu5-kırk gektar tövvörök yere su yıl gü:51ük bugdoy ekmeği pılanlasdınp otı:n0./
This year we’re planning to plant Autumn vvheat on about th irty o r forty hectares
of the land.
Quantifiers 153

TaflHMH AMyn, xa3HpKH tfepjçeB ni3xepH, ıımepHHfle ctmmiii MMJiJieTMn


BerauiM auıaap. (TV12.5) /Gadı:mı Amu:l, hâ:5irki Câ:rjew sâheri, saherkne
yetmiş milletirj weki:li ya:saya:r./
Ancient Amul, modem Chârjew, representatives of seventy nationalities ve in
the city.

TapuxHunapHn MaKiıaMartiHa repo, reHepan CKOöeneB TeK^ene raııactıı ma o h


6a m myu aflaMU m ptıım bip ahümh to k Bfliuıtop. (TV13.3)
/Ta:rı:hcılanı] caklamagına görâ:, general Skobelev Gö:kdepe gala:0ınna on ba:s
mürj a:damı gırıpdır diyip cak edilyâ:r./
According to historians, it’s surmised that General Skobelev slaughtered 15 ,000
p e o p le at the foıtress of Gokdepe.

The Cardinal numbers are used in expressions for telling amounts of moııey (see
559), weights (see 559), ages, dates, time (see 555), and number of m inme; hours,
days and years.

ü leitne 3Tcen, 03an, ceırra6pb aöfla hkm ManaTflaH 6ep^eK flHÖflMJiep Kjı. joctuıa.
Mhhh ojcra6pb aiifla yn ManaTflan 6ep»;eK fliıömı OTbipnap. (TV7.2)
/Şeyle e00eıj, oSol, öentyabr a:yda iki manatdan berjek diydiler kilo0uno. İnni
oktyabr aryda il£ manatdan berjek diyip otı:rlar./
So, before, in September, they said they would pay tw o m a n a t s per one kilo.
Now, in October, they’re saying they’U pay th r e e m a n a ts (per kilo).
Xep ait MeH my ;*;afciM a eTMiıuı 6anı ManaT Teııeüsn. (TV9.3)
/Her a:y men su ja:yıma yetmiş bats manat tölöyâ:n./
Each month I pay s e v e n ty - fiv e m a n a ts for this place of mine.

Hem*;efle, sıpan 6oıoıma aftfla ceKH3 mhiijihoh Manana 6apa6ap xaptır


flOJiaHUHibirbi SflHJiöap. (TV11.4) /Netiyede, etra:p boyunco a:yda 0eki5 million
manada barabar han:t dolonusugı edilyâ:r./
As a result, each month throughout the district there is a circulation of goocls
equivalent to e ig lıt m illio n m a n a ts .

AS, 6wp cerceH Toııııa, TorcaH Tomıa narra renttap 6ııp ryıifle. (TV7.3)
/Ay, bir öegöen tonno, togöon tonno pagta gelyâtr bir günnö./
Oh, some e ig h t y to n s, n in e ty to n s of cotton come each day.

Ouyu raımajibuma 5 au ı-ajiT bi auııibi orJiaHx;tiK öjtneH ÜÇeMan 6np aamap öapafla
xe3«n 3flnn rypjıeuröspflHnep. (TV16.2) /Onurj gapdaluına bâ:s-altı ya:slı oglonjuk
bilen Iema:l bir 5a:tlar ba:rada heSil edip gürlösyâ-.rdiler./
Next to her the fiv e - o r s ix - y e a r o ld boy and Jemal were having fun talking about
some things.
154 Türkmen Referenee Grammar

OrnaHH xeM oh nepT-oH a j r r u am napuım a etfneHflnpnnflnp:nep. (TV16.1)


/Oglonı hem on dö:rt-on altı ya:slannna öylönnüriipdürlör,/
But they married off boys, too, at ih e a g e o f fo u r t e e n to s ix te e n .
flH Ue ÖH3HH M e ffm m ıa H H c n n y n m b m s oKyBJiap aJiTU ft u jı flOBaM
(TP12.3) /Diıje biSirj mediöina İn0titutumu88o okuwlor altı yıl dowa:m edyatr./
Only in our medical institute do studies continue for six years.
n a rra nyH KTa anrycTHH ttıırpHMH ceKHSHHneH f o p ıı re m in n y p . (TV7.3)
/Pagta punkta awgu0tui] yigrimi ÖekiSinnen bâ:ri gelip duar./
Cotton has been coming to the point since August 28th.
KaıcaM ypıua rurm , Men KaxaM. KttpK smıtrHfla. ©3w 6ııp myh HOKya ttys
YHyHJKM ÜLiüfla 6onan. (TV13.3) /Ka:kam urso gitdi, meıj karkam. Kırk yarsınna.
Ö:5ü bir mürj doku8 yii8 ücünjjü yılla bolon./
My father went to war, my father. At the age of forty. He was bom in 1903.
B su iH H ayı r y n e , c a r a T ö a u ıe MeH K on n epTe Bnner ajifltîM. (TV3.3)
/Barsinji günö, 0a:gat bâ:se men kon0erte bilet allım./
I got tickets for a concert on Friday at 5 o’clock.
A B T o ö y c m y epfleH o h CııpneH o h MHHyT H Uinaııne y r p a a p . (TV3.2)
/Awtobu0 su yerden on bi:rden o:n minut i:sla:nne ugroya:r./
The bus leaves here at 10 minutes past 10.
JÎMÜMeK, o h ceKH3 c a ra T -fla ? (TV2.3) /Diymek, on 0ekiS 0a:gat-da:?/
That means it [the tıain] just takes eighteen hours?
X opM aTJitı flM n n eö*;nn ep, c a ra T ceKM3Hen floKy3 MHHyT HinjıenH. (TA2.3)
/H orm oth d ig le y jile r, 0 a:gat 0eki88en dokuS m in u t irsledi./
Dear listeners, the time is 7:09.

Each unit of a telephone number is said separately; for example, 13-33-41 is said oh
yM 0Ty3 y n K u p K 6w p /on üc otuS üc kırk bi:r/. A price consisting of manats and
tengges may be said in two different ways; for example, 30.50 MaHaT /30.50 manat/
may be said o T y 3 M aHaT 3Jinn T e lin e /otuS manat elli teıjtje/ or OTy3 nyıib 3Ju ih
(MaHaT) /otu8 nul elli (manat)/.

The Numeral 6up /bir/


The Turkmen numeral Cwp /bir/ '1' has several usages. As a numeral, it specifıes 'one'
person, unit or instance.

- Bnp e3repıını 6auıra onnap»ıa e s re p m u flepeflHap - ahİîhii, rynflorapbnc cepeTflH.


(G) /"Bir öSgöriis basga o:nlorco öSgöriis dörödya:r" diyip, günnogonrk 0eretdi./
He looked to the east and said "One change creates a dozen other changes."
Quantifıers 155

A n n a My3 aflaM tııj rero tu e tmaHapMM, 6w p ajıaM bin renıiH e? (N )


/Alla: yiiS a.'damıi) gepine ınanarmı, bir a:damıq gepine?/
Will God believe the word of a hundred people or the vvord of one person?

This numeral also may act as a noun referrring to 'one' as a person or thing,
especially in the phrases 6wpM fbv.n/ 'one of (something)' and 6Mpn-6npn /bi:ri-bi:ri/
'one another'.

Ojiûm 3cacw ra3 hmkhh epneprot 6ııpn 6onyn raıiflbi xa3np. Mre moHyn yhhh
ra305K,aK flMüBapnep. (TV8.1) /Olom e0a:0ı ga8 cıkyatn yerlerir) bi:ri bolup ga:ilı
hâ:Sir. îne sonug ücürn GaSorjok diyyâ.-rler,/
Now it’s also götten to be one of the basic places for producing gas. And that’s
why they cali it Gazojak ("Gas Hearth").

Enpn-6npHM H3H rspM3HMMH3e S u p T o n a p B a rr 6 ojihh . (TV7.5)


/Bi:ri-bi:rimi8i görmâ:nimi8e bir topor wagt bollı./
It’s been quite a while since we’ve seen one another.

Mkh caHM apKeK aflaM 6Hpıı-6MpnHG carıaM SepeHfle, huibikhto sımyjıa


«CajjaBMaueMKHMİ» s-fla «SccanaBManeÖKHM!» flHİİMn {tyanenilsp. (TA15.1)
/İki 0a:m erkek a:dam bi:ri-bi:rine 0ala:m berenne, ya:5ıkici ya:sula:
"0alawma:leykijn!" ya:-da "E00alawma:leykim!" diyip yiiSlönyâ:r./
When two men greet one another, the younger one addresses the older with
"Salawmaleykim!" or "Essalawmaleykim!"

In an extended meaning of 'one', the numeral Sup /bir/ is equivalent to 'same' in


the sense of '(they are) one' = 'same'.

BenaHtın, M3xpKX,eMzntm Be KejraçsHHH rHTMejm yıypnaptı ÖHpflM. (G)


/Wepa:nıi), Mâhrijema:lıi] we Keljâ:nir) gitmeli ugurlon birdi./
Vepa, Mâhrijemal and Kelje were to go in the same direction. ['their directions
were the same']

O h KbUiflaH 6spn 6np xojıonn.m>HnrHMH3 6ap. (Tl 7.2)


/O:n yıllan bâ:ri bir holodilnigimiS ba:r./
We’ve had the sam e refrigerator for ten years,

The numeral 6wp /bir/ also may be placed before successive nouns in the meaning
'one X and another X '. The phrase ene 6np /yene bir/ 'another' literally means 'one
more'.

OıryH ca3bi 6np anaMbi rynflYP^n o n ıp , 6wp ajjaMbi arnaflbnı OTiip. (BH)
/Onut) 0a:8i bir ardamı güllürüp otı:r, bir a:damı a:gladıp otı:r./
His music makes one person smile and another person cry.
156 Turkmen Reference Grammar

Enp rem in HaH an tın flyp, 6wp rti3 xeM ohm acan, öepnn on>ıp. (N)
/Bir gelin nam yapıp du:r, bir gı:8 hem om ya0ap, dürtüp berip otı:r./
One young vvoman is placing bread [on the walls of a tamdır-oven], and
another girl is making the bread and handing it to her.

- Xanflypfli>ı, m c h cana e H e 6 n p c o p a r SepjK.eK. (TV12.4)


/Ha:nnurdı, men 0ai)a yene bir 8o:rog berjek./
Handurdı, I want to ask you another question. [or: 'one more question']

Turkmen does not have an indefinite article 'a/an'. Although Sup /bir/ may be
translated by the English indefinite article 'a/an' in some contexts, it does not fiınction
as an indefinite article in Turkmen. Rather, it may be understood as a numeral 'one' in
nearly every case; as an example, the phrase 6 w p T o n a p Barr /bir topor wagt/ 'a while'
literally means 'one accumulation of time'. A similar interpretation also applies to the
following cases.

lOpflaMaH S o n c a y jıy flaH 6np aeM aüflfci-fla, c o p a r u H b i ra Ö T a jıa M a flu . (BH)


/Yu:rdama:n bolflo uİudon bir dem aliı-da, 0o:rogum gaytalamadı./
Yurdaman took a deep breath and did not repeat his question. ['one deep breath']

anmursM io fleByıCHH. Ycca Gııp xenne rapaumtiM, rejiMeflH. (T17.2)


/Âpisgâ:mi8 dövvükdü. U00a: bir hepde garaşdun, gelmedi./
Our window was broken. I waited for the repairman for a week, he didn’t come.
['one week']

However, the numeral 6wp /bir/ may designate an indefinite number in the sense of
'some'. This meaning also occurs in indefinite expressions treated below (see 173).

AH, ÖHp c e r c e n TOHHa, T o r c a H TOHHa n a r T a renüsp 6np ryHfle. (TV7.3)


/Ay, bir 0eg0en tonno, togOon tonno pagta gelyâ:r bir günnö./
Oh, some eighty tons, ninety tons of cotton come each day.

Hly flepManxanajıapfla ennep-o K o n flepMaH öapflaM Beım, uıy Barr 6 n p a e p .\ıa n


eTMe3MHimreM ö o n a p . (TV9.4) [öapflaM < 6apflu xeM]
/Su denna;nha:nalarda öi)lör-a: köp denna:n ba:rdam weli, su wagt bir derma:n
yetmeSciligem bolya:r./ [ba;rdam < ba:rdı hem]
Whereas at least before, there were a lot of medicines in these drugstores, these
days there’s a shortage of some medicines.
Quantifiers 157

Ordinal Numerals
Ordinal numerals assign an order, rank or position within a series to counted persons,
things or dates. They are equivalent to English 'first', 'second', and so on.
Turkmen forms ordinal numerals by adding the suffix + u h İK,u / hh ^ h /+ınjı-
unjı/inji-ünjü/ to Cardinal numerals.

Cardinal Ordinal

ÖHp /bir/ one 6upnn3K,n /birinji/ first


mkh /iki/ tvvo HKHiayi /ikinji/ second
yu /üc/ three YMYH*;H /üciinjfü/ third
»epT /dö:ıt / four aapaYHX,H /dö:ıdünjü/ fo\mh
6aıu /bâ:s/ five öauiHHJfÇH /baısinji/ fifth
anTtı /altı/ six aJiTtiH^bi /altınjı/ sixth
eflw /yedi/ seven eflHJC^H /yedinji/ seventh
ceKH3 /öekiS/ eight ceKH3HHJK?f /0eki8inji/ eighth
flOKy3 /doku8/ nine flOKy3MH*;H /dokuSunjı/ ninth
oh lo-.nl ten 0Hynaç,M /o:nunjı/ tenth
JİHipMMH /yigrim i/ tw e n ty ^HipHMHiOKiH /yigriminji/ tvventieth
0Ty3 /otuS/ th irty 0Ty3tnr*;u /ornSunJı/ thirtieth
KtıpK /kırk/ fo rty K tıpK M K *,u /kırkmjı/ fortieth
3JIJIM /elli/ fift y 3Jlhhh3«;h /ellinji/ fiftieth
anTMLiuı / a ltm ış / s ix ty anTMtıuıuHatiLi /altmısmjı/ sixtieth
eTMHiıı /yetm iş/ se v e n ty eTMHiıiHHjsiH /yetmisinji/ seventieth
c e r c e ıı /Begâen/ e ig h ty cercenHHJKjı /0eg0eninji/ eightieth
T o rca n /tog0on/ n in e ty TorcaHLiiDK;u /togöonunjı/ nintieth
ÜY3 /yiiS/ hundred flYsyıı*;» /yüSünjü/ hundredth
my u /mürj/ thousand myhyhx;h /mügiinjii/ thousandth

Ordinal numerals may be printed as Arabic numerals separated by a lıyphen wıth the
spelling variants +iijk,ij/h2KH /+ınjı-unjı/inji-iinjü/ in its appropriate form according
to whetlıer the numeral has back or front vovvels. The variant + h * ,u /+mjı/ is
pronounced /+unjı/ with the numeral '10' and the variant +ıurçn /+inji/ is pronoanced
/+ünjii/ with the numerals '3', '4', '100' and '1,000'.

+H2C.H /+ m jı/ + iuk;h /+ unjı/ + id *;k /+ in ji/ + 1DK.H /+iinjii/

6, 9, 10 1. 2, 5, 7, 8, 3, 4.
30, 40, 60, 90 20, 50, 70, 80 100, 1,000
158 Türkmen Reference Grammar

One of the main functions of ordinal numerals is to designate building numbers,


school grades and ranks-and positions.

Mene on xa3np no6ar«a 1-hw;h 6onyn san-fle, IO-hj^ m Sonyrr nyp. (N)
/Yö:nö ol hâ:Sir no:botdo 1-nji bolup dâ:l-le, 10-njı bolup du:r./
But now he’s not İst in line, he’s lOth.
E ü 3 on Barrnap 8 -h » ;h Knac^a oKastpfltnc. (O)
/Bi8 ol wagtlar 8-nji kxla00a okoya:rdık./
We were in the 8th grade then.
MeH Amra6afltnı M arruM rynH KeHecnHHH iiurpuMH jjepHYHjrçH j^aifemfla
sruıasîpbiH. (TV1.4)
/Men Asgabadırj Magtımgulı köcöOünüg yigrimi dörrdünjü ja:ymna ya:saya:nn./
1 live in Ashgabat, building Twenty-four of Magtunguh Street.
OrnyM Mapbifla M yrajınH M 6onyn KiııneMap, ÖammiiHH opTa Metmenfle. (TV2.1)
/Oğlum Manda mugollum bolup i:sleyâ:r, ba:sinji orto mekdepd e./
My son vvorks as a teacher in Man, in school (Number) Five.
PecnyönMKaHLin MjjaTbutbm mioitoi cacraBbmmKht e3repnnmepM 4-mnn
TaÖJiHitaflaH repMeK 6onap.(TVI3.1) /Re0publika:mg i:la:tmır) milli:
0o0towunna:kı öSgörüslörü 4-njjü tabli0adan görmök bolor./
One may see the changes in the national composition of the population of the
republic in Table 4.

The ordinal numerals İst through 6th are used to designate Monday through
Saturday (see 556), while ordinal numerals İst through 3İst are used to designate the
days of the month. In addition, the ordinal suffix is added to the final numeral of a
year.

OKyBJiap 1993-hx;m ü b u ih h 15-n jrçn ceHTaöpttHHa öaumaHap. OKyBttH M e x n e n t


2 - 5 afi. (N) /Okuwlor 1993-njü yüııj 15-nji Bentyabrmna baslanya:r. Okuwuıj
möhlötü 2-5 a:y./
Ciasses begin on the 15th of September, 1993. The study period is 2-5 months.
MeH ceHH auTbiH^tı ryH flo m a H ryuyMe MartıpMaK^bt. (TV3.4)
/Men 0eni altmjı gün doglon günümö £a:gırmak£ı./
I wou!d like to invite you to my birthday party on Saturday.
A n tt-ıy n a H tm corçtı 1991-hw,h übiJTflaKH strtM xen 3K w n H K n H xafl6tcanap G ıoıen
r y r a p M a r a 3XTHMan. ( T V 1 1 .2 ) /A :pı-tup a:n uq 0oi]i 1 9 9 1 -n ji y ılla :k ı y a :lı
h e lâ :k c ilik li h a:d ı:0 alar b ile n g u to rm o g ı ahtim a:l./
It’s probable that the results of the hurricane wil] end with disastrous events like
those in 1991.
Quantifieıs 159

Collective Numerals
Collective numerals designate a certain number or amount of persons or items from a
whole. These persons or items act as a unit or collective.
In Türkmen, the most common way to form collective numerals is by adding a
possessive suffîx to a Cardinal numeral. The collective numeral h k h ch /ifciöi/ 'the two
(of them)' is equivalent to English 'both'.

Hkhchhhh xeM flysH mbm n a u n 6ojwh. (G)


/lldöinii] hem yüSü crnı gıSıl bollı./
Both their faces tumed bright red. ['their two faces']
3 p T n p Y *iY W 3'He oKyna renenH 3fle r a n .1 t s m j o 6 o n y n re m in . (G)
/Erti:r üciij)ü8-8ö okuwo gelerjiSSe gatı tâ:mi:8 bolup gelir)./
And when the three of you come to school tomorrovv, come very clean.
BH3HH HKHMH3eM MyrannMM. IİKHMH3eM snu Hecne 6humm öepttapMC. (O)
/BiSirj iki:miSem mugollum. Ikimi8em ya:s neöle bilim beryâ:ri9./
Both of us are teachers. Both of us also impart knowledge to the young
generation. ['the two of us']
BİHXa, repftsHMH: h k h c h a ilp u . (TV10.2) /inha:, göryâ:rjm i: ikiB i a yn ./
Here, do you see: both are different. ['the two are different']

A parallel co n stru ctio n m a y b e fo rm e d by co m b in in g a C ardin al numeral vvith the


gerund Gonytı /bolup/ 'being'.

OHRa y*« 6onyn ranepnc. (G) /Onno iic bolup gideriö./


Then the three of us will go. ['we will go as three']

However, numerals with the third person possessive suffix that are in possessive
relationship with a preceding noun do not have a collective meaning.

IIIoji ra*;aHHH aprapH oktsi6phh ÜHrpHMHCMflM. (G)


/Sol gi:ja:nir) erti:ri oktyabni] yigrimiöidi./
The next day was the twentieth of October. ['moming of that night' = 'next day']

Distribution Numerals
Distribution numerals are used when the members of a group are treated individually or
in sets. In English, a group of twenty people may perform some action 'by fıves' or 'in
fives', or the like.
Turkmen forms distributive numerals in several ways. A common means of
indicating the distribution of persons or things in sets is by adding the ablative case
suffix +flan/neH /+dan/den/ to a Cardinal number.
160 Türkmen Reference Grammar

Eh3 xep CTojma ıiKHfleH oTypflMK, (G)


/BiS her u00ollo ikiden oturduk./
We sat in pairs at each table. ['in twos']

SceHamı KeHfliıpfleH xajrran rbipacbiHbi opTa cumam, GauifteH-öomften nyn


canaapfltı. (G)
/E0ena:lı kennirden haltarıj gıraöım orta: Silkip, bâ:§den-bâ:sden pul 0a:naya:rdı./
Esenalı shook out the money from the mouth of the hemp bag into the çenter and
began to count it by fîves.

The distribution of individuals of a group or of steps in a series may be expressed


by repetition of the vvords eK e /yeke/ 'single (one)' or 6 n p /bir/ 'one'.

TepiteH ryHYM 6 n p -6 n p cana aüflafiiiH. (G)


/Göryâ:n günüm bir-bir 9ai)a aydayın./
I shall teli you about my life step by step, ['one by one']

On eHe raımajıttUKaKtuıapa flyüflypMaH, rentfaH n.i3irapbi ene-cKe reayımen


reMMpflH. (G) /Ol yene gapdahnna:kılara duydurmam, gelyâ:n gı:81an yeke-yeke
göSünnön geçirdi./
Again, without letting those standing next to him be avvare of it, o n e by o n e he
examined the girls coming by.

The words M KHÖııp /ikibi:r/ 'in twos, in pairs' and y H Ö n p /ü2bi:r/ 'in threes'
combine the meanings of collective action and distribution. They are compounds of the
Cardinal numerals m kh /iki/ 'two' and y n /üc/ 'three' vvith 6 « p /bi:r/ 'one', which is
pronounced vvith a long vowel in these combinations.

AflaMJiapun CTaHHiısma sünsK-öeUnsK HKiıönp ftepeumepH 5K,yMaryjı flara ran>t


TacHp 3flHn, ts c h h 6onyn repyıröap. (G) /A:damlani) x0tan9iyada eyla:k-beylâ:k
ikibi:r yöröllörü Juma:gül dağa: gatı tâ:0i:r edip, tâ:0i:n bolup görünya:r./
The pacing back and fonh in pairs of the people in the station greatly affects
Jumagül and her group, and seems strange to them.

The same vvords may be used in repetition or in combination with the ablative case
suffîx.

IIIoHflaH con TaMbtn m im e nKii6ııp-HKn6npfleH ırnoHepnep n tp u n 6aııuıaflbinap.


(G) /Soımoa 0oq ta:mıq içine ikibi:r-ikibi:rden pionerler gi:rip./
After that, the pioneers started coming into the house t w o b y tw o .
Mkm6hp-ym6hp Bonıuyn, ^ati öambiHfla e3apa ryppyunepıtHe öanmaflbuıap. (G)
/İkibi:r-ücbi:r bolsup, ca:y basınna ö:5a:ra gürrüglörünö başladılar./
Över tea they started talking among themselves in twos and threes.
Quantifiers 161

Approximaıion Numerals
Approximation numerals express an indefinite or estimated quantity of persons or
things. Türkmen forms such numerals and numeral phrases through the addition of
suffûces, compounding or the use of words that denote approximation.
A common means of indicating approximations of time or age is through addition
of the plural suffix + j ı a p / j ı e p /+lar/ler/ to a Cardinal numeral or to tlıe noun which it
specifies.

Onap fleKaSptm iİHrpuMHjıepMUfle renepnep. (G)


/Olor dekabnrj yigrimilerinne gelerler./
They will aırive around the t w e n t i e t h of December. ['in the twenties']

AHHarynH ııton B a r r n a p 3flnn o h c e m » a n u ıa p tiH f la f lb i. (G)


/Arnnagulı sol wagtlar edil on 8ekiS ya:slarınnadı./
At that time Annagulı was j u s t a b o u t e ig h t e e n .

Türkmen also expresses approximation with the suffix + j ı a n / j ı a n /+la:p/lâ:p/,


which consists of the verb-forming suffix + jıa - / jıe - /+la/le-/ and the gerund suffix
- L in / ıın /-ıp/ip/. When added to vvords like MHHyT /minut/ 'minute', caraT /9a:gat/
Tıour' or ryn /gün/ 'day', indefinite or approximate expressions are formcd. The
addition of + jıa n / jıa n /+la:p/la:p/ or + J ia p W .n e p H e /+lar£a/ler£e/ to 'ten' creates a
word ('about ten, in tens') that is equivalent to English 'dozens'.

MeHKH a-raivi r a m K.aftıuuK.eH, &np KsÜMHMsre 6auınaca, 6wp caraTJian Ksiimtep


OTypap. (G) /Menirj atam gatı ka:yinjer|, bir ka:yinmâ:ge baslaOa, bir 0a:gaıja:p
ka:yiner oturor./
My grandfather is a big grumbler, if he starts to grumble he’ll be grumblinf; for
h o u rs.

Keıınc aflaMJiaptı mkh ryunan onapii xep xnrm 6 a x a n a SraıeH caK Jiafltm ap, (G)
/Köşk a:damlan iki günlâ:p olorı her hi:li bahana bilen 0akladılar./
Courtiers detained them for a couple of days on various pretexts.

ÛHiıan TaMflup nepem xeM xa3vıp öonyrmu. (G)


/0:nla:p tamdır cörögü hem hâ:Sir bolupdı./
They also prepared tamdır bread by the dozens.

- Enp 03repHuı 6auıra OHiiap<ıa e3repHiu flepeflifop -fliıMmı, ryHfloraptiK ceperflH.


(G) /'Bir Ö5göriis basga o:nlor£o öBgönis dörödyâ:r" diyip, günnogon:k Sere idi./'
He looked to the east and said "One change creates a dozen other changes."
162 Türkmen Referenee Grammar

IIIoHyn yuHH ropmmmfK ynamanu3 6onap. İÎT*;aK GonaHfla 6wp o h 6ara - o h


ropTOTOHK roMcanH3, (TV 17.3) /Sonuç üctttn gorcicnik ulonOoguS
M H H y T jıan
bolyarr. Yatjak boloıjdo bir on bâ:s-o:n minutla:p gorcicnik goy0oqu8./
For that you can use mustard powder. You would apply mustard powder for a
fifteen or ten minute period when you’re getting ready to go to bed.

Combining two Cardinal numerals also expresses approximation. Such


combinations must reflect some ordinary grouping ('two or three', ete., but not 'eight
or sixty-one', or the like).

ApaflaH Y^-nopT ftbin reıtffu, osaflan ornatman xa6ap ek. (O)


/A:radan üc-dörrt yıl gecdi, owodon oglonnon habar yo:k./
In the meantime, three or four years have passed and there’s no news from the
handsome young man.

The vvords TOBepeK /töwörök/ 'environs' and MeMecıı /cemeOi/ 'about' may be
placed after and the word TaKMUHaH /takmıman/ 'approximately' before a numeral or a
numeral phrase to indicate 'about, around (so many)'.

CefoÖM erçeM MeH 6suı itbin Tooepmı saunap 6nneH HmneuifliiM. (N)
/0ebâ:bi öi]öm men ba:s yıl töwörögü ya:slar bilen i:slesdim./
The reason is that I worked with youths before for about five years.

Ewp übiıı qeMecM oaan 6onaH BaKa. (Xac florpycbi, TpareflHH RHİtMenH.) (N)
/Bir yıl cemeBi o8ol bolon wa:ka. (Ha:0 dogruOı, tıragediya diymeli.)/
This is an event that happened about a year ago. (More precisely, we should cali it
a tragedy.)

Ory3-KbipK reKTap TOBepeK epe uıy übiji ryfiajıyK Gyrnaü 3KMern nJTaHnaınnwpwn
OTbipbic. (TVI 1.4)
/Otu8-kırk gektar töwörök yere su yıl gürSJük bugdoy ekmeği pılanlasdınp otı:rı0./
This year we’re planning to plant Autumn wheat on about rhirty or forty heetares
of the land.
Bm3HH nnKpnMif3we, rypKMeH co3i« 5H3HH 3paMM3tnı önpHH^n M Y H tİ M T m u m m m
1.5 Myn Wb in n c M e c H M y H fla ıı en n b iK a H 6onca repeK.
o p T a n a p u ı i f l a , T a K M b iııa ıı
(TV 13.5) /BiSirj pikrimiSce, tilrkmön 088ü biöiıj era:mıSırj birinji müıjyılhgmıg
ortolorunno, takmıman 1.5 müıj yıl cemeOİ munnon ör) çıkan bol0o gerek./
In our opinion, the word Türkmen probably evolved in the middle of the first
millennium A.D. or about 1.5 thousand years ago.

Other numeral expressions that indicate approximation inelude MyHiiepMe


/münlörcö/ 'thousands of', öHp/iMi-MKHJiaıı /birla:n-ikila:n/ 'one or two', Bnpflitp-
Qaantifiers 163

H K H flH p /birdir-tkidir/ 'one or two' and h k m m h - y h m h /ikimi-ücmü/ 'two or three'.


Othervvise, approximation may be expressed with the word gartr /dağı/ (see 177) or
vvith the comparative suffîx + p a K /p a K /+ra:k/ra:k/ (see 147).

Ahmk ÖKneMOK, Mene TaKMimaH Sam ity3 MaHaT R am Sap m U m - (TV5.4)


/Anık bilemo.'k, yö:nö takmı:nan bâ:5 yü6 manat dağı ba:r diydi./
I don't knovv for sure, but she said it’s around 500 manats or so.

O H fla x e p r y n n e n s ^ e K n u o p a K n a r r a Mm t h h h 3? (TV7.3)
/Onno her günnö nâ:ce kilora:k pagta yıgya:ıjıS?/
Then about how many kilos of cotton do you pick each day?

Fractions
A fractional numeral expresses a part of a whole number, and may indicate a fraction of
a number or a decimal fraction. In Turkmen, a fraction of a whole number is formed
with two Cardinal numerals. The first numeral, or denominator, is placed in the ablative
case ( + a a n / f l e n /+dan/den/), while the second, or numerator, stands in the nominative
case. The denominator indicates the whole number which is divided into parts and the
numerator indicates the quantity of these parts taken from the whole number.

Y^îfleH 6«p /ücdön bir/ one-third


three-from one = one (paıt) from (the whole number) three

SsııtneH mkm /barsden iki/ two-fifths


fıve-from two = two (parts) from (the whole number) five

When a whole number appears before a fractional numeral, the word S h t h h /bitim/
'who!e, not broken' is placed betvveen the two. (Because of their similarity, even some
Turkmen confuse Gh t h h /biti:n/ 'whole, not broken' with 6 y t h h /bütü:n/ 'whole,
entire'.)

mkm 6 hthh flepı^eH Sup two and one-fourth


/iki bitim dö:rtdön bir/
two who!e four-from one = two whole (numbers) and one-fourth

To form a decimal fraction like '2.25', Türkmen uses a construction with the vvords
Üy3 /yüS/ '100' preceded by S m t h h /biti:n/ 'vvhole, not broken' and follovved by the
fraction numerals. The follovving decimal fractions vvould be vvritten 2,25 and 2,254 in
Turkmen, that is, vvith a comma rather than vvith a period.
164 Türkmen Reference Grammar

HKH ÖHTKH My3fleH ÜHTpHMH fonı 2.25


/iki bitim yii8Sön yigrimi bâ:s/
rvvo whole hundreds-from twentyfive
= twenty-five (parts) from two whole hundreds

hkm Shtmh MynfleH «KM üy3 flepr 2.254


/iki bitim müıjdön iki yüS elli dö:ıt/
ıwo whole thousands-from two hundred fifty four
= two hundred fifty four (paıts) from two whole thousands

With one exception, fractional constructions do not take plural or case suffbces. The
fractional numeral may take the genitive case suffbc when it serves as the possessor in
the possessive relationship with a following fraction word.

CeKH3j(eH y«ryn « pucu H3*ra flenanp? (G)


/0eki58en ü£üi) ya:n0ı na:ca: değdir?/
What does h alf of three-eighths equal?

Otherwise, a fraction may be in possessive relationship with a preceding noun. If


the words öeJien /bö:lök/ 'part' or yiiym /ülüs/ 'portion' follow a fractional numeral,
the third person possessive suffbc is added to them instead of to the numeral.

FanaH n y n y n y h a e h mkh öeJierHHe ctoii c ara H a n a tu ıa p . (G)


/Ga:lan pulug ücdön iki bö:lögünö u00ol 0atm allılar./
They bought a table for two-thirds of the money they had left. ['for the two-thirds
part o f]

0K0HMaTem>H0, ınyH H K en e 6 o n a ım a m y rfle-TO yM^eHSupu h jih 6 on a p .


Kvraenep. (TV10.2)
/Okoncatelno, suni keçe bolonno su gde-to ücdön bi:ri ya:lı bolor. Kiceler./
In the end, when it becomes felt, it will be around one-third (in size). It will
shrink. [Russian OKOHMaTentHO 'finally, in the end', rfle-TO 'around']

Fraction Words
Turkmen also has the fractional vvords MapteK /câ:ryek/ 'quarter' and apbiM /ya:nm/,
ap tı /ya:n/, apTM /ya:rtı/, a p n u /ya:rpı/ 'half'. The first denotes one of four equal
parts of a whole, while the second indicates one of two equal halves of a whole.
The word n ap ıeK /ca:ryek/ (from Persian) has limited usage and commonly refers
to one of the four equal quarters of a school year, although occasionally it may be used
in time expressions.
Quantifîers 165

The words apbiM /ya:ran/, aptı /ya:rı/, a p r a /ya:ıtı/ and apnbi /ya:rpı,' for the
most part, are interchangeable variants which are piaced before nouns denoting time,
measurement or items to indicate half of a whole.

IIoe3fl flypanu, apU M c a r a T öojifltı. (G)


/Poye5[8] duroh, ya:nm 0a:gat bollı./
ITıe train has been standing for h a l f a n hour.

Aios,aryn a p u M Kiıno Tbuuıa ıııaiicenmıvı 3 jithh Taöuibipflbi. (G)


/A:kjagül ya:rım kilo tılla sayOepini eltip tabsırdı./
Akjagül brought and tumed över half a kilo of her gold jevvelry.
M kh OMpyn ap T b i v e p e n t a n im e a jifltı. (G )
/İki omrup ya:rtı cörögii eline allı./
He broke the bread in two and took a half in his hand,

This word also receives the third person possessive suffix vvhen it stand s in the
possessive relationship.

Benanbm M a u ır a jıa c b i Haxapa, a ra tı MÜMure m p n e m m m n sp tıctm u x a p t* ;a T


(TV16.3)
3fltt3HflHp.
/Wepa:nıi) ma8gala0ı nahara, yagnı iymite girrdejinij] ya:n0ım harajart edyii.nnir./
Wepa’s wife probably spends h a l f o f t h e in c o m e on meals, that is, on food.

C oh y B e n eıı s t h a m in , c o M c a ııu u a p u c b in a ro flap b m . ( T V 5 .3 )


/0oq üwölön eti alıp, 0om0a:nıq ya:n0ma goyya:nn./
Then I take the ground meat and put it o n o n e h a l f o f th e somsa.

C eK H 3 flen y^yn a p u c u m n s fleHflsıp? (G) /0eki56en ücüıj ya:n0ı na:câ: derdir?/


What does h a l f o f t h r e e - e i g h t h s equal?

In such constructions, the words f l e n /der)/ 'equal', /edil/ 'exactl>, ju st',


/gılla/ 'sharp, equally', JiaübiK /la:yık/ 'exactly' or xyT /hut/ 'exactly, nam ely'
r b iju ıa
may stand betvveen the first and second components to intensify the meaning of apbiM
/ya:rım/, a p u /ya:rı/, a p T b i /ya:rtı/ and apnbi /ya:rpı/.

ü b ecaH b in n en apbiM bi a3biju>m ryra p flb i. (G )


/Pye0a:mrj derj ya:nmı yaSılıp gutordı./
Exactly half of the play has finished being vvritten.

Ca3 K p y * o m n a 0 KyBltbinapfcin rbijuıa apbicbi ramauıap. (G)


/0a:5 kıruzoguno okuw£ulonır) gılla ya:n0ı gatnasya:r./
Exactly half of the students attend the musical circle.
166 Turkmen Reference Grammar

Wben aptiM /yaırım/ appears before some nouns and adjectives, it denotes that the
content, action or quality vvhich they express is not as full or as powerful as it should
or could be.

2Çoran Sepim, ona aptiM cec önnen, Mmx3hjt MtuiTtıptm, epıınfleH ramjii. (G)
/Joga:p berip, 050 ya:rım 0e9 bilen, Mihail yılgm p, yerinnen ga:llı./
Answering in a low voice to him, Michael smiled and stood up from his place.

Aitlıough Ghp spuM /bir ya:nm/ is a common way of saying 'one and a lıalf, the
same may be expressed by using Bythh /biitü:n/ 'whole', scce /e 00e/ 'times', or any
name of a measure before tlıe word sıptiM /ya:rım/ or variants.

E nyna ÖyrHH apTbi HaH. (G) /Yo:luqo biitü:n ya:rtı na:n./


(Here’s) one and a half flat breads for your trip.

T?5K,HrYn ryTaıı rypHyraHflaH nnaıiflan 3 cce apbiM ap-rbiK ım ne anjıu. (G)


/Tâ:jigül tuton gurcugunnon pılannan e00e ya:nm artık pi:le allı./
Tâjigül got from the silkworms she was keeping one an d a half tim es cocoons in
excess of the plan.

AHHarynbin Tbi3bin Toıııyn rynnyrMHa maemme tibin apbiM Conyımtı. (G)


/A:nnaguh:o G 181I Gosun gulluguno gidenine yıl ya:nm bolupdı./
It had been one and a half years since Annaguh went to serve in the Red Army.

The variant apTM /ya:rtı/ can only precede Myrç /mili)/ 'thousand', m hjijih oh
/million/ 'million' or MHJumapR /milliard/ 'billion', while the variant apw /ya:rı/ can
only follow them in the possessive reiationship.

apTbi mhjijihoh /yaııtı million/ half a million


MHiniMOHbin apbt /millionır) y a:n/ a half million

When apuM /ya:nm/ follovvs any Cardinal numeral, it denotes an additional one-
half of its quantity. When aptiM /ya:rım/ precedes MYH /müq/ 'thousand', mhjijihoh
/million/ 'million' or MMJinHapfl /m illiard/ 'billion', then it indicates one-half of its
quantity.

eTMMin 6aııı aptiM /yetmiş bâ:s ya:rım/ seventy-fıve and a half


apHM MYH /yarnm mü rj/ half a thousand, fi ve hundred
MyH aptiM /müıj ya:nm / one and a half thousand, one thousand-five hundred
üpbiM MHnJiHOH /ya:nm m illion/ half a million, five hundred dıousand
mhjijihoh apbiM /million ya:nm / one and a half million, one million-fıve hundred
thousand
Qnantifiers 167

In teliing time, the variant « ptı /ya:rı/ is used to indicate the half-hour. Because it
contains the third person possessive suffbc +w /+]/, it stands in possessive relationship
with the numeral expressing the whole hour.

CaraTHS'ie? /0a:gat na:ce?/ What time is it?


- CaraT y^YH sptı. /0a:gat ücürj ya:n./ Half past 2 o’clock.

The word MeTÖep /cetber/ was borrowed from Russian MeTBepTb 'quarter'. In
Turkmen, one MCTÖep /cetber/ is a weight of 100 grams, approximately equivalent to
one-quarter of an English pound (373 grams). The term is used to measure certain
goods, the most typical of which is tea. Usually sold in 50 gram packages, one
package of tea is measured as npbiM MeTÖep /ya:nm cetber/ 'one half chetber (= 50
grams)', and two packages of tea as Cup «teTÖep /bir cetber/'one chetber (= 100
grams)'.

fclHxa Mafl - auttun, mkh qeTÖep Maütt asmiiHhin e^yHe OKJiaflM. (G)
/'inha: ca:y" diyip, iki cetber ca:yı aya:hnır| öi]ünö oklodı./
Saying "Here is tea," he tossed 200 grams of tea in front of his wife.

Percentages
The fractional c o n stru c tio n with the numeral Hy3 /yüS/ "hundred' may be used to
e x p res s a percentage of a whole. However, the locative case suffbc in stead of the
a b la tiv e case suffıx is added to the numeral. The bo rrovved Russian w o r d n p o u en r
/proSent/ 'percent' also is used after a Cardinal number to indicate a percentage.

üy3fle 6wp /yüSSö bir/ 1 percent


tiysfle İİHrpKMH ffepr /yüSSö yigrimi dö:ıt/ 24 percent
oh nponeıiT /o:n proSent/ 10 percent

Myuyrç 83M reuen übinnaıca rapanuıifla ou npoueırr eıifle 6 apHHj(wrbmu anna^np.


(TV8.3)
/Munurj ö:8ü gecen yılla:ka: gara:nıi]da o:n proBent örjdö barya:nnıgını a:i]!adya:r./
This shows that it [the cotton yield] is 10 percent ahead compared to that of last
year.

Arithmetic
Turkmen may express each of the arithmetical operations in several different ways.
These constructions use the verbs ro m ın a K /gosmok/ 'to add', a tiu p M a K /ayırmak/ 'to
subtract', öojimck /bö:lmök/ 'to divide', KonenTMeK /köpöltmök/ 'to multiply' and
the word nenuHp /değdir/ 'is equal to'.
168 Turkmen Referenee Grammar

Arithmetic
12 + 14 = 26 ~
O h mkh roııiMaK oh flepT flenanp ÜHrpıiMH am a.
/O n iki gosmok on dö:rt değdir yigrimi alta:./
12 plus 14 is equal to 26.
Oh hkh roııiMaK oh flepr 6onap üurpuMH ajra>ı.
/O n iki gosmok on dö:rt bolor yigrimi altı./
12 plus 14 is 26.
Oh hks oh flopflu rouıcan ühtpmmm ajrrtı Sojıap.
/On ifâ : on dö:rdü gosSoi) yigrimi altı bolor./
If you add 14 to 12 it vvill be 26.
Oh hkhhhh ycTyHe oh flepflH romca n Mhtphmm ajrrtı 6onap.
/On iki:nii] ü00ünö on dö:rdü gosöor] yigrimi altı bolor./
If you add 14 on top o f 12 it will be 26._________________
_____________________ 32 - 8 = 24_____________________
O ıy3 hkh afttrpMaK ceKH3 fleHHHp ifaopHMH flepfle.
/OtuS iki ayırmak OekiS değdir yigrimi döardö./
32 minus 8 is equal to 24.
O ry3 h k h aötıpMaK cerai3 6onap it a p m o t flepr.
/OnıS iki ayırmak 0eki5 bolor yigrimi dö:rt./
32 minus 8 is 24.
Oıy3 HKHfleH ceKH3H a&ıpcan ÜHrpHMM flepT 6onap.
/OtuS üdden 0ekiSi ayırSag yigrimi dö:rt bolor./
If you subtract 8 from 32 it will be 24.___________________
______________________64 * 8 = 8______________________
AnTMtnu flepT 6enMeK ceraıs flenanp ceKioe.
/Altmış dö:rt bö:lmök OekiS değdir 0ekiSe./
8 into 64 is equal to 8.
A htm m u flepflM ceKH3e Gencen ceKH3 öonap.
/Altmış dö:rdü OekiSe bö:10öi) OekiS bolor./
If yoıı.divide 64 by 8 it will be 8._______________________
_____________________12 x 4 = 48______________ .
Oh hk h KeneırrMeK flepr 6onap KBipK ceıao.
/On iki köpöltmök dö:rt bolor kırk 0ekiS./
12 times 4 will be 48.
Oh mkh KenejrrMeK flepne fleımHp KtıpK ceKM3e,
/On iki köpöltmök dö:rdö değdir kırk OekiSe./
12 multiplied by 4 is equal to 48.
Oh hkhhh flepfle Kerıejrrcen KtrpK ceKM3 6onap.
/On ikini dö:rdö köpöltöörj kırk 0ekiS bolor./
If you multiply 12 by 4 it will be 48.
fle p r scce oh hkh KttpK ceKH3 öonap.
/Dö:rt e00e on iki kırk 0ekiS bolor./
4 12s will be 48.
Quantifieıs 169

Counting Word
Türkmen speakers often add a counting vvord caHbi /0a:nı/ (literally: a count') betvveen
the numeral and the item counted vvhich could be translated 'X counts of Y'. Hovvever,
use of this vvord is optional and its translation into English is unnecessary. English
also uses 'count' in a technicai sense to indicate a number of items determint.d by an
actual count, as vvhen a box is labeled '50 count'.

CryfleırrcıepHMHn 6sm caHbicbi flamapflaflyp.


/0tudentlerimir) bârs 0a:nı0ı dasarda du:r./
studem-s-my ftve counts-of outside standing
Five of my students are standing outside.
M eH y*i caHbi Kotmenı YTyıcneflHM.
/Men üc 0a:nı köynögü ütüklödüm./
I three counts-of shirt iron I did
I ironed three shirts.

EarrnH 6onMaK ymm agaMa 6aps>ı-erbi yn canu 3ax repeKMMuı. (N )


/Bagtlı bolmok ücürn ardama barn-yorgı üc 0a:m 8a:t gerekmiş./
They say that a person needs only th r e e th in g s to be happy.

TypKMeH 3jmıı6nÜMHfle OTy3 ceKM3 caHbi xapn, OTy3 ajiTbi caHbi a:c 6ap.
E n 3 fle
(TVl.l) /BiSSe türkmön elipbiyinne otuS 0eki5 0a:m harp, otu6 altı 0arnı 0c 6 barr./
We have 38 letters and 36 sounds in the Turkmen alphabet.

- flepT caHbi öeüıiK ToxyM a m a p 6ap flMÜiîspnep-fla. (TV12.4)


/D örıt 0a:m beyik tohum atlar barr diyyârrler-dâr."/
'They say there are just four great breeds of horses."

The vvord caHaK /0arnak/ is a variant of caHbi /0arnı/ in function, but may ı:;ıke the
third person possessive suffbc vvhen in possessive reiationship vvith a preceding noun.

Kecepjıepıtn ıiMMHfle mkh canarbi aüpartiH roByflbt. (G)


/KeOerlerii] icinne iki öarnagı ayratırn gowudı./
Among the knives tvvo were particularly fine.

Xycycbi MeKfleıuıep Gapafla atocaK, flMne 6n3fle, TypKMeHHCTaHbiMböfla ceı-Ji3


caHaK TypKiteflen reJieH TypKJiepHn aqan MeKfleımepn 6ap. CeKH3 caHaK.
(TP12.3) /Hu0ur0ı mekdepler barrada ay00ak, dirje biSSe, Türkmönü00arnmıı58a
0eki5 Oarnak Türküyödön gelen türklörür) acan mekdepleri barr. 0eki5 0arnal;./
If we talk about private schools, then just among us, in our Türkmenistan, there
are eight schools opened by Turks vvho came from Turkey. Eight.
170 Türkmen Reference Grammar

Quantifying Pronouns
Collective, indefinite and negative pronouns substitute for nouns that designate groups
(for example, 'people') or wholes (for example, 'land'). They refer to an individual (for
example, 'someone') or to ali individuals (for example, 'everyone') within a group
without identifying or specifying a given individual.
In Turkmen, the words xep /her/ 'every', 6np /bir/ 'one, some' and xhm /hi:c/
'no(ne)' form the basis of collective pronouns ("every/all" vvords), indefinite pronouns
("some/severa!" words) and negative pronouns ("none/no" words). In addition, various
adjectives and adverbs fulfıll these functions. Most quantifying pronouns and words are
placed before the nouns they modify, but some act as nouns and may appear in the
possessive relationship (6apu /ba:n/, 3XJ1H /ahli/).

Collective Pronouns
Placing xep /her/ 'every, each' (variant: xepcH /herOi/) before a noun, the numeral 6up
/bir/ 'one' or an interrogative pronoun produces combinations that indicate every one or
any single one of a group of persons or things. Such combinations are: xep Cup /her
bir/ 'every', xep Haine /her na:me/ 'everything, anything, whatever', xep Hane /ha:r
nâ:ce/ 'however mııch, as many as', xep iihmhk /her nicik/ 'no matter what,
nevertheless', xep xaifctı /he hay0ı/ 'every, each, vvhichever' and xep xıınn /her hirli/
'alJ sorts of'.

Myııyn xep 6np ce3H 6np flerttaHflHp. (G)


/Munui] her bir 0ö6ü bir düyâ: degyâ:nnir./
Every word of this [book] could be vvorth a camel. [= 'is precious']

Xep ııaMe 3TceneM, ceHHHKM suiHbuıı. (G)


/Her nâm e e00eıjem, Oenirjki yalıjıs./
Whatever you do, you are vvrong.

Xep Hane aflTcanaM, on ceının cesnepHne rynaK acMastp. (G)


/Hernâ:£e ay00ar|am, ol 0enig 0ö81öriiıjö gulok aömaya:r./
He doesn’t listen to what you say, however many times you teli him. ['listen to
your words']

Xep xaflcbt Sup aflflbtM aÖTMajibt. (G) /Her hayflj bir aydım aytmah./
Everybody should sing a song.
ASfltiM aUflsu 3HTeK Hin öoncyH H-fla un cofirycmm ra3aHaH öoncyH, onapbirç
xepciinfle 036o.r1y 111nbi.riMK öonap. (N) /Aydım aydya:n entek ya:s botöun ya:-da
i:l 8öygü0ünü gaSanan bolOun, oloruıj heröinne ö:8bolusluluk bolya:r./
Whether someone who sings is stili young or has gained the love of the people,
each one of them has individuality.
Quantifiers 171

Quantifying Pronouns
Collecıive Pronouns: 'Every!Ali'

x e p /her/ e v e ry , each , x e p S u p /her bir/ e v e ry , x e p H3Me /her nâ:m e/


e ve ry th in g , anyth in g, w h ate ve r, x e p m n e /her n a:ce/ h o w e v e r m uch,
x e p ro ro n c /her n icik / n o m atter w h at, n everth eless, x e p xaü cb i /her
hayBı/ e v e ry , each , w h ic h e v e r, x e p x n r o ı /her hi:li/ a li sorts o f

xeM M e /lıem m e/ e v e ry , a li, xeMMe 3aT /hem m e 8a:t/ eve ryth in g,


s x n n /âhli/ a li, 6 y n iH /biltü.-n/ w h o le , en tire, KynJDi /külü/ w h o le ,
Tyrym /tutuş/ entire, 6 ap H /ba:n/ a li

indefinite Pronouns: 'Some/Severaf

6«p /bir/ some, 6Hpı»He /bimâce/ some, several, ĞMpeırreK /birentek/


several, 6np Tonap /bir topor/ a group of, 6>ıpHeMe /birneme/ some,
a little, 6MpxHnH /birhirli/ somewhat, 6ııpKM /birki/ a few, 6npKyM
/birküc/ a couple of, önpas /bira:8/ some, a little, a few, Ksönp /ka:bir/
some, difîerent

6wpH /bi:ri/ somebody, one of, KifMflHp 6upn /kimdir bi:ri/ somebody,
xaöctmbip öiîpn /hay0ıdır/ something, a ceıtain one, 6Hp 3aT /bir 8a:t/
something, HSMefliıp 6np 3aT /nam edir bir 8a:t/ something or other,
whatever

TenHM /telim/ several, s m e /ence/ several, a few, smeM e /enceme/


a number of, n tu ıa n /pıla:n/ such-and-such, ntuıaHH...ın>maHM
/pıla:nı...pıla:nı/ so-and-so, n iin a ım a /pılamca/ and so on, 3aT /8a:t/
thing, something, stuff, n a ra /dağı/ or so, and such

Negative Pronouns: 'NonelNo'

xmh /hi:c/ n on e, a n y , n e v e r, at ali, xhu khm /hi:c k im / n oon e, xhm


xauaH /hi:c hacan/ n e ve r, xhm x a ü c t ı /hi:c hay0 ı/ n on e of

xmm 6npH /hi:c bi:ri/ n o, n o n e, xh*i 3aT /hi:c Sa:t/ n oth in g , xh»i 6 mp
3aT /hi:c b ir 8a:t/ n o o n e th in g , xhm TyftcnH /h i:c tü:011i/ n o fo rm o f,
xmm XHjm /hi:c hirli/ n o k in d o f, xhm Kec /hi:2 ke0/ n o b o d y , xhm ep
/hi:£ yer/ n ow h ere, xmm B a rr /hi:£ w ag t/ n e v e r
172 Turkmen Referenee Grammar

Xep h m h h k 6 o n ca -fla renM enM S on ap cH i*. (G)


/Her nicik bol0o-do gelmeli bolorflur)./
No m atter what, you will have to come.

Ce6s6n CanapMtıpaTTYpKMeH6auiHHtm ınon Sesim HbiKbiuibiHfla aiîflLtuıtı onu,


6 h3« h xep 6npnMH3 aTa BaTana ryjınyK 3TMeıiHflMpMc. (N)
/âebârbi 0apaımıra:t Türkmönbası:nır) Sol belli cıkısuına aydısı ya:lı, biSİJ] her
bi:ri:mi8 ata Watana gulluk etmelidiriS./
Because, as Saparmırat Türkmenbashı said when he made that speech, every one
of us should serve the Fatherland.

Xep ati Men my i^aübiMa eTMMiu 6 mh MaHaT ren efo n . (TV9.3)


/Her a:y men su jaryıma yetmiş bâ:s manat tölöyâ:n./
Each month I pay seventy-five manats for this place of mine.

Haxap 6 a m u ıifla xep ryppyH SflMiMap: yM yM aH a rfla & ıa p öapafla, m u


x h j im

Bapafla, M aıurana öapafla Be morça MeH3em. (TA15.2)


/Hahar basınna her hi:li gürrüi) edilya:r: umu:mon yagdaylar ba:rada, i:s ba:rada,
masgala ba:rada we soıjo meıjSes./
Över dinner, ali sorts of thıngs are talked about: about conditions in general,
about vvork, about the family, and so forth.

The w o rd s xcm m c /hemme/ 'e v e r y , a li', xeM M e 3a T /hem m e 5a:t/ 'e v e r y th in g ', 3XJ1H
/ahli/ 'a li, w h o le ', 6 yT M H /bütü:n/ 'a li, th e w h o le ', K y n n H /küllü/ 'w h o le ', T y T y ı n
/tutuş/ 'e n tire , w h o le ' and Capu /ba:rı/ 'a li' s e r v e to d e sig n a te c o lle c t iv e s o r fo r m part
o f o th e r construction s in the m ea n in g 'e v e r y , a li'.

XeMMe ıuyıiM MaKyn Bunan. (G) /Hemme sum ma:ku:l billi./


Everybody approved it.

Xac n>t3MK epn-fle, ınon öaüjibirbiıt xgmmgcm Opa36nÖHHKH Mauırajıacbma


flentuıım. (G)
/Ha:0 gıSık yeri-de, sol ba:ylıgıq hemmeOi Ora:8bi:bi:nirj masgalaöma degisli./
Tiı& most interesting thing w as that ali of that wealth belonged to Orazbibi’s
family.

Mbiuı-Mbuımap xeMMe epe aüpanflMp. (G) /Mıs-mıslar hemme yer yayra:pdır./


Rumors have spread everyvvhere.

XeMMe 3aT 6np6afla smuiiflan MbiKbinflu. (G)


/Hemme Sa:t birba:da ya:dınnan cıkıpdı./
He forgot everything at once.
Quantifiers 173

XeMM3HH3e car 6 on ata ra , carjıtrefla repıuennn! Ken car 6 ony«. (N)


/Hemmâ:ıji8e 0ag bol aydya:n, Oaglıkda görsöli:jrj! Köp 0ag boluıj./
I say so'long to ali o f you, let’s meet again soon. Thank you very much.

XeMMe r e n e n jıe p xoınan 6 onyn muflap. (TV8.4)


/Hemme gelenler hosa:l bolup gidyâ:r./
Everyone who comes goes away satisfied.

IIIeHÖe ryHM M am rana ö o n y n , x « vim3MH3 Bune m it ınıüspMC. (Tl 7.1)


/Senbe günü masgala bolup, hemma:mi8 bile £a:y icyâ:ri0./
On Saturdays ali o f us drink tea together as a family.

B ythh 06 a yıcyflaflii. (G) /Bütü:n o:bo u:kudodı./


The whoie village was asleep.

TyTynı 06 a öonyn onap to h renflimep. (G) /Tutuş o:bo bolup olor toyo gr.lliler./
They came to the toy as an en t ir e village.

CyB SKMJieH epnepKH C a p t u ıu cyBapflfci. (G)


/0uw ekilen yerlerijj ba:n:nı 0 uwordı./
Water irrigated ali the land under cultivation.
3pTH p 3X/iMUH3 MeKfleöe renepcMHH3. (G) /Erti:r ahli:jgi8 mekdebe geler0iyi8./
AH of you shall come to school tomorrow.
CeöaöH axjiM ıiLiKflajtcibi 03 öoJmyıtga-flbi. (N)
/0eba:bi ahli cıkdajı ö:S boynui]do-dı./
Because ali the expenses were on your own head. ['on your neck']

indefinite Pronouns
Compounds and combination words with the numeral 6 n p /bir/ 'one, some' (see 156)
form the indefinite pronouns 6ttpH3<ıe /bimâ:ce/ 'some, several', SupeıiTeK /birentek/
'several', 6 n p Tonap /bir topor/ 'a group of, a lot of' 6 tfpH eM e /birneme/ 'sonıewhat,
a bit o f, 5npxnjııı /birhirli/ 'somewhat', Ghpkh /birki/ 'a few' (< 6 tıp m k u /bir iki/
'one-two'), 6 ııp K Y 4 /birküc/ 'some, a couple' (< 6w p h k h y*1 /bir iki üc/ 'one-tvvo-
threeO, ö n p a a /bira:8/ 'some, a little, a few, a bit' and Ka6H p /kâ:bir/ 'some, different',
vvhich express 'some' or 'a few' persons or things.

AM, 6 n p cerceH TOHHa, TorcaH to h h e n a r r a r e n ü s p 6 ııp ry u fle . ( T V 7 .3 )


/Ay, bir 0eg0en tonno, tog0on tonno pagta gelyarr bir günnö, günnö./
Oh, some eighty tons, ninety tons of cotton come each day.
Eh 3 Kenefle 6 n p Tonap a#aM repflyK. (G) /Bİ8 köcödö bir topor a:dam gördük./
We saw a g r o u p of people in the Street.
174 Turkmen Referenee Grammar

Ypyuı TypajiM SspH, 6«p Tonap ryH renifrmH. (BH)


/Urus turolı ba:ri, bir topor gün gecipdi./
A lot of days had passed since the war began.

XeKyMeT HiurspnepHHMH ÖHpHanecH MUifleH 6ouıafltmj3Bi. (G)


/Hökümöt i:Sga:rIerinii) bimâ:ce0i i:sden bosodullı./
Several of the government officials were fired.

Ten ona 6npa3 rapaıuajibi. (G) /Gel orjo bira:8 garasah./


C’mon, let’s wait for him a bit.
By 6ojıyıu shshm 6 n p x n j u ı raMnatmtıpfltı. (G)
/Bu bolu? ena:ni birhi:li gamlanmrdı./
This behavior made the mother s o m e v v h a t sad.

flapra K36npjıepı«nın cajıaMUHa qana*;a 6aıu smeK 6ımen js;oran 6epitspflH. (G)
/Darga kâ:birlerinirj 0ala:mma calaja bas eğmek bilen jogarp beryâ:rdi./
The chief of market security vvas retuming the greetings o f s o m e o f t h e m by
nodding his head slightly.

Meıte BeroiH, muaHcaK-fla, MyrannbiMnapbin KaÖHpHHfle metine ctmaTJiaptiH


eKflyrbtHbi 6enneMenn Gormp. (G) /Yö:nö weli:n, gı:nan0ak-da, mugollumlorur)
ka:birinne şeyle Oıpatlarıtj yo:kdugunı bellemeli bolyarr./
Hovvever, one must note, unfortunately, that such qualities do not exist among
some teachers.
Mana ÖHpHeMe Maü ryftcaHa. (G) /Maıja bimeme ca:y guyOono./
Will you pour me a b i t o f tea?

BHpHeMe KyBBa-raaHaHHaH coh 6onca, on e3yHH rapamcw3 xeKyMflapnap«ıa


repKe3«n yrpariflbip. (N) /Bimeme kuwwa:tlanannan 0oi) bol0o, ol ö.-Sünü garasOıS
hökümda.-rlarca görköSiip ugra:pdır./
After grovving somewhat stronger, he began to show himself to be like the
independent rulers.

MyuynaM Ö H p e ırre K ce6annepH 6ap. (N) /Munurjom birentek 0ebâ:pleri ba:r./


And this has several causes.

YMyMaH, flen-flyuınapbiMbn( apactrnfla nrrapafla cas ’iajıtın öepepflHM, K3


e a r T J i a p xmyıeHHn GepepflKM. (N) /Umu:moa, detj-duslorumug a:ra0uına gitarada
0a:6 calip bererdim, ka: vvagtlar hislenip bererdim./
In general, I used to play guitar among people my own age and sometimes I would
sing in a lovv voice.
Quantifieıs 175

üleünenuK ÖHnen, MeH TeneBiifleıııritaHH 6npKY<ı ö tra s o n a SBpeHeMcon,


eaöaıubiMa renneuiHK aMfltiM. (N) [eBpeneMcon < eBpeneroiMfleH xeM coh]
/Seyielik bilen, men teiewideniyâ:ni birküc yıl do:lı öwrönömöor) ö:8basıma
geplesik acdım./ [öwrönöm6oq < öwrönönümdön hem 0orj]
As a result, after I leamed ali about television for a couple of years, I had my own
program.
Uly ryHKM ryn Men em e T YpKMenKCTaHaaKtı 6hjimm cucreMa Sapafla 6npKiı artıa
ryppyn Bffun gepaçeıc. (TP12.3) /5u:nkii gün men 0i6e Türkmönü60a:nna:kı bilim
0i0tema ba:rada birki agıS gürrüi] edip berjek./
Today, I will make a brief presentation to you about the educational system in
Türkmenistan, ['a speech of a few mouthsfull']
Bh3U 6 a p e p e xoumauiHK anuaMtiHM rempMeK yutfH ajn.ni nrrx;eKflnnep. (H)
/Bi8i bir yere hoslosuk agsamım geçirmek ücü:n alıp gitjekdiler./
They had vvanted to take us somewhere in order to have a going-away party.

Expressions formed with interrogative pronouns and the numeral 6 ııp /bir/ 'one,
some' act as indefinite pronouns with the general meaning of 'some, certain'. These
expressions include: 6 h p m /bi:ri/ 'somebody, one of', k h m h h p 6wpH /kimdir bi:ri/
'somebody', x a i i c u n u p 6npM /hayOıdır bi:ri/ 'something, a certain one', 6 u p 3aT /bir
8a:t/ 'something, anything' and H aM egup 6 n p 3 aT /nâ:medir bir 8a:t/ 'something or
other, a certain thing, whatever'.

XaMana, IIlMpHH 6npn 6nneH xanaını.nı rnflnnMHniMiı. (G)


/Hama:la, Şirin bi:ri bilen ha:lasıp gidipmisin./
Let’s assume Shirin has gone off with somebody she likes. ['liked
somebody and gone off']
OrypaHJiapMH Supu apuHHHH cesyu H KecflH. (G)
/Oturonlorur) bi:ri arcımi] 0ö8ünü ke00i./
One of those sitting there intemıpted the village elder.
Cana canMaH, 6npMne 6epwn roft6epıt6epMeKHHflnp. (G)
/0ala: 0alma:n, bi:rine berip goyberibermekcidir./
He actually intends to give (his daughter) to somebody without getting any
advice.
HaMeaııp 6up 3aT ÖHinupMeJîM. (G) /Na:medir bir 8a:t bisirmeli./
We should cook something or other.
- ryp6aHMyxaMMeT, MeH Craflen 6u p 3aT copafem -na. (TV12.4)
/"Gurba:nmuhommet, men BiSSen bir 8a:t 0o:ra:ym-la.'7
"Gurbanmuhammet, let me ask you something, ali right?"
176 Turkmen Reference Grammar

«XaH H repeJDi, cHHaHMUiim re p ce M , 6 n p 3aT Mtncca, HHtına renepıiH» flnöflh.


(N ) /"H am g ö rö lü , 0 ı:nan ısıp gör0 ö m , b ir Sa:t cıkO a, ya:n ııja g e le rin " d iyd i./
He said "Well, we’ll see. When I give it a try, if anything happens, Pli come to
you."

The vvords TenHM /telim/ 'several, many' 3HHe /ence/ 'several, a few', 3H*ıeMe
/enceme/ 'a number of, a couple of', nun aH /pıla:n/ 'such', nb(naH b i...n u jıaH U
/pıla:nı...pıla:nı/ 'such-and-such, so-and-so' and n tın aH n a /pıla:nca/ 'several, and so
on' designate indefinite quantities equivalent to 'several' persons or things.

Oıiflan 6apn TejiMM BaKanap öonfltı. (G) /Onnon ba:ri telim wa:kalar bollı./
Several events have happened since then.
- BpHraflHpnepH h 3 x h jih caftn afltm H 3? - ü b ijıa H U 6oncyH , nunaH u 6oncyH
flMÜMn öejuıefliiK. (G)
/"Brigadirleri nâ:hili 0ayladıgı5?" "Pılamı bol0un, pıla-.nı bolöun diyip belledik."/
"How did you elect brigade-leaders?" "We appointed them by saying 'So-and-so
shall be one, so-and-so shall be one.'"
fclHxa, my ftbin n m ıaH H a Myn TOHHa n a r r a , n b ijıa ım a Myn TOHHa xeM flaHe
eHUypepHc. (N) /inha:, su yıl p ıla:n c a müq tonno pa gta, p ıla:n ca mürj ton n o hem
da:ne Ö:nnürörü8./
So, this year we'll grow several thousand tons of cotton, and several thousand
tons of vvheat.
- lOpa, MeH HptiM c a ra T lıeiviecH c e m in HHbinna o r a p u H . 3Mİİ3M 3HMCMe
MyufflepHJiepHn r e n im rHTfliı. (TP13.2) /T u ra, m en ya:ru n 0 a:ga t ce m e 0 i 0 eniq
ya:nıi)da otı:rın . Eyyâ:m en ce m e m üsd öriilöriii) g e lip gitd i."/
"Tura, I’ve been sitting by your side for about half an hour. Already, several of
your customers have come in."
MeHe TaKCH TyT2K,ax 6 oncan w 3 car 3jw hh3H rajiflbipbin, o h co h flyp an n a MeH
nbiJian epHK öapsH puftun aHflaMMauH. (TV9.2) /Yö:nö takSİ tu tjo k bol0or)u6
0ag elii]i5i g a lh n p , on0or) duronno m e n pıla:n y e r i:k b arya:n d iy ip ayd a :y m ah ./
But i f y o u vvant to sto p a tax i, you sh o u ld ra ise y o u r rig h t hand, then w h en it
sto ps, y o u sh o u ld s a y y o u ’ re g o in g to such-and-such a place.

The vvord 3aT /Sa:t/ 'thing' may be placed after a noun vvith the same suffixes as the
noun to indicate 'and things like that', 'stuff like that' and 'and so on'.

A3biran saflbin Bojimm? CeH Ken öojiManbi Bonapcun. (G)


/A:8ıgıi) 8a:dıi] bolmı? 0en köp bolmoh bolorSui]./
Have you got enough food and stuff like that? You vvill have to be there for a
long time.
Quantifiers 177

EeÜJie 3p6eT sarnapa cıo neHen en 6epflHHH3, ötırHaKJiapı,mti3 3ajıunLi3


SoıiMaapMU? (G)
/Beyle erbet Sanlara 6İ5 nener) yo:l berdirjiS, yıgnaklanrjıS SardııjıS bolmoy a:rmı?/
How could you have let such bad things happen, don’t you have any meetmgs or
anything like that?

The vvord flaru /dağı/ adds indefbıiteness or approximation to the vvord v/hich it
follovvs, and also takes the same suffbces as that word. English equivalents inciude 'or
so', 'and such', 'things like that', 'someone like that', 'somevvhere like t l ı a t ' and
'something like that'.

IIIohm flaru ııtı ceH ajıaücan, ohcoh, ceıifle apMaH ranMa3. (G)
/Som dağını 6en ala:y8aq, on0oq, âenne aıma:n garlmaS./
I think if you marry someone like this, then you’ll never wish for anything.

Ak>, ceH 6ap, s:*;en eüyııe flarucbiHa cepeT. (G)


/Ayu, 0 e n bar, ejerj öyünö dagıöma O e r e t ./
Ah, you go and look for him in the house of your mother or somevvhere like that.

- 9-xa, iiıırpHMH MHiıyr flarbi STtıımbiptın. BecflHp! (G)


r Â:-hâ:, yigrimi minut dağı yatıpdınn. Be00iri'7
"Uh-huh, I slept 20 minutes or so. That’s enough!"

HpaH MoMMaflOB, flep-rrynbi E a 6a x a H 0B, Tsııum B a 6a x a H 0B a a ru


aııcaM6jiHMU3tm MJiemıepH. ( N ) /Yaran M o m m a : d o v , Dörtgulı Ba:baha:nov,
Tâ:sli Ba:baha:nov dağı an0amblmu5ıi) Silenleri./
Yaran Mommadov, Dörtgulı Babahanov, Tâshli Babahanov, and people İi ke
tlıat, are the members of our ensemble.

- M eHe e 6apanbiMflaıı c o n c a ra T eflH fle flartı HÜmı-mAaH, oımaıı co n x e M eıi


HiııuMH 3flÜ3H. (TV5.5) /'Men öyö baranımdan 0oj] 0a:gat yedide d a ğ ı iyip-icyârn,
onnon 0orj hem öy irsimi edyânj."/
"After I come home, I eat at 7 o’clock or so, and then I do my house work."

Baıura Tponııeitöyc ftaru on TaiîflaH SepaııoK. (TV 12.3)


/Basga tırolleybuO dağı ol ta.-ydan yörâ:no:k./
No other trolleybuses and things like that run from there.
IIl3xep epnepıııifle opc MHJineTO - oh 6suı npoyeıiT flarbi SapMbiıca AHÜtteıı.
(TV 13.1) /Salıer yerlerinne or6 milleti - on bâ:s pro0ent dağı barrmıka: diyyarn./
Tlıe Russian nationality in city places- I guess there’s 15 percent or so.
178 Türkmen Reference Grammar

Negaüve Pronouns
The negative vvord xhh /hirc/ may occur by itself in the meanings 'none, no, never,
any, at ali' or in combination with interrogative pronouns to create the negative
pronouns xh«j kum /hirc kim/ 'noone, anyone' xhm xaqaH /hirc hacan/ 'never, at no
time' and xhh xaiicbi /hirS haySı/ 'none of'. The verbs in such sentences appear in
their negative forms.

X h h h h M3 T a 6 u ıtıp w rH e p m e eTHpMSHCMura. (G)


/HircigiS tabsıngı yerine yetirmârnOirjiS./
None of you completed the assignment.

C ep 6 a 3 6 a ittm xhm r a x a p t ı re n M e tte p flM . (G)


/âerba :8 baryırj hirc gahan gelmeyârrdi./
Serbaz-bay never got angry.

M e H x h m 6 a x a fla H r a Ü T M a p t u ı . (G) / M e n h i r c b a h a d a n g a y t m a n n . /
I won’t say "No" to any price. ['I won’t tum away from any price']

x m KHMflen ropK M aca öojraçaK. (G)


0 3 y u » 6 y ep e aTan#aıı co n , xhm 3aTflaH,
bu y e re ataıjdan 0ojg, h irc 8a:tdan, hi:£ k im d en gorkm oO o b o ljo k ./
/Ö:8iir)ii
After you get to this place, you shouldn’t be afraid of anything or anyone.

(G) /HirS hayOırgıS köcâr cıkmari)./


X h m x a ttc L irç u 3 K0M3 n tiK M a n .
None of you should go outside. ['Don’t any of you go out to tlıe Street']

Ueue r n o m a nynbi 6ms x h m k h m S e p M e flH . ( N )


/Yö:nö sonco puh bi8e hirc kim bermedi./
But noone gave us this much money.

Û 3 a n X H M -xanaH ıueiine 3aT Jiap 6 o n M aH flb i. (N)


/O 80I hirc-hacan şeyle Şartlar bolnıarnm./
Such things had never happened before.

M eH uıoH jpH c o n oımaH xhm x a 6 a p -x a n .tp aum fleM O K . (H)


/Men sonnon 0or) onnon hirî habar-hatırr esidemork./
I h a v e n ’ t heard n e w s o f a n y kind a b o u t it s in c e then.

Men 03yMHrç H3Me y'nm cy^a Martıptnı®iflun>iMa xh«i aKbin enjpHn SjuiMeflHM.
(O) /Men örSiimürj nârme üciirn 0udo cargınlyarnnıgıma hirc akıl yetirip
bilmedim./
I couldn’t comprehend at ali why I was being summoned to court.
İ4 ö H e o n xh*i x a q a H , xhm KHMe T arçpbism K acbm a KeM eK 6epM eÖ 3pj[H . (O )
/Yörnö ol hirc hacan, hic kime tarjnyalkaOma kömök bermeyârrdi./
But he never helped anyone for a "Thank you."
Quantifiers 179

The negative word xhm /hi:c/ also combines with other words to form the follovving
negative pronouns: x h h 6 m p h /hi:c bi:ri/ 'noone, anyone' x n q 3 a T /hi:c 6a:t/ 'nothing,
anything' xh m 6 w p 3 a T /hi:c bir Sa:t/ 'no one thing', x h h t y ü c j ih /hi:c tü:01ü/ 'no
form o f , xmm xm jih /hi:c hi:li/ 'no kind of, nothing', xn>! K ec /hi:c ke0/ 'nobody',
xm h e p /hi:c yer/ 'nowhere, anywhere' and x m B a rT /hi:c wagt/ 'no time, never'.

Bh3MH xvih GnpıiMii3 xa6apm>ı najiflHK. (G) /BiSii) hi:S bi:ri:miS habarlı dâ:llik./
None of us knew about it.

A 5 fliiK ep n M 3Ke 6y ryH xhm e p e rnTMe#M. (G)


/Abdıkerim eke bu:n hi:c yere gitmedi./
Abdıkerim-eke did not go anywhere today.

On xhm Barr metine maTntncııtt ryunepH H maafltr 6onapBiH flHtoın


ıiHKHpneHMeiispflM. (G)
/Ol hi:c wagt şeyle sa:tlıkh günlörüi] sa:ya:dı bolorun diyip pikirlenmeyâ:rdi./
He never thought that he would be a witness to such happy days.

Ttıs x m 3ar ffKİİMenH. (G) /Gı:S hi:c Sa:t diymedi./


Tlıe girl said nothing.

MHe, ıny ra n tm a n m p , xhm 3aT flan ropKM a. (G)


/İne, su gapıdan gi:r, hi:6 5a:tdan gorkmo./
Now, go through this door and don’t be afraid of anything.
« E h 3MH no3HHMaMBi3fla x h h xhjim T33e Be rapauıtm M aflbiK 3 ax eK». (N)
/'BiSirj po8i0iyamı58a hi:c hi:li ta:8e we garasılmadık Ba:t yo:k."/
'There’s nothing new or unexpected in our position."

3 m m 3 xhm 3&t 3m nflnnenoKflt,ı. (H) /Emma: hi:c Sa:t esidi)eno:kdı./


But nothing was heard.

IIIoHHa-fla o n ap xhm 3aT BunMeibımvnaıepHHH aÜTflbmap. (O )


/Sonno-do olor hi:£ 8a:t bilmeyâ:nniklerini aytdılar./
Even then, they said that they didn’t know anything.
PRONOUNS

Pronouns take the place of nouns, but do not give the names of persons, place;,, things,
states, processes, ideas, and so on. They may serve as the subject, object or atribute,
but rarely as the predicate of a sentence.
Türkmen has personal pronouns (Men /men/ 'I', cen /0en/ 'you , ete.),
demonstrative pronouns (6y /bu:/ 'this', nıojı /Sol/ 'that', ete.), a reflexive pronoun (es
/ö:8/ 'self) and inteırogative pronouns (khm /kim/ 'who', naıvıe /nâ:me/ 'what\ ete.).

Personal Pronouns

Personal pronouns substitute for nouns designating persons and things. Türkmen
pronouns reflect person (first, second, third) and number (singular, plural) and uppear in
case forms, but rarely take possessive and plural endings.

MeH /men/1 Ö H3/bi8/ we


ceH /0en/ you CH3 /0i8/ you
o n /o l/h e, she, it onap/olor/they

The first person pronouns MeH /men/ T and 6«3 /biS/ 'w e' funetion as their
counterparts in English.

MeH KJiacMMtüflaH ÖMp oraaHH xajıaHpfltiM. OraaH repMereöflH.


(O) /Men kıla0xmı85an bir oglonı ha:laya:rdım. Oglon görmögöydü./
I used to like a boy in our elass. The boy was good-looking.

T y u ConTanceM yıııtn a n im e KaKtın: - *IeK b u h u h ! M eH rbipnaK xeM G o n ca n ,


m ep n raT K a n y n u n a r e p a HMKajraıUMacan, MeHHH snıtiMa rejiM epcm ı! - flHtiıınflMp.
(N ) /G ü l 0 olta:n 8 öyü n ü q e lin e k a k ıp " C e k e liğ i! M e n g ım a k h e m bol0 om , seri:gat
kan u :n u n o görii: nika:lasm a0arj, menir) yarn u n a gelm erSir)!"/
Slapping Soltansöyün’s hand, Gül said "Hands offl Even though I’m a slave, if
you don’t marry me according to the laws of the Shariat, you won’t get near me!"
['come to the side of me']

Xa3Mp on huihhm ıyrapbin rejmnflH. Meıuı repyn epaH öereıiflH. (TV16.2)


/HâSir ol i:îini gutorup gelipdi. Meni görüp öra:n begenni./
Now she had finished work and had come home. Seeing me she was very hnppy.

Xa, KHflH M a n a flyıifflYKJiM. (G) /Ha:, in n i marja dülnüklü./


Yes, now it’s clear to me.
182 Turkmen Reference Grammar

BeMjıe 6epK tmaM Mcnge HKpeflen, Haflitn flepsSıumıre-s? (N)


/Beyle berk mam menne nireden, nâ:dip dörâ:billik-â:?/
But from vvhere and how could such deep tnıst in me arise?

Oji MeHfien yTamm nyp. (G) /Ol mennen utonup du:r./


She’s shy with me.

Bh3 x,33Mp uıy Taöfla MuuıeüsH MacTep 6wneH cex6eTflem 6onMaKMtı.


(TV7.4) /Bi5 hâ:Sir su ta:yda i:sleyâ:n maöter bilen ööhbötdös bolmokcı./
We now vvould like to have a conversation with the boss who vvorks here.

Bh3MH HKMMH3CM MyrajuibiM. JİKHMM3eM stuı Hecne 6 hjihm öepflapHc.


(O) /BiSig iki:mi5em mugollum. Îki:mi8em ya:s neöle bilim beryârriS./
Both of us are teachers. The two of us impart knowledge to the young generation.

Oji 6»î 3h epsn 6epK Tympnu. (N) /Ol bi8i örâ:n berk tutya:rdı./
He was very strict with us. ['He held us very fitmly']

3pTHp anuaMflan rottMan, oraantı 6nae eTMp. (G)


/Erti:r agsamdan gi:jâ: goymarn, oglom biSe yetir./
Not later than tomorrow night, bring the boy to us.

EH3ae TYpKMen anHnöMÜHHfle 38 camı xapn, 36 canbi cec 6ap. (TV1.1)


/BiSSe türkmön elipbiyinne 38 0a:m harp, 36 0a:nı 0e0 ba:r./
We have 38 letters and 36 sounds in the Turkmen alphabet.

Em3 6wp apayBMbin aflaMnap, H3(tH aflaMnap, renıiH ap3yB 3flennn, roK, ÖHsneHeM
6wp C03, 6wp ceTMp rajıctm! (N) /Bİ5 bir ar8uwcul a:damlar, ya8ya:n ardamlar,
gelig ar8uw edeli:r), goy, biSSenem bir 0ö8, bir detir ga:10ın!/
We are people full of fantasies, people who write: come, let’s spin our fantasies,
let them go, and may just one word, one line remain behind us. ['from us']

The use of the second person singular and plural pronouns is govemed more by the
degree of formality in an exchange than by the number of persons. Ceıı /0en/ is used to
address persons wlıo are either close acquaintances or younger than the speaker, or by a
male addressing a younger female. Ch3 /0i8/ is used in situations of formality when a
speaker addresses adult strangers, or when a junior addresses a senior or a female
addresses an older male. Cn3 /0İ8/ functions also as the plural of ceH /0en/. This means
that one vvould address two or more close friends or children by c m /0i5/.

Mapajı, ceH A M aH bi, florpyflanaM Mbuı itypeKflen ceftüsH 3KeHHH- (G)


/Maral, 0en Ama-.nı, dogrudonom cin yürökdön 0öyya:n ekenirj./
Maral, it looks like you really do love Aman with ali your heart.
Pronouns 183

Bax, öanaM, cemin epHHe Men eneH taıcaM 6ojiMaaMH?! (G)


/Wah, ba:lam, 0enig yerirje men ölön bolOom bolmoya:mı?!/
Oh, my child, vrouldn’t it have been better had I died instead of you!
TfeMeH, MeH ceHH Ken Barrnan repMeflHM. (TV7.1)
/Çemen, men Beni köp wagtla:p göımödüm./
Chemen, I haven’t seen you for a long time.
3ii naram aM , cana ese flepMaH 6 ap, u io h h 3Tcen ryTynapcHH, ercaM enüspcMH.
(G) /Ey pa:tısam, Oarja yeke derma:n ba:r, som eBBer) gutulya:r0ırj, yogBom
ölyâ:ı0ii]./
Hey, my king, there’s only one medicine for you, if you take it, then you’ll
recover, othenvise, you’ll die.
IIIoHbi flartiHbi ceH anatican, ohcoh, ceHfle apMan ranM33. (G )
/Som dagmt Ben ala:y0ar], on0oi), 0enne armam ga:ImaS-/
I think if you marry someone like this, then you’ll never wish for anything.
['no wish vvill remain in you']
C m Mana en xapx>ı Tam.ni 6epHH-fls. (G)
/0İ8 maga yo:l harjı tapıp berir)-dâ:./
Just fınd me some money for my trip. [plural: 'you fînd for me']
MHe, luoH yn Y'JMH xeM « H a rç HHHUbra reımHM. (N )
/İne, sonuç 1icii:n hem 0İSİjqyamııjıSa gellim./
So that’s also why I came to you. [plural: 'to the side of you']
CM 3H flomaH ryHYHM3 6HneH M3XHpnH ıyrnaaptıc. (N)
/0i8i doglon güniiıjüS bilen mahirli gutloya:n0./
I sincerely congratulate you on your biıthday. [formal]
MeH CH3H X33Mp TypKMeH 3JIHn6HİİH ÖHJieH TaH L[m flblp»;aK . (TV 1.1)
/Men 0i8i hâ:Sir tiirkmön elipbiyi bilen tanısdırjak./
Fil acquaint you now with the Turkmen alphabet. [plural]
0 3 a n K tı fly3rYHHHH3fle cH3 6m e 6aptm 5H nen aoK flin ibi3, 6m eu « 13e reımn
6nneM30KflMK. (N) /08olkı dü8günür]üB8ö 0i8 biSe barıp biler)8o:kdui)u8, bi8em
0i8e gelip biIem8o:kduk./
Under your previous regime you couldn’t come to us and we couldn’t come to
you. [plural]
MeH X33Hp cH3e TypKMeHMifnMKfle Haxili salam bermelidigini ajdyp
SepeifıtH. (TA15.1) /Men ha:8ir 0iSe türkmöncülükdö na:hili 0ala:m
bermelidigini aydıp bereyin./
Let me now teli you about how one should greet in Turkmen culture. [formal]
184 Türkmen Reference Grammar

- ryp6aHMyxaMMer, MeH CtofleH önp 3aT copaütiH-Jia. (TV12.4)


/'Gurbatnmuhommet, men öiSSen bir 5a:t 8o:royun-lo.'7
"Gurbanmuhammet, let me ask you something, ali right?" [tespectful
(capital letter) and formal: 'ask from you']

Because there is no grammatical gender in Türkmen, the third person singular


pronoun oji /ol/ substitutes for ali nouns and for ali male and female proper names.
Because o j i /ol/ is equivalent to English 'she, he, it', gender must be determined from
context. As m English, the third person plural pronoun ojıap /olor/ refers to 'they'
without regard to gender.

- On etaeHflapMH? - E k , eıc, o ji eüJieHenoK. (G)


/'O l öylönyâ:rmi?" 'To:k, yo:k, ol öylönöno:k."/
'İs he getting married?" "No, no, he isn’t getting married."

Ouyrç ajiMaa;aK raııactı SapMtı? (G) /Onuıj almajak gala:8ı barrmı?/


Is there any fortress that he won’t take? ['a fortress of his not taking']

Xs3wp OHbi-fla resnefepMHUHiep. (G) /Ha:Sir onı-da gö51öyâ:rmisler./


Now apparently they’re looking for him, too.

9xjih 3aT ona h t ropyıiflH. (G) /Âhli 6a:t 0130 ya:t göriinnü./
Ali these things seemed unfamiliar to him.

Onflaıı raMiin ryıynttıı ösmaçeK flsn skchsim. (N)


/Onnon gacıp gutulup biljek dâ:l ekenim./
It tumed out that I couldn’t escape by nınning away from him.

Ojıap yK,aKrtuiflanıtın rynYuiflHnep, Orynre3enM MyiİHypreTflHJiep. (G)


/Olor jakgıllasıp gülüsdülör, OgulgöSölii mü:nürgötdülör./
They laughed uproariously, and they embaırassed Ogulgözel.

O napun 6ijpH - «rapa aıro m » MMXMaHxaHacbi 21-k*;m oKTflöpfla aw jifltı. (N)


/Olorur) bi:ri - "Gara altın" mı:hma:nha:na0ı 21-nji oktyabrda acılh./
One of them-the Black Gold Hotel-was opened on October 21.

blHxa, HimH BenaHBiH orm ı enıınep. O hh eflneHHHpMejiM 6onap, rtıanaptı


eTHiuep, oııapu nypMyuıa MHKapManu 6onap. (TV16.3)
/inha:, inni Wepa:mi] oglı yetiser. Onı öylönnünnölü bolor, gı:81an yetiser, olorı
durmuso çıkarmalı bolor./
Now Wepa’s son here will come of age. It will be necessary to get him married,
and his daughters will come of age, and it will be necessary to marry them off.
Pronouns 185

XaÜHiu sflüapjıepM H , flHÜMeK, Meının aüfltrM aöfltnıiBiM o n a p a apasm 6oıiM ajuu.


(N) /Ha:yıs edyâ:rlermi, diymek, menir) aydım aydısım oloro yaraya:n bolm olı./
If they ask (me to sing this song), that means the way I sing this song mu st be
pleasing to them.

Onapaa B m u fe n anneni öonapflH . Mecenevi,


x e p 6wp H axapw n e 3 B a ı r it Be
xenj(8HMH eKLUenGe ryHM aruıaM ra3am>ı ox;ara arajıapflBi. (H)
/Olordo bisyâ:n her bir naharıg ö:8 wagtı we ölcögü bolordı. Meöelem, hi'.pdâtnig
yeksenbe günü ağsam ga:8anı o:jogo atalardı./
With them, every cooked meal would have its own time and scale. For example,
on Sunday evenings the kettle would be put on the hearth. ['in them' = 'aıııong
them, vvith them']

Tanfcnuıapa tsjih m GepMeK s-fla onap^aH Tan an stmğk y^mh ojıapbi repeıciH OKyB
acöannapu SımeHeM-a yie*;yh 3TMejıımnp. (N)
/T a:h :p lara tâ:lim b e rm e k y a :-d a o lord o n talap e tm e k ü cü :n o lo n g e r e k li o k ııw
e 0 b a :p la n b ilen em -â: ü p jü n etm elidir./
In o rd e r to e d u ca te studen ts o r to m a k e d em an d s o n them , vve m u st su p p ly ıhem at
least vvith th e te x tb o o k s th ey n e ed . ['dem an d s from them']

Beside oji /ol/, the demonstrative pronouns Gy/ıuy /bu:/su:/ 'this' and uıon /sol/
'that' also may refer to 'he' and 'she', and beside on ap /olor/ the demonstrative
pronouns 6 yiiap/uıyjıap/ui0jıap /bulor/sulor/solor/ may refer both to 'they (persons)'
and to 'these/those (things)'.

Con H3Me öonaHM ÖHnitaH eıc. Dlon n m ıa m u p . (TV 13.3)


/0oi) nâ:me bolom bilyâ:n yo:k. Sol gidipdir./
Noone knovvs vvhat happened after that. Appaıently he left.

33M3 xam.m &tn>tıraK ütırnarabiHtt auiHRun, morça 6aptm romynMaKlibu.MM.


(G) /E8i:8 hatmi] yıgıncak yıgnayarnını esidip, soıjo barıp gosulmokcudum.'
Hearing that Eziz Khan vvas gathering the people, I decided to go and join him.
['go to him and join up']

T e n , MeH reneHHMH C y n a p a BnnflHpMatiHH. (G )


/Gel, men gelenimi buloro billirmâ:yin./
So, I shouldn’t let them know I’m here. ['Why don’t I not let them knovv I’ ve
come']

Byjıap u ıeflflio ı, ıtjo ç e ütuı fleB p aH -su ıpeifle Hİtaan re a a n n e p . (N)


/Bulor seydip, nije yıl döwra:n-e!retde yayna:p geSSiler./
They p a sse d se v era l years lik e this in h ap p in ess and prosperity.
186 Turkmen Referenee Grammar

MHe, cepeflim, aKHnnu-xyıııny*;a Maranap, myjıaptı TauuıaMara HeHeH 3He-


aranapu fle3fly-K3? (N) /İne, Seredir), akılh-hu:slujo ca:galar, sulon ta§lama:ga
neneıj ene-atalan dö55ü-ka:?/
Look at these smart, elever children. How could their parents ever abandon them?

florpyetr, MeH nıoJiapuH aTJiapMHaM aflfciMflaH MMKapBiriflbipMH. (H)


/DogruSı, men soloruj] a.'tlanrjam yardımdan cıkanpdırm./
Indeed, it seems I’ve also forgotten their names.

Personal pronouns frequently occur vvith certain particles and suffixes. When the
partide xeM/-aıvı/eM /lıem/-am/em/ 'too, also' occurs after a pronoun, it is fused to it in
spelling and pronunciation: MeHeM /menem/ 'I, too', ÖH3eM /biSem/ 'we, too',
ceHeM/cH3eM /0enem/0i8em/ 'you, too', onaM /onom/ 's/he/it, too', ojıapaM /olorom/
'they, too'. The adverb-forming suffix +Ma/qe /+£a/£e/ is found in vvords Jike ıvıeH'ie
/mence/ 'like me', MeHHHHe /meniıjce/ 'in my opinion', and CH3HG /0i8ce/ 'like you'.
The diminutive-forming suffix +açara3 /+jaga8/ appears in cem rçaras /0enjaga8/ 'just
you' and o>K.ara3 /ojogoS/ 'just s/he/it'. The association (+jimk/jjmk /+lık/lik/) and
privation (+ cu3/cm /+0ıS/0iS/ 'without, not having') suffixes occur in MeHJiHK
/menlik/ 'on my side, with me', MencH3 /men0i8/ 'without me', o jıap ctıs /olor0u8/
'vvithout them', and other vvords. The suffix +flaKbi/naKH /+da:kı/dâ:ki/ ('the one
vvhich is in/at/with') also may be added to the personal pronouns; for example,
ceHflaKH /0endâ:ki/ 'that which belongs to you', 'the one which is with you',
ojıapflaKM /olorda:kı/ 'that vvhich belongs to them', 'the one which is vvith them'.
These forms also appear in the plural; for example, MeııaaKHnep /mendâ:kiier/ 'those
vvho belong to me', 'those vvho are with me', 'my family'.

XaBa, rapaıııctra TypKMeHHCTaHMn acyfla arTjaöiiHa, ene ntnmıiHHe, xauKapa


aöpaftbiHa MeneM cn3qe ryBaHHpMH. (N) /Hawa, garas0ı8 Türkmönii80a:mıj
a:0u:do yagdayma, ör)ö gidisine, halka:ra a:brayına menem 0i8ce guwonya:nn./
Yes, like you, I too am proud of the stable situation in independent
Türkmenistan, of its progress and intemational stature.

MeHJHiK huih 6ap anaMnap caraT 5-ne rencjm. (N)


/Menlik i:§i ba:r a:damlar 0a:gat 5-de geI0in./
Let those persons vvho have business with me come at 5:00.

Ce6s6n 0Jiapcu3 Hiımn OHMa:x;arH repHyn flyp ax6eTOH. (O)


/0eba:bi olor0u8 irsirj ogmojogı gömüp du:r a:hbeti:n./
The reason is it’s obvious that the vvork is not going to be managed wıthout
them.
Pronouns 187

The declined forms of personal pronouns differ in several respects from those of
nouns. The root vowel e /e/ of the first and second person singular pronouns is replaced
by a /a/ ( M a n a /mağa/, c a rç a /Şarja/) with the addition of the dative case suffîx. In
addition, the declined foraıs of the third person pronoun oji /ol/ are based on the steın
oh- /on-/ (see 193) and its dative case form is ona /oıjo/.
Variant pronuncıations of personal pronouns and pronoun formations are heard in
spoken Türkmen. Forms with a double plural in 6n3Jiep /bi51er/ 'we (ali)' and cHsuep
/0i81er/ 'you (ali)' occur in some dialects and occasionally appear in print.

Personal Pronouns in the Genime Case


The genitive case forms o f the personal pronouns are MeHHij /menii)/, çentin /Benirj/,
on yu /onul)/, 6H3HH /bi5irj/, CH3HH /Qi8irj/ and o n a p u n /olorurj/. These forms are
equivalent to the conjoined form o f English possessive pronouns 'm y', 'your',
Tıis/her/its', 'our', 'your', and 'th eir'. To such fornıs m ay be added ö y n a p t ı n
/bulorui]/ and nıynaptııt /sulorui)/ 'their', when referring to persons.
When they are used, pronouns in the genitive case always stand before nouns, verbal
nouns or participles with possessive suffixes. The addition o f such a pronoun may
serve to emphasize or to ensure the identifîcation of the possessor. However, usage
varies from speaker to speaker and from context to context.

MeıiHH on ce3nepjı CH3e aöflactiM reırifep. (G)


/Menig ol 0ö81örü 0i8e aydaOım gelyârr./
I feel like saying those words to you. [literally: 'My saying those words to you']

Bhsuh 6aüJH.narapbiıvıU3H e3yMM3fleH copaMaH, aram rmtiap/ftmep. (N)


/Bi8ir) ba:ylıklarımı5ı ö:SümüS8ön 0o:roma:n, alıp gidyâ:rdiler./
Tfıey were taking away our riches without asking us.

fîoHe Men ceıiHH Tenecjıon HOMepHrçıı 6nneMOK-fla. (TV3.3)


/Yötnö men 0eniıj telefon nomerirji bilemo:k-da:./
But I don’t even knovv your telephone number.

Y33K enyn xyn6aTbinqaıı, aMJiı.K-xopnyrtnmaH con 6y ıııaxep ouyrç resyıte


*;eHHeTJn( TepM 6onyn repyıifliı. (N) /U8ok yo:luıj hupbotunnon, a:clık-
ho:rlugunnon 0og bu saher onur) göSünö jennetirj tö:ru bolup görünnii./
After the long road’s sufferings and hardships, this city seemed to her eyes like
the seat of honor in Paradise.

Ilfctıutıpflamtrn sRtmttm ryppynjıep 6yjıaptıi( resHYHe apaMüflU. (G)


/Pısırdasıp ediiyârn gürrürjlör buloruıj gövvniinö yaramadı./
They didn’t like the whispering and talking going on. ['did not please their
breast']
188 Turkmen Reference Grammar

T e p , ıvıynyn K an ötın fla hoxmjim ryBaHM 6 ap. (N )


/Gör, munuıj kalbınna nârhili guvvonc ba:r./
See what pride there is in her heart.

3 a T TeneMeJiH flaJi cyB y a ı n .


3M M a my cyB reıınpeıuıtepH y^ h h , m yjıa p u rç
tim TeneMem öonapuc. (TV17.2)
ry p G a c tm a , KpaH Ttm a, morça
/5a:t tölömölü da;l 0uw ücü:n. Emma: su 0uw geçirenleri iicü:n, sulorui]
turboSuno, kırantma, sorjo bi8 tölömöLii bolya:nö./
We don’t have to pay a thing for water. But for their bringing in this vvater, and
their pipes and their faucets, for this vve have to pay.

Generally, the pronouns in the genitive case are used vvith verbal nouns, participles
and particles as a means of making clear the possessor of such actions and states.

MeH cenHH B on m yn a ayiuy™11 öifneMOK. (G)


/Men 0enirj bolsuıjo düşünüp bilemo:k./
I cannot understand your behavior. ['your (vvay of) being']

OHyn araMflttrtiHtı fleppeB TaHafltnu. (H)


/Onui] a:gamdıgını deırevv tanadım./
I recognized immediately that he vvas my older brother. ['his being my older
brother']

06auapbiMM3a, maxepjıepMMH3e Ha3ap aiinacan, OJiapurç aöaflaHJiaıuflLipfcin-


HHfltıruHH repMeK 6onap. (TV 12.5) /0:bolorumu8o, sâherierimiBe naSar aylaöar),
olorui) abadanla!dınlya:ndıgmı görmök bolya:r./
If you take a look at our villages and our cities, you can see that they are being
made to prosper. ['see their being made to prosper']

In the spoken language and in some styles of vvriting, some of the possessive forms
of the pronouns are clipped or abbreviated. Thus, the forms Men /mei]/ 'my', cen /0ei)/
'your' and on /oq/ 'his, her, its' are used instead of MeHHH /menirj/, cemin /Oenirj/ and
QHyn /onurj/ (see 71). Similarly, for some speakers the fonn 6h3 /biS/ 'our' may stand
for 6m3hi( /biSij]/ and the form CH3 /0i8/ 'your' for cıi3nn /0iSir|/; for example, 6 m3
ofia /bi8 o:bo/ 'our village' instead of 6m3HH oSaMbis /biSLg o:ba:mı8/.

Oji Men flypMyma ntiKaHbiMM ömıeHOK 3KeH. (O)


/Ol met) durmuso çıkanımı bileno:k eken./
It tumed out he didn’t know I’d götten married. [’about m y getting manied']

KaKaM ypma niTflH, Men KaKaM. Ktıpfc aııiHHfla. 03H 6np Myn flOKy3 My3
Y^rcayı Mtuifla öonaH. (TV 13.3) /Ka:kam urso gitdi, mer) ka:kam. Kırk yarsınna.
Ö:8ü bir nriiıj dokuS yüS ücünjü yılla bolon./
My father vvent to war, my father. At the age of forty. He vvas bom in 1903.
Pronouns 189

- CeH H3M3 ;x;ı>iKi,[p:*;£irLin TyTH? (N) /"0en nâ:mâ: jıkırjıgıjrj tutya:?"/


"What are you laughing at?" ['your laughing at what?']

- SL OH H3MeflHTHHeM ÖIUleHOKMbl? (N)


/T a : orj nâ:mediginem bilerjo:kmı?"/
"Or don’t you know what it is, either?" ['its what']

OnuaM 63 TapfciXLi 6ap. (N) [ourçaM < onyn xeM]


/Orjıjom ö:8 ta:n:hı ba:r./ [ojgıjom (< *onurjgam) < onug hem]
It has its own history.

Turkmen adds the relation suffbc + k m /k h /+kı/ki/ 'that is, which is' to the şenitive
case form of the personal pronouns to avoid the repetition of a noun. Such foıms are
equivalent to the absolute form of English possessive pronouns in the meaning s 'mine,
yours, his, hers, its, ours, yours, theirs'. In the spoken language, these foraıs may be
abbreviated to Meı<KH /meıjki/, ceHKiı /0ei)ki/, ohkli /oıjkı/ and ona^Ktı /olorıkı/.

MeH BaüpaMa xep BarT xeM “MeH ceıiHHKH, ceH xeM MeHHHKH” flHİiıtn
aöflapttH. (G )
/Men Bayrama her wagt hem "Men 0enir)ki, Öen hem meniıjki" diyip aydya 'in./
I’m always telling Bayram 'I ’m yours and you’re mine."

- EepeKejuıal-flKÜHn, aflaMCU rbirBipbumtıp.-JlİHÖMeK, ceH oma, ax;eMHn


6H3HHKHfle auıaMartma rapuiM flan-fls. (N) /'Berekella:!" diyip, a:dam0ı
gı:gmpdır. "Diymek, 0en onno, ejemiıj iSigkide yarsamagına garsı da:l-la:."/
"Bless you!" her husband shouted. "That means you really don’t mind my mother
living vvith us." ['in (the home vvhich is) ours']

- Xo-oji rynSaTap neTKiı HaÖ3amı 3yppy*;eK eti 6n3HHKHflHp. (N)


/"Ho-ol günbatar Cetki naySalı Sürrüjök öy biSirjkidir."/
'That conical-shaped house vvith the spire to the west över there might be ours."

For paradigms of the personal pronouns vvith case suffixes, see 577.
190 Türkmen Reference Grammar

Demonstrative Pronouns
Demonstrative pronouns distinguish locations of objects or persons, cali attention to
objects and persons, or substitute for nouns.
In Türkmen, the demonstratives 6y /bu:/ and ray /su:/ 'this' generally qualify
objects close to the speaker, while on /ol/ and mo/uıojı /5o:/sol/ 'that' generally draw
attention to those farther away. In the speech of many Türkmen, 6y /bu:/ and uıy /su:/
are interchangeable, while the pronouns oji /ol/ and uıon /sol/ also may be used
interchangeably with distinctions indicated only by intonation and style. The
demonstrative pronouns also may be used to qualify or designate a person or persons.

6y /bu:/ this o ji /ol/ that

my /Su:/ this mo/nıon /So:/?ol/ that

One of the functions o f the demonstrative pronouns is to draw attention to topics or


objects in the range of vision or hearing of the speaker and the person spoken to. In
this case, the pronoun is placed before the noun designating the object.

MHe, my rantfflaH rap, x m 3amaH ro p m a. (G)


/İne, su gapıdan gi:r, hi:c Sa:tdan gorkmo./
Novv, go through this door and don’t be afraid of anything.

By florptı, Mm 6y ceanep 6wıeH MJianaııiMaH flypyn GmiMepHH. (N)


/Bu dogn, men bu 9ö51ör bilen ılalasma:n durup bilmerin./
This is true, I can’t disagree with these words.

- A, my narraHbm khjiocm m ne, X33np n a rra 6axacu? (TV7.3)


('A, su pagtamır) kilo0ı nâ:ce, hâ:8ir pagta bahaSı?"/
"And how much is a kilo of this cotton- the price of cotton now?"

When the existence of the topics or objects is known only to the speaker or writer-
that is, within her or his "internal" range of vision or hearing- usually the person being
addressed imagines and accepts their existence.

By cfcmar 6wpmve. reaeK raHTanaHHM, 3MMa neftfla 6epMefln. (G)


/Bu 0ı:nag bimâ:ce geSek gaytalannı, emma: peyda: bermedi./
This experiment has been repeated several times, but hasn’t given any results.

On arbip ryHJiep reınm rHTflK. (O) /Ol ağır güntör gedip gitdi./
Those difficult days dıd pass.
Pronouns 191

In another usage, the topics or objects referred to may not be in the range of vision
or hearing, but both speaker and spoken to accept their existence.

IHeiix Hes^MeflflMH Ky6pa 6 y ce B e u ıe bjih aparan raT H aıu tırm u p Be M OHronnap


TapanuHRaH enflypHJiMnflMp. (N) /S e y b Nejmeddin K u b ra: bu 0öwösö eli y a ra g lı
gatn asıpd ır w e mongollor tarapınnan öllürülüpdür./
Sheyh Nejmedin Kubra apparently took part in this fight with weapon in hand and
vvas killed by the Mongols.

«Illy aparaTHaıuMKJiapMn Mynqan öettnsK-na ocnypımMerum my6xmemıece


6onap.» (TV14.3)
/"Su aragatnasıManrj munnon beyla:k-da: ö60ürülnıögünö siibhölönmöOö bolor."/
'Tt may not be doubted that these relations really will develop in the future."

The pronouns 6y /bu:/ and my /su:/ also are used to refer to a topic, object or
phenomenon that stands at the çenter of attention. Oji /ol/ and mosı /sol/ are used to
indicate topics, objects or phenomena just mentioned or mentioned in previous talk. In
this case, the pronoun substitutes for the noun designating the object.

MyHaan cn u p T xeM sM ene re-mpMeıc m y m k h h . (G)


/Munnon i0pirt hem emele getirmek mümkü:n./
One could also produce alcohol from this.

A h th öh otm k XQKMeH repeK .Mufliı m y 3ar ra$TajıaHMa3 msu iho hm jpraÜMejjM.


(TV17.3)
/Antibiotik hökma:n gerek. înni su 5a:t gaytalanmaS ya:h som icâ:ymeli./
You definitely need antibiotics. Now you should take them so that this thing
won’t come back.

I II oji BaTaHH xeMM3MH3 üypeK flen ceÜM eım , on flaK tı 3 flw rib H n u ın ep e fleı? re 3
örnıeH rapaM aJiii. (N) /Sol W ata m h em m â:m i8 yü rö k d ö n O öym ölü, on n a:kı
ed ily a :n i:sle re det] gö8 b ilen gara m alı./
Each of us has to sincerely love that Homeland and at the same time look at the
vvork being done there.

M ine rHTM3HK3M o j ıa p u KJBMara B a rru M öonMaap, m ım e n reneHHMflen con


K B ap tiH . (T16.2) /l: se gitm a:n kâ :m o lo n y u w m a :g a w a g tu n bolm oyarr, i:sden
g e le n im d e n 0 o g y u w y a:rm ./
I don’t have time to wash them before I go to vvork, I wash them after I come
(home) from vvork.
3as;e, ohm stm ü k 6ojra;aK BenMH, U ene Cana H3Me flnepK 3? (G)
/Eje, onı etmek boljok welin, yö:nö 0apa: nâ:me diyerka:?/
Mother, we can do that, but only- what will Sapa say?
192 Türkmen Reference Granımar

floraHoraaHJiapHM toh remıecHH-s raiMeflHJiep BeıiHH, «Ohum orypnaHfltı,


MyHbiM itHTflH» flHtİKn, toMli 6ynan ömmuııep. (N)
/Dogonoglonlorum toyo gelme0in-â: gelmediler welin, "Onum ogurlonm, munum
yitdi" diyip, toyı bula:p billiler./
My cousins didn’t even come to the toy, and yet, they were able to spoil the toy
by saying "That of mine was stolen, this of mine was stolen."

Beside the Standard forms on /ol/ and m on /sol/ exist the less commonly used
variants o /o/ and mo/ıuyjı /so:/sui/, which do not differ in meaning.

EflH auıtiHflaH 6amnan, MHe, MeKflen Mtınnaptı Saıujıaap. O-fla o h fttuıa ronatî
anap. (TV16.1) /Yedi ya:smnan basla:p, ine, mekdep, mekdep yıllan baslaya:r.
O-do o:n yıla goloy alya:r./
Starting from age seven, you see, school years start. And that takes close to ten
years.

MeH ceH Y'flineM oflyp-6yftyp anuS-a ÖHJiepflHM. (H)


/Men 0en ücü:nöm odur-budur ahb-a: bilerdim./
I could at least bring this or that for you, too. ['that or this']

Açtın ÖH3HH 6aıııapaM>K,arHMBi3 uıo-fla. (G)


/A0ıl bi8ir| basara:yjagımı5 so-do./
And that is the very thing we can manage to do.

n io fleBypne Meımn roıııyH ryjınyrbiHa nartıpbnifltuıap. (N)


/So döwürdö menii) gıjakcımı gosun gulluguno ca:gırıpdılar./
At that time my gıjak-player had been called up to army service, [the rtı»;aK
/gıjak/ is a type of fiddle]

Mh flnMcei( ıuyjı flypaH HaüflaH 6»ıp Kace MueüıiH. (TV15.5)


/İc diy0er) sul duron ca:ydan bir kâ:0e iceyin./
If you want me to drink, Fil have a cup of that tea sitting there.

For many speakers of Türkmen, when 6y /bu:/ and my /su:/ are used one after the
other in a sentence they indicate two objects in immediate proximity, but the object
referred to as 6y /bu:/ is closer to the speaker than the object referred to as my /su:/.

By - my TaMtm hmhhaskm hh yıibi x,ati. (G)


/Bu: - su ta:ımi) icinnii:ki irj ulı ja:y./
This is the largest room in this house.

When the vowel in on /ol/ and uıon /sol/ is pronounced longer and accompanied by
a gesture, the pronoun refers to the farthest object indicated.
Pronouns 193

Dlon flenaHH repüspMMU? Do you se e that hill?


/Sol d ep aın i göryâ:rm ii]?/
H I oji flensH iı repifopMMn? Do you se e t h a t h ill, ö v e r there?
/So:l d ep â :n i göryâ.-roıirj?/

The pronoun x o j i /horl/ 'that' is used primarily when gesturing or motioning


toward objects in the field of vision.

AH a, KaKa, x o ji rantiHWU( a rattım a rapaByn flypaH A m ıa r y jıtm tıp , a h ü h ii, ona


3JIHHM y3aT fltı.(G) /Ana, ka:ka, h o :l gapr.mrj agSınna garawul duron
A:nnaguludur, diyip, oıjo elini uSotdı./
"There he is, father, the sentry, standing at that door there, is Annaguh," lıe said,
gesturing at him. ['extending his hand at him']

- X o -o ji ryHÖarap mctkh Hatoantı 3yppya;eK eit 6M3HHKHHHp. (N)


/“Ho-ol günbatar cetki naySalı Büırüjök öy biöirjkidİT,"/
'T h at conical-shaped house with the spire to the west över there might be ours."

The demonstrative pronouns take plural, possessive and case suffixes. Possessive
and case suffixes are added to altered stems:

Pronoun Possessive/Case Stem Plural

6y /bu:/ MyH- /m un-/ öyjıap /bulor/


my /su:/ myH- /sun-/ ıuynap /sulor/
on /o l/ oh- /on-/ onap /olor/
ihoji /sol/ uioh- /son-/ uıonap isolor/

The demonstrative pronoun 6y /bu:/ forms the basis of the adverbs Seüne /beyle/
'such', 6 eK(jnp /beydir/ 'thus, in this way, such' and GeftnaK /beylâ:k/ (=
6eiijıernrnnc /beylegigine/, 6y epuK /bu yeri:kD Tiere, in this direction, this way',
and the postposition öeÜJieKM /beyleki/ 'other (than), except'. The pronoun ray /;u:/ is
the basis of similar constructions, including uıeftjıe /şeyle/ 'such, like this',
uıeünejiMK Cmıen /seylelik bilen/ 'in this/that way; as a result', uıeiıaıın /seycıp/ or
uıefiueflM n /seyledip/ (< meiijıe 3^nrı /şeyle edip/) 'in this way, like so',
ıneüjıejiHKfle /seylelikde/ 'so, as a result', mefîjıaK /seylâ:k/ (= raojt epnı< /sol
yeri:k/) 'here/there, in this/that direction, this/that way' and meüjıe-ne 6onca /seyle-de
bolöo/ 'nonetheless'.
194 Türkmen Reference Gramınar

Eeftfie 3p6eT santapa cm H enen e n 6epflHnn3, ftbrruaKnaptntbia saflbtubo


ÖOJIMaHpMbl? (G)
/Beyle erbet Şartlara 0i8 n e n e ı j yo:l berdiıjiS, yıgnaklarırjıS 8a:dıp8 bohnoya:rmı?/
How could you have let such bad things happen, haven’t you had any meetings or
anything like that?

03an xıw-xaMaH nıeüne 3aTixap öojiMaHflbi. (N)


/O8ol hkc-hacan şeyle 8a:tlar bolma:nm./
Such things had never ever happened before.

illetine aflmıce Hccbncnapbtnbt3 ^aırr khp ^ hkmsh , onapflaH onaT h c renep flypap.
(N ) /Şeyle edilOe ya00ıklanrjı8 calt kir]ıkmâ:n, olordon orpt ı:0 geler duror./
If done in this way, your pillows won’t get dirty quickly, and a fine scent will
come from them.

Illy narraH bt fibiriin my Taiifla YÜmypHn roıoncHHbra. U lonapbt hdmb ymiH


uıettnnn yihnypHn roitffyubra? (TV7.3) /Su pagtaını yığıp Su ta:yda ii:süriip
goyııpOuıjuS. Solon nii:me ücü:n Seydip iksürüp goyduıjuS?/
It looks like you’ve harvested this cotton and bunched it ali up here. Why did you
bunch it ali up like this? ['these (bolls of) cotton' = 'it']

The demonstrative pronouns also combine with various derivational suffixes; for
example, +flaKbi/33KM /+da:kı/dâ:ki/ forms MyunaKbi/nıyHaaKbi /munna:kı/sunna:kı/
'which is in this' and onaaKbi/ınonAaKbi /onna:kı/sonna:kı/ 'vvhich is in that';
+w,ara3 forms 6y*;ara3/ınyjrçara3 /bujogoS/sujogoS/ 'this little one' and o ^ a r a 3
/ojogo8/ 'that little one' (the final jj drops from ınyn /sul/ and oji /ol/); +Ha/ne
/+ca/ce/ forms ıwyHIta/ıuyH«ıa /mun£o/sunco/ 'like this, such, this much' and
onna/monMa /onco/sonSo/ 'like that, such'; and +Jibi/nn /+lı/li/ forms on'iaKJibi
/oncoklı/ 'so much'.

H lyuna xaroc apKacbmfla nypKa, smı flemeTH asra MSKepHn 6omna3. (G)
/Sunco halk arkaOmna du;rka:, ya;s döwlötii ayağa cököriip bolmoS./
It’s impossible to force a young State to its knees when so many people support it.
['this much of the people']

Mene m onna nyntı 6n3e xmic kum SepMeffM. (N)


/Yö:nö sonCo puh biSe hi:c kim bennedi./
But no one gave us that much money.

MyH«ıa-MyHqa gonca, e3YMK3 onapapuc. (N )


/Munco-munco bo!0o, ö:8ümti5 orjororu0./
If it’s this much, we ’U manage it ourselves.
Pronouns 195

i t e , flwne m y ^ ara3 eıcex;e Mttcarma-fla flypMyıua r e m p m ü m Miunepfle khmhh


63x6MflMHMn eıme roıonsHflfcirbi aJtflMH repYHÜap. (N)
/İne, dirçe-sujogoS yekeje mı0a:lla-da durmuso gecirilya:n irslerde kimirj
barhbkdinii] örjdö goyulya:nnıgı a:ydıt) görünyârr./
Here, j u s t i n t h i s single little example is clearly visible whose interests are being
promoted in the vvork being carried mit.

Xa3Hp 6onca MeH CH3e MaHaTJiaptı repKe3epHH Be onaaKbi SeıunncnepH


AYiUYHflHpepHH. (TP2.2)
/Hâ:5ir bolöo men 0i8e manatlan görköSöriin we onna:kı bellikleri düsünnüröriin./
And now I’U shovv you the manats and explain the symbols on them.

Omtanjibt flapttTLrGepMsn! (G) /Oncoklı da:ngıbermâ:i}!/


You shouldn’t vvoıry s o much!

The locative and ablative case forms of the demonstrative pronouns form the
conjunction OHfla /onno/ 'but, stili' (see 444, 450) and the adverbs Oiiga /onno/ 'there'
and oHflaH/moHHaH (coh) /onnon/sonnon (0orj)/ 'after that, from then on' (see 366).
The genitive case forms are used with ceıtain postpositions; for example, ınoHyn Y™'f
/sonurj ücürn/ 'therefore, that’s why' (see 399).

Demonstrative Pronouns in the Genitive Case


The demonstrative pronouns M y u y if /munug/, m yııyn /sunuıj/, oH yrç /omt}/, m o n y n
/sonui]/, in their genitive case forms, may be placed before nouns, verbal nouns or
participles ending in the third person possessive suffix to express the meaning 'its',
vvhile the forms 6 y j ı a p u n /bulorurj/, u ı y j ı a p t r u /sulorug/, o n a p u n /olorug/ and
m o n a p u H /soloruıj/ have the meaning 'their'.
The demonstrative pronouns in their genitive case forms (except xoji /ho:l/) may
behave as nouns vvhen the suffix + k u / kh /+kı/ki/ is added to them: MyııynKtr/
uıynyuKbi /munurjkı/sunuıjkı/ 'this one’s' and 0HynKu/ui0HynKtı /onurjkı/sonuıjkı/
'that one’s'. These forms usually are pronounced MynKH /murjkı/, mynKbi /suıjkı/,
ohku /or|kı/ and uiohkm /sotjkı/.
For paradigms of the demonstrative pronouns vvith possessive and case suffixes, see
578.
196 Turkmen Referenee Grammar

Reflexive Pronoun
A reflexive pronoun substinıtes for a person or thing and is used as an object to refer to
the subject of a sentence. In English, 'myself', 'itself', and so on, are reflexive
pronouns.
The Turkmen reflexive pronoun is «3 /ö:ö/ 'self', which takes both possessive and
case suffixes. In terms of their referenee, use of the Turkmen pronoun conforms rather
closely to that of English 'self'.

Reflexive Referenee

On 83H MaııiHH Se^epMsp. On eayHH ycca xacanjıaap.


/Ol ö:Sü masr.n bejeryâ:r./ /Ol ö:8ünü u06o ha0a:playa:r./
He himself repairs ears. He considers himself a repairman.

Reflexive Possessive Referenee

On 63 MauiMHBi fleBynflH. On 63 MamuHtiHH öe^epHsp.


/Ol ö:8 ma5ı:m döwüllü./ /Ol ö:S ması:mm bejeryârr./
His own car is broken. He repairs his own car.

Reflexive Possessive Referenee in Object Phrases

Oji 63 rbi3bfflHH MaıııtiHBi cypeHHHH repflH.


/Ol ö:8 gı:8ınıj) ması:nı Oürönünü gördü./
He saw his own daughter driving the car.

Oji rtobiHMrç 63 MauıtmuHM cypeHHHH repflH.


/Ol gr.Sınıi) ö:S m asımım Oürönünü gördü./
He saw his daughter driving her own car.

On e3 rti3tnn,ın 03 MamuHUHM cypfeHHHM repn».


/Ol ö:5 gı:Sjnıq ö:8 ması:nııu 0üryâ:nini gördü./
He saw his own daughter driving her own car.

In its possessive forms, e3 /ö:8/ may stand after the subject (oji e3H /ol ö:8ü/ 's/he
herself/himself [repairs ears]') or as the object (on 83yHH /ol ö:Sünü/ 's/he [considers]
her/himself) of a sentence as a means of referring action to the subject. This usage may
be referred to as "reflexive referenee."
Pronouns 197

In its simple form, ea may stand before a noun vvith a possessive suffix serving as
subject or object of a sentence to refer possession of that noun to the sub;ect (03
MauibiHbi /öt8 masr.m/ 'his/her own car [is broken]', on 63 M a m u ıı u n t ı /ol ö:8
masırnım/ 's/he [repairs] her/his own car"). This may be called "reflexive po;; sessive
referenee."
The reflexive pronoun also may appear before a noun vvith a possessive suffix
serving as the subject or object of a predicate in an object phrase to refer possession
back to the subject of the sentence (on 83 rbi3U M auıuH biH bi /ol ö:8 gı:8ı m£.;ı:nını/
's/he [saw] her/his own daughter [driving] the car', on ru3bi 03 MauibiHUHU /ol gı:8ı
ö:S ması:nını/ 's/he [saw] the daughter [driving] her/his own car', on 03 n.i3bi 03
MaulUHUHU /ol ö:8 gı:Sı ö:8 masımını/ 's/he [savv] her/his own daughter [driving]
her/his car"). This may be called "reflexive possessive referenee in an object phra;;;."

Reflexive Referenee
The reflexive pronoun 03 /ö:8/ with a possessive ending may appear after the subject of
a sentence to specify that subject as the performer of the action. Frequenlly, the
reflexive pronoun itself serves as the subject of a sentence.

MeHeM M npan BenH, florpycbtH H aÜTcaM, m sh -s iiioh m c a T u n fltmMacaM, 03


h ö h m h 63YM sKrepM n 6nnjK;eK lyM aııtiM eK. (G)
/Menem mi:ra:p vveli, dogruOunı ay00am, men-â: som 0atıp dı:nma0am, ö:J.
ya:bımı ö:8üm eygerip biljek guma:nun yo:k./
I’m an irrigationist too, however, to teli the truth, I-well, if I don’t seli it and get
rid of it, I don’t guess I can handle my own canal. ['I myself can handle']

3üceM ceH 03YH raüflbin 6 n ro ;eK -fla? (G)


/Ey0em 0en ö:8ür) gaydıp biljek-dâ:?/
But can you really go back yourself? ['you yourself can go back']

C e 3 aüflbin re n e n 6 o n can w 3,6 axaM M 03YM K ecx,eK . (N )


/0ö8 aydıp gelen bol0or|uS, bahamı ö:8iim ke0jek./
If you came seeking marriage, I vvould set my price myself. [1 myself woukl set
my price']

Myıma-Myıma 6onca, 03YMH3 onapapbic. (N)


/Muneo-munco bolöo, ö:8ümü8 oıjororuö./
If it’s this much, we’ll manage it ourselves. [ 'w e ourselves will manage it']

Oıibi 03YH flY3e™ ece,t- x m KMMflY3e™ e3>xaH oryn. (BH)


/Om ö:8iir) dü5ötmö0ör|, hi:c kim dü8ötmö8, ha:n oğul./
If you don’t correct it yourself, no one else vvill correct it, dear son. ['if you
yourself don't correct it']
198 Türkmen Reference Grammar

KaKaM ypma nrrflH, Men KaKaM. Kupıc suiHHaa. 03H 6np Myn flOKy3 ffy3
y ıp ra t# Hhinjıa öonan. (TV13.3) /Ka:kam ıırso gitdi, meıj ka:kam. Kırk ya:sınna.
Ö:8ti bir müıj doku5 yti8 ücünjü yılla bolon./
My father went to war, my father. At the age of forty. He was bom in 1903. ['He
himself]

The reflexive pronoun ®3 /ö:5/ with a possessive ending also may appear as the
direct (accusadve case) or indirect (dative or ablative case) object of the predicate of a
sentence to refer the action back to the subject.

MHflH axjnı 3aT ÖK3HH 03yMH3e Saratı. (N)


/İsmi âhli 8a:t biSirj ö:8iimü8ö baıglı./
Now everything depends on us ourselves.

BHJiennKfl3KM K3pxana Hiııe 6aum an , raim i n-fla neHDKjıpe S n o r t ııa ı TaflnpnaHaa


oJiapttu xeM oBaflan, xeM enwn, B3yHe HYinitsu n.iM M an.1 GoıoHtıa xeM
öefljıeRHHepaeH ap3aH 5oJi*;aKflb[rbuttı üy3yMHH y ıp y H a aiiflatİMH. (N )
/Bilelikdarki kâ:rha:na i:se basla:p, gapı ya:-da penjire bulogum tayya:rlanna
olorui] hem owodon, hem yerçil, ö:Sünö düsyâ:n gımmatı boyunco hem
beylekilerden arSarn boljokdugunı yiiSiimüi) ugnıno aydayın./
Let me say at once that when the joint enterprise starts to work and produces door
or window units, they will be both attractive and easy (to install) and, relative to
their value, also cheaper than similar ones. ['value placed on them themselves']

Ewp 3afla x,yfla Gereıriisu Be K3Te 03- 03yM aen a3ax,uraM Sonca pastı öojih h . (N)
/Bir Sa:da juda: begenyâ:n we kâ:te ö:8-ö;8ümdön a:8ajıgam bolBo ra:8ı bolya:n./
I’m very happy about on e thing and sometimes I’m even a little bit satisfied with
myself. ['with me myself]

03YMH nynitofle h u 6 a rrn b i anaM x a c a n sflMspflMM. ^ a r a ran#H bstimh, e3yMHH


ftn u h im a m n ır h iM h i nıoHfla S jm h h m . (N) /Ö :8üm ü d ün yârd e ig b a g tlı a:d am h a8 a:p
e d y â :rd im . Ğ a :g a g a :llı w e lin , ö:8üm iii] yalrçısan h gım ı son n o b illim ./
I considered myself the happiest person in the world. I became pregnant, however,
and I realized then that I had made a mistake.

Mhhh B h 6 h 03YHH 6arrjıı>ı caünpM MKa? (O )


/İnni Bi:bi ö:Siinü bagtlı Oayyatmuka:?/
Does Bibi really consider herselî happy now?
Pronouns 199

Reflexive Possessive Reference


When the reflexive pronoun 03 /ö:5/ is placed before a noun vvith a possessive suffix
vvhich serves as the subject of a sentence, it specifies that the subject possesses that
noun.

3K,. Typ6aHTfcuıtı»;oBaHi,ın moBnu nmneMerHHe rapaMa3flaH, 0Hyn ©3


npoGneManaptı, e3yHH TOJtrynmiipHH Mecenenepu 6ap. (N)
ff. Gurba:ngılı:jowa:nır) sovvlı i:slemegine garamaSSan, onur) ö:S probIema:lan,
ö:8ünü tolgunnuryam meOeleleri ba:r./
In spite of her successful work, J. Gurbangıhjova has her o t o problems and
concems that trouble her.

Onapaa GmıttsH xep Gnp Haxapı,ın 03 B a m ı Be e m e n i öompffhi. Meceneu,


xerm3HMH eranenee r p m anuaM naaHH ox;ara aTanapfltı. (H)
/Olordo bisyârn her bir nahani) ö:8 wagtı we öKögü bolordı. Meöelem, hepdâ:nir)
yekîenbe gtinü ağsam ga:Sam o:jogo atalardı./
With them, every cooked meal vvould have its own time and scale. For example,
on Sunday evenings the kettle vvould be put on the hearth. ['its own time and
scale vvould be']

The reflexive pronoun 03 /ö:8/ also may appear before a noun vvith a possessive
suffıx serving as the direct (accusative case) or indirect (dative case) object of a sentence
to specify that the noun is possessed by the subject.

nyuiMaHHMbirç 03 aorbiMbin amartmflaj(BirtiHH 6HJiM3HflMpMiı. (G)


/Dusmamımııj 8:8 ayagımırj asa.-gınnadıgım bilma:nnirin./
It seems I didn’t knovv that the enemy vvas under my own feet.

SnöeTfle, on R esner 63 nynym.1 raMMaımnc xaKMYHHe caTMara rtratiKnaHap.


(N) /Elbetde, ol dövvlöt ö:8 pulum gımmathk hökmünnö 6atma:ga./
Of course, that State is interested in selling its own money at value.

Onap cana rynep My3 Cepöapnep, 83 anagaJiapuHM, tiMKMpnepHHM nattnauıapnap.


(N) /Olor Barja gülör yü8 berya:rler, ö:8 aladalannı, pikirierini pa:ylasya:rlar./
They look at you with smiling faces, and they share their own concems and
thoughts.

Reflexive Possessive Reference in Object Phrases


To indicate that the subject of a sentence possesses the subject in an object phrase,
Turkmen places the reflexive pronoun 03 16:8/ vvith genitive case suffix (Standard) or
vvithout genitive case suffbc (spoken) before the possessed noun or participle in the
object phrase.
200 Türkmen Referenee Grammar

OHconaM, 83YHH3HH| aöflHM flepeflfen 6ojiMan.ınti3aM axMan? (N)


/Onöorjom, örStirjüBür) aydım dörödya:n bolmoguıjuSom ahma:l?/
So then, maybe you also composed songs yourself? ['your own composing']

CTajiMH b3yhhh Bepııa SapaflaKtı KapapbiHM srriipflbi nu&ım nmcHp sTMeıc


caganiiK Sonapan. (N) /I88alin ö:6ünür) Beriya ba:rada:kı kara:nnı yatındı diyip
pikir etmek 0a:dalık bolordı./
It would have been naive to think that Stalin was going to lay aside his own
decision regarding Beriya.

MeH B3YMHH H3Me y' imh cyfla MartıptiJMimurLiMa xmt aKbin empMn SitnMeflHM.
(O) /Men ö:8ümür) na:me 1icii:n 8udo ca:gınlya:nmgıma hi:c akıl yetirip
bilmedim./
I couldn’t comprehend at ali why I was being summoned to court. ['my own being
summoned']

Barr renep, Memtn rtotiMaM ynanap. 0 3 KaKactiHtm GitBenaıiBiK aflenfliırHue


flYiUYHep. (O) /Wagt geçer, menirj gı:8ımam ulolor. 0:8 ka:ka8ınır| bi:wepa:lık
edennigine düsiinör./
Time will pass and my daughter will grow up, too. She will understand that her
father was unfaithful. ['her own father’s being unfaithful']

Oıher Uses o f 03 lö:SI


The third person form (e3H /ö:Sü/) of the reflexive pronoun may appear in possessive
relationship with a preceding noun, pronoun or adverb in the meaning of 'the X itself',
'the very X ' or 'the same X'.

Ohm i u o j i carafltiH 03YHHe caTbirnbi apaöacbiHa cantm , ee CaKan yrpaTflbinap. (G)


/Om Sol 8a:gadııj ö:8ünnö 8atıgcı arabaöma 8ahp, öyö bakam ugıotdulor./
They put him on the seller’s cart at the same hour and sent him tovvard home.

E hjihhh, 6a6a, xyT moHyn 83H MeH. (G)


/Biilirj, ba:ba, hut sonur) ö:Stt men./
You guessed it, grandpa, I’m that very person.

MyHyn 03MxeM :*;eMraeTHMH3MT33enex;eK ryümiH cuacaTflbip. (N)


/Munurj ö:8ü hem JemgıyetimiSi ta:8ele]ek gü:clü 0ıya:8atdır./
This itself is also a strong policy that vvill renevv our society.

M ch nrrx;eK! Xa3npıiH oayune nrraçeKİ (H)


/Men gitjek! Hâ:Siriıj ö:8ünnö gitjek!/
I will go! I'll go this very moment!
Pronouns 201

O h c o h 3 *;eM iın e3H x e w , m y IleB pH 3e flH M sp jıe p , m y TaMfla K ypopT e p , a c jıtı


m o n TaüflaH. (TV13.1) /On0orj ejem ir) ö:8ii h em , su Pöwrü:8ö d iy y â :rle r, :iu ta:yd a
kurort y e r, a01ı s o l ta:ydan ./
And my mother herself- this they cali Pöwrize, a vacation spot here- is oıiginaüy
from there.

By xajiLiHtı 6m3hh xam.wtı raranaptiMbra AMepMKaıiiin 6sm öys fii,umı>ın.iHa


6an>nujıan, coBrar flOKaflbinap. EyHyn e3yHe, HeMe, rypxanqaH ce3Jiep sriujırtı.
(TV12.4) /Bu ha:lı:m biSig hadıcı gı:81anmıS Amerikamıi) bâ:s yü8 yıllığına
bagısla:p, 0owgot dokodulor. Bunuıj ö:8iinnö, neme, Gurha:nnan OöSlör yaSıIgı./
Our caıpet-weaving girls wove this carpet as a gift in honor of the 500-yeaı
anniversary of America. On this very one, you know, words from the Koran are
written.
MyHyn o3M reqen ötuiflaKa rapaubiHfla oh npoyeırr eHfle SapanUbirtiHtı anrıaflap.
(TV8.3)
/Munui) ö:8ü gecen yıllaka: gara:mrjda o:n proöent örjdö barya:nmgmı ar)ladya:r./
This itself shows that it [the cotton yield] is 10 percent ahead compared to that of
last year.

The reflexive pronoun 63 /ö:8/ 'self' serves as a member of compourıis; for


example, 836onyuiJibiJiLiK /ö:8bolusluluk/ 'individuality' (< 'self-behavior'), L3Öauı-
jiaKiibiK /ö:8basdaklık/ 'independence' (< 'self-leading), osapa/oaapacunaa /ü:8a:ra/
ö:8a:ıa0ınna/ 'among themselves' (< 'self-between'), and others.
For paradigms of the reflexive pronovm with possessive and case suffixes, see 579.
202 Türkmen Reference Grammar

Interrogative Pronouns
Interrogative or question pronouns are used to ask questions vvhose answers are not
'yes' or 'no' or the selection of an alternative. In Türkmen, most of the interrogative
pronouns take possessive suffıxes and can be declined with case endings.

km m /kim / w h o ? H3XMJIM /nâ:hili/ h o w ? , w hat?


H3Me /nâ:me/ w hat? x a itcw /hay0ı/ w h ich (one)?
H3Me y «ih h /nâ:m e ü£ü:n/ why? x a 'ia n /hacan/ w hen?
HMpe /nire/ w here? hm«w k /nicik/ h o w ?
H3Me /nâ:ce/ h o w m uch/m any? HeneH frenerj/ h ow ?
H3MeH>K,ii /nâ:cenji/ w h ich (num ber)? Ha /nâ:/ w hat?

The interrogative pronoun kmm /kim/ asks the question 'who?', and may appear in
declined forms, including the genitive case form khmmh /kimirj/ 'whose?'

Oji KHMK3H-eW? (G) /Ol kimkâ:n-ey?/


Now, who could that be?

M m , m ya ça ra 3 e K e ^ e M tıcan ga-fla flypM yıua remıpHJiJfoıı mujıepıje khmmh


53x6ifflMHMn e ıifle rojoiMHflbiru aHflbin r e p y ııib p . (N )
/İne, dirje sujogoS yekeje mı0a:lla-da durmuso gecirilyatn irslerde kimii]
ba:hbi:dinirj öqdö goyulyaaımgı a:ydıi] görünyâ'.r./
Here, just in this single little example is clearly vısibie whose interests are being
promoted in the work being carried out.

Uly Kapıı caünan ajiMarana ıısMe ce6sn 6onfltı, kum ırrepnt 6epnH? (O)
/Su kârri 0ayla:p almagırja na:me 0eba:p bolh, kim itergi berdi?/
What was the reason you chose this profession, who gave you a push?

The interrogative pronoun ııaıvıc /nâ.-me/ asks the question 'what?' and frequently is
used with case forms. The ablative case form iidmcuch /nârmeden/, literally 'from
what?', is equivalent to English 'why?'.

(G) /N a:m e
H s m c fliıftceMKSM? d iy0 em ka:m ?/
I wonder w hat I should say?

Xa3iıpKH flOBypfle napTMsmım H3XMJIH MaKcaTnaptı SojiManbi, ii3M3iihh YCTyHfle


muneMejlM? (N) /Hii:8irki döwürdö paıtiyarnır) narhili mak0atları bolmoh,
nâ:mâ:nir) ü00ünnö i:slemeli?/
Wlıich goals should the party have at the presem time, on what should it work?
['on top of what?']
Pronouns 203

- Ceii H3M3 x£nchipx,hm,w ryrnl (N) / ’0erj na:ma: jıkırjıgıi) tutya:?"/


"What are yon laughing at?"

By H 3M eneH K 3? (O) /Bu na:medenkâ:?/


And why is this so?

By H3M3HHH ypmyKa? (BH) /Bu nâ:ma:nii) ursuka:?/


What kind of war is this anyway? ['this is a war o f what?']

Mhhm Men H3Me s m e m ? fcfatiMa eBpynjfn, canaM 6epMenHMM?


(BG) /İnni men nâ:me etmeli? I:5ıma öwrülüp, 8ala:m bermelimi?/
Now w hat am I to do? Should I tum around and say hello?

Con H3Me 6 o n m u 6wı&m ex. IİIon nmunflMp. (TV 13.3)


/9oq na:me bolom bilyâ:n yo:k. Sol gidipdir./
Noone knows what happened after that. Apparently he left.

The variant H eM e /neme/ (without long vowel) is used as a hesitation word,


approximately equivalent to English 'uh', 'umm' or 'you know'.

IIIoji epnepge repcenro, HeMe, copaııınuptrn, 6 bjik3M xyflail 6apfltıp-fla, 6ejiK3M


TaıiHJicHH-fla, xob. (TV13.3) /Sol yerlerde gör0öıjü8, nâme, 0o:rosdurui], belka:m
huda:y ba:rdır-da:, belka:m tapıl0ınna, ho:w./
If you see him anywhere, y o u k n o w , ask around, maybe there really is a god,
hey-maybe he really should be found.
OHconaM, HeMe, ene-fle 6vıp acactt 6H3HH X33np ync öepiîsH 3antiMti3 - Byrflaö.
(TV12.4)
/OnÖorjom, neme, yene-de bir e0a:0ı biSir) hâ:8ir ün0 berya:n 5a:dımı8 - bugdoy./
And then, uh, there’s one more basic thing which we devote attention to novv-
wheat.

The question pronoun H3Me /na:me/ 'what?' combines with the postposition yhhh
/iicü:n/ 'for' into H3Me ym ın /nâ:me ücü:n/ 'what for?' as a pronoun vvhich asks the
question 'why?'

Bh3 oya H3Me y'JH H car 6 o n atİTMa n t i M t m ı t i M t o . (G)


/BiS oıjo nâ:me ücü:n 0ag bol aytmalımısımıS./
W hat are we supposed to thank him for?

Be-e, enflauiMM H3Me ynnn ona «nrrMe» flitMflHKs? (N)


/Be-ye, yo:llosum nâ:me ü£ü:n oıjo "gitme" diydika:?/
Hmm, I wonder why my husband told him not to leave?
204 Turkmen Reference Grammar

Bax, Ketaıc, ceH HaMe yiHH MeHH TaHaMaflHK öojıan? (H)


/Walı, Keyik, 0en nâ:me ü£ü:n meni tanamadık bolya:rj?/
Oh, Keyik! Why are you aeting like someone who doesn’t know me?

M eH e3yMHH Hawe y h h h c y fla M an.ipbuiaHflwn.iM a xhm a r a r a e r o p a n 6juiMeflHM.


(O ) /Men ö:Süm üıj n a:m e ü cü :n Budo £ a :g ın ly a :n n ıg ım a h i:c a k ıl y e tirip
b ilm ed im ./
I couldn’t comprehend at ali why I vvas being summoned to court.

The interrogative pronoun Hane /nâ:ce/ asks the questions 'how many?' or 'how
much?' and occurs frequently in questions about age (Haqe Hiutınbi3? /Nâ:£e ya:sır)i5?/
'How old are you?'), price (HaMe 6axacu? /Nâ:ce bahaOı?/ 'What’s its price?', 'How
much is it?0 and time (C a ra t H3Mej(e? /0a:gat nâ:£ede?/ 'At what time?').

A, oji HaMe MaııaT flypap-fla? (TV5.4) /A, ol nâ:ce manat durya:r-da:?/


But how much does it cost, I wonder?

Cm3 ıny K9pfle HaMe uarTflan 6apu HUUieÖ3HH3? (TV7.3)


/0İ8 su kâ:rde nâ:ce wagtdan ba:ri i:Sleya: qi5?/
How long have you been in this profession?
Ch3 xenflefle nane ryH muneManm'/ (TV12.3)
/0İ5 hepdedenâ:ce gün i:sleyâ:ıji8?/
How many days a week do you vvork?

The interrogative pronoun H3MeuK,H /nâ'.cesıji/ asks the question 'which one?' and
usually refers to the numbers of addresses,of buildings, floors of buildings, numbers of
buses and the like.

- MeH eaniHH*;» sKiaüfla HmaspuH. - HaMeııa^Hfle? (T)


/'Men ba:sinji jaryda ya:saya:rın." "Nâ:cenjide?"/
"I live in building Nr. 5." 'İn vvhich one?"

The interrogative pronoun HHpe /nire/ asks the question 'where?' and occurs in
questions about location and direction.

A m b , MepeT, HHflM HHpa öapapcun, Maitan öojıca rafaan flyp-jıa. (G )


/Ayuw, Meret, inni niıa: barya:r6ıq, ca:yırj bol0o gayna:p du:r-la./
Whoa, Meret, where are you going now, you knovv your tea is boiling.

Möepüau k m m ? Haöejum! Hape^en n6epnnÜ3p? HaBejım! (N)


/İ:beryâ:n kim? Nâ:belli! Nireden i:berilyâ:r? Nâ:belli!/
Who is the sender? Unknovvn! Where is it from? Unknown!
Pronouns 205

TyjiYCTaH afltiMa nyınnu.. On ıuyuı-ıuy Barr HupefleKa? (BG)


/Gülü00a:n ya:dmıa diisdü. Ol sus-su wagt niıedekâ:?/
Gülüstan fell into my memory. I wonder where she is right now?

The interrogative pronoun xaücu /hay0ı/ asks the question 'which one?' and does
not take case suffixes. One of its uses is to ask the day of the vveek (Xenaannn xaiicu
tyhh? /Hepdarnii] hay0ı günü?/ 'What day of the week?').

CeH xaöcu qaübi xanaan? Tormm, rapaMH? (TV 17.3)


/8en hay0ı ca:yı icmami ha:laya:q? Gö:kmü, garamı?/
Which kind of tea do you like to drink? Green or black?

Ten 6y hkm waxcbin xaücbicbiHBU< Ahilik Aüfltın roıpuHrKHfle flsjı-fl.e, 30ı:eM


Anibnc Aüflbnı rmp fliıtanMaH maxcbm ameMe acLipnapflan 6spn ara-
6a6anapbiMbi3 TapanuHflaH KepaMaTOM aflaM xeKMYHfle, fliıiıcen xopMam Jta»raı»m
rejnnıüsımurMHHe. (N)
/Gep bu iki Sah0ıi) hayBıBınıg A:sık A:ydıi) pi:rdiginne dâ:l-le, ey0em A:i.ık
A:yduj pi:r diyilyâ:n 5ah0ır] enîeme aOırlardan ba:ri ata-ba:balanmıS tarapınnan
kera:matlı a:dam hökmunnö, diy0eıj hormotlonulup gelinyâ:nliginne./
The question is not which of these two persons is Ashık Aydıng-pir, rathe: it is
that the person called Ashık Ayduıg-pir has been respected in his capacity as a
holy man by our ancestors for many centuries.

The interrogative pronoun xaqaH /hacan/ asks the question 'when?' and lioes not
decline or change in form.

- E r c a M a M , ApTbuc, A ita cana rapamun O T y p a H flb ip . XaHH, HHflMt o k u );aqan


3flepwc? (G)
/"Yogöomom, Artık, A:yna öarja garaiıp oturonnur. Hanı, inni toyı hacan etleri0?'7
"By the way, Artık, it looks like Ayna has been waiting for you. So, when shall
we make the wedding?"

E h p rappu-xa ypuıyn xaqaıı ryrapx;an.iHU copaflbi - ahMm i , Men 6oioh a rmtiM.


(BH) /Bir garrı-ha: ursui] hacan gutorjogunı 0o:rodı - diyip, men boyun ali m./
I nodded and said "Yeah, an old man did ask me when the war would end.'

The interrogative pronoun h3xmjih /nâ:hili/ asks the questions 'how?' and 'what
kind of?' One of its most common usages is in the greeting formulas HaKHJiıı?
/Nâ:hili?/ 'How is it?', Huınep ıi3XHJin? /î:51er nâ:hili?/ 'How are things?' and
Haxnjın 03yu? /Nâ:hili ö:8ürj?/ 'How is it with you?'

HIy ryH xoBa H3Xmjim? (T2.4) /Su:n howa: nâ:hili?/


How is the weather today?
206 Türkmen Referenee Grammar

C m o n ap naxnjın 6 a x a ajıaHRbip eftflüsHio? (G)


/9iS olor nârhili baha alannır öydyâ:ıji8?/
W hal kind of marks do you think they got?

- E p u ra fliıp n e p ıı H3XHJIH ca ö jıa flb in b a ? - ü t m a H tı ö o n cy jt, n tın a n tr öoiicyH


m U m 6enneflHK. (G)
/'Brigadirleri nâ:hili 8ayladıqı5?" "Pıla:m bolBun, pıla:nı bol9un diyip belledik."/
"How did you elect brigade-leaders?" "We appointed them by saying 'So-and-so
shall be one, so-and-so shall be one.'"

The intetrogative pronouns also may be used in constructions with verbs ending in
the conditional suffbc -ca/ce /-0a/0e/ to form expressions equivalent to English
'vvhatever', 'whoever', 'whichever', 'however', 'vvhenever' and 'wherever'.

Xep H3Me OTcerçeM , cerom KH suihmih. (G) /Her nâ:me e00ei]em, 0eniqki yalrjıs./
W hatever you do, what you do is vvrong.

Xep HaMe atirrca rç a M , o n c e m m ce3Jiepnne ry n a K acM aap. (G)


/Her na:£e ay00aqam, ol 0eniq 0ö81örüi]ö gulok a0maya:r,/
He doesn’t listen to your vvords, hovvever many times you teli him.

B y n a p M a jın a p b i ra T b i ro B b t S a K a p fltın a p , H H p en e oT nyK ep 6 o n c a , u ıo n epuK


(G) /Bulor m a :lla n ga tı g o w ı bakardılar, n ired e o tlu k y e r
c y p y n 3KMflepnnnep.
0üriip âkid erd iler./
b ol0 o , so l y e r i:k
They tended cattle very vvell. W herever there was pasture land, they would drive
them to that place.

AflaMtrH rapfltı Hane reaejı öojıca, oHyn Kem öeM , KajıSaM, ify3eM , re3eM momıa
scce re3ejx Sojıap. (N) /A:damıg yu:rdı na:ce göSöl bolOo, onurj kesbetn, kalbam,
yüSöm, göSöm sonco e00e göSöl bolya:r./
However beautiful is the country of a person, that’s how beautiful is her soul and
her heart and her face and her eyes.

O hm Hupefle-jje Gonca, TartMaK rep eK . (G) /Om n ired e-d e bol0o, tap m a k gerek./
W e m u st fin d h im , vvherever he is.

Hııps rH T M ejiH B o jıcaK , M am tm aM , BeraıneM Barranfla renflM. (N)


/Nira: gitmeli bol0ok, ma5ı:nam, weki:lem vvagtınna gelli./
W herever we had t o g o , both the car and the representative vvere there on time.

IIIoHfla Ha^ıe MMHyr rYpJienıeH 6ojıcaHbi3, xeMeM H3Me TeneMejiHflHnı uıon


raüffa aifflbiJiHp. (TV17.2) /Sonno na:ce minut gürlösön bol0ogu5, hemem nâm e
tölömölüdügü sol ta:yda aydılya:r./
Then, however many minutes you spoke, it is said there vvhat you have to pay.
Pronouns 207

IOpflyMH3HH xaftcbi 6n p epune 6apcan, MKflHcaflueTfle, MefleHueıne, sxroı


6a6aınapna epan ym>ı 6MHanapbiıı rypynaHflbin>nn>ı, epsn y ıra e3repjmijDnaıepHn
flepeflMrieHHMrMHH repMeK 6oJiap. (TV11.3) /Yu:rdumu8ur) hay0ı bir yerine
barOar), ıkdıöa:dıyetde, medeniyetde, ahli batbatlarda örâ:n ulı bina:lanq
gurulonnugunı, örârn uh öSgörüslüklörürj dörödülönnügünii görmök bolya:r./
W herever you go in our country, you can see that very large buildings have been
constructed and great changes have been created in economics, in culture and in ali
fields.

Less commonly used interrogative pronouns are HH4HK /nicik/ 'how ?', Heııei{
/nenei]/ 'how ?' (variant: Heııeifcıı /nenerjSi/), HaTyifcjiH /na:tti:01ü/ 'what kind of?' and
Ha /na:/ 'what?'.

Hhmmkmh a ö b i c b i r y n a r b i H b i KeiİKepfliıGepcc a - f l a r b t p m , ı 6 e p c e , üyperHHe x o B c a n a


flyurBapflH. (G) /Nicikmi y a b ıO ı gulogunı keykerdiberöe ya:-da gırpıberöe,
yürögünö how9olo düsyâ:rdi./
W henever bis horse would prick up its ears or lay them back, fear would fiil his
heart.

Ara, eKe>K;e e3yn ıuytma rouıyH Bnuıen nenen ypyuıaçaK, cen xeHH3eM nsnmmeıı
raii-rcarç Hsflüs? (G) /A:ga, yekeje ö:8ürj sunco gosun bilen neneıj urussok, 0en
heni:8em pa:lii)den gay00ai] nâ:dya:?/
Older brother, how will you fıght such an army by yourself? Shouldn’t you give
up your idea before it’s too late?

Ten-eii, Cyxan ran.nn.in smbina 6acı>iMpaK 6apaftbm-fla, HeııeHCH BoJica-aa, umun


aHbipcMHa eTeîîMH-jıe. (G) /Gel-ey, 0u:ha:n gatı:nıi) ya:nma ba0ımra:k baraym-da:,
nenegOi bol9o-do, i:siıj arjırfhna yeteyin-le./
C ’mon now, why don’t I just go to Suhan-gatı right away, a n d n o m a tte r w h at it
is, let me get to the bottom of this business, ali right?

İ l e n e M eıiH H 3c a c t ı ry p p Y H 'fM T y p K M e H H C T a n n a K y ı u r r a y r y H H a flepe>K ;efle b c


re n x ;e K H e H3x n n n H U iJiep 3/ ı n n c e e n e r n n ı m m iK r a 3a ı n ,n ı S o jr ^ a K f l b ir b i 6ap a .u a
Conap. (N)
/Yo:nö menif) e9a:0ı giirrüıjiim Türkmönü06a:nna kiist su:n na: derejede we
geljekde na:hili i:sler edil0e örjö gidislik gaSanıp boljokdugı ba:rada bolor./
But my main talk will be about ehess in Türkmenistan: at what level is it and
w h at kind o f work should be done so that it will achieve progress.

The pronoun ita /nâ:/ 'w hat?' (the root o f ııa M e /nâ:m e/ 'w hat?') combines with
3TMeK /etmek/ 'to do' to form the verb iistm ck /nâ:tmek/ 'to do what?' whicb also is
used in the greeting H azftan osyu? /Na:dyâ:i] ö:8ür|?/ 'How are you doing?' and the
expressions H an«n /nâ:dip/ 1ıow, what a' and ıtaTflMH /nâ:tdir|/ 'you see'.
208 Türkmen Reference Grammar

HaTflHH, Meram aüflaHMM reımn repeK. (G) /Nâ:tdirj, menii) aydanım gelli gerek./
You see, what I said must have happened.

Epıt, ütııırbipMaHtı öam apM acan ııanıın öm ırapM iı re3*;eK. (N)


/Yeri, yılgırmatnı basarma0ar) natdip yılgınp geSjek./
Well, if you can’t manage a smile, how will you go through life smilûıg?

For paradigms of question pronouns with possessive and case suffixes, see 580-581.
Question pronouns also combine with words like xep /her/ 'every', 6ıı p /bir/ 'one,
some' and xhm /hi:c/ no(ne)' to form quantifying pronouns; see 170, 172,178.
VERBS

Verbs are words which convey the action of a semence. They may be clescribed
according to the trnıe of the action (tense), the duration of the action (aspect), and the
speaker’s attitude toward the action (mood).
The forms of Türkmen verbs may be divided into two basic groups: tlıose verb
foıms which appear at the end of a sentence to indicate its predicate and those which do
not appear at the end of a sentence. The final verbs (also called "finite verbs”) bear
sufflxes of tense, aspect and mood, as well as o f person and number.
The non-final verbs (also called "non-finite verbs") lack one or more of these
categories and thus cannot appear at the end of a sentence, except in special
circumstances (see 344). In the following illustration, the word repyn /görüp/ is a non-
final verb since it stands in the gerund form -u n /u n /-»p/ip/, which does not express
tense, aspect, mood, person or number. On the other hand, the word MbiKgu /cıkdı/ is
a final verb since it stands in the tense form -Hm/ rh /-dı/di/, which expresses, the past
tense in the indefinite aspect and indicative mood, as well as the third person singular.
The verb repyn /görüp/ cannot appear at the end of the sentence, whereas :he verb
HbiKflbi /cıkdı/ may do so.

On ohli rep^H. /Ol onı gördü./ He saw her.


flauıapii HtiKjibi. /Dasan Cıkdı./ He went outside.

O ji ohh repyn, flauıaptı m-ınatı. He saw her and went outsiüı:.


/Ol onı görüp, dasan cıkdı./

*O ji .ohm repyn. *He seeing her.


/*01 onı görüp./ (not a permissible sentence)

The group of final verbs includes ali those treated under Tense/Aspect (prese nt, past,
future/indefinite, continuous, perfect) and Mood (imperative, conditional, sub unetive,
desiderative) below, as well as the formations dealt with under Descriptivc Verbs
below.
The group of non-final verbs, or verbals includes the indefinite infiniıive (in
English 'to go'; in Türkmen indicated by -Man/Men /-mak/mek/), participles (going',
'gone'; -HH/MaH /-ya:n/yâ:n/, -aH/eH /-an/en/, -ataıc/jKeK /-jak/jek/, -ap/ep /-ar/er/,
-AHK/aviK /-dık/dik/) and gerunds ('going, having gone'; -hin/un i-ıpfıpl, -a/«: /-a/e/).
Although they funetion as nominals in a sentence, the verbal nouns ('a going'; -Ma/ıue
/-ma/me/, -liiu/miii /-ıs/is/) also may be ineluded in this group for convenience of
deseripdon. These forms are treated under Verbals belovv.
210 Turkmen Referenee Grammar

Types of Verbs
Türkmen verbs may be simple verbs consisting o f one- or two-syllables (anMaK
/almak/ 'to take', ttopreıvıeK /yörömök/ 'to walk'), verbs derived from nouns, verbs and
other parts o f speech (cyBcaMaK /0uw 0om ok/ 'to thirst' < e y s /0uw / 'w ater'), or
combinations of nouns or verbs (noBaM 3TMeK /dowa:m etmek/ 'to continue').
It should be noted that, in Turkmen, the infinitive suffix -Maıc/MeK /-m ak/m ek/
serves as the form o f citation for verb entries in dictionaries and grammatical works,
and that removal of this suffix isolates the verb root or stem (for example, re p /gör/ is
the stem of Tepinen /görmök/ 'to see'). This form is identical to English 'to (go, ete.)'.
re p M e n /görm ök/ to se e repyH M eK /göriinm ök/ to be v isib le , to a p p ear
ra p a M a n /garm ak/ to lo o k at rapanM aK /garalm ak/ to b e lo o k e d at

Simple Verbs
A Turkmen simple verb typically consists o f one syllable, but also may have tvvo
syilables if its root and suffix cannot be isolated. Simple verbs express very basic
aetions, ineluding motion (rHTMeK /gitm ek/ 'to go', rejiMeK /gelm ek/ 'to com e'),
sensation (rep M e n /görm ök/ 'to see', aniMTMeK /esitm ek/ 'to hear'), operation
(öepMeK /bermek/ 'to give', ajiMaK /almak/ 'to take'), emotion (ryjiMeK /giilmök/ 'to
laugh', ceÜMeK /Söymök/ 'to love'), use o f instruments (KecMeK /keOmek/ 'to cut',
aapaınaK /daram ak/ 'to comb'), existence (6 o jim 3 k /bolmok/ 'to be(come)', anıaMaK
/ya:sam ak/ 'to live'), and so on.

Derived Verbs
A common type of verb in Turkmen consists o f those derived from verbs and other
parts o f speech through the addition o f lexical suffîxes (see 527-537). Verbs derived
from verbs inelude those which express the grammatical category o f voice (6epnnMeK
/berilm ek/ 'to be given' < GeprueK /berm ek/ 'to give', GmiHupMeK /billirm ek/ 'to
inform (cause to know )' < GmiMeK /bilm ek/ 'to know ') and those which deseribe
degrees of intensity (GacrbinaMaK /baögılamak/ 'to tram ple' < GacMaK /baömak/ 'to
step on', arJiaM5KupaMaK /atglam jıram ak/ 'to whimper' < ar/ıaM aK /a:glam ak/ 'to
cry'). Verbs also may be derived from nouns (cyBJiaMaK /0uwlom ok/ 'to irrigate' <
cyB /0uw / 'water'), adjectives (rappaM aK /garramak/ 'to grow old' < r a p p u /g a rn /
'old') and other parts of speech (KenenMeK /köpölmök/ < Ken /köp/ 'much, a lot').

Combined Verbs
Strictly speaking, Turkmen does not have true combined verbs, although it may create
new verbs by combining a noun with an auxiliary verb (nem anMaK /dem alm ak/ 'to
breathe (to take a breath)'; see 512-515). In addition, certain verb phases have fused to
form new verbs (aKenMeK /âkelmek/ 'to bring to' < ajibin renMeK /alıp gelmek/ 'to
take and come'.
Verbs 211

Grammatical Categories of Verbs


In addition to its lexical meaning, the root or stem of a verb also may convey the
grammatical categories of voice and mood. The root or stem of a verb by ıtself may
express the category of voice (see beiow) and also may serve as the informal command
of the imperative mood.

Tep! /Gör!/See! Te3ne! /GöSlö!/Look for it!


Tapa! /Gara!/Look! CepeTÎ /0eret!/ Watch out! Look!

Except for these cases, grammatical meanings are indicated through the addition of
suffixes and particles to the stem of a verb. Suffixes and particles are added in a certain
order to the stem.

TepYHM eflKJiepM HKa?


/Görünmödtilönnükâ:?/

Root Voice Negation Tense/Mood/Aspect Person/Number Question


rep- -YH- -Me- -m - -nep- -MM-K3
/gör- -ün- -mö- -dü- -lör- -mü-kâ:/
see self not past plural I wonder?

Haven’t they appeared, I wonder?

There are a few exceptions to this general rule (for example, see 222). Also, it
should be kept in mind that not every verb will include ali of these suffixes and
particles.

Voice
Voice functions to place the focus of a sentence on the actor (active) or on the object
which is acted upon (passive). In addition to the active and passive voices, Turkmen
also marks action that one performs on oneself (reflexive), action that one performs
with or in the aid o f another (cooperative) and action that one causes another to perform
(causative).
Turkmen indicates voice by adding lexical suffixes to the stem of a verb, thereby
forming new verb stems that incorporate expression of voice and at the same time may
serve as the informal command or 2nd person singular of the imperative mood.
Although Turkmen does not mark the active voice with a suffix, it marks the passive
with -mji/h/i- /-ıl/il-/, reflexive with - m h /m h - /-m/in-/, cooperative with -bim/mn-
212 Türkmen Reference Grammar

/-ıs/is-/ and causative with -ffup/flHp- /-dır/dir-/, ete. (see 530). Two or more voice
suffixes may appear together.

Active: cep eT -(zero)-M eK/0eret-mek/


to take care of, to look after, to watch
Passive: cepefl-Hjı-MeK /6ered-il-mekj
to be taken care of
Rejlexive: cepefl-HH-MeK /0ered-in-mek/
to take care of oneself
Cooperaıive: cepefl-Hiu-M eK /0ered-is-mek/
to help take care of
Causative: ceper-flHp-Meıc /0eret-dir-mek/
to have someone take care of
Cooperative-Causative: cepefl-Huı-flHp-T-MeK/0ered-is-dir-t-mek/
to have someone help take care of
Causative-Passive: cepeT-flHp-Kn-MeK /9eret-dir-il-mek/
to have someone taken care of

Because their meanings often are predietable, many of the derived verbs that express
voice are not entered separately in dictionaries.

Negation
Nearly every verb may appear in a positive or a negative form in statements (deciarative
sentences), commands (imperative sentences) and questions (interrogative sentences).
Türkmen does not mark positive sentences, but has several means of marking the verb
to form negative sentences.
Türkmen forms the negative of many verbs by inserting the negation partide
-M a / M t /-ma/me/ directly after the root or stem (see 478). This partide negates the
present indefinite (-ap/Map /-ya:r/yâ:r/), past indefinite (-fliı/flu /-dı/di/) and past
continuous (-H p au /iiap aH /-ya:rdı/yâ:rdi/) tenses; ali persons of the imperative mood
( - a ü u ı ı / e ü m ı /-ayın/eyin/, - u h / h h /-ın/in/, - c u h / c h h /-8ın/0in/, ete.); ali forms of the
conditional (-ca/cc /-0a/0e/), subjunctive (-caflbi/ceflu /-0adı/0edi/) and desiderative
(-aaau/aeRH /-a:yadı/â:yedi/) moods; and the. pıesent and futnre (-sh/İîoh /-ya:n/ya:n/,
-w,aK/*,cK /-jalesek/) participles.
Variants of the partide -Ma/ine /-ma/me/ are used for most other verb tenses. These
inelude the replacement with -Map/Mep /-mar/mer/ (first and second persons) or
-Ma3/Me3 /-maS/meS/ (third person) of the future indefinite (-ap/ep /-ar/er/) and habitual
past indefinite (-apfua/epnn /-ardı/erdi/) tenses; the replacement with -MaH/Maıı
Verbs 213

/-mam/mâm/ of ıhe gerund (-tm /nn /-ıp/ip/) in the past perfect (-binflu/HnjiH /-ıpdı/
ipdi/) and subjective past perfect ( - b i n f l b i p / H n n ı ı p /-ıpdır/ipdir/) tense, and of the
element -a ü /e c ı /-an/en/in the subjective present perfect tense (-aHnup/eHJtup /-annır/
ennir/) and past participle (-a H /e H /-an/en/). Tlıe negative present perfect tensı: (-anon/
enoK /-ano:k/eno:k/, ete.) has its o r a negative form.
To fornı th e n e g a tiv e of th e d efin ite fu tu re tense, th e Standard la n g u a g e p ıe scrib es
the p la ce m e n t of th e n e g a tiv e m o d a l vvord a a n /dâ:l/ 'is/are n o t' a fte r -a ça K /» eK /-jak/
jek/, alth o u gh th e in sertio n of th e n e g a tiv e p a r tid e -M a/M e /-ma/me/ b e tw e e n ıhe stem
and s u ffte may b e used in th e sp o k e n la n g u a g e . The m o d a l word fla;ı /da: K also is
o p tio n a l ( a lo n g w it h -M a/M e /-m a/m e/) a fte r th e s u b je c tiv e p resen t c o ü tin u o u s
(-flH au p/Ö 3im n p /-ya:nnır/yâ:nnir/), su b je c tiv e present p e rfe c t (-auBbip/eH nup /-annır/
ennir/) and u n realized past p e rfec t (-^aKflbi/w,eKAH /-jakdı/jekdi/) tenses (see 383).

Tense!AspecılMood
Turkmen expresses most types of tense, aspect and mood by means of :ıuffixes,
although modal formations, words and particles also may be used to indicate
modalities. Action is refleeted in the present, past and future tenses; in the indefinite,
continuous and perfect aspects; and in the indicative, imperative, conditional,
subjunctive and desiderative moods.
An individual suffix may reflect ali three or only one of these categories. Tlıs suffix
- m i m /-dı/di/ reflects the third person singular past tense in the indefinite aspect and
indicative mood. In contrast, the suffix -aübm/eiİHH /-aym/eyin/ reflects ıhe first
person singular of the imperative mood only.
Generally, tense is expressed through diserete suffixes that reflect time anc aspect.
Hovvever, some tense suffîxes also reflect certain attitudes of the speaker or doer tovvard
the action (for example, -}K,aKUbi/}K,eKan /-jakdı/jekdi/ 'intended to do (somc:hing)';
see 257).
Turkmen indicates the aspect of the duration of action inherently in tense suffixes
(for example, past continuous action in -apabi/ftapuH /-ya:rdı/yâ:rdi/ 'w a; doing
(something)'; see 247). Other characteristics of action are expressed vvith the nelp of
deseriptive verbs (for example, H biK M aK /çıkmak/ 'to go out' in - b i n / w ı Mi.iKMaK
/-ıp/ip çıkmak/ 'to do (something) completely'; see 326).
Turkmen expresses the indicative, imperative, conditional, subjunctive, desiderative
and other moods largely through suffixes (see 267). Because mood iııvolves
relationships betvveen verbal action and conditions like ability, certainty, desire,
possibility, and so forth, Turkmen also may express nuances of various moods vvith
the help of modal foımations (for example, - b i n / n r ı ö h u m c k /-ıp/ip bilmek/ 'to be
able'; see 301), modal vvords (for example, xokm3H /hökma:n/ 'definitely, absciutely';
see 388) and particles (for example, -M bm a/M M K a /-mıka:/mikâ:/1 vvonder'; see 464).
214 Türkmen Reference Grammar

PersonJNumber
Türkmen indicates person and singular or plural number in verb forms in several ways.
Person and number are expressed in most verb forms by suffixation of personal endings
which fuse person and number markers. However, in the definite future tense and vvith
some other predicates, person is indicated only by personal pronouns or by context.
The plural suffix +jıap/jıep /+lar/ler/ may be added to tense/aspect/mood endings
to express number in the third person.

Ejurifep. /Bilyâ:r./ S/he knows. Ennitapnep. /Bilya:rler./ They know.


OKap. /Oka:r./ S/he will read. OKapnap. /Oka.-rlar./ They will read.
TspflH. /Gördü.? S/he saw. Tepaynep. /Gördülör./They saw.
T h tcm h . /Gieein./ Let him go. rVrcH H Jiep. /Gi00inler./ Let them go.

The first, second and third persons are indicated by suffixation or by the presence of
personal pronouns in the sentence. Endings for the first, second and third persons are
added to most tense forms. The follovving personal endings are added to the present
indefinite (-np/ftap /-ya:r/yâ:r/, present continuous (flyp /du:r/, ete.), subjective present
continuous (-auntıp/üananp /-ya:nmr/yâ:nnir/, subjective present perfect (-aHjibip/
engııp /-annır/ennir/), subjective past perfect (-unnup/unnup /-ıpdır/ipdir/) and future
indefinite (-ap/ep /-ar/er/) tense suffixes:

Person Singular Plural

1 -tu r , - hh /-ın, -in / -blC, -HC /-10, -İ0/


2 - e tin , - c h h /-9ırj, -0iq/ -CMHH3, -CHHH3 /-01I)l8, -0irji8/
3 - -nap, -n ep /-1ar, - 1er/

The following personal endings are added to the past indefinite (-nu/flH /-dı/di/),
habitual past indefinite (-apflbi/epflH /-ardı/erdi/), past continuous (-Hpflbi/ttapHH
/-ya:rdı/yâ:rdi/), past perfect (-binuM/nnnu /-ıpdı/ipdi/) and unrealized past perfect
(-JKaKHbi/jK,eKHH /-jakdı/jekdi/) tense suffixes, as vvell as to the conditional (-ca/ce
/-0a/0e/) and the subjunctive (-caflbi/ceflH /-0adı/0edi/) mood suffixes:

Person Singular Plural

1 - m /-m/ - k /-k/
2 - h /-fj/ -HM3, -HH3 /-rjl5, -fJİ5/
3 - -nap, -n ep /-1ar, - 1er/
Verbs 215

Another set of personal endings appears in the forms of the negative present perfect
tense (-aHOK/eHOK /-ano:k/eno:k/). The follovving endings are the the same as the
personal possessive suffixes, except that the element -an/en- /-an/en-/ instead of -H- /-i-
/ appears in the third person:

Person Singıtlar Plural

1 -aM-, -eM- /-am-, -em-/ -3M(h )3-, -eM(H)3-


/-am(ı)5-, -em(i)8-/
2 -an-, -en- /-arj-, -eq-/ -an(ıı)3-, -en(n>3-
/-ai](ı)S-, -er)(i)S-/
3 -aH-, -CH- /-an-, -en-/ -aH(oK)nap, -eH(oK)nap
/-an(ok)lar, -en(ok)ler/

Question
Every statement may appear in the form of a question, which may be of several types.
One type of question is indicated by adding the question partide -mm / mm /-mı/mi/ to
tbe end of the verb (see 476).

annaM MeH TeneBH3opa cepeı^MM. I watched television last


/Dü:n ağsam men telewiSoro öeretdim./ night.

HY«h annaM ceH TeneBH3opa cepeTflHHMH? Did you watch television


/Dii:n ağsam 0en telewiSoro Beretdijjmi?/ last night?

A second type of question is formed by using an interrogative pronoun in the


sentence without the question partide.

annaM ceH H3M3 cepeTflUH? W h at drd you watch last night?


/Dü:n ağsam 0en nâ:mâ: Seretdir)?/

In the spoken language, the question partide -mm / mm /-mı/mi/ frequently may
appear before the tense/aspect/mood süffix.

reOTeHspflMHMH? /Gö81öya:rdijr3nıi?/ W ere you looking for it?


~ T63neÜ3pMHflHH? /~ Gö81öyâ:rmidiıj?/
216 Turkmen Reference Grammar

Basically, the question partide may not stand in the place of the negation partide
-Ma/Me /-ma/nıe/. Thus, *F 83JieMHflHM? /*Gö61ömüdüm?/ 'Did I look for it?' is not a
permissible form, most probably because of its similarity to the negative form
reaneMejuiM /GöSlömödüm/ 'I didn’t look for it'. Similarly, *re3JieM ntt3pann?
/*Gö81ömüyâ:rdii]?/ 'Were you looking for it?' is not permissible, probably because the
negative form Tea JieMeiiapAHH /Gö81ömöyâ:rdiıj/ 'You were not looking for it'
actually is pronounced [Gö8iömüyâ:rdig] (for the raising of the vowels /a/e/ to [ı/i]
before /y/, see 29).
Besides the negation and question particles, several other particles may be added to
the end of verbs to express nuances of mood. The most common of these are the
particles -H up/nup /dır/dir/ and -muih / mhih /-mıs/mis/ (see 465, 467).
Tense and Aspect
Verbs vvhich serve as predicates of sentences typically express both tense a»i aspect.
The category of tense concems the correspondence betvveen the verb form and the
concept of time. It refers to the time in vvhich the action takes place, vvhether i: occurs
in present, past or future time.
In addition to its tense, the action may be viewed according to its aspect that is,
vvhether its occurrence is indefinite, continuous or perfect (completed) in duration. An
indefinite action is one that takes place habitually or repeatedly ('I vvork, 1 vvorked'),
rather than at some specific point in time, or one that is not continuous or coıııpleted.
A continuous action is one that is in progress at a specific point in tüne (T am ıvorking
[now], I vvas vvorking [then]'). A perfect action is one that is or vvas completed before a
time when another action occurred ('I had vvorked'), or one that vvas begun at a .specific
time and which may continue so that its results are relevant to the present ('I have
vvorked').
Thus, tense may be described according to time (present, past, future) and to aspect
(indefmite, continuous, perfect), and, in some cases, according to various modalities of
action (definite, habitual, subjective, unrealized). These tense and aspect suffixes and
forms are presented in the table (see 218).
218 Türkmen Reference Grammar

Verb Tenses/Aspects
INtiEHNTIE CONTINUOUS' PERFECT
-Hp/üap /-ya:r/yâ:r/ flyp /du:r/ Negative -aH0Jc/eH0K
does, is doing, is is standing /-ano:k/eno:k/
going to do OTHp /otı:r/ has not done
is sıtting,
sım p /yatı:r/
PRESENT is lying

Subjective -smfliip/ Subjective -aımtıp/


üa«m p /-ya:nnır/ eHHHp /-annır/ennir/
ya:nnir/ must have done
probably is doing,
does

-Shilm /-dı/di/ -stpflM/itepnH -BinflH/HimH


did, has done /-ya:rdı/ya:rdi/ /-ıpdı/ipdi/
was doing, did had done, did

Habitual -apfltı/ Unrealized -x;aKfli>ı/


PAST epflH /-ardı/erdi/ »;eKflM /-jakdı/jekdi/
used to do, wou!d intended/wanted/
do liked to do

Subjective -u m u p !
MnflHp /-ıpdır/ipdir/
apparently did

Unceıtain -ap/ep
/-ar/er/
will do, is going to
do
FUTURE
Ceıtain -jK,aıc/x,eK
/-jak/Jek/
will do
Tense/Aspect 219

Present indefinite Tense


The present indefinite tense expresses an action that occurs habitually or regularly
without referenee to a specific point in tim e.1 its English equivalent is 'does
(something)'.

MeH Hiue ryHfle CapnpuH. I go to vvork everyday.


/Men i:se günnö barya:nn./

On 3aBOflfla HinneiSap. She works at the plant.


/Ol 8awoddo i:sleyâ:r./

In Turkmen, the present indefinite tense is indicated by adding the suffix -flp/üap
/-ya:r/yâ:r/ in the positive and -Manp/Meftap /-maya:r/meyâ:r/ in the negative to the
stem of the verb. The basic funetion of this tense is to express an action that occurs
habitually or repeatedly or that exists as a historical fact or universal truth ('does').

Onap cana rynep üys Geptopnep, 03 anaflanapHHH, nMKHpnepHHH


natijıamnpjıap. (N)
/Olor 0ai)a gülör yü8 beryâ:rler, ö:8 aladalannı, pikirlerini pa:ylasya:rlar./
They look at you with smiling faces, and they share their concems and thoughts.
['they give you face' = 'they look at you']

- IZIeitneMH? CeH florpH 6wjJİiapcMHMH ouyn 6ap,z?ı>rranM? (TV5.4)


/'Seylemi? 0en dogrı bilyâ:r0igmi onur) bardıgmı?"/
"Really? Do you know for certain that there’s one there?"

Xa3Hp epnH Kenycu 06a xo3K,anHTHHa xu3MaT 3Hfep, cefisÖH cyB 6ap. Ey cyBR
TaparyM KaHamt rem p itep . (TP12.2) /Hâ:Sir yerir) köpüOii o:bo hojoluguno
hıSmat edya:r, 0eba:bi 0uw ba:r. Bu 0uwı Garagum kanalı getiryârr./
Now most of the land serves agriculture, because there is water. The Garagum
Canal brings this water.

MeH Aurraöafltıiî M a m a a y m ı Kenecmmu flmpuMH flepayHym şa to m sa


amanpuH. (TV1.4)
/Men Asgabadıi] Magtımgulı köcöOünürj yigrimi dö:rdünjü ja:yınna ya:saya:rm./
I live in building Nr. 24 on Magtımgulı Street in Ashgabat.

1 Because it is equivalent to several tenses in Russian, Soviet linguists called this tense the Hacmosutee
offıyee epeMS (Russian) or yMyMu xsjupKU 3aMaH (Turkmen) “general present tense"; see
TpaMMCtmuKa 272-275 (also Hanser 1977: 93: "comprehensive present tense"). TypflOB 1983: 78
properiy termed it the "present indefinite" tense for its basic funetion.
220 Turkmen Reference Grammar

- XaBa, AKflene aıpaÖHHa reMyn renflMK, ceSsÖM orynjıapLiM my epfle narra


3aBOflMHfla HniJieöap. (TV11.3) /"Hawa, Arkdepe etra:bma göçüp gellik, 0ebâ:bi
ogullorum su yerde pagta 8awodunno isleyâ:r."/
"Yes, we moved to Akdepe district because my sons work in the cotton plant
here,"

XeMMe reneıuıep xoman Sonyn niflMap. (TV8.4)


/Hemme gelenler hosa:l bolup gidyâ:r./
Everyone who comes goes away satisfied.

Illeüjıe narraHLi flennuıan Bactmaıifla, narraH tın reBpyMH Kimenitop, xeM-fle on


roBH epjıeuıttap. (TV7.3) /Şeyle pagta:m depgila:p baOılaruıa, pagtarmr) göwriimü
ki£elyâ:r, hem-de ol gowı yerlesyâ:r./
When the cotton is stamped down like this, the volüme of the cotton decreases
and it sits vveli.

TypKMeHMH flaÖHHe reps 6h3 epfle HİİMn-HMİıapHc. (TA 15.2)


/Türkmönürj da:bine göra: biS yerde İyip-icyâ:ri0./
According to Turkmen custom, we eat and drink on the floor.

IUeHÖe ryHH Mamrana öonyn, xeMM3MM3 6ıme naft nqiİ3pnc. (T17.1)


/Senbe günü masgala bolup, hemmâ:mi8 bile ca:y icya:ri0./
On Saturdays ali of us d rin k tea together as a family.

The action expressed by the present indefinite tense in Turkmen also may be
understood in English as the present continuous tense ('is doing') (see 224), that is, an
action that is occurring generally at the moment of speech, although not necessarily as
an observed action.

Mucan y^kh, X33«p aflnaBfla peKOHcrpyKKHa ıtuınepH reqnpnnüap. (N)


/Mı0a:l ücü:n, hâ:8ir aylawda rekon0truk0iya irsleri gecirilyâ:r./
For example, reconstruction work is being c arried o u t at the race-track now.

ryHnep rucrajiL in, nDK,enep y3aap. (TP 2.3) /Günlör gı:0gahp, gi:jeler u8oya:r./
The days a re getting sh o rter, and the nights longer.

In addition, the present indefinite suffix -a p /fla p /-ya:r/yâ:r/ indicates action


equivalent to the future indefinite tense ('going to do') in English (see 259), that is, an
action that the speaker regards as planned or arranged beforehand to occur at some
uncertain time in the near or even distant future.

- On eitJieHÜapMH? - Ek, Sk, on eftneHenoK. (G)


/"Ol öylönyârnni?" "Yo:k, yo:k, ol öylönöno:k."/
'Is he getting married?" "No, no, he isn’t getting married."
Tense/Aspect 221

3 ü nannuaM , cana eıce flepMan 6ap, u ioh li 3Tcen ryTyjıapcbirç, ercaM ejıftapcHrç.
(G) /Ey pa:tısa:m, öarja yeke derma:n ba:r, som e00eıj gutulya:r0ır), yogSom
ölya:röiq./
Ah, my king, there’s only one medicine for you, if you take it, then you’ll
recover, otherwise you’re going to die.

Tep-BaK, MyHyn, cohh H3Me 6vıneH tyrapap? (N)


/Gör-bak, munui] 0ogı narme bilen gutoryarr?/
Wait and see what this is going to end with.

Cm3 Mapa 6apapctiHti3MU flifftflHM. (TV2.1) /0i8 Mara: barya:r0ırjıSmı diydim./


I said are you going to Man? ['going to go to']

Another usage of the present indefinite tense in Türkmen is to express the


equivalent to the present perfect continuous in English, that is, an action that began in
the past and continues into the present vvithout any implied interruption ('Jı as been
doing').

Eeüne apöeT 3aTJiapa cıi3 nenen en 6epnnnM3, itbtTHaKnapbmtB 3aflbmfct3


öonMaspMbi? (G) /Beyle erbet Sa-.tlara 0i8 neneg yo:l berdigiS, yıgnaklanıjıo
Sa:dıi]i5 bolmoyarrmı?/
How could you have let such bad things happen, haven’t there been any nıeetings
or anything like that?

6apn o n
ry p p Y H iu 6 y ornaH ö a p a c tu m a 6 on ca, o « n a o n m eftne: k s h BarrflaH
ornaHLm aarbiıtnaH 6113e M aTepıtajı rejıüap. (G)
/Giirrüi)ii8 bu oglon ba:ra8ınna bolöo, onno ol Şeyle: kâ:n wagtdan bâ:ri ol
oglonurj ayagmnan bi8e material gelyâ:r./
If your talk concems this young man, then the situation is this: for a long time
materials have been gathering about that young man. [literally: materials are
coming from the feet of']

MeH my cJjaöpiiKfte ÜHrpHMH Roıcy3 ittin SapH nuıneiîapnn. IIIoHyn üıırpHAtıı 6up
übinttHLi xanbi floKaflHM. (TV12.4) /Men su fabrikde yigrimi dokuS yd bâ:n
i:sleyâ:rin. Sonurj yigrimi bi:r yılını ha:lı dokodum./
I ’ve been working in this factory for twenty-nine years. I wove carpets for nventy-
one of those years.

Forms o f the Presem indefinite Tense


Türkmen indicates the present indefinite tense by adding the suffixes -apuıı/ftapHH
/-ya:nn/yâ:rin/ and -npbic/üapHc /-ya:n0/yâ:ri0/ in the first person singular and plural,
-apcbiH/üapcnn /-ya:r0ırj/yâ:r8iıj/ and -apcunu3/tt3pcMH(H3 /-ya:ı0ııjı5/ya:r0i rıi6/ in
the second person singular and plural, and -ap/Kap /-ya:r/yâ:r/ and -apnap/öapjıep
222 Turkmen Reference Grammar

/-ya:rlar/yâ:rler/ in the third person singular and plural, to verb stems. The vowel of
this suffix has inherent length (/a:/â:/).
When a verb stem ends with the consonant T /t/ or K fk/, these consonants become
voiced to h /d/ and r /g/ with the addition of this sufîîx.

aiİTMaK /aytmak/ to teli> aft/*np /aydya:r/ she telis


flapbiKMaK /datnkmak/ to worry > naptırap /da:ngya:r/ he vvorries

To form the negative, the negation partide -Ma/Me /-ma/me/ is placed between the
stem and this suffix. Questions are formed by adding the question partide -m h / mb
/-mı/mi/ after the tense suffix except in the second person, where it may be placed
either before or after the personal ending.

C m 6H3HHK3 uıy ryn anuaM ren#3pMHCHHH3 (~ rejıftspcmtfraMH)? (T)


/0iS biSigka: su gün ağsam gelya:rmi0irji8 (~ gelyâ:r0ii]i8mi)?/
Are you coming to our place this evening?

When the question partide is inserted between the suffixes of the pesent indefinite
tense and the personal ending of the second person, the latter may be contracted to
-HpMbin/iiapMsııt /-ya:rmıi]/yâ:rmİ!]/ (< -sıpMUcuH/ftapMHCHH /-ya:rmıi)/ya:rmii] <
/-ya:rmı0ıi]/yâ:rnıi8ii)/).

- AMna, HaMe agoran öepenoK? H-fla MeHMHTxaean 9HüopMHi{? (G) OfltöapMHH <
3«Ü3pMMCHn] /A:yna, na:me joga:p bereıjotk? Ya:-da meni ya:t ha0a:p
edya:rmii3?'7 [edyâ:rmii] < edya:rmi0io]
"Ayna, why haven’t you answered? Or do you consider me a stranger?"

Present İndefinite Tense: Contracted Forms


Many Turkmen speakers use the form -st/Ha /-ya:/ya:/ as a contraction of the present
indefinite tense suffix in their daily speech. Essentially, they omit the final consonant
p /r/ of -n p /H a p /-ya:r/ya:r/ in ali persons, along with the initial c /0/ of the personal
ending - chu(u 3)/chh( h3) /-0ıo(ı5)/0irj(i8)/ in the second person (see 72).
Except for this omission, the function and conjugation of the short form -s/Ba
/-ya:/ya:/ correspond exactly to that of the full form -ap/Map /-ya:r/ya:r/. The contracted
present indefinite also may be noted in the speech of characters in fiction and heard in
the speech o f television and radio announcers.

MeH öoncaM onapLr xanaMamı, flartı Meıınn xanaMaHHi>iMa cepefljoı


HypMa3nap. (G) /Men bo!9om olon ha:lamaya:n, ejem dağı menii] ha:lamaya:nıma
Oeredip durmoSlor./
As for me, I don’t like them, but my mother and people like her won*t even take
into consideration that I don’t.
Tense/Aspect 223

Bnp 3afla JKyfla ö e re H Ü a n Be K3Te 03-e3yMfleH a3aaçbiraM 6onca pa3bi ö o jih h . (N)
/Bir Sa:da jada: begenyâ:n we kâ:te ö:8-ö:8ümdön a.-Sajjıgam bolBo ra:Sı bolya:n./
F m very happy about one thing and sometimes I ’m even a little bit satisfied
with myself.

Ona aflaMnap eMyp Meramın rayıe flypnjı-flYpjiH srrflalifla e T Ü a p jıe p . (N)


/'Oi]o a:damlar ömür menSillikde dürlö-dürlö yagdayda yetyâ:rler./
People reach it in different ways during the course of life.

Eonca-fla, roBH «hhh ausc. (BG) /Bol0o-do, gowı dırnc alya:6./


Anyway, w e ’r e h a v i n g a g o o d r e s t .

Xep aü MeH ıuy jçaütiMa eTMHUl 6aıı MaHaT TO JieöaH . (TV9.3)


/Her a:y men su ja:yıma yetmiş bas manat tölöyâ:n./
Each month I pay seventy-five manats for this place of mine.

Üene yaaK Barrnafem 6np epıoc nrrs,eK 6oncan, caMoneTroı nrrceH roBtı 6onap
eü/ftiac 6m-a. (TV9.2) /Yö:nö uSok wagtlaym bir yerirk gitjek bol0oi), Bamolotb
giflöei] gowı bolor öydyâ:0 bi8-â:./
But if you want to go somewhere for a long time, us, w e t h i n k it’s better to go
by plane.

fclırea, ropüaHMH: hkhch aftp&ı. (TV10.2) /inha:, görya:ıjmi: iki0i ayn./


Here, d o y o u s e e : the two are different.

Cff3 xenj?efle m ne ryH HumeüaniB? (TV12.3) /0İ8 hepdede nâ:ce gün i:sleya:j)iS?/
How many days a week d o y o u w o r k ?

O hcoh uıy narraHtı {fttrj(btnt»i3, Ta6ıutıpflHnı.i3, TaKMbman rone aümnc a n s n ib ia ?


(TV12.3)
/On8oi) su pagta:nı yıgdııjıg, tabsırdırjıS, takmı:nan na:ce a:ylık alya:ıjıS?/
Then you picked this cotton and you tumed it in, approximately how much salary
d o y o u g e t?

For paradigms of the full and contracted forms of the present indefinite tense, see
582-585, 586-587.
224 Türkmen Reference Grammar

Present Continuous Tense


The present continuous tense expresses action in progress at the moment of speech.
English indicates this tense with 'is doing (something now)'.

O ji xoBnyfla nyp. He’s standing in the courtyard


/Ol howludo du:r./ (now).

Oji xoBJiyfla OTbip. He’s sitting in the courtyard


/Ol hovvludo otı:r./ (now).

O n KOBiıyaa a r u p . He’s lying down in the courtyard


/Ol howludo yatı.T./ (now).

Türkmen indicates the present continuous tense by a set of contracted or special verb
forms: n y p /du:r/ 'is standing' (< R y p ıv ta K /durmok/ 'to stand'), O T b ip /otı:r/ 'is
sitting' (< O T y p M a K /otuımok/ 'to sit') and H T t ı p /yatı:r/ 'is lying' (< flTMaK
/yatmak/ 'to lie'). When used by themselves in their primary lexical meanings, these
three forms refer only to action in progress at the moment of speech.

EpH xaB, ApTMK, ceH H3Me jjy p c yH ? (G) /Yeri ha:w, Artık, flen nâ:me du:r0uq?/
Well hey, Artık, what are y o u standing here for? [flyp /du:r/ used as present
continuous: 'standing (now)']
Opa3 KJiacfla xacan ntncapun OTbip. (G) /Ora:5 kla06a ha6a:p cıkanp otı:r./
Oraz is sitting in class solving a problem, [onap /otr.r/ used as present
continuous: 'is sitting (now) solving a problem']

Menim nıpıuHMfla opTa öoüjili, rapare3ejıeıc M h th t O T u p . (N)


t lH x a ,
/inha:, menirj garsımda orto boylı, garagöSölök yiğit otı:r./
Here in front of me sits a black-eyed young man of medium height. [onjp /otı:r/
used as present continuous: 'is sitting (now)' = 'sits']

- K)pa, MeH iiptiM c a ra T neM ecH cemin su a n m a o t t i p t i n . SMüsm sHMCMe


Myıuflepmıepiin rennn niTflM. (TP13.2) rY ura, men yanım 0a:gat cemeSi Oenit)
ya:nır|da otı:nn. Eyyâ:m enceme müsderilerii) gelip gitdi."/
'Y ura, I ’ve been sitting by your side for about half an hour. Already, many o f your
customers have come in." [oTttp /otı:r/ used as present continuous: 'am sitting
(now)' = 'been sitting']

Cerom K a r a n e n y M x a n u n fla H TU p. (G) /0eniıj ka:karj ölü m h a :lın n a yatı:r./


Your father is on the verge of death. [an ıp /yatı:r/ used as present continuous:
'is lying (now) in a State of death' = 'on the verge of death']
Tense/Aspect 225

K ojixo3 ejıöaımbicMHbDt aÜTMartnıa repa, Meflem: 3ouafla 50 reKTap ep


ynaHtülMaH OTbip. (N) /KolhoS yo:lbascı0ımq aytmagına görâ:, medeni: £nnodo
50 gektar yer ulonulma:n yatı:r./
According to what the collective farm leader says, 50 hectares of land are lying
fallow in the cultivated zone. [« rap /yatı:r/ used as present continuous: 'are lying
(now) without being used']

At the same time, the special forms flyp /du:r/, OTtıp /otı:r/ and JlTbip /yaı ı:r/ may
appear in descriptive fonnations with other verbs ending in the gerund suffix -un/un
/-ıp/ip/ (see 321) to express the present or past continuous tenses of the actions
expressed by the other verbs.

On KMTan o n a n oTbip. He’s reading a book. [now]


/Ol kita:p oka:p otı:r./
O ji xoBnyaa MinJian flyp. She’s working in the courtyard.
/Ol howludo i:slâ:p du:r./ [now]
CeH H3Me y«dih a r j ı a n jrrbipcbtH? Why are you (lying there) crying?
/öen nâ:me ücü:n a:gla:p yatı:r0ır)?/ [now]

A iob, MepeT, hhah HHps 6apapcbm,«ıaflMH Sonca ra imarı flyp-jıa. (O)


/Ayuw, Meret, inni nirâ: barya:r0ıi], £a:yıi) bolöo gayna:p du:r-lo./
Whoa, Meret, where are you going now, you know your tea is boiling.

Eh3 uio Barr 6wne naü nmın OTLipfltiK. (BH)


/Bi5 so wagt bile ca:y içip otı:rdık./
At that time w e w e r e d r i n k i n g tea together.

In many cases, the action expressed in such descriptive fonnations is underslood as


constant, continuous or regular action that is or was in progress, although not
necessarily in progress at the moment of speech or at the time spoken about (see 319).
Turkmen commonly indicates the equivalent of the present continuous tense in English
('is doing (now)') with the present indefinite tense suffix -ap/Map /-ya:r/yâ:r/ (set-. 220).

Forms o f ıhe Contracted Verbs


The contracted verbs (nyp /du:r/, OTbip /otı:r/, a r t ıp /yatı:r/) of the present conuıuous
tense in both their functions as verbs expressing tense and as descriptive verbs (see
321) take personal endings like those of the present indefinite tense.
The verb forms ay p /du:r/, OTbip /otı:r/, HTbip /yatı:r/ and a fourth form used in
descriptive fonnations, itap /yö:r/ (< İtepMeK /yörmök/ 'to walk'), are pronounced
with long vowels. This length vvas produced by adding the future indefinite tense
226 Türkmen Referenee Grammar

suffix -ap/ep /-ar/er/ or its no longer used variant *-ır/ir to the roots of the verbs. Över
the course of time, the p /r/ between the vowe!s of the forms *durar, *oıurır and
*yörör was lost, vvith the result that the vowels of the contracted forms are pronounced
as long vovvels. The form HTbip /yatı:r/may be grouped with the contracted verb forms
because it has gained a long vovvel (probably by analogy vvith oTbip /otı:r/), even
though it is not a contracted form.

flypMaK /durmok/ to stop > *dur+ar > nyp /du:r/


OTypMaK /oturmok/ to sit > *otur+ır > OTbip /otı:r/
ttepMeK /yörmök/ to walk > *yör+er > Kep /yö:r/
HTMaK /yatmak/ to lie down > *yat+ır > HTbip /yatı:r/

In their primary lexical meanings only, the third person singular forms of these
contracted verbs may be used to express the past continuous tense ('was
standing/sitting/lying (then, at that time)') with the addition of the suffix -hm/hm
/-dı/di/, whereas the past continuous tense suffix -Hpflbi/tıapgH /-ya:rdı/yâ:rdi/ is used
for other verbs (see 247). in this usage, the form flypnbi is vvritten exactly like the past
indefinite tense form of the verb. Hovvever, the past continuous tense form is
pronounced with a long vovvel (fiypffbi /du:rdı/), unlike the past indefinite tense form
(HypHbi /durdı/). The spellings of the past continuous forms O Tbipau /otı:rdı/ and
H Tbipnu /yatındı/ distinguish them from the past indefinite tense forms O Typpu
/oturdı/ and hthm /yatdı/.

flypflbt /durdı < *dur+dıf S/he stood.


flypnbi /du:rdı < *dur+ar+dıl S/he was standing (then).

Because the spellings and the definitions of these commonly used verb forms may
be confusing, their forms and funetions are set out in the table (see 227-228). It will be
noted that the variant fte p M e K /yörmök/ is used only for deseriptive verb formations,
while the variant üopeMeK /yörömök/ is used only as the main verb of tense
formations. Only the form ü e p e i i a p /yöröya:r/ is used in the present indefinite and
continuous tenses for ÜopeMeK /yörömök/. In addition, the lexical meaning of the verb
HTMaK /yatmak/ 'to lie (down)' restricts its past indefinite usage in deseriptive verb
formations to the meaning 'was tired of doing (something), did (something) to
exhaustion', as in E a T a p e t t H T jtu /Batarey yatdı/ 'The battery is dead (= vvom out,
exhausted)'.
The present continuous tense exists only in the positive and cannot form a negative
by the addition of the negation partide -Ma/me /-ma/me/. Questions in this tense are
formed by adding the partide - m m / m h /-mı/mi/ to the contracted form of the verb.
For paradigms of the contracted verbs in the present and past continuous tenses, see
588-589.
Tense/Aspect 227

Contracted Verbs
Present Presem Past Past Future
indefinite Continuous İndefinite Continuous İndefinite
HypMaK /durmok/ to stand
Tense: flypap WP «ypfltı aypflH flypap
/durya:r/ /du:r/ /durdı/ /du:rdı/ /duror/
stands, is is standing stood was will stand
standing (now) standing
(then)
Descriptive: -n nypap -n nyp -n flypflM -n nypnu -n flypap
/-p darya:r/ /-p du:r/ /-p durdı/ /-p du:rdı/ /-p duror/
does, is is doing, did was doing vvill do
doing has been (constantly) (regularly) (constantly)
(constantly) doing
(regularly)
oTypMaK /otunnok/ to sit
Tense: oTypap OTbip OTypflM OTbipfltI OTypap
/oturya:r/ /otı:r/ /oturdı/ /otı:rdı/ /oturor/
sits, is is sitting sat was sitting will sit
sitting (now) (then)
Descriptive: -n OTypap -n oTfcip -n oTypnbi -n OTMpfltı -n OTypap
/-p oturya:r/ /-p otı:r/ /-p oturdı/ /-p otı:rdı/ l-p oturor/
does, is is doing, did was doing will do
doing has been (constantly) (regularly) (constantly)
(constantly) doing
(regularly)
STMaK /yatmak/ to lie
Tense: HTHp STbtp HTflbl STtlpfltl srrap
/yatya:r/ /yatı:r/ /yatdı/ /yatı:rdı/ /yatar/
lies, is lying is lying did (to was lying will lie
(now) exhaustion) (then)
Descriptive: -n HTHp -n a n ıp -H ÎITflLI -H STTİlpflbt -jı jrrap
/-p yatya:r/ t-p yatı :r/ /-p yatdı/ /-p yatı:rdı/ /-p yatar/
does, is is doing, did was doing will do
doing has been (constantly) (regularly) (constantly)
(constantly) doing
(regularly)
228 Turkmen Reference Grammar

HopMeK /yöimök/ to walk


Tense: (not used) (not used) (not used) (not used) (not used)

Descriptive: (-n Hep -n Mep -n fiepflH -n üepflM -n îtepep


/-P yö:r/ is /-pyö:r/ /-p yördü/ /-p yö:rdü/ /- p yörör/
used) is doing, did was doing will do
has been (constantly) (regularly) (constantly)
doing
(regularly)
fiepeMeK /yörömök/ to walk
Tense: MepeMap (ifepeüsp {îepeflH tıepetopflH Mepsp
/yöröyâ:r/ /yöröyâ:r/ is /yörödü/ /yöröya:rdi/ /yöra:r/
walks, is used) walked was walking will walk
walking (then)

Descriptive: (not used) (not used) (not used) (not used) (not used)
Tense/Aspect 229

Subjective Present Continuous Tense

The present continuous tense expresses an action that is in progress at the mo.-nent of
speech. In its subjective form, the speaker does not vvitness this action at the time of
speech but uses his or her experience, senses and feeiings as the basis of a conjecture
that the action is taking place or is true. Appropriate English equivalents are 'probably
one is doing (something now)' and 'it looks like one is doing (something nowV.

On X33Hp oKaHHflup. She’s probably reading now.


/Ol hâ:6ir okoya:nnır./

O ji OKaannananp. H e’s pro b ab ly n o t reading.


/Ol okoya:nnâ:llir./

Türkmen indicates the subjective present continuous by attaching the suffix


-HHRtıp/tiaHjjııp /-ya:nmr/yâ:nnir/ in the positive and -MaHHUtıp/ıuejinHAMp
/-maya.unır/meyâ:nnir/ in the negative to the stem of a verb.

- Oiifla ceHHU-fle nıocupMH s^eHKM ÖHJieH nen CoJlHp-fla. - flei( 6onca 6 ojm Hflup,
MeH om actrutı ÖHJieMOK. (G) /"Onno 0enii)-de pikim) ejerjki bilen deıj
bolya:r-da:." "Der) bolSo bolya:nnır, men onco0unı bilemork."/
"Then your opinion also is the same as your mother’s." "It’s probably the. same,
but I don’t know for sure."

BenaHMH Mamrajıacbi Haxapa, s im i HÜMKre rHpfleaçHHHH flpbictmH xapa»;iT


3flÖ3HflHp. (TV16.3)
/Wepa:nır) masgalaöı nahara, yagnı iymite gi:rdejinii] ya:rı0ını haraja:t edya:ımir./
Wepa’s wife probably spends half of the income on meals, that is, on fooc

MHe, ıuonap hju.1 öonHHflbip eöfltöapHH MeH. (TV18.4)


/İne, Solor ya:lı bolya:nmr öydya:rin men./
You see, I think it’s probably like these.

This tense also may be used to express an action in progress about vvhich the
speaker has some sense of uncertainty, doubt, suspicion or caution. English equivalents
for this usage include 'usually one does (something)', 'maybe one does (someıhing)'
and 'one could be (something)'.

Bh3 acbuı-xa MbDCMaHBot xa6 apHHM öHp ryufleH coh ajınHflbipııc. (G)
/Bi5 a0ıl-ha ım:hma:mıj habarnu bir günnön 0og alya:nnırı0./
We usually ask a guest about his nevvs only after one day. ['get his news frcm a
guest' = 'ask a guest about his nevvs']
230 Türkmen Referenee Grammar

Benıoı, on MyHfct ÖHJitiaHflHp. (G) /Belki, ol mum bilyâ-.nnir./


M aybe he knows this.

MyuyH xep 6np ce3H 6np nytt3 HerüaHHHp. (G)


/Munutj her bir 0ö5ü bir düyâ: degyâ.-nnir./
Every word of this [book] could be worth a camel.

Ü3HH aflaM, MerepeM, reTepMM Gonsmatıp. 0ByH3K;en öonsmabip. Ap3yB>n,tjı


CoJianaı>ıp. (N) /Ya8ya:n a:dam, megerem, götörüm bolya:nnır. Öwünjörj
bolyarnnır. ArSuwcul bolya:mur./
A person who writes, perhaps, probably is easily flattered. He’s probably
boastful. He’s probably full of fantasies.

repYH, on mchhh ereHHM, rean ep m e cepej(HH, Mana-fla MeH3etisHanp. (H)


/Görür), ol menig yeğenim, göSlöriinö 0eredii], matja-da mej[)5eyâ:nnir./
See, that’s my nephew. Look at his eyes, I think he looks like me too.

Forms o f the Subjective Present Continuous Tense


Turkmen indicates the subjective present continuous tense by adding the suffix
-flnatıp/tiaııaııp /-ya:nnır/yâ:nnir/ to verb stems. Personal endings used with the
general present also are attached to this suffix: 'jiHakipMH/üaHaHpHH /-ya:nnınn/
yâ-.nnirin/ and -HHaMpuc/üanaupHc /-ya:nmn6/yâ:nniri0/ in the first person singular
and plural, -HHahipcLiH/fisnaMpcHn /-ya:nmr0ıq/yâ:nnirâii]/ and -fliıabipcunti3/
UannupcıiHU3 /-ya.-nmröıi)i5/ya:nnir0ir)iS/ in the second person singular and plural,
and -HHHbip/ftsHjiMp /-ya:nnır/yâ:nnir/ and -HHnbipjlap/iteHflHpJlep /-ya:nnırlar/
ya:nnirler/ in the third person singular and plural.
The negative of this tense may be formed by adding the partide -Ma/ine /-ma/me/
directly to the stem of the verb or by inserting the negative modal vvord Ran /d3:1/
between -hh/ü3H /-ya:n/yâ:n/ and -aup/anp /-dır/dir/, resulting in the form -nıı/HaH
aannHp /-ya:n/yâ:n nâ:llir/. Questions in this tense are formed by adding the partide
-mm/mh /-mı/mi/ to the end of the suffix.

Oji HiıiJieMan jjanflHp.


- On HiuJieMeiianaHp. H e’s pro b ab ly no t w orking.
/Ol İ51eya:ıı nâ:llir./
h Ol i:slemeyâ:nnir./

The suffix -jmabip/KanaHp /-ya:nnır/ya:nnir/ is a compound of the present


participle -HH/üaH /-ya:n/ya:n/, whose vowel has inherent length, and the confirmation
partide -Bbip/aHp /-dır/dir/.
For paradigms of the subjective present continuous tense, see 590-595.
Tense/Aspect 231

Negative Present Perfect Tense


The present perfect tense expresses an action that was completed in the past but whose
results are related to the present. English indicates this tense by the formation 'has
done (something)'.

Mamın* xeHH3 reJieHOK. The car hasn’t co m e yet.


/MaSı:n heni:8 geleno:k./

Onyn aflpecHHH B h j m m o k . I don’t know her address.


/Onut] adre0ii]i bilemo:k./

M eH o h h 6 n p MaKflan Gspıı repeM OK. I haven’t seen him for a


/Men om bir cakdan bâ:ri görömo:k./ long time.

As may be obvious from the preceding exampies, Türkmen indicates the present
perfect tense only in the negative, by adding the suffix -a n o K / e n o K /-ano:k/eno:k/
(third person singular form) to a verb stem. The negative present perfect expresses an
action which did not occur in the past and does not occur in the present, although the
results of this inaction are felt or true in the present.2

«TeöMrH ra3M 1993-h :*;h Mtıntm 15-ıcsjf Hoa6ptma veHim MeKepsıc» - hhühit,
Bafla öepflHiıep. 3 h t b k xeM ry T ap a H O K n ap . (N) /'Tebi:gı gaSı 1993-njü yıhr)
15-nji noyobnmo cenli cekeriö," diyip, wa:da berdiler. Entek hem gutorono:klor./
They promised that they would extract natural gas by November 15,1993. They
stili h a v e n ’ t fin is h e d .

Kan B an n aH 6 spw K oırropa eKe3K;e-fle KJiHeHT reneHOK. (H)


/Köp wagtdan bâ:ri kontora: yekeje-de kliyent geleno:k./
Not a single customer has c o m e to the shop for a long time.

Baıura T p o n n eflS y c flartı o n ra^gan ü o p a n o K . (TV12.3)


/Basga tırolleybuO dağı ol ta:ydan yö:ra:no:k./
No other trolleybuses and such ran from there. [ 'h a v e not run']

rypflOB 1983: 79-80 âefineâ this fomı as ıhe negative of ıhe present continuous tense forms ;3.vp /du:r/,
OTUp /on:r/, and H T u p /yatı:r/, and cıted in suppon o f his view such questions and answeıs as Onan
O T iıp M u ? /Oka:p anıma!I İ s he reading?' and Ek, oksuok /Yo:k, oka:no:k/ 'No, he isn’t reading'.
However, Gurdov's examples reflect equivalenls in Russian and Engiish, rather than the structure of
Türkmen itself, and, as pointed ouı in TpaMMamuKa 276, the present continuous verb forms tîyp /du:r/,
o r u p /otı:r/ and ı r r u p /yatı:r/, do not occur in the negative.
232 Turkmen Reference Grammar

% 3 Myne ronatf Miıanj 6onaH Mypranfla x;opan xeM-fle 6eiineKH 3rnH-3uiMiaıep


raüpu KjpTnapflaH reTMpHneHOK. (TV11.4) /Yü8 mürjö goloy i:la:ü bolon
Murga:pda jora:p hem-de beyleki egin-esikler gayn yu:rtlordon getirilenotk./
In Murgap which has a population of close to 100,000, socks and other clothing
have not been imported from foreign countries.

Other Uses o f -anoKİenoK /-ano:k/eno:ki


The negative present perfect tense often is used for actions depictüıg states of mind and
sensations such as knowing, thinking, wanting, realizing, recognizing, hearing, and so
on. This usage is common especially vvith the verb ÖHJiıneK /bilmek/ 'to know; (as
descriptive verb) to be able'.

Men cemin 6oıımyna flyuiYHHn ÖmıeMOK. (G)


/Men Öeniıj bolsurjo düşünüp bilemo:k./
I cannot understand your behavior. ['your (way of) being']

rejiHiiMH-renMaHMH 6nneM30K. (G) /Gelipmi-gelma:nmi bilemSoık./


We don’t know vvhether she’s come or not.

- SI o n lOMeflitrıiHeM GııneuoKM U? (N ) [o n < 0Hyn]


/T a : oi) nâ:mediginem bilerjo:kmt?7 [oıj < onur)]
"So you don’t know what it is, either?"

I H e i t n e f l n i t i t e ı ı n e p K e M c u flu n iıs iifliın ııiH S m j is h o k , a j u ih h m h , c y H r a T b m u n


MefleHHeniHHn H a r u n Gapsruaiinbintı Gm uchok. (N )
/Şeyle diyyâ:nler kem0idilya:nnigini bi!eno:k, dilinii), öungotunuıj medeniyetinir)
yitip barya:ndıgmı bileno:k./
Those vvho say this don’t realize that they’re being humiliated, that their
language, art and culture is being lost.

3MMa fljuıöep oıibi HCjıanoK. (H) /Emma: Dilber onı i01â:no:k./


But Dilber doesn’t w ant this.

Kcümk! Ceıı Mejm TaııaHOKMU? (H) /Keyik! 8en meni tanar)o:kmu?/


Keyik! Don’t you recognize me?

Men uıoımaH con onflaH xwq xaöap-xaTbip siuhacmok. (H)


/Men sonnon 0oi] onnon hi:c ha:bar-hatı:r esidemo:k./
I haven’t heard news of any kind about it since then.

Bnp safla n>i3biKnaıWbipMajibi-fla, KseceneM 63H Mara fly3enep eüfleMOK. (TV16.4)


/Bir 6a:da gıSıklanmrmalı-da:, ka:ye0er)em ö:8ü ca:ga düSölör öydomo:k./
You really should get him interested in something- if you just punish him I
don’t think the kid will get straightened out by himself.
Tense/Aspect 233

When the past indefinite suffîx - m i m /-dı/di/ is added to the third person singular
form -aHOK/eHOK /-ano:k/eno:k/, the action is regarded as not occurring in thu past on
a regular basıs.

03ajncw fly3ryHMHH3fle ch3 6113e 6apHn 6njıen30KJv>iHbi3, öıraeM cn3e remai


6HJieM30KflbiK. (N) /OSolkı düSgünttıjüSSö 6İ5 biSe banp biIeıjSo-.kduıjuS, biBem
8i8e gelip bilemSorkduk./
Under your previous regime you couldn’t come to us and we couldn’t come to
you. ['you/we couldn’t come at the time of the previous regime']

3MMa xmh 3aT 3UiHHHneııoKHbi. (H) /Emma: hi:c 8a:t esidileno-.kdı./


But nothing was heard.

ILIy epfle apacca cyB eKflyrbmtı 6nJieM0Kp(biM. (T17.3)


/Su yerde ara00a 0uw yo:kdugunı bilemorkdum./
I d id n ’t know that there wasn’t any clean water here.

In a sentence vvith a conditional clause, a main verb with the suffîx -aııoKflbi/
eHOKftu /-ano:kdı/eno:kdı/ has a subjunctive meaning.

Mene yomu 6y McneniMM3 rçajrrpaıc «e3yj»iİMece, mchkh TaıcaflbiM eTeHOKj(W.


(H) /Yö:nö inni bu ifllegimiS caltra:k Ğö8ülâ:yme8e, menis] ta:kadım yeteno.kdu./
But if this wish of ours is not fulfilled a little more quickly, my patience is going
to run out. ['w ould not be sufficient']

Contrasting Negative Forms o f ıhe Present and Past Tenses


In origin, the negative of the present perfect consists of the past participle -aH/en
/-an/en/ and the modal word eK /yo:k/ 'there is/are not', vvhich expressed the present
perfect tense. However, Türkmen often use the suffix -aHOK/eHOK /-ano:k/eno:k/ as a
negative statement or as a response to statements or questions foımed with the
indefinite or continuous aspects of the present and past tenses.
The follovrâıg example illustrates the distinction betvveen the present indefinite
(-ap/Hap /-ya:r/ya:r/) and present perfect (-aHOK/eHOK /-ano:k/eno:k) tenses. The
statement 'you haven’t answered' (agoran 6epenoK /joga:p bereqo:k/) refeı:; to an
action that began in the past and is relevant to the present time, whereas the qııestion
'do you consider me?' (xacan 3fliiapMHH? /ha0a:p edya:rmii]?/) refers to a h.ıbitual
State of mind that characterizes the present without specifying the time.

- A iin a , HSMe a g o r a n 6 e p ei(O K ? H -fla Meım h t x a c a n 3fliiapM H H ? (G ) Ofli-: spN um


< 3flöspMHCHn] TA:yna, nâ:me Joga:p beregotk? Ya:-da meni ya:t ha0a:p
edya:rmir)?7 [edya:rmii] < edyâ:mıi0iıj]
'Ayna, why h aven’t you answ ered? Or do you consider me a stranger?"
234 Turkmen Referenee Grammar

The distinetion in aspect between the negative present perfect and the regular
negative formed for the present and past tenses with the negation partide -M a /M e
/-ma/me/ (except for the present continuous) cannot be aptly phrased in English in
most instances (for example, indefinite 'does not do' versus perfect Tıas not done'), so
that equivalents may be the same for both aspects (for example, 'does not do7).

Present indefmite

On 3aB 0jm a HinneüspMH? Does she vvork at the plant?


/Ol 8awoddo i:51eya:rmi?/
Ek, MiuneMeifap. No, she doesn’t (vvork there).
/Yo:k, i:slemeyâ:r./
EK, MUIJ73HOK. No, she doesn’t (vvork there,
/Yo:k, i:slâ:no:k./ and she hasn’t vvorked there).

Presem Continuous

On TeneBH3opa cepeaım orap. She’s vvatehing television.


/Ol telewi8oro öeredip otı:r./
E k, cepenneJtep. No, she isn’t (vvatehing it).
/Yo:k, 8eretmeya:r./
. Ek, cepeflaHOK. No, she isn’t (vvatehing it, and
/Yo:k, 8ereda:no:k./ she hasn’t been vvatehing it).

Past Indefmite

On KHTan oKan 6onflyMtı? Did he finish reading the book?


/Ol kita:p oka:p bollumı?/
Ek, oKan SojiMafltı. No, he didn’t finish (reading it).
/Y o :k , o k a : p b o l m o d ı ./
Ek, O Kan 6 o n a n o K . No, he hasn’t finished (reading it).
/Yo:k, okap bola:no:k./

Pası Continuous

CeH o h m 8H TaHasıpflbinMbi? Did you knovv her before?


/8en om örj tanaya:rdıqmı?/
Ek, TanaMaflbiM. No, I didn’t (knovv her).
/Yo:k, tanamadım./
Ek, TanaMOKHEtM. No, I didn’t (knovv her, and
/York, tana:mo:kdum./ I haven’t known her)
Tense/Aspect 235

Forms o f the Negative Present Perfect Tense


Türkmen forms the negative of the present perfect tense by adding the suffixes
-aMOK/eMOK /-am o:k-om o:k/em o:k-öm o:k/ and - a M U 3 0 K /e M H 3 0 K /-am ıSo:k-
omu5o:k/emi8o:k-ömü5o:k/ in the first person singular and plural, -arçoK /enoK
/-aıjo:k-oi)o:k/eıjo:k-ör)o:k/ and -anti30K/eHH30K /-a(]i8o:k-oi]u5o:k/er)i8o:k-ör]üSo:k/
in the second person singular and plural, and -aHOK/eHOK /-ano:k-ono:k/eno:k-öno:k/
and -aHOKjıap/eHOKnap /-ano:klor-ono:klor/eno:klor-öno:klor/ in the third person
singular and plural, to the stem of a verb. Questions in this tense are formed by adding
the partide -mm/mh /-mı/mi/ after the suffix.
When added to a verb stem ending in a vowel, the vowel is lengthened and this
suffîx is vvritten -anoK /anoK /-a:no:k/a:no:k/; for example, oKanoK /oka:qo:k/ 'you
haven’t read' or hcji3MM30K /i91a:m(i)8o:k/ 'we don’t want'.
In the first and second person plurals, the voweI h /h /ı/i/ often disappears in speech
and occasionally in writing as vvell (-aM 3 0 K /e M 3 0 K /-amSo:k/em8o:k/, - a n 3 0 K /e u 3 0 K
/-ar]So:k/ei]8o:k/).
The forms of this tense are contractions of the past participle (-au/eH /-an/en/) plus
one of the possessive suffîxes ( - m m / m m /-ım/im/, - m h / h h /-ırj/iJj/, ete.) followed by the
negative vvord e K /yo:k/ 'there is not'. In these forms, the vovvel is pronounced as long
/o:/ because the vvord e K /yo:k/ itself has a long vovvel.

Singular

1 -aMOK/eMOK < -aH+HM/eH+HM eK


/-amo:k/emo:k/ /-an+ım/en+im yo:k/
2 -arçoK/enoK < -aH+inı/en+Mn tîK
/-aıjo:k/ei)o:k/ /-an+ıi]/en+ii] yo:k/
3 -aHOK/eHOK < -aH(+w)/eH(+M) eK
/-ano:k/eno:k/ /-an(+ı)/en(+i) yo:k/

Plural

1 -aMW30K/eMH30K < -aH+E[Mto/ejr+KMît3 eK


/-amı8o:k/emiSo:k/ . /-an+ımı8/en+imi8 yo:k/
2 -anti30K/enH30K < -aH +H H W 3/eH +H H M 3 eK
/-aqı5o:k/ei]iSo:k/ /-an+ıgıS/en+irjiS yo:k/
3 -aH O K nap/eH O K Jiap < -aH(+tı)/eH(+H) eK+nap
/-ano:klor/eno:klor/ /-an(+ı)/en(i) yo:k+lar/

For paradigms of the negative present perfect tense, see 596-597.


236 Turkmen Reference Grammar

Subjective Present Perfect Tense


The present perfect tense expresses an action vvhich was completed at some unspecified
time in the past, but whose results are felt in the present, In its subjective form, the
speaker did not witness or could not have vvitnessed the action, but he or she believes
that it took place. English expresses this tense vvith the formation 'must have done
(something)'.

On X33Hp ee 6 a p a H H b ip . He must have reached home


/Ol ha:Sir öyö barannır./ by now.

Turkmen indicates the subjective present perfect tense vvith the suffix
-aH A ijp/enaııp /-anmr/ennir/ in the positive and -MaHHLip/MeHRHp /-ma:nnır/mâ:nnir/
or -aH/eH aa-fiH^P /-an/en datllir/ in the negative. Use of this suffîx indicates that the
speaker has no reason to doubt that an umvitnessed action occurred or believes that it
occurred because it is logical or performed out of habit.

- ErcaMaM, ApTMK, Aflua cana ra p a m tın oT ypaH nup. Xantı, mhah to ü h xa«ıaH
3flepHc?(G)
/"YogBomom, Artık, A:yna 0arja garasıp oturonnur. Hanı, inni toyı hacan ederiö?"/
"By the way, Aıtık, Ayna must have been waiting for you. Well now, when shall
we make the vvedding?"
OHyn 6axactt H3LiJlMaHp,Lip. (G) /Onurj bahaOı yaSılma:nnır./
its price m u st n o t h a v e b een w ritte n .
BerncH, Xanna3ap nyn oritti y^ hh ce3 atiTMara reneHHitp. (G)
/Belki, Ha:lnaSar dul oglı ü£ü:n 0ö8 aytma:ga gelennir./
Perhaps, Halnazar has come to speak on behalf of his son, the widower.
Onap MyHtı okjh 3flioı fluSce-fle MHenuMpnep. (G)
/Olor mum oyun edip diyfie-de diyennirler./
They must have said this as a joke.
E m3-s Gyumyra rejıenanpnc. (N) /Bi8-a: buslugo gelenniri0./
Us, we must have come vvith good nevvs.
MtıXMaHBm MMr cyB HHenfliıp efltoH. (TV17.3)
/Mı:hma:nırj öi:g 0uw i£ennir ödyam./
I think your guest m u st have d r u n k untreated vvater.
Hafearç X33Hp EaKyBa Gapanflbip. (Tl 8.4)
/DaySarj hâ:8ir Bakuvva barannır./
Your aunt must have reached Baku by now.
Tense/Aspect 237

Forms o f the Subjective Present Perfect Tense


Türkmen indicates this tense by adding the suffixes -aHfluptiH/cHflMpHH /-anmrın-
onnurun/ennirin-önnürün/ and -aHflupLic/eHjiHpnc /-annm0-onnuru8/enniri0-
önniirüe/ in the first person singular and plural, -aHflbipcbiH/eHflHpcHH /-snnırOır)-
onnur6ui)/enniraii]-önnür0ürj/ and -anjjbipcuniJ3/eHflnpcHHH3 /-an rır0ii]i6-
Onnur9urju8/ennir6iıji8-önnür0ür)ü5/ in the second person singular and plural, and
-aHaup/eHAHp /-annır-onnur/ennir-önnür/ and -aHflbipjıap/eHflHp.nep /-annırlar-
onnurlor/ennirler-önniirlör/ in the third person singular and plural, to the stems o f
verbs.
Primarily in the written language, the negative of this tense may be f:rmed by
adding the negation partide -M a /ıu e /-ma/me/ directly to the verb stem, so that the
vowel of this suffbc is long (-Mannbip/Mannup /-ma:nnır/mâ:nnir/. However, speakers
nearly always form its negative by placing the negative modai word pnjı /d â:l/
separately after -a H /e ıı /-an/en/ to which the element -flHp /-dir/ is attached. The result
is written -a H /e H /-an/en nâ:lür/.

Mji Mana Maıuraua 3KJieıuen fl3jıjjnp. (G) /t;lmağa masgala eklesen nâdlir./
People really haven’t helped me raise a family.

The preference for -aH/eH naiiflHp /-a:n/a:n nârllir/ as the negative of this trnse may
arise from a need to avoid ambiguity between the negative of the more commonly used
subjective past indefinite suffix (-binaLip/nnanp /-ıpdır/ipdir/, negative -Mangbip/
M a n f lH p /-ma:nnır/mâ:nnir/) and the Standard negative of this tense ( - a H f l b i p / a H f ( H p
/-a:nnır/a:nnir/, negative -M a H ^ u p / M a n a ııp /-ma:annır/mâ:nnir/).
In the follovving example, it may be unclear whether the speaker intendod to say
that, as boys, they 'must not have known', or that, as adults who cannot remember
precisely, they 'probably didn’t know'. However, because of the preference spoken of
here, Türkmen speakers nearly alvvays would make the latter interpretation.

Bm3-s o n B a rr oraaH, o u u copaManbiflurtıııaM 6HJiM3iıp(npHC. (TV13.3)


/Bi8-â: ol wagt oglon, onı 0o:romoludugunom bilmâ:nniri0./
Us, we were boys then, and probably d i d n ’ t r e a l i z e ( ~ m u s t not have rı;alized)
that we should have asked about him.

The suffix -a H H u p /e H A n p /-annır/ennir/ is composed of the past participlı: - a n / e n


/-an/en/ plus the confirmation partide -atıp/«np /-dır/dır/. When a verb ends in a
vowel, that vowel is lengthened and this suffix is written -auHbip/ananp /-a:nnır/
â:nnir/.
For paradigms of the subjective present perfect tense, see 598-603.
238 Turkmen Reference Grammar

Past indefinite Tense


The past indefinite tense expresses the completion of an action in the past vvhich the
speaker either witnessed or is certain of. its English equivalents are 'did (something)'
and Tıas done (something)'.

KaKaM reJiflH. My father arrived yesterday.


/Dü:n ka:kam gelli./

MaıuMH rejjflH. The car has come. [ - The car is here.]


/Ması:n gelli./

Turkmen indicates the past indefinite tense by adding the suffix -hm/ hh /-dı/di/ in
the positive and -Manbi/MejjH /-madı/medi/ in the negative to the stem of a verb.

T y n x a c n raym tn H H , Myrça rapaMa3flan 6m erıa îjyhihyk- (G)


/Gün ha:0 gi:jigipdi, nuırjo garamaSSan bi8 yo:lo düsdük./
It had already become late, but w e s e t o f f anyway.

AöflfcncepHM 3K e 6 y r y n x h h e p e rH TM enH . (G)


/Abdıkeri:m eke bu:n hi:c yere gitmedi./
Abdıkerim-eke did n o t g o anywhere today.

MeH BeiİMK B aT a u M tm tiK y p rn y H a G am jjaH -aaK raraamubiM. (N)


/Men Beyik Watan£ılık urSuno baüdan-ayak gatnasdım./
I took p art in the Great Patriotic War from beginning to end.

- Bythh 3 T p e r n a n .13 cyB&t G ı t n e n s t s a p - fltıöım, cy M as^ı r y p p y n i e B a m m u u - -


BautiM, Auıra6aTflan reJlflMM AHİiflHUMH? (N) /"Bütüm Etregi agıS 0uwı bilen
yakya:r," diyip, 0ü:jü gürrürp başladı. "Balım, Asgabatdan gellim diydiıjmi?"/
He b e g a n the conversation pleasantly, saying 'İt supplies ali of Etrek vvith
drinking water-honey, did y o u s a y y o u c a m e from Ashgabat?" ['did you say "I
came"?']

O nap «paflKaTopttH xıaT aMiinfltıp» flHfflspJiep. « ^ a T aqan 6onca roBy-fla,


Se^epsJiıın» mhümhm. Ornp «paffuarop ex» nMÜfliuıep. (TV 17.2)
/Olor "radiatoruıj £at acıpdır" diyyâ:rler. "Cat acan bol0o gowu-da:, be]era:yiq"
diydim. Olor "radioator yo:k" diydiler./
They say "Your radiator’s cracked." I said "Fine, so it’s cracked. What about fixing
it?" They said "No radiators."
Tense/Aspect 239

SronııreMira fleByKflH. Ycca 6np xenjje rapamnuM, rejiMeflH. Ohcojj sm au rsm


©3yM nY3entıGepnHivı. (T17.2) /Âpisgâ:mi8 döwükdü. U90a: birhepde garasdım,
gelmedi. On0orj âpi5gâ:ni ö:5üm dü8ödüberdim./
Our window was broken. I waited for the repairman for a week, he didn’t come.
So, I went ahead and fixed the window myself.

The past indefinite tense also may express an action indicated by the present perfect
in English, that is, an action completed in the past vvhose effects are felt or true in the
present (1ıas done)'.

T6nnncHfle msxepnn enambi ıpaHcnopTbmfla rantaMaK y v m T33S Tenernep


' rnpn3nnan. (TV 11.2) /TibiliOide saherii] yotlogcı ttranöportunno gatnamak iicütn
ta:5e tölöglör gi:ri5illi./
New fees have been introduced for travel on Tbilisi’s passenger transport.
Ch3 6y epw KapenRecmıe aj|RMHM3MM? (TV7.2)
/Öİ5 bu yeri kâ:renne8ine alhıjıSmı?/
Have you leased this land?
tîeMen, MeH cemt kot Barraan repMeflHM. (TV7.1)
/Çemen, men Beni köp wagtla:p görmödüm./
Chemen, I haven’t seen you for a long time.

Other Uses of-duldu l-dıldil


The past indefinite tense suffix -«tı/ffif /-dı/di/, along with personal endings, also may
be attached to nouns, adjectives, postpositions, participles and the modal words Gap
/ba:r/ 'there is' and eK /yo:k/ 'there is not' when they serve as the predicates of
sentences. In such cases, the suffbc -Rbi/flH /-dı/di/ does not receive stress.

ByTHH o6a yKyflaflM. (G) /Biitüın o:bo u:kudodı./


The whole village was asleep. ['was in sleep']
MyxaT 6nneH Tapsır#ı>ı hkhch snctm TaHtmiflM, acna oGaflamflu. (G)
/Muhat bilen Ga:ryagdı iki0i yakıın tanısdı, a01a: o:bodosdı./
Muhat and Garyagdı knew each other intimately, after ali, they were fellow
villagers.
A3 canHMMH HMHHne xobhmhi.ih hhh asuı-apKeK, ornaH-ytaaKnaH flOJiyflM. (G)
/A:5 öalmıır] içirme howlı:mıj ici aya:l-erkek, oglon-usokdon do:ludı./
In a moment, the courtyard was full of women and men, children and adults.
HIoji YÜıUMeran apacwnqa Apn.m xeM Öapjjbi. (G)
/Sol ihsmögürj a:ra0ınna Artık hem ba:rdı./
Artık was among that gathering too. ['Artık existed among']
240 Türkmen Reference Grammar

Ona HHaçamiK öepMeftaH, ytcycbiHii TymypMaaH flepT-axBaJiaT AHHaryn a ım ı


rti3t!n tııuKtı^bi. (N) /Orjo r.njalık bermeyâm, u:ku6um tutdurmayam dert-
ahwa:Iat A:nnagül a:th gı:Sıi) ısladı./
The toıment which gave him no peace and would not let him sleep was his love
for a girl named Annagül.

florpycbi, Men e3yM uıon ryppYnnepnn rani.iiiiMartnu.in TapannapuflbiM. (N)


/DogruSı, mer) ö:8üm sol gümirçlörüi] ga:lısmagmırj tarapdaındım./
The truth is, I myself supported the cessation of those talks. ['I was their
supporter']

Verbs in the past indefinite tense also are used as components of a number of proper
names.

Ajınaöepfliı /Alla:berdi/ God gave (a son)


Faparflbi /Ga:ryagdı/ It snowed (at time of birth)
Orynöonflu /Ogulbollı/ A son appeared (girl bom to parents desiring a boy)3

Forms o f the Past indefinite Tense


Türkmen indicates the past indefinite tense by adding the suffixes -aum / jihm /-dım-
dum/dim-düm/ and -h u k /ah k /-dık-duk/dik-dük/ in the first person singular and
plural, -h u h /rh h /-dııj—
dur(/dixj—
düq/ and /-dırjıS-durjuS/dirjiS-düıjüS/
in the second person singular and plural, and -Au / jjh /-dı/di-dii/ and -aMJiap/flHflep
/-dılar-dulor/diler-düiör/ in the third person singular and plural, to the stem of a verb.
The negation partide -Ma/Me /-ma/me/ is placed between the stem and this suffix,
while the question partide -mli/mh /-mı/mi/ is added after this suff!x.
Foı paradigms of the past indefinite tense, see 604-607.

3 Türkmen proper names whose first component is oryjı /oğul/ 'son' are given to femaîe infants in the
arcumstance that one or both o f the parents had expected or hoped for a male child; see ATaHbis30B
1992: 177-181.
Tense/Aspect 241

Habitual Past indefinite Tense


The habitual past indefinite tense is used to express an action that occurred habitually
or repeatedly in the past. In this tense, the speaker vvitnessed the performarıce of the
same action habitually or repeatedly at different times in the past, but not at any one
definite time. The English equivalents to this tense are 'used to do (something)' and
'would do (something)'.

Men HHCTHTyrua huij» pahm. I used to work at the institute.


/Men inOtitutdo i:slâ:rdim./

On xeM 6a3ap ryuH HUiJiapuH. She also vvould vvork on Sunda).


/Ol hem ba:Sar günü i:slâ:rdi./

Turkmen indicates the habitual past indefinite tense by attaching the suffbc
/-ardı/erdi/ in the positive and - M a 3 flu /M e 3 f lH /-maSSı/meSoi/ in the
-a p a u /e p flH
negative to verb stems. Context determines whether its use is equivalent to English
'used to do (something)' or to 'would do (something)'.

Bynap Maımapu ran>ı roBbi SaKapfltuıap, Hupefle omyıc ep öonca, ıııon t p ıtK
cypyn sKHflepamıep. (G) /Bulor ma:llan gatı gowı bakardılar, nirede otluk yer
bolöo, sol yerr.k Sürüp â:kiderdiler./
They used to tend cattle very well. Wherever there was pasture land, they vvould
drive them to that place.

fly p c y H ui3xepfleK3 oöaıttı repMenı K o n a p 3 y n 3 fle p a w . (G)


/Durflun sâherdeka: o:ba:nı görmögü kop arSuw ederdi./
When in the city, Dursun vvould long to see the village.

O e Mana OpcueT 6a6aTfta ryppyn 6epepaw, MeneM ona TypKMeHMCTaH EıaöaTfla


afiftapAbiM. (N) /Ol marja OrOuyet ba:batda gürrür) bererdi, menem oıjo
Türkmönüö0a:n ba:batda aydardım./
He used to talk to me about Russia, and I used to teli him about Türkmenistan.

ürnyntı ona Bacap ahMhii aT flaKtınflu xeM xajut-ıııHHfln oHyn 6MneH oöha niMam.1
roBU repepAH. (N) /Ya:suh orjo BaBar diyip a:t dakıpdı hem hâ:li-sinni cmur]
bilen oynosma:m gowı görürdü./
The old man had stuck the name Basar on him and he used to like playinj; vvith
him from time to time.
Illonapun aiiflSH aöflHMnapuHM aÜTMartı tobu repepaMM.
(O) /S o loru rj aydya:n aydunlannı aytmagı gowı görördüm./
I used to like singing the songs they were singing.
242 Türkmen Referenee Grammar

Onapfla GhiiiMsh xep 6wp Haxaptm 63 B am ı Be e m e n i Gonapatı. MeceneM,


xerw3HHH eKiueH6e ryHH arrnaM raaaHtt ox;ara aTapap^tı. (H)
/OJordo biSyarn her bir nahani) ö :8 wagtı we ölcögii bolordı. Me0elem, hepda:niq
yeksenbe günü ağsam ga:Sanı o:jogo atarardı./
With them every cooked meal would have its own time and scale. For example,
on Sunday evenings the kettle would be put on the hearth.

Other Uses o f -apdttlepdu l-ardılerdil


Adding the suffix -apRfcl/epnH /-ardı/erdi/ to the main verb or to the deseriptive verb of
a sentence may convey a conditional or subjunctive meaning.

On flHpH 6 o n a H G o n c a , MeH Gettne M a c r a p a q t i J i t ı r u n a m a r u H j j a rajiM a3H M M .


(G) /Ol di:ri bolon bol0o, men beyle maOgaracıIıgıi) asa:gmna ga:lma55ım./
If he were stili alive, I wou!dn’t feel so ashamed.

3rep KennsH JtMMHfle 6np aaT Sap Gonca, 6e{{ııe ran,r arbip,vıa33t>ı. (H)
/Eger keJla:ıj icinne bir 8a:t ba:r bol0o, beyle gatı a:gırmaS8ı./
If there were anything in your head, it wouldn’t h u rt so bad.

Men ceHMH yMMHeM oflyp-Gyayp a n b iG -a 6 n jıe p n n M . (H)


/Men 0eniıj ü5ü:nöm odur-budur alıb-a: bilerdim./
I could at least buy this or that for you, too.

When the habitual past tense forms Gojıapau /bolordı/ and 6 onMa3HU /bolmoSSı/
of the verb GoJiMaK /bolmok/ 'to be(come)' serve as the main verb of a sentence with a
conditional clause, they have a conditional meaning, as in English 'v/ould (not)'.

Foıonnapu car-aMaıı 06a 3nnm Gonca, 6m3i«( ynbi hiii 6ırrapflMrHMH3 Cojıapnu.
(G) /Goyunlon 0ag-ama:n o:ba: eltip bol0o, bi5iq ulı i:s bitirdigimiS bolordı./
Ifh e can get the sheep to the village safely, this would prove to be a great success
for us.
A^aGbi OKaflaıı Goncan, 6y Barra a/jaM GoJiapnbi, oHyn eKe 6 wp CH3e nan, öenKH
6yTHH o6 a-fla KOMeru eTepflM. (G) /Ajabı okodon bolOorj, bu wagta a:dam bolordı,
onur) yeke bir 0 iSe da:[, belki bütüm o:ba:-da: kömögü yeterdi./
If you had made it possible for Ajap to study, then she would have made her way
m life by this time, she would have been of use not only to you but even more to
the vvhole village. ['she would have become a person']

IIIoji canapunbo, uıon cneıcraıcn xaKbt»fla ryppyn sflMnaKce, KeM 6onMa3Htı.


(O) /Sol 0apanr)iS, sol iöpektakıl hakınna gürriii) edilâ:y0e, kem bolmoSSı./
it would be good to talk about that trip of yours and that play. ['it would not be
a f!aw ir]
Tense/Aspect 243

Forms o f the Habitual Past İndefinite Tense


Türkmen indicates this tense by adding the suffixes -apauM/epmM /-ardım -ordum/
erdim-ördüm/ and - a p a tiK /e p f jH K /-ardık-orduk/erdik-ördük/ in the first person
singular and plural, -apuuH/epHHH /-ardıi]-ordui)/erdii]-ördür)/ and -apnbiK(W3/
epRHHHS /-ardujı8-ordurju5/erdii)i5-ördür)ü5/ in the second person singular and plural,
and -a p flL i/e p g M /-ardı-ordı/erdi-ördü/ and - a p f lb u ı a p /e p f lH J ie p /-ardılar-ordulor/
erdiler-ördülör/ in the third person singular and plural, to verb stems. When a verb
stem ends in a vowel, that vowel is lengthened and this suffix is written - a p j i b i / a p a ı ı
/-a:rdı/â:rdi/.
Negation of this tense requires replacing - a p / e p /-ar/er/ with the partide -M a 3 /ın e 3
/-maS/me5/. Questiohs in this tense are asked by placing the partide -mm/mh /-mı/mi/
after the suffix - a p n u / e p u i i /-ardı/erdi/.
The suffix - a p n b i/ e p n K /-ardı/erdi/ is composed o f the future indefinite suffix
- a p / e p /-ar/er/ and the past indefinite suffix - h m / a h /-dı/dı/.
For paradigms of the habitual past indefinite tense, see 608-611.
244 Türkmen Reference Grammar

Subjective Past indefinite Tense


The past indefinite tense expresses an action that occurred at some unspecified point in
the past. In its subjective use, the speaker is not aware of having performed or
witnessed this action even though the speaker actually did perform or witness the
action. This tense may be used when the speaker,becomes consciousiy aware of having
done something, or the like, and when reporting historical events. English equivalents
include 'apparently', 'it tums out', 'it looks like', 'it seems', 'I guess', and others.

On rHTM3HaHp. Apparently he didn’t go.


/Ol gitmârnnir./

On cana süüom aÖRbinflbip. It looks like she told you already.


/Ol Oaıja eyyâ:m aydıpdır./

Türkmen indicates the subjective past indefinite tense with the suffix
-binabip/urm up /-ıpdır/ipdir/ in the positive and -MaHflbip/MBHAHp /-ma:nnır/
mâ:nnir/ in the negative. its basic function is to express an action of. vvhich the speaker
was not consciousiy aware until the time of speech.

fly iU M a H İIM M U 0 3 aSTB IM H H aiHarfclHflafliirblHbl 6 H IlM 3 IIflH p H H . (G)


/Dusma:nımu) ö:5 ayagımır) aia:guınadıgım bilmâ:nnirin./
It seems I didn’t realize that the enemy was right under my feet.

AÜTcaHa, H3Me Öonynflbip? (H) /Ay00ana, na:me bolupdur?/


W ould you teli m e what happened?

3 jihm flOBYJiHnflHp. (O) /Elim döwülüpdür./


It turns out my hand was broken.

Con H3Me öonanbt öıtnitan eK. Illon raflunaHp. (TV13.3)


/0oq nâ:m e bolonı bilyâ:n yo:k. Sol gidipdir./
No one knovvs what happened after that. A pparently he left.

Ayöi[ 3AeHHMfle HaflorpH HOMep anunfu.ıptiH. (T17.5)


/Dü:n jaıj edenimde nâ:dogn nomer ahpdınn./
When I called yesterday, I apparently got a wrong number.

Other Uses o f -unduplundup l-ıpdırlipdirl


The subjective past indefinite tense is used to State historical events, biographical facts
or authoritative statements which, as a rule, cannot have been witnessed by the person
making the statement.
Tense/Aspect 245

MojınaHenec 1810-iok,m Munfla noryn, 1862-K*,tı fitınfla xeM apanaıı


4biKtınabip. On eMpyHHrç KenycıtHH Caparr xeM Maptı ceÖHTHHfle reı;npıınflnp.
(G) /Mö:llonepe0 1810-njı yılla doğup, 1862-nji yılla hem anadan cıkıpdır. Ol
ömrünü i] köpüSUnü öaragt hem Man Oebitinne geciripdir./
Mollanepes was bora in 1810 and died in 1862. He passed most of his life in
the region o f Saragt and Man.

IIIeMneıuiKfle, öııp Barr re^eHHHflen con, M ycyroıaH tm Be3JtnaHM x a c roBbi


öamapaHflbirbi msjihm Gojıyriflbip. (N) /Seylelikde, bir wagt geceninnen 9oi),
mu6ulma:nııj we8i:pâ:ni ha:0 gowı basarya:nmgı mâ:lim bolupdur./
As a result, after some time had passed, it beeame clear that a Müslim could
fulfill his obligations much better.

iHcraHa afiflbinaHfla, h3M*,m ama:*;biK MarrbiMrynfcmtı yccam tiK 6mjkh


Hiıpenantıanp. (H)
/Gı:0gaca aydılnna, yaSıJı ya:sajık Magtımgulımı u00a:tlık bilen di:reldipdir./
In short, the writer brought to life in a masterfiıl fashion the youthful
Magtımgulı.
TaptttMbtnapbiH HaKnaMarbina reps, renepan CKoöeneB ToKflene ranacbuma oh
6sıu Myn aflaMtı n jpbinaup flHftıın «aK 3amliap. (TVI3.3)
/Ta:n:hcılariQ Saklamağına görâ:, general Okobelev Gö:kdepe gala:0ınna c>n ba:s
mür) a:damı gmpdır diyip cak edilya:r./
According to historians, it is surmised that General Skobelev slaughtercd 15,000
people at the fortress of Gökdepe.

In addition, the subjective past indâfinite tense is used in the narration cif a story
whose action, by its nature, cannot have been vvitnessed.

Tapun rti3binbi eMyııe rersıpen ryuynııeH 6y ana aanuHbi öaünapa xaıibi jıoKaMara
ııGepM3H3np. (G) /Gan:p gıSılı öyünö getiren gününnön bu yaıja: aya-.lını ba:ylara
ha:h dokoma.-ga i:beımâ:nnir./
Starting vvith the day the old man brought home the gold, he didn’t send his
wife to the rich people to weave carpets.

Tyn ConraHce^YHMn sjiHHe Kamm: -^eK otmhh! MeH rupHaK xeM 6oncaM,
HiepHraT KaHyHbtna repa HMKajıauiMacan, Meıtni( HHtiMa rejiMepcHi(! - HuiİHnflHp.
(N) /Gül 6olta:n0öyünürj eline kakıp: "Cek elirji! Men gımak hem bolOom, seri:gat
ka:nu:nma görâ: nika:lasma0ai), menir) ya:nıma gelmerOir)!" diyipdir./
Slapping Soltansöyün’s hand. Gül said: "Hands off! Although I’m a slavu, if you
don’t marry me according to the laws of the Shariat, you won’t get near me!"
246 Turianen Referenee Grammar

Another usage o f the subjective past tense is to communicate the spoken (vvith
3HÖMCK /diymek/ 'to say', atİTMaK /aytmak/ 'to teli, to say') or vvritten (vvith s3MaK
/yaSmak/ 'to vvrite') vvords of another person.
Mbipamı roıoHiraptı necıe caT5K;aıCflbirbiHbi atİHbinnup. (N)
/Mıra:lı goyunlorı ne0ye Oatjakdıguıı aydıpdır./
Mıralı said that he’ll seli the sheep on credit.
Onyn Maıuranacbi fliıne eKmeHÖe ryHH ÖHJieıiHKjıe H axapjıansnm tın,iH tı JBbinflbip.
CT1Î.1)
tOnuıj maîgala0ı dige yeksenbe günü bilelikde naharlanya:nnıguıı yaSıpdır./
He vvrote that his family eats together only on Sundays.

Forms of the Subjective Past Indefinite Tense


Turkmen forms the subjective past indefinite tense by adding the suffixes
-binabipuH/HnaHpMH /-ıpdınn-updurun/ipdirin-üpdürün/ and -unflbipuc/Hnanrmc
/-ıpdırı0-upduru0/ipdiri0~üpdürü8/ in the first person singular and plural,
-hinflbipcMH/nnnHpcMH /-ıpdır0ıi)-updur0uq/ipdir0ii)-üpdüreüi]/ and -binabipcbinbi3/
ıınanpcHHH3 /-ıpdır8ıi]i8-updur0urju8/ipdir0iqi8-üpdür0Uıjü8/ in the second person
singular and plural, and -binflbip/unflHp /-ıpdır-updur/ipdir-üpdür/ and -binfltıpnap/
HnaHpuep /-ıpdtrlar-updurlor/ipdirler-üpdürlör/ in the third person singular and
plural, to the stems of verbs. When this suffıx is added to a stem ending in a vovvel,
that vovvel lengthens and this suffix is vvritten -annbip/annnp /-a:pdır/â:pdir/.
The negative of this tense is formed by replacing the gerund -bin/mı /-ıp/ip/ vvith
the negative partide -Man/ıvısH /-ma:n/mâ:n/, resulting in the form -MaHflbip/MSHflHp
/-ma:nnır/ma:nnir/. Questions are formed by adding the question partide - m u / mh
/-mı/mi/ to the personal ending, although replacing the partide -n u p lm p /-dır/dir/
vvith -mm/mh /-mı/mi/ in the second person is preferred by most speakers.

Ü3MaHflwpcbn<. /Ya8ma:raıır0ıi]./ It seems you didn’t vvrite.


SbhniMhicbtn? /Ya5ıpmı0ıi)?/ Did you vvrite?
^3MaHMbicbm? /Ya8ma:nmı0ıi]?/ Didn’t you vvrite?

This suffix is a compound composed of the gerund -bin/ıırı /-ıp/ip/ and the
confirmation partide -flbip/jiHp /-dır/dir/. Depending on the speaker, the partide
- m v lm p /-dır/dir/ may be omitted in the second person.

^l3fcm(fltıp)cLin. /Ya8ıp(dır)0ıg./ It seems you wrote.


53bmCnup)cwnM3. /Ya5ıp(dır)0ırjı8./It seems you vvrote. (plural)

For paradigms of the subjective past indefinite tense, see 612-615.


Tense/Aspect 247

Past Continuous Tense


The past continuous tense expresses a past action of long duration that was continuous
or repetitive and that the speaker witnessed. Often, this tense is accompanied by
adverbs of time ('always', 'at times', 'day by day', ete.). This tense is indicated in
English by 'was doing (something)' or 'did (something)'.

CeH 2K,an 3fleHMHfle MeH Haxap MİfiispuHM. I was eating dinner


/0en jarj edenimde men iyyârrdim./ when you called.

Oıryn x h i i r a x a p u re jiM e tia p a H . He never got angry.


/Onurj hi:c gahan gelmeyâ:rdi./

Türkmen indicates the past continuous tense by adding the suffix -HpHbl/öapflH
/-ya:rdı/yâ:rdi/ in the positive and -Masıputı/MeüapHH /-maya:rdı/meya:rdi/ in the
negative to verb stems. its basic funetion is to indicate that an action occurred in the
past in a continuous or repetitive way.

MambtHJiapMH pesHHnepH acc|>ajiKran ks epmffle ıra ranjitıpapnbi. (G)


/Ması:nlani) reginleri a0faltıi] ka: yerinne 1:8 ga:llırya:rdı./
The wheels of the cars were leaving tracks in some spots of the asphalt.
Onyn snnepn THTpHİfopnM. (G) /Onur| elleri titriyâ:rdi./
His hands were trembling.
TyMHYKfleH flYlu^3H r-yuyH ıııexnecH onyn flapaütı KeitaerMHfle, ot Muıımne
ofiHaHpdbi. (G) /Tü:nükdön düsyarn gönürj söhlö9U onuıj dararyı köynögünnö, el
irsinne oynoya:rdı./
The ray of sunlight, coming from the smoke hole of the yurt, was playing on her
silk dress and needlevvork.
On 6wp canap nanaB, 6wp ca n a p xeM Ke 6 a 6 ,3TJin MepeK - x e p xaücbMflaH
HİİİİDpnH. (G )
/Ol bir 0apar palaw, bir 0apar hem kebarb, etli cörök- her haydmnan iyyârrdi./
He was eating some of each kind- now palaw, now kebab and pastry stuffed with
meat.
Mhb , u ıo ııy n Y'fHH-fle o n M tıp a fla M uep^en r a p a m a p n ı ı. (G )
/İne, sonug ücü:n-nö ol Mııa:da ilerden garasya:rdı./
You see, that’s also why he was expecting Mırat from the south.
fla m a p fla 6o n c a ra 3aHnap aTapmiHpntı. (G)
/Dasarda bol0o ga:8anlar atanlya:rdı./
And outside, kettles were being set u p .
248 Turkmen Reference Grammar

By B a rrn ap Y3yK a r t ıp o it-ro a a ıp n e p jp n m fle, G a m m a a n r e p HSMenep rejimi


reniiapR H . (G)
/Bu wagtlar USuk ağır o:y-pikirler icinne, basınnan görna:meler gelip gecyaırdi./
At that time Uzuk was deep in her thoughts, vvho knows what vvas going through
her head. ['what vvas coming and going']

BH3im 6aMntDcnapMMfci3Bi eayM irafleH copaMaH, aiiun rnattap»«ıep. (N )


/BiSig ba:ylıklarımıSı ö:5ümii88ön 6 orroma:n, ahp gidyâ:rdiler./
They were takıng away our riches vvithout asking us.

rapa3, aTacbiHH eKHpepe 6axaHa Tarıatıp.Ma^aK Gojıapauıvı. (N)


/GaraS, ata0ını yekirere bahana tapdırmajak bolya:rdım./
Lı a vvord, I vvas trying not to let him find an excuse to torment his grandfather.

OnflHue 6 axtiM paK 06a em are x o B jıy rH p flu . (BH)


/Ol dirje bahımra:k o:ba: yetmâ:ge howlugya:rdı./
He vvas rushing to get to the village even sooner.

In combination vvith various time vvords and phrases, this tense refers to action that
occurred continuously or repetitively över a long period of time. Typical adverbs of
time that occur in such sentences include the followmg:

xeM m u e/hemi:se/ always Barr /hi:c wagt/ n e v e r


x h «i
oji /ol wagtlar/ then
B a rra a p x e p B a r r /her w a g t /
at tim es
on fleBYpfle /ol döwiirdö/ at that time TO3-TM3fleH /ü:8-ti:85en/ often
ryH-ryHfleH /gün-günnön/ ÜHTM-MBirbiflaH /yıgı-yıgıd an /
day by/to day frequently
MarantiKfla /ca'.galıkda/ in childhood KOHeflBH /kö:nödön/ sin ce e arly
tim es

O n x h h B a r r m e î t n e ıu a r ıiB i K j r tı ry H J ie p M n ıı ıa a ^ M 6 o n a p j> m f l ı t ü m ı
nHKHpjıeHMeHapflM. (G)
/O l h i:c vvagt ş e y le s a :tlık h g ü n lö rü ıj s a :y a :d ı b o lo r u n d iy ip p ü d r le n m e y â ır d i./
He never thougbt t h a t h e v v o u ld b e a w i t n e s s t o s u c h h a p p y d a y s .

Cep6 a3 öaiifcin x h m raxapu reJiMeHspAH. (G)


/ 0 e r b a : 8b a : y ı i ] h i : c g a h a n g e l m e y â : r d i . /
Serbaz-bay never got angry.

O j i n o B Y p n e 6 h 3MH a c M a m .iM tt 3fla h 3x h j b i 3a T n a p t m y v y n i ı e p e ı m u n i H i ı


6 n J iM e tia p a n K . (N)
/ O l d ö v v ü r d ö b iS ir j a 0m a : n ı m ı 88a n a r h i l i S a : t l a n i ] u c u p y ö r ö n n i i g ü n ü b i l m e y â ı r d i k . /
At that time, vve didn’t know w h a t s o r t o f t h i n g s v v e re f l y i n g i n o u r s k i e s .
Tense/Aspect 249

©HKH'OHKyJiHK 6 o jıa n fla 6 h3 cecHMjoeM ibiK apun 6 n jiM eitap aıiK ,


YÜHyMiraeM. (N)
/Örjkü-öıjkülük bolonna bi8 0e0imiSem cıkanp bilmeyâ-.rdik, ü:nümü5öm /
The way it used to be, we could not utter even a word- even a sound.

MeH onapuH eöyHfle Murtı-iibiruflan CoJiapRtiM. (N)


/Men olorui) öyünnö yıgı-yıgıdan bolya:rdun./
I was at their house frequently.

B h3 o B a r T J ia p ^enflvıpfle a ra a a p R U K . (H)
/Bİ8 o wagtlar Cenni:rde ya:saya:rdık./
We were living in Chendir then.

B m3 oji B a r r u a p 8-ikk;h ıcnacfla o K aap A b iK . (O)


/BiS ol wagtlar 8-nji kla00a okoya:rdık./
We were in the 8th grade then. ['we were studying']

İleHe o n x h h x a q a H , xh>i KHMe TaHpbiHJiKacbma K B M eıt B epM eiiapflM . (O )


/Yö:nö ol hi:£ hacan, hi:c kime tagnyalka0ına kömök bermeya:rdi./
But he never helped anyone for a "Thank you."

The past continuous tense also may indicate that a process or repetitive actiorı which
heads toward a goal is becoming an actuality. This usage often occurs with verbs
meaning 'to increase'.

Mıııe ranıauiHH narajıapuH c a ıa ı ryH-ryHfleH Kenejıüspntı. (G)


/İrse gatnasya:n ca:galanq 0a:nı gün-günnön köpölyâ:rdi./
The number of children engaged in work was increasing day by day.

flaıuapfla 6onca uıeMajibiH ryBByjı^HCM rytömıeHMn, eMyn upaHMacu a p m p ^ u .


(G) /Dasarda bolOo sema:lır) giiwwiildü0ü gü:clön(ip, öyürj ııanmaSı artya:r;lı./
As the roar of the wind rose outside, the vibration of the house was getting
stronger and stronger.

O nyn ryöa;M KenenüapAH, rouiyHM ryftMneHttapjjH, xa3WHacbi ajrrbinaan


noJispflM. (N)
/Onuıj gü:jü köpölyâ:rdi, gosunı gü:clönyâ:rdi, haSımaOı altmnan do:lya:rdı./
His strength was increasing, his army was grovving stronger, and his treasury
was fiiling up.

- BaTutman reneH 3apbin 6y cec 3iuHTflHTHHue flyperHUH ajifltiM-öepflHMe


cajıapflfci. (N)
/“Ba:thdan gelen 8a:n:n bu 0e0 esitdigiçce yürögügü allım-berdime 0alya:rdı.'Y
"The more loudly this pitifiıl voice was heard, the more it tortured your hec.rt."
250 Türkmen Referenee Grammar

In addition, the past continuous tense indicates a process or State that was relentless
or pervasive.

F muimh coByKiıapMHua 6y öa-rrajıtncjıap ao^Hpabijıap. (G)


/Gı5ıq 0owukiorunno bu batgalıklar doqya:rdılar./
In the severe cold of winter these bogs became frozen.

3MMa on MyHyn MbipaT Tapantniflan M6epnneHflHrMHe binanapau. (G)


/Emma: ol munurj Mıra:t tarapmnan i:berilennigine ınanya:rdı./
But he believed that this had been sent by Mîrat.

roBpynaH östnunm. u c u rejıüspflH. (BG) /Gowrulon ba:Iıgır) ı:0ı gelyârdi./


There was the smell of fried fish. ['the smell came (and came)']

Ona flepeK Mapsctın, 3HrenbCMH, JleronotH enMea-ftımtea nne«naptiHM HHJK,an-


nHK,an HYulYHBHptt3pHHJiep. (TA16.4) /Orjo derek MarkOırj, Engdöirj, Leninirj
ölmöS-yitmeS ideyalanm ya;nja:p-ya:nja:p dusiinnüryâ:rdiler./
İn their place, they pounded the immoıtal, everlasting ideas of Marx, Engels and
Lenin into them. ['vvhile criticizing and criticizing, they explained']

Other Uses o f -stpdbdüapdu l-ya:rdılya:rdil


The sııffix -apflfci/tiapnH /-ya:rdı/yâ:rdi/ also may be added to the main verb of a
sentence vvith a conditional clause to express a subjunctive meaning.

AÜTMafltiK 6oııcan, raflitapHHM. (H) /Aytmadık bol0oi], giyâ:rdim./


If you had not told me, I wou!d have gone.

This suffix also may be used when tvvo aetions are performed simultaneously,
especially when the first action is qua!ified by the partide -Ka/fO /-ka:/ka:/ 'vvhile'.
Hovvever, some speakers prefer to use deseriptive verb formations (-un/un aypatı
/-ıp/ip du:rdı/, -bin/un orbipatı /-ıp/ip otı:rdı/, -un/un nTbipau /-ıp/ip yatıtrdı/) to
express such action (see 225).

On m y ryppyunepH 3flöapKa annepMHM xepeKeT;ıeıınııpii3paH. (H)


/Ol su gürriir)lörü edyâ:rka: ellerini hereketlenniryâ:rdi./
While giving this account, he was gesticulating vvith his hands.

Hypflyre3en 6«neH rypnemMn orupKaM, Cmp rm yM ötıneH flauı-TSBepere xeM


cu h aatepaHM . (TVI6.2) /DurdugöSöl bilen gürlösüp otı:rka:m, bir göSiim bilen
das-tövvörögö hem 0ı:n edya:rdim./
While sitting there talking vvith Durdıgözel, I also vvas keeping one eye on the
surroundings. ['I was watching vvith one eye']
Tense/Aspect 251

Contrasting the Past indefinite, Habitual and Continuous Tenses


The past continuous tense in - H p flu /S a p flH /-ya:rdı/yâ:rdi/, which refers to an action
occurring repetitively över a long period in the past, should not be confused vvith the
habitual past indefinite tense in -a p fli> ı/ep j(H /-ardı/erdi/, which describes action that
occurred habitually in the past. In the following example, the speaker refers to an action
that occurred in the past in a constant state ('we used to live'); then, following a
clarification, he refers to the process that occurred in the past ('we were living' = 'we
lived').

Bira oöafla sraıapatiK. MbinrtiH fljtftH nifsH epfle...6HJiÜ3H MeH - M enflen k o t h c h 6 y


- ınorç SonaH epıiHfle. Illon Tayfla mnaHpnbiK. (TV13.3)
/BiS o:bodo ya:sa:rdık. Yılgın diyilyâ:n yerde...bilyâ:n men - mennen fciciei bu -
sog bolon yerinne. Sol taryda ya:saya:rdık./
We used to live in a village. In a place being called Yılgın... I know- this is my
younger brother- in the place where he vvas bom. We lived there.

The past indefinite tense in -flbi/flH /-dı/di/ refers to a single action that occurred at
some point in the past and did not occur again. In the following example, the speaker
uses the past continuous tense in -apau/ttapnH /-ya:rdı/yâ:rdi/ to refer to a state of
mind that vvas occurring över a long period of time ('I was considering myself happy'
= 1 considered myself happy'). She uses the past indefinite tense in -hm/ah /-dı/di/ to
refer to two actions (1 became pregnant' and 'I realized') that were single events of the
past.

© 3YM H flYHÜ sfle hu S a r r j i H aflaM x a c a ı ı 3Hİİ3pnHM. * Ia r a ra jiflb i Bernm, e3yMHH


a n n b n n a H n u rtiM b i ıuoHHa 6 h j ih m m . ( N ) /Ö:8üm ii d ıin y â :d e iq b a g tlı a:dam ha6a:p
ed y â :rd im . C a :g a g a :Iiı w e ii:n , ö:5ümiir| y a lg ıs a n lıg ım ı so n n o billim ./
I considered myself the happiest person in the world. I became pregnant,
however, and realized then that I had made a mistake.

Forms o f the Past Continuous Tense


Turkmen indicates this tense by adding the suffixes -HpabiM/ftapjjHM /-yarrdım /
yâ:rdim/ and -H p flb iK /ttap n H K /-ya:rdık/ya:rdik/ in the first person singular and plural,
-spabiH/üspHHH /-ya:rdır)/ya:rdir)/ and -apnbmu3/tiapaHHH3 /-ya:rdır)i6/yâ:rdigi5/ in
the second person singular and plural, and -HpHbi/üapflH /-ya:rdı/ya:rdi/ and
-npnujıap/tfapaHnep /-ya:rdılar/ya:rdiler/ in the third persons singular and plural, to
the stems of verbs.
The negation partide -M a/M e /-ma/me/ is inserted after the verb stem and before
-»pftbi/üapflff /-ya:rdı/ya:rdi/. Especially in the written form of the Standard language,
the question partide - m m / m m /-mı/mi/ is placed at the end of the suffix. Hovvever, its
252 Türkmen Reference Grammar

placement between the -ap/iiap /-ya:r/ya:r/ and -Rhilm/-dı/di/ components is preferred


in spoken Türkmen.

Were you writing?


/Ya5ya:rdıqmı? ~ Ya5ya:mudııj?/

The suffix -apau/üapAH /-ya:rdt/yâ:rdi/ is a compound of the present indefinite


tense suffix -np/Hap /-ya:r/yâ:r/ and the past indefinite tense suffîx -uu/nıı /-dı/di/.
For paradigms of the past continuous tense, see 616-619.
Tense/Aspect 253

Past Perfect Tense


The past perfect tense indicates a single action that was completed in the past and that
the speaker witnessed. This tense expresses an action that occurred long ago or,
generally, an action that occurred before another more recent action. English eqııivaients
for this tense are 'had done (something)' and 'did (something before doing something
else)'.

On miramı ryTapuriAM. She had finished work.


/Ol i:sini gutorupdı./
MeH e T e H Mtın Mapa rHHHnflHM. I went to Man last year.
/Men ötön yıl Mara: gidipdim./

Turkmen indicates the past perfect tense with the suffbc -unau/nrınH /-ıpdı/ipdi/ in
the positive and -MaHflu/MSHAH /-ma:nnı/ma:nni/ in the negative. This tense is used
to express actions that occurred in the past before other, more recent actions occurred.
Sometimes, words that refer to a time prior to the immediate past are used in sentences
whose verbs carry this tense marker.

AifflaryjiiiH Tfci3BUi Tomyıı ryuJiyrtına nifleroiHe fttuı apbiM GoJiynntı. (Cl)


/A:nnagulı:i) G 181I GoSun gulluguno gidenine yıl ya:nm bolupdı./
I t had been a year and a half since Annaguh went to serve in the Red Anny.

Tyn xac rnw,nrnnnM, Myna rapaMaşaan 6 h3 ena flYluOTK- (G)


/Gün ha:0 gi:jigipdi, murjo garamaSSan biS yo:lo düsdiik./
It had already become late, but we set off anyvvay. ['the day had become quite
late']

MepeT ara etîfle 6onca, ıııoıtLi rep eteH flHİıra rejıunnuM. (G)
/Meret a:ga öydö bol0o, sonı göröyün diyip gelipdim./
I had come thinking that if Meret-aga were home I would see him.

Oaajı XHM-xaMan nıeftne 3axnap G o jiM aH fltı. (N)


/OSol hi:c-ha£an şeyle 5a:tlar bobna:nm./
Such things had never happened before at ali.

MeH 6 y aflaMM ennep nen re 3eK re p y ıiH H M . (BH)


/Men bu a:damı öıjlör köp geSek göriipdüm./
I had seen this man many times before.

Ypyııı Typanu 6spn, 6np Tonap ryH re>«ınan. (BH)


/Urus turolı bâ:ri, bir topor gün geöipdi./
Many days had passed since the vvar began.
254 Türkmen Reference Grammar

Xs3Hp on mhimhm ryTapun reroınnH. M era repyn e p m 6erei{qn.


(TV16.2) /Hâ:8ir ol i:sini gutorup gelipdi. Meni görüp örâ:n begenni./
Now she had finished work and had come home. Seeing me she was very
happy.

AMepHKantiH BnpnemeH IIlTaTnapHHMH fleBJteT ceıcpeTapM BoppeH


KpHcTo4>opHH fclcpaütın xeKYMeTHHHn en6aniMJ>mapw öjuıeH flyıuyuiHrbiHHa
Hcpaönbin Be C hphhhhh ncoHUHanapbnma ronaitnaıuMaHH rasamm öMiiMe&H.
Hlonyn en »HUHJia KpHcro<})op CHpHHHbin IIpe3HneHTH XacJ)ec Acer 6nnen hkm
re3eK flymytnunflM. (TV11.2) /Amerika-.nu) Birlelen ıstatlannıg Döwlöt Oekretan
Worren KiriOtofonıi) lörayıl hökümötünüç yo:lbascılan bilen dusuîugunno
IOrayüıj we 9iriyanuj poSi0iyalannna goloylosmarm gaSanıp bilmedi. Sonur) öq
ya:mnna Kirifltofor Oiriyamrj PreSidenti Hafe0 A0et bilen iki geSek dmsusupdı./
While meeting leaders of the Israeli govemment, the United States of America
Secretary of State Warren Christopher was not able to get the pösitions of Israel
and Syria to move closer. Prior to this, Christopher had met twice vvith Syrian
President Hafez Asad.

When used vvith time words that set an action in the past, after which other actions
are sure to have occurred, this tense may be equivalent to a simple past tense 'did
(something)' in English.

M aM M eT 6aü flyJİH x a p M a H a rM flM iınH. (G)


/Mâ:mmetba:y dü:n harmana gidipdi./
Mâmmet-bay went to the harvest yesterday.

MeH 6y S a p a fla 0 3 a /iK b i «JH K M iıınapH M aa a ö n b in n b iM , r a ö T a n a n oTypM aJİM H. (N)


/Men b u b a tr a d a o S o lk ı ç ık ış la r ım d a a y d ıp d ım , g a y ta la :p o tu r m a :y ın ./
I told about this in my previous speeches, don’t let me keep repeating myself.

n i o n n a - . u a y p y ıu fleB pyH H n re n H H n e p H H u n a p M a c b i-H jiT a H M a c u 6oJiM aH flbi. (N )


/S o n n o - d o u ru 5 d ö w r ü n u ıj g e lin le rin ir j a :r m a 0 ı- y a lta n m a 0 ı b o lm a r n n ı./
Then, too, wartime brides didn’t get weary or complain.

- CeH nypNiyma MbiKflbiHMM? - fliıMnn, on rynıcapflaıı copafltı.


- HbiKbinjtbiM. fİene oTeH iibin atfpbmbmıniiK. CefoöH «taraMtra efcflbi. (H)
/'0en durmuso cıkdııjmı?" diyip, ol Gülna:rdan 0o:rodı. "(Üıkıpdım. Yö:nö ötön
yıl aynlısdık. 0ebâ:bi £a:ga:mı5 yo:kdı."/
"Are you married?" he asked Gülnar. '1 w a s m a r r i e d . But l a s t y e a r we got
divorced. The reason is we had no children

Ey Baıca Mana enpsK, eren ü b ijı ra6aT remmjjn. (H)


/Bu wa:ka marja ötjrâ:k, ötön yıl gabat gelipdi./
This event befell me earlier, last year.
Tense/Aspect 255

Other Uses o f -undulundu l-ıpdılipdil


The suffîx -Mnnı>l/nnflM /-ıpdı/ipdi/ is used in the narration of stories to place action in
the fictional past.

MaBtı spcaptiflu, AMbtflepa 6owHfla «Hyn-ecYnnM. (G )


/Ma:wı â:r8andı, Amıderya: boyunno ö:niip-ö0üpdü./
Mawı was Ârsan. He was born and grevv up along the Amudarya.

rıc*;e stpbiM 6oJiynnu. 06a o t u iih u . Arnıe XanHa3apHH xaTapw HTMauntı.


BaruıtiHbin cecw renıtn nypfltı. (G ) /Gi:je ya:nm bolupdı. O:bo yatıpdı. Dirçe
Ha:lna8anıj hatan yatma:nnı. Bagsımi) 0e0i gelip du:rdı./
It was midnight. The encampment was asleep. Only in the tents of Halnazar were
they not asleep. The voice of the singer was coming (from there).

- CoırraHHM, ceH uımcapnaKaH ceBflarsp örnıeH KyuiT oünanMtıaMu?


/'0olta:nım, 0en sika:rdaka:ıj 0öwda:gâ:r bilen küst oynarpmıdıi)?"/
"My lord, did you play chess with the merchant while on hunt?"
- OiinanauM. /"Oynarpdım."/
1 did."
- Yıynamıa H3Me CepnnflHH? /"Utuloıjdo nâ:me beripdirj?"/
"What did you give when you lost?"
- Tapa a-rtiM 6wjıeH T3* , hmm BcpmıHHM.
/‘Gara atım bilen ta:jimi beripdim."/
"I gave my black horse and my crown."
- yTarçqa HSMe anunj(un? /"Utogdo na:me alıpdıg?"/
"What did you get when you won?"
- CeB^arepKH rapHaraHM a/ıun^UM.
/”0öwda:ga:rir| gırnagmı alıpdım."/
'1 got the merchant’s slave girl."
- CeH on mpHara an ypMaKMtı Sonantnma, H3Me Tanan sanrımı?
/"0en ol gımaga el urmok£ı bolonugdo, na:me talap edipdi?"/
"When you wanted to put a hand on that slave girl, what did she demand?"
- 3xTHaMa. f Âhtna:ma."/
"A vvritten agreement."
-CeH oHtr öepHHMHflMH? /"0e n om beripmidij)?"/
"Did you give it?"
- XaBa, 6epwnaHM. (N ) f Hawa, beripdim."/
"Yes, I did."

Following a conditional clause, the suffix - L i n n b i / n ı ı n n /-ıpdı/ipdi/ indicates that


'(something) wouId have been done'.

Tenen Goncanı.», tobh 3anncnnn3. (H ) /Gelen bol0or)uS, gowı edip0ii)i5./


If you had come, you would have done vvell.
256 Turkmen Referenee Grammar

Forms o f the Past Perfect Tense


Turkmen indicates this tense by adding the suffbces -tınabiıvı/nnflHM /-ıpdım-updum/
ipdim-üpdüm/ and -unaiiK/ıınAHK /-ıpdık-upduk/ipdik-lipdük/ in the first person
singular and plural, -uaffutf/nnuMH /-ıpdıg— updurj/ipdirj—iipdilrj/ and -u n n u n u 3 /
ununu!» /-ıpdır)i5-updur)u5/ipdii)i5-1ipdiir)üB/ in the second person singular and
plural, and -bin « b i/n n an /-ıpdı-updı/ipdi-üpdü/ and -M im u n a p /rn ıp ın e p /-ıpdılar-
updulor/ipdiler-üpdülör/ in the third person singular and plural, to the stems of verbs.
When this suffbc is added to a stem ending in a vowel, that vovvel is lengthened and
this suffbc is vvritten -anflbi/anflH /-a:pdı/â:pdi/.
The negative of this tense is formed by replacing -bin /u n /-ıp/ip/ vvith the partide
-M an/M 3H /-ma:n/mâ:n/, resulting in the form -MaHfltı/MaHflH /-ma:nm/mâ:nni/.
Questions in this tense may be formed by adding the partide -mm/mm /-mı/mi/ to this
suffbc, or by inseıting it betvveen -bin/un /-ıp/ip/ and -flu/flH /-dı/di/.
The suffbc -unst>ı/(innn /-ıpdı/ipdi/ is a compound consisting of the gerund suffbc
-bin/un /-ıp/ip/ and the past indefinite suffbc -Hbi/flH /-dı/di/.
For paradigms of the past perfect tense, see 620-623.
Tense/Aspect 257

Unrealized Past Perfect Tense


The past perfect tense expresses an action that was completed in the past prior to
undertaking a subsequent action. In its 'unrealized' form, this tense refers to an action
which the speaker or another person intended to perform or wanted to perfomı or said
she or he would perform in the past, but for some reason has not carried ouı by the
time of speech. English equivalents to this tense include 'wanted to do (something)',
'intended to do (something)' and 's/he said s/he would do (something)'.

On TypKMeHMCTaHa rm x ,e n w - He had wanted to go


/Ol Türkmönü88a:na gitjekdi./ to Türkmenistan.

In Türkmen, the unrealized past perfect tense is indicated by adding the suffix
->K,aKau/jK,eKaM /-jakdı/jekdi/ in the positive and -»aK/»çeK flajıjyı /-jak/jek da:lli/ in
the negative to the stems of verbs.4

Eh3 OTeH İtbm nam.br KenH MHpan 3jtnıUK,eKRiiK, 6h3hh hmchhmso reMflUMtı
H3Me? MHpanntuc HyHHa IlaKa eTflH. (G) /Bi6 ötön yıl Passı Keli mi:ra:p
edinjekdik, biöirj diyenimiS gecdimi nâ-.me? Mi:ra:plık Nunna Paka yetdi./
We had vvanted to make Pashshı-kel the irrigator last year, but did what wc
wanted count? The position of irrigator went to Nunna Pak.

E h 3 h 6 Hp epe xoumaun>iK arnıaMbiHM rem ıpM eK ymmh a jıu n raT^ eK flM Jiej). (H)
/Bi8i bir yere hoslusuk agsammı geçirmek ücü:n ahp gitjekdiler./
They had wanted to take us some place in order to have a going-away pany.

The unrealized past perfect tense also indicates the speaker’s supposition ıJıat an
action occurred because a condition was met.

IUoBcy3 ’ttiKan eKeaçe arw3 C03 xeM MspeKsım MaKitirnmtıpMara ceösn Bojıyn
(G) /Sow0u8 çıkan yekeje agıS 0ö8 hem mâ:reka:ni caknısdırma:ga
0ebâ:p bolup biljekdi./
Even one inappropriate word uttered could have been the reason for making the
mob start fighting each other.

4 TypfloB 1983: 91 tenned this lense ıhe 'future in ıhe pası" and differentiaied "future indefıniıe in ıhe
pası' (O ji Maı<a xaT a'J^aK/îLl /Ol nıaıja hal yaSjakdı/ 'He said he wou!d wriıe me a leıter'), fuıure
conıinuous in ıhe pası' (On Hnuran OTypirçaKfliJ /Ol i:slâ:p oıurjokdj/ "He said he would he working')
and "future perfect in the past" (Oji mil ilan fioJiaçaKflu /Ol i:S1a:p boljokdı/ 'He said he »ould’ve
worked'). However, ıhe tenn 'future in ıhe pası" usually refers to a completed action equivalent to
English *will have done (something)" (as Hanser 1977: 125 presented this form), whereas ali of the
dislinclions made by Gurdov imply "unrealized action' or a "past o f intention (HUMcpcH ;■:i)" (as
rpaMMamuKa 264).
258 Türkmen Referenee Grammar

Speakers also may use this tense to express a wish that arose in the past and that
has become more pressing in the present. English equivalents to this ıısage are 'would
have liked to do (something)' or 1ıad wanted to do (something)'.

MeH xantı ajijrçaKflMM. I would have liked to buy a rug.


/Men ha:h aljakdım./ (~ I’d been wanting to buy a rug.)

Forms o f the Unrealized Past Perfect Tense


Tıırkmen indicates this tense by adding the suffîxes -^aKflbiM/a^eKjjMM /-jakdım -
jokdum/jekdim-jökdüm/ and -JK,aKHUK/w,eKUHK /-jakdık-jokduk/jekdik-jökdük/ in
the first person singular and plural, -oı^aKfiurç/^eKHHHt /-jakdırj-jokdurı/jekdiıj-
jökdüg/ and -jrçaKHMHM3/jrçeKnHrçH3 /-jakdıqıS-jokdugu8/jekdiqiS-jökdür)ii8/ in the
second person singular and plural, and -3K,aKHki/:>K,eKj(H /-jakdı-jokdı/jekdi-jökdü/ and
-w,aKHtuıap/3K,eKaHnep /-jakdılar-jokdulor/jekdiler-jökdülör/ in the third person
singular and plural, to verb stems.
Negation of this tense is formed by placing the modal word H3JI /dâ:l/ after
-JKaK/w,eK /-jak/jek/ and in combination with - rh /-di/, resulting in the form
-JKaıc/3KeK flaıiflM /-jak/jek dâ:lli/. Questions in this tense are formed by placing the
partide - m m / m h /-mı/mi/ after this suffix, although the insertion of this partide
betvveen -açaif/açeK /-jak/jek/ and -flfci/flH /-dı/di/ is prefetred in the spoken language.
This suffix is a compound formed from the definite future suffix -a^aK/«,CK
/-jak/jek/ and the past indefinite suffix -n u lm /-dı/di/. Use of the suffix -irçaK/açeK
/-jak/jek/ conveys the certainty with which intentions are made.
For paradigms of the unrealized past perfect tense, see 624-629.
Tense/Aspect 259

Future indefinite Tense

The future indefinite tense expresses the speaker’s knowledge or intention that an action
will take place, but that its actuai or its exact time of occurrence is not certain. This
tense is indicated in English by 'wiU do (something)'.

On apntp Mapa ranep. He will go to Man tomorrow.


/Ol erti:r Mara: gider./

MeH floKTop 6onyn HinjrapHH. I will work as a doctor.


/Men doktor bolup i:siâ:rin./

Tıırkmen indicates the future indefinite tense vvith the suffix - a p / e p /-ar/er/ in the
positive and - M a p /v ıe p /-mar/mer/ (first and second persons) or -M a a /M e a /-maS/rneS/
(third person) in the negative. its basic function is to express an action that wiil take
place at some uncertain time in the future, vvhether near or distant.

Onap fleK aöpM H ttm p H M H n e p H u n e r e n e p n e p . (G)


/Olor dekabni) yigrimilerinne gelerler./
They’H arrive around the twentieth of December.

©HYHHeH.'n.ncaın.ın rappfcictm a, suruH a c ep eT M e3 . (G)


/Ötjünnön cıkanıg gamflma, ya:sına OeretmeS./
He won’t look at either old or young people whom he meets.

3K,aıpiM - cen ctıpjcaB, O K an G n JlM e p c n n , 6ap floKTopa ™t . (G)


/Jaıgcı - 0en 0ırkaw, oka:p bilmer0ır), bar doktoro git./
Jangchı, you’re sick, and you won’t be able to study. Go on, go to the doctor.

t e p e n i n , cyÜHYH. M aranap yunm HÜMirrcıepHn 6 a x a n a p u eKap/ıaH abrptıxiM a3. (N )


/(Üörögüıj, 0ü:dürj, c a :g a la r ü cü :n iy m itle riıj bah aları y o k o rlon n u ru lm o S./
The prices of bread, milk and food for children will not be raised.

B ta a , m y ittu ı n tu ıa ıra a M yn TOHHa naıra, m m am a M yn roıma xeM nane


O H aypep H c. (N ) /inha:, su y ıl pıia:nca müg tonno pagta, pıla:nca mtirj tonno hem
d â:n e ö:nnürörü 0 ./
So, this year w e ’ll g r o w several thousand tons of cotton, and several thousand
tons of wheat as well.

Mnı 6apana apTHp c e s n e m e p H c . (H) /İ:s ba:rada erti:r OöSlösörüO./


We’H talk about vvork tomorrow.

B arr re * ıe p , M e n ıın rtB U M a M y ı ı a j ı a p . (O) /Wagt geçer, menir) gı:Sımam ıılolor./


Time will p a s s and my daughter also will g r o w u p .
260 Turianen Referenee Grammar

Xa3np G onca MeH cH3e MaHaTnapH repKesepuH Be ou flaK tı 6ennHKnepM


flYUiYH3HPePHH- (TP2.2)
/Hâ:5ir bolöo men 0iSe manadan görköSörün we onnarkı bellikleri düsünnüröriin./
And now I ’U s h o w y o u the manats and explain the symbols on them.

OK O H HaTentH O , ıu y H H K e n e G o n a ım a ıu y rfle --ro y 'ffle H 6 n p n a n u 6 o n a p .


K ı m e n e p . (TV10.2)
/Okoncatelno, sum keçe bolonno su gde-to üedön bi:ri ya:lı bolor. Kiceler./
In the end, when it becomes fek, it will be around one-third (in size). I t vvill
shrink. [Russian oKonqaTentHo 'finally, in the end', rfle-To 'around']

MeHe y3aK BarrnaM tiH Gnp epMK n rra ç e K G oncan, c a M o n e ra tı r a r c e n to b m Go/ıap


e fiflitec 6 ıi 3- 3. (TV9.2) /Yoaıö u6ok w a g tla y ın b ir y e r i:k g itje k bolöorı, O am olotlı
g i 00e q g o w ı b o lo r ö y d y â :0 b i 8-â:./
But if you want to go somewhere for a long time, us, we think it’s better to go by
plane. [ 'i t w i l l b e g o o d İF = 'it’s better i f ]

HeGHTflarufci xaJifcPttDiap 0 3nepn m ın m hjuih T o ü n a p tm n 4>a6pnrHH


MeHflaHMaciiHHa renupepnep. (TV10.2) /N eb itd a:glı h a :lıc ıla r ö :5lörü n ü q m illi:
to y lo ru n ı pabrigir) m ey d a:n ca 0ın n a gecirerler./
The carpet weavers of Nebitdag will h o l d their national toys on the factory’s
grounds.

Even when a speaker uses vvords like 'definitely', 'certainly' or 'never' to deseribe
an intention in this tense, the fact or exact time of the completion of the action may be
uncertain or unknovra.

O j i ömtht Meırn ceen Gonca, x@KMaH Tanap. (G)


/Ol yiğit meni 0öyön bol0o, hökma:n tapar./
If that young man loves me, h e ’ll certainly find me. ['if he loved me']

Eojıap, car Gonyrç. XeKMaH ToraHboa Gapapun. (N)


/Bolya:r, 0ag boluıj. Hökma:n toyurjuSo barann./
Okay, goodbye. F i l definitely c o m e to your vvedding.

C h 3 hh r y n e p My3yHH3 xhm B a rr M eım n re3YMHH en yufleH rHTMea. (G)


/OiSirj gülör yüfiüıjüS hi:c wagt menit) göSiimürj ögünnön gitmeS./
Your laughing face wlll never disappear from my eyes.

The suffix -ap/ep /-ar/er/ sometimes expresses an action which is about to


commence, and thus is equivalent to an Engüsh present continuous tense.

MeH x33Hp re jıe p H H . (H) /Men hâ:8ir gelerin./


I ’m coming now.
Tense/Aspect 261

Other Uses o f -ap/ep l-arlerl


A frequent usage of the suffîx - a p / e p /-ar/er/ is to express habitually or historically true
actions which are equivaient to the present indefinite tense ('does') in Engli sh. This
usage appears in set phrases, sayings, proverbs and modal formations with reı;ularity;
for example, E o j ı a p ( ~ B o j ı n p ) /Bolor (~ Bolya:r)/ 'Okay ('it will be') . K m m
ö o j ı a p c t i H L o ? /Kim bolorâıııjuS?/ 'Who are you?'

Sup KeMCH3 re3en 6onMa3. (G) /Bir kem0i8 gö8öl bolmoS./


There is no beauty without a flaw.
3 ji 3jih MBap. (H) /El eli yuwor./
One hand washes the other.
O t H HM aca, T y c c e H tiK M a3 . (H) /0 :t y a n m a O a , tü00ö c ık m a S ./
Where there’s no fire, there’s no smoke. ['If a fire does not bum, smoke does not
appear']
Xaüctt T ypK M en n a p a x a T o r y p u n ÖMJiep? (H)
/Hay0x türkmen para:hat oturup biler?/
What Türkmen can sit stili?

Another usage of the suffix -ap/ep /-ar/er/ is to express a nuance of uncertainty or


possibility which, in English, may be interpreted as 'should', 'I think that', may',
'likely to', or the like.

Mhah Miunep e j ı a H Y iuep. (G) /İnni itsler yo:lo düiör./


Now things should fail into place.
3 p nıp dxjihhh3 MeKfleöe renepcHHH3. (G) /Erti:r a:hli:r)i8 mekdebe geler0iı;ı5./
Ali of you should come to school tomorrow.
A j i t h h x ;aH , onap p a 3 U J ia m M a 3 n a p . (G) /Altın ]a:n, olor ra:SılasmaSlar./
A lü n - j a n , I d o n ’ t t b i n k t h e y ’l l a g r e e w i t h u s .

M tıx M a H , H c n e c e Ken u t i n n 6 u n e p . (TV15.5) /Mı:hma:n, İ0le0e köp iyip b ile r ./


A guest m a y eat a lot if he wishes.

The words G o n a p /bolor/ and C o /iM a 3 /bolmoS/ may funetion as predicates in a


sentence in the meanings 'it will be' and 'ıt will not be', or they may funet on as
modal words to confirm the existence or non-existence of something in the meanings
'there will be' and 'there will not be/there is not' (similarly to G a p /ba:r/ and eK /vo:k/;
see 377, 382).

O j i e p fle TypKMeHHH m h j i j ih T a ra M J ia p u Ö o jıa p . (TV3.5)


/Ol yerde tiirkmönüi] milli: tagamları bolor./
There w ill be Türkmen national dishes there.
262 Turkmen Reference Grammar

MyMKitHranap, n a r a m ı e 3 SHecKHHH SMflHpMenf xeKMaHflbip. ^ ym cn , 'ia r a yMHH


3He cyflflH a n ı .1 m eitn e a rn ibi H apce GoJiMaa. (N)
/Mümkü:ngadar, ca:ganı ö:S ene0inirj emdirmeği hökma:nmr. dünkü, £a:ga ücü:n
ene 6ü:dü ya:lı Şeyle yagsi na:röe bolmo8./
As far as possible, the breast-feeding of a child by its ovvn mother is mandatory.
Because, there is nothing as good for a child as mother’s milk.

Contrasting the Future and Present İndefinite


The future indefinite tense in -ap/ep /-ar/er/ and the present indefinite tense in -sp/Map
/-ya:r/yâ:r/ share the usage of expressing an action that is going to take place in the near
future. Hovvever, the future indefinite denotes uncertainty about the completion of an
action, even if the speaker intends to complete it in the future. The present indefinite
conveys a sense of immediacy or certainty that an action will occur in the future.

Future indefinite Present indefinite

M eH ToıoMa ceHH MarupapbiH. MeH ToıoMa ceHH MarbipsrpMH.


Men toyumo 0eni ca:gırarm./ /Men toyumo 0eni ca:gırya:rm.
Fil invite you to my paıty. I’m inviting you to my party.
[for example, next week] [now]

Bh3 6actiM Mapa niflepHc. Ehs X33Hp Mapa rMflüapHC.


Bİ8 ba0un Mara: gideriO./ /BiS hâ:8ir Mara: gidyâ:ri0.
We’re going to Man soon. We’re going to Man now.

Men spnıp TeaTpa niflepıııı. M eH 3pTKp T e a ıp a nifltopHH.


Men erti:r teatra giderin./ /Men erti:r teatra giya:rin.
I’ll go to the theater tomorrow. I’m going to the theater
[probability] tomorrovv. [ceıtainty]

Forms o f the Future indefinite Tense


To indicate this tense, Turkmen adds the suffixes -a p u ıı/ c p ıiH /-arın-orun/erin-örün/
and - a p u c / e p n c /-arı0-oru0/eri0-örü0/ in the first person singular and plural, -a p cb ih /
epcHH /-ar0ıi]-or0ui)/er0it)-ör0ür)/ and - a p c b in u 3/epcHHH 3 /-ar0ır)i8-or0ui]u5/er0ir)i8-
Ör0üj]ü5/ in the second person singular and plural, and - a p / e p /-ar-or/er-ör/ and
- a p jıa p / e p jıe p /-arlar-orlor/erler-örlör/ in the third person singular and plural, to verb
stems. Wlıen a stem ends in a long vowel, that vowel is lengthened and this suffıx is
written -ap /a p /-a:r/a:r/.
Wlıen this suffıx is added to a verb stem ending in a voiceless consonant t /t/ or K
/k/, this consonant becomes voiced A /d/ or r /g/. When a stem ends in ii İyi the
combination of the stem and suffix is written as u p /yar/ or e p /yer/.
Tense/Aspect 263

nrm eK /gitmek/ to go niflep /gider/ she will go


flapHKMaK /da:nkmak/ to worry flapttrap /da:ngar/ he will wotry
ryÜMaK /guymok/ to pour ryap /guyor/ she will pour
HÜMeK /iymek/ to eat wep /iyer/ he will eat

Adding the suffix - a p / e p /-ar/er/ to a verb whose stem ends in p /r/, results in the
loss of p /r/ and the lengthening of the vowel of the stem to a / s /a:/a:/ or m / h /ı:/i:/.
When this suffix is added to a fevv verb stems ending in p /r/ or j i A/, the final
consonant disappears with a lengthening of the vowels to a / a / o /a:/â:/o:/. However,
both full and contracted forms exist side-by-side in speech and even in vvritten
reflections of speech.

ajmaK /almak/ to take anap/ap /alar/a:r/ s/he will take


6e3^epMeK /bejermek/ to fix 6ex;epep/6exi3p /bejerer/beja:r/
s/he will fıx
6epMeK /bermek/ to give 6epep/6ep /berer/be:r/ s/he will give
öojiMaK /bolmok/ to become 6onap/6op /bolor/bo:r/
s/he will become
renMeK /gelmek/ to come renep/rep /gerer/ge:r/ s/he will come
reTepMeK /götörmök/ reTepep/re-rep /götörör/göta:r/
to bring s/he will bring
re'iypMeK /göcürmök/ renYpep/re’Ofp /göcürör/göci:r/
to move s/he will move (tr.)
ryrapMaK /gutormok/ lyrapap/ıyrap /gutoror/guta:r/
to fınish s/he wül Fınish
flonflypMaK /do:llurmok/ HOJiflypap/flOJiflfeip /do:lluror/do:lh:r/
to fiil s/he will fiil
ÜMTMpMeK /yitirmek/ MnTnpep/MnTKp /yitirer/yiti:r/
to lose s/he will lose
MarbipMaK /ca-.gırmak/ Marbtpap/uarbip /ca:gu-ar/ca:gı:r/
to üıvite s/he will invite
MbncapMaK /çıkarmak/ Ta.iKapap/m,iKap /cıkarar/cıka:r/
to take out s/he will take out

The negative of this suffbc is formed with - M a p /M e p /-mar-mor/mer-mör/ in the


first and second person, but with -Maa/Mea /-maS-moS/meS-möS/ in the third person.
However, the forms -M a n /M a n /-ma:n/mâ:n/ also appear in the first person singular in
the speech of many Türkmen; for example, H3Man /ya8ma:n/ 'I won’t vmte', rMTMaH
/gitmâ:n/ 'I won’t go'. The question partide - m u / m m /-mı/mi/ is added after - a p / e p
/-ar/er/.
For paradigms of the future indefinite tense, see 630-633.
264 Türkmen Reference Grammar

Definite Future Tense


The definite future tense expresses an action that is not realized as yet, but that
certainly will take place, often on a specified date. This tense stresses the certainty,
conviction, finn intention, will, desire or resolve that the action will or will not occur.
In English, this tense is indicated by 'vvill do (something)'.

On aprrap Mapa HiTJK,eK. She’U go to M an tomorrow.


/Ol erti:r Mara: gitjek./

Turkmen indicates the definite future tense by adding the stıffix -M;aK/*;eK /jak/jek/
in the positive and -jrçaK/açeK flajı /jak/jek dâ:l/ in the negative to the stem of a verb.
its main function is to express an action that the speaker is certain will occur in the
future.

A üxaH M M , MeH m y HKHHfla o ö a M m a rHTW ,eK. (G)


/A:yha:nım, men su yakı:nna o:ba:mı6a gitjek./
Ayhamm, I ’ll go to our village very soon.

O H y n r e n e H H H H - r e n M e f lH T H H H B e j u ı M e H 6 n n 3 K ,e K R a n . (G)
/Onui] gelenini-gelmediğini weli men biljek da:l./
However, I w o n ’t k n o w whether he came or not.

Xa tmaii, xa-fla HHaHMa, cemin »MiııynM 6MTHp»;eK flajı, flsjiHflejı florpu xa6ap.
(G) /Ha: man, ha:-da inanma, Oeniıj yumsuıjı bitirjek da:l, dâ:liden dogn habar./
Whether you believe it or not, I won’t finish your work for you, and this is
definite. [flsjiHfleH florptı xa6ap /dâ:liden dogn habar/ '(this is) correct infoımation
from a crazy man' = 'this is definite']

Epn, ÜHnrupMaHM 6aıuapMacan HSflHn übm rtıptın re3i^eK. (N)


/Yeri, yılguxna:m basanna0ar| nâ:dip ydgınp geSjek./
Well, if you can’t manage a smile, how will you go through life smiling?

XoBa 6y ryHeM rarfct rbi3JK,aK eilfliiaH. (H) /Howa: bu:nom gatı gıSjak öydyâ:n./
I tlıink today also will g e t pretty h o t .

MHHH 6wp Myn flOKy3 Aya TorcaH öaunoDfÇH-TorcaH ajrrbiHaçM oKyB ütmHHflaH
öauınan, 6n3m( flYHieBH MeKflermepnMH3KH oıcyB ötuibiHHif floBaMirara floıcy3
ü u n 6on}K,aK. (TPI2.3)
/İnni bir miiıj dokuö yüS tog0on ba:sinji-tog0on altınjı okuw yıünnan basla:p,
biSirj dünyewi mekdeplerimiSirj okuw yjhnırj dowa:mügı dokuS yıl boljok./
Now, starting from the 1995-96 school year, the number of school years of our
secular schools will b e nine years.
Tense/Aspect 265

MeH rımrçeKİ Xs3Mpnn 03ynne rıiT^eK! (H)


/Men gitjek! Ha:8irirj ö:8ünnö gitjek!/
I m il g a ! I ’ H g o this very moment!

IUy ryHKiı ryn MeH CH3e TYpKMeıuıCTaHflaKbr Bmjimm CHCTeMa Bapafla 6np.<M arfci3
rYPPYH »»un GcpjK,eK. (TP12.3) /Su:nkı gün men 8i5e Türkmönüe6a:nra:kj
bilim diStema ba.'rada birki agıS gürrürj edip berjek./
Today, P il m a k e a b r i e f p r e s e n t a t i o n to you about the educational system in
Türkmenistan.

- Xanqypflu, MeH cana eH e 6wp c o p a r 6 e p * ,e K . (TVI2.4)


/'Haamurdı, men 0arja yene bir 0o:rog berjek."/
"Handurdı, P il ask you one more question."

MeH CH3M X33Hp TypKMeH anMnÖM&I ÖHJieH TaHbIUIALip}K,aK. (TV 1.1)


/Men 0İ8İ hâ:8ir türkmön elipbiyi bilen tanısdırjak./
P il acquaint you now with the Turkmen alphabet.

Baranına Beıuı, my a ım iH ^ u ryn Memen m iuhm Sap, Gapun OHil^eK n;ıfi.


(TV3.4) /Bağışla weli, su altmjı gün menii) irsim ba:r, banp biljek dâ:l./
Soıry, but I ’m busy this Saturday, and I w o n ’ t b e able l o g o .

XaK*;ara3btnb[ eıcex;e ry H n w Tenecen TenecjjoHirnbi K ecjrçeK f ln ö n n , flu s s u iB in


flypjıap. (TV17.2)
/HakjagaSııjı yekeje gün gi:c tölö0ör) telefonui)i ke0jek diyip, dıSasıp du:rlor./
If you pay your bili just one day late, they keep after you, saying tlıey’11 cut off
your telephone.

Contrasting the Definite Future and Future indefinite


The basic distinetion betvveen the definite future and the indefinite future tens; s is the
attitude of the speaker toward the certainty that the action vvill occur. With the definite
future, the speaker regards the completion of the stili unrealized action as a o:rtainty,
vvhereas vvith the future indefinite, the speaker may be equally certain about the
completion of the action in the future, but has not focused on the timi: of its
completion, such that its completion cannot be regarded as certain or knovvn.5

The terms "definite future" and "future indefinite" represent a provisional solution to the problem of
labding the distinetion betvveen these tenses. Both -H^aK/^eıc /-jak/jek/ and -ap/ep /-ar/er/ er.Dress the
future tense and the indefinite aspect, with the distinetion that -açaıt/açeK /-jak/jek/ indicatıis certain
action at some indefinite poinı in the future and ~ap/ep /-ar/er/ uncertain action at some mdefînite
point in the future. Thus, the first properly would be termed "definite future indefinite" or "certain
future indefinite" and the second "indefinite future indefinite" or "uncertain future indefinite,” any of
which might prove more confiısing than the terms adopted here.
266 Türkmen Reference Grammar

There are other distinctions in the use of the two tenses. Often, the future indefinite
is used vvhen an action is performed out of a sense of duty or obligation, vvhereas the
definite future is used when a future action is regarded simply as a fact. The defınite
future tends to be used more often in the negative than in the positive. Another factor
in its usage is that whereas ali speakers use the future indefinite, even for actions which
they may regard as cenain to occur, only some speakers use the definite future and only
in some situations.

Definite Future Future indefinite

MeH a p T H p MeK#e6e nrnseıc. M eH 3prHp MeKfleSe ntnepHH.


/Men ertirr mekdebe gitjek./ /Men erti:r mekdebe giderin./
I’!! go to school tomorrow. FU go to school tomorrow.
[fact] [duty]

Bh3 eKUienöe ryHH TeaTpa E h 3 eraueHÖe ryH M TeaTpa


n rn ç e K fls jı. n rrM e p H C .
/Bi8 yeksenbe gtinii teatra /BiS yeksenbe günü teatra
gitjek da:l./ gitmeriö./
We won’t go to the theater We won’t go to the theater
Sunday. [fact] Sunday. [not an obligation]

Forms o f ıhe Definite Future Tense


To indicate the definite future tense, Türkmen adds the suffıx -jrçaK/jrçeK /-jak-jok/Jek-
jök/ in the positive to the stem of a verb. This suffix does not take personal endings.
Person and number are stated in the proper name, noun or pronoun that serves as
subject of the sentence, or is understood from context.
As a rule, the negative modal word Han /da:]/ is placed after the tense suffix and
written separately; however, some Türkmen may insert the negation partide -Ma/Me
/-ma/me/ after the stem and before this suffix in their writing and speech. The question
partide - m u / m h /-mı/mi/ is attached directly to the tense suffix or to the negation
partide.
For paradigms of the definite future tense, see 634-637.
Mood
The category of mood concems the way action is presented, whether it is presented as a
fact (indicative), or as a suggested, commanded or requested action (imperative), or as
an attitude toward real action (conditional) or toward unreal action (subjunctive), or as a
desired or hoped-for action (desiderative). The indicative mood is reflected in the
present, past and futııre tenses which are treated above (see 217). The conditional and
subjunctive moods also may be reflected in the present, past and future tenses. On the
other hand, the imperative and desiderative moods refer to an immediate present or
future. This section treats the imperative, conditional, subjunctive and desiderative
moods, as well as the suffixes of desire, intention, obligation and permission vvhich
express nuances of mood, and various modai formations vvhich reflect the speaker’s
attitude or ability regarding the action.

imperative Mood
The imperative mood expresses the speaker’s suggestion, urging, command, request,
vvish or instruction regarding the perfoımance of an action. One way to characterize the
functions of this mood is that the first person imperative mood conveys a suggestion
or urging (also called voluntative-hortative mood), the second person a command or
request (imperative mood proper), and the third person a vvish or instruction (optaıive-
instructive mood). Of course, other nuances are possible.
Turkmen possesses the follovving basic forms for the first, second and third persons,
both singular and plural, of the imperative mood. Other forms and distinctions are
described below.

Person Singular Plural

1 -aMbnt/eÜMH /-aym/eyin/ -ajıt[(n)/emf(n) /-alı(:rj)/eli(:ıj)/

2 (no ending) -hh / hh /-ıqArj/

3 -cuh/ chh /-Öın/Oin/ -CMHJiap/cmmep /-0ınlar/0inler/


268 Turkmen Referenee Grammar

First Person Imperative


The first person imperative mood usually expresses a suggestion or an urging to
perform an action.

MeH CH3H 3HeM-aTaM 6ıuıeH Let me introduce you to my parents.


TaHbiıuAtıpaiiuH. /Men 0i5i
enem-ata:m bilen tanısdıraym./

Cw3e rwann, TeneBH3op repMaım. Let’s (two) go to your place and


/0i8e gidip, te!ewi8or göreli./ watch television.
reJBtn my c a 3t ı 6ıme ahhji3ühh. Come on, let’s (ali) listen to this
/Gelii) su 8a:5ı bile dirjla:li:ıj./ music together.

Türkmen forms the first person imperative by addition of suffixes to the stems of
verbs for the singular (-a ü tiH /e Ö H H /-ayuı/eyin/), dual ( - a n u / e j ı u /-alı/eli/) and plural
( - a j ı u n / e J i H n /-alı:q/eli:q/) numbers in the positive, and -M a ö b in /M a İİH H /-ma:ym/
mâryin/, - M a jib i/M a jiH /-ma:lı/mâ:li/, -M a J ib tr ç /M 3 J U iq /-ma:lı:i)/mâ:U:i)/) in the
negative. In this person, a speaker suggests doing something alone (singular), or
suggests or urges one person (dual) or more than one person (plural) to do something
vvith him or her. The plural also may be used as a polite form for two persons (dual).
English equivalents for the first person are 'let me/shall I/should I/why don’t I do
(something)?' (singular), 'let us/shall we/should we/why don’t vve do (something)'
(dual/plural).

MeH cana T33e flypMyuı yrpynna repeuıfisH a^aMnaptt repKe3eitUH. (G)


/Men öaıja ta:Se durmuş ugrunno görösyâ:n ardamlan göritöSeyin./
Let me show you men vvho are struggling for a nevv life.
- ry p ö a H M y x a M M e fr , M eH CH 3fleH 6np 3 a r copattbiH-Jia. (TV 12.4)
/"Gurba-.nmuhommet, men 6i58en bir 8a:t 8o:ra:ym-la."/
"Gurbanmuhammet, let me ask you something, ali right?"
M eH 6y ö a p a f l a o 3 a n K b i H b iK H iu jıa p tiM fla a tif lb u if ltiM , raitTaiian o T y p M a i i u ı ı .
(N) /Men bu ba:rada oSolkı çıkışlarımda aydıpdım, gaytaia:p otuımatyın./
I told about this in my previous speeches, don’t let me keep repeating myself.
Mm flH f lc e n m y j i f l y p a H v a i f a a H 6 n p ıc a c e iimcühh. (TV15.5)
/İ£ diyöei) sul duron £a:ydan bir kâ:0e iceyin./
If you vvant me to drink, Fil have a cup of this tea sitting here. ['Let me drink']
M e H ... e H e 6 u p r a i h u ı ı a c a H a . M e H X 3 3 n p m a f i b i n - a u ı y H t ı . (TV3.3)
/Men...yene bir gaytalaOana. Men ha:Sir ya8ayın-a: sum./
I...would you say it again? Let me vvrite it dovvn now.
Mood 269

Oh ütuiflaH SspM 6np xonofliuıı>HMrnMH3 6ap. By xerwe MiuneMecMHH tohum.


HsMe 3TceMK3M? Ts3ecıiHH a jıa ftu H M b i a peMOHT 3 T n n p e ftn n M iı? (Tl 7 2)
/0:n yıllan bâ:ri bir holodilnigimiS ba:r. Bu hepde İ:sleme0ini goydı. Nâ:me
e00emka:m? Tâ:5e0ini alayınmı ya: remont etdireyinmi?/
We’ve had our refrigerator for ten years. ît stopped vvoıking this week. I vvonder
what I should do? Should I get a new one or have it repaired?

Ten, ona 6 H p a 3 r a p a o ı a j ı u . (G) /Gel, oıjo bira:6 garasalı./


C’mon, let’s wait for him a bit.

Ten, tok vaü ypajıu! (BG) /Gel, gö:k ca:y urolı!/


C’mon, let’s grab some green tea!

Bm3 6«p ap3yBWHjı «maMJiap, 5I3HH aflaMJiap, rejine ap3yn afleJiMH, roiJ, C:ofleneM
6mp ce3, 6np ceTup ranctm! (N) /Bİ8 bir arSuwcul a:damlar, ya8ya:n a:darnlar,
gelil) aröuw edeli:ıj, goy, biSSenem bir 0Ö8, bir 0etir ga:10ın!/
We are people full of fantasies, people who write- come, let’s spin our faınasies,
let them go, and may one word, even one line remaiıı behind us. ['Let’s
fantasize']

Suggestion or urging may be expressed in the second person (with moda 1 words)
and in the third person of the imperative as well.

C eH m y h iu h r y T a p , G o n a p ıu tı? F i n i s h th is w o r k , o k a y ?
/0 e n s u i:s i g u to r , b o ly a :r m ı? /

O n n ıy h îiih ry T a p c b iH . L e t h im f in i s h th is w o rk .
/O l s u i:s i g u to r ö u n ./

Forms o f ıhe First Person imperative


Türkmen indicates the singular imperative by adding the suffix - a ttu H /e Ü M H /-aym-
oyun/eyin-öyün/ to verb stems. When the stem ends in a vovvel, this vovvel Jcngthens
tp a/a /a:/a:/, and the suffix is written -aiiLiıı/ainııı /-a:ym/â:yin/. The 1 dual
imperative is -anu/ejiH /-alı-olı/eli-ölii/ for verbs ending in a consonant, but -a;ıtı/
ajiH /-a:lı/â:li/ for verbs ending in a vovvel; and the 1 plural imperative is -aJibin/e.riMH
/-ah:g-olı:i]/eli:rj-ölü:q/, and -anun/anun /-a:lı:q/a:Ii:rj/, respectively.
The plural first person imperative has an inherent long vovvel in the second syllable
(-ajibnı/enuii /-alı:ıj-oh:i]/eh:j]~ölü:i]/). Moreover, addition of these suffixes te verbal
stems ending in the vovvels a /a/ or e /e/ lengthens those vowels to /a:/ and /a:/. The
same process applies when these suffixes are added to the negation partide -Ma/ıvıe
/-ma/me/.
270 Turkmen Reference Grammar

let me look at reaiMÜHH /göSlâryin/


let’s (two) look at resnramt /gö81â:li/
let’s (ali) look at resrranMit /göSlâ:li:r)/
let me not look at rearıeM atim ı /gö81emâ:yin/
let’s (two) not look at resneMmm /göSlemaüi/
let’s (ali) not look at reaneMsımn /göSlemâ:li:i]/

In the written language, addition of these suffîxes to verbal stems with final ii /y/
results in the letter combinations Ha /ya/ and Se /ye/ which must be spelled as n /ya/
and e /ye/; for example, ro^iibiıı /goyoyun/ 'let me put' < roû+flÜMH, itesin /iyeli/
'let’s (two) eat' < Hü+esı», ete.
To form the negative, the partide -M a /M e /-ma/me/ is added directly to the verbal
stem, and in combination with these suffixes is written -MatftiH/MaiiHH /-m a:yın/
ma:yin/, -MaJibi/MaJiH /-ma:lı/mâ:li/ and -Majıtın/M a/ııın /-ma:lı:rj/mâ:li:rj/. The
question partide -mu/mu /-mı/mi/ is placed after the imperative suffix.

Second Person imperative


The second person imperative mood expresses a command or a request for one or more
persons to perform an action.

CeH B am ınfla ren! Come on time!


/0en wagtınna gel!/

On oTypn>wfla OTypıvıa! Don’t sit in that chair!


/Ol oturgucdo oturmo!/

CeH BarrtiHfla renrHHİ You gotta come on time!


/9en wagtuma gelgin!/

Y sa K re 3 M e ra H ! You mustn’t walk too long!


/U8ok geSmegin!/

Cm3 uamuıma rejıwn! Please come on time!


/0İ8 wagtuına gelir)!/ [or plural: Come on time!]

^Ihhhm MeKMaıt! Please don’t smoke!


/Çilim cekmârr)!/ [or plural: Don’t smoke!]

Turkmen indicates three degrees of formality or intensity of command through the


use of suffıxes or intonation. The least formal or sometimes most urgent command is
indicated vvith the verb stem alone, that is, without the addition of any suffix
(ineluding the infinitive suffix - M a s / M e n /-mak/mek/), in the positive, and the
Mood 271

negation partide -M a /ın e /-ma/me/ in the negative. This level corresponds to English
'do (something)', where intonation and context moderates the urgency of command.

Mkh aflaM n 6 e p n n , 06 a x a 6 a p 3 T. (G) /İki a:dam i:berip, o:ba: habar et./


Send two men and let the village know.

Mite, m y ra m ım n rap, xjf'î 3aıjjaH ropKMa. (G)


/İne, su gapıdan gi:r, hi:2 5a:tdan gorkmo./
Now, g o t h r o u g h this door and d o n ’t b e a f r a i d of anything.

- Jî k k b i r e n im r a a e n k u m ? - O ji c e m m m ıın n flaJi, x o B jıy fla n MbtK. (N )


/'Yagkı gelip giden kim?" "Ol Benirj i:siıj dâ:l, howludon cık."/
"Who’s that who just came and left?" "It’s none of your business, get out o f my
yard."

Bince, ceH to h r a r ^ e K G on can, M ana 3K.au 3 T , GonapMH? (T15.3)


/Bi:ke, Ben toyo gitjek bolöoi], mai]a Jaq et, bolya:rmı?/
Bike, if you’re gonna go to the toy, cali me, okay?

To express insistence, although not impolitely, Turkmen adds the suffix -nm /m H
/-gın/gin/ in the positive and - M a r u n / M e r a H /-magm/megin/ in the negative to verb
stems. An appropriate English equivalent is the colloquial 'you gotta do (something)'.

6m e Ban, nypcaT G ep rH H . By c o B a n a n c a T fla n .


X h - i >im , 6 o - x o ! I I a T tm ıa x iiM ,
(N) /Hı-ım, bo-ho! Pa:tılahım, biSe wagt, puröot bergin. Bu 0owa:l ar)0a:t da:l./
Wow-eeI Y o u g o t t a g iv e us some time, a moment, my ruler. This question isn’t
easy.

To address a command or request to more than one person, or a more formal or


polite level of command to one or more persons, Turkmen adds the suffix - mh/ hh
/-ırj/irj/ in the positive and -Man/Man /-ma:r)/mâ:r)/ in the negative to stems of verbs.

3 p r o p y*iYHH3-fle oKyBa r e n e n ra fle r a m T 3MH3 6 o n y n r e jm n . (G)


/Ertirr ücüi]ü8-Sö okuwo gelerjiSSe gatı ta:mi:8 bolup gelir;./
And when the three of you come to school tomorrow, come very clean.

^aM ajı flypfltıeBHa, 3pnıp florptı c a ra T y ^ e Mana rapambirç. (G)


flamaıl Durdı-.yevna, ertr.r dogn 0a:gat iiödö marja garaîıi)./
Jamal Durdıyevna, wait for me at three o’clock sharp tomorrow.

Ey Mecenene Taarttn hk h yaçyıaın 6apjn.in.iHH xn'i xavaH stTflaH 'junapMan.


(N) /Bu meOelede tayagıg iki u:junug ba:rlıgmı hi:c hacan ya.'tdan çıkarma: rj,/
In this problem, n e v e r f o r g e t that a stick has two points.
272 Turkmen Reference Grammar

Ü 3i>DK;ı>iJiap, c ı r a H iy H H x a n ı c a M IIaT a p a c t r a f l a B a r U 3 - H e c H x a T
3«hh, rapamctra JopnyMtrabin eHYHUe aypaH a n tp r y ıra Be3nnenepw M©3M3re
HineHHHp raTHaiBUH. Cn3MH C03YHM3HH TSCMpHHim HHH3H yjlyflMTİIHH yHJTMaH.
C h 3 03 B a T a H tın M S b i r o j i f l a n , ıu o r ç a B e n a j i b i 6onyn. ( N )
/YaSıjdar, 6İ8 sum halka düsünnürür), i:la:t a:ra6ınna wagı8-ne0i:hat edii), garas0ı5
yu:rdumu8ui) öıjünnö duron â:giıt ulı we5i:peleri £ö8mâ:ge i:sei)r)ir gatnasu). 0i5irj
6ö8ürjüSüi) tâ:6r.riniq isjijâ-.n uluduğum unutma-,rj. 6İ8 5:8 Watamr)i8ı golla:i), soıjo
wepa:lı bolug./
Writers, explain this to the people, spread the word among the population, take
an active part in resolving the very great tasks that face our independent country.
Don’t forget what a great influence your words have. You must support and be
loyal to your Homeland.

TepYH, on Menim ereHMM, re3JiepHHe cepejmn, Mana-fla Men3e$3HflMp. (H)


/Görür), ol menii] yeğenim, göSlörünö ©eredir), maıja-da mer|Seya:nnir./
See, that’s my nephew. Look at his eyes, I think he looks like me too.

Hlon epjıepfle repcenH3, HaMe, copawAupun, 6enıc3M xyflafi 6apfltıp-fla, öeıncsM


TanttnctiH-fla, xob. (TV13.3) /Sol yerlerde gör€öi]ü5, nâme, 0o:rosdurui), belkâ:m
hudary ba:rdır-da:, belkarm tapılOınna, ho:w,/
If you see him anywhere, you know, ask around, maybe there really is a god,
hey-maybe he really should be found.

In addition to these three degrees of formality, intensity or number, Turkmen may


add the suffixes - c a H b i3 J ia n /c e n M 3 .n a n /-0arjı81a:r)/0erji51a:x)/ or - c a H a /c e H e /-0ana/
Sene/, the suffix of permission - a f t / a i i /-a:y/â:y/ (see 297), or the partide - H a /f la
/-da:/dâ:/ (see 459) to the forms of the second person imperative to express various
shades of command and request.

rejıceı<H3Ji3H. /Gel0exji81â:i)./ Would you please come?


IejıceHe. /Getöene./ Would you come?
Tensü. /Gelâ:y./ Why not come?
Tensüım. /Gelâ:yii)./ Why don’t you come?
renHH-fls. /Gelirj-da:./ Come, okay?

To tum a command into a very polite request when speaking in formal situations or
in asking strangers to do something, Turkmen may add the suffix -canbiajıarç/
ceuıi3Ji3H /-0ar)iSla:r)-0oi)u81a:i)/0ei]i81â:r)-0öi)ü81â:r)/ (variant: -cantl3-jıa/ceHM3-ne
/-0ar)i8-la-0or)u8-lo/0er|i8-le-0öi)ü8-lö/), which is composed of the second person plural
of the conditional mood sufftx plus the partide -jıa/jıe /-la/le/, to the stem of a verb.
Mood 273

With the suffix -cana/cene /-0ana/0ene/, which is based on the second person singular
pronoun ceH-/0en/ 'you', a speaker encourages a family member or familiar person to
do something, as in English 'wouid yoıı do (something)?'

Mana öHpHeMe Mafl rytöcana. (G) /Marja bimeme £a:y guyöono./


Would you pour me a bit of tea?

AÖTcana, H3Me öojıynfltıp? (H) /Ay00ana, nâ:me bolupdur?/


Would you teli me what’s happened?

- ConaHLiH Tene4>oH HOMepHHH aüfltm Gepcoııe. MeHfle eıc. (TV17.4)


/"âonatnııj telefon nomerini aydıp beı0ene. Menne yo:k."/
"Would you teli me Soııa’s telephone number? I don’t have it."

These degrees of intensity are illustrated in the following series of commands made
by an insistent host to his guest.

E ııp a3ax;ı>iK H Ü c e ııe . WouId you eat a little?


/Bir a:5ajık iyöene./
Onsa 6ııp Kace nail nq-aa. In that case, drink a cup of tea, oka j ?
/Onno bir ka:0e ca:y i£-dâ:./
tJaS MM3Ö 6ııp Kace. Why not drink some tea, one cup?
/Ca:y ica:y bir ka:0e./
Cyü^Y11311. 't3® mh! (TV18.3) Have some sweets, drink some tea!
/0ü:jıilâ:p, ca:y ic!/

A command also may be made using the first and third person imperative ;,uffixes.
In the first person, such a command may be addressed to oneself as a form of resolve
and dedication, while in the third person, the command may be a form of insistance
that one or more persons perform an action. Usually, the modal word x o K M a n
/hökma:n/ 'definitely, certainly', vvhich expresses obligation, is used wi:n such
commands.

Men my hiuh xoKMan I definitely must finish


/Men su
ry r a p a ü tiH -jıa ! this work!
i:§i hökma:n gutoroyun-lo!/
CeH my hiuh xoKMaH ryTap! You definitely must finish
/0en 5u i:5i hökma:n gutor!/ this workl
O ji my hiuh xökm3h She definitely must fınish
/Ol 5u i:si
ry r a p c M H ! this work!
hökma:n gutoröun!/
274 Türkmen Reference Grammar

Forms o f the Second Person imperative


Türkmen indicates the informal/singular imperative through the use of the stem of the
verb without any suffix in the positive and the addition o f the negation partide -Ma/Me
/-ma/me/ in the negative.
The suffix of insistence is -ruH/rHH /-gm -gun/gun-gün/ in the positive and
-MaruH/MeruH /-magm-mogun/megin-mögün/ in the negative.
The second person formal/plural is indicated by adding -mh/hh /-ııj-ug/ig-ür)/ to
the stem of a verb. When the stem ends in a vowel, that vowel lengthens to a / a /a:/â:/t
and the suffix is written -an/an /-a:rj/â:ı]/. The same process applies with the addition
of the negation partide -Ma/nıe /-ma/me/, which is written -Malt/Man /-ma:r|/ma:rj/.

Third Person imperative


The third person imperative expresses a wish, suggestion or instruction that someone
perform an action. English equivalents incinde 'let/may (someone) do' and 's/he/it/they
should do (something)'.

ToJİ, on X33npnn a3Yitne Let him go to school right now.


MeKfleöe rırrcHH. [or: 'He should go to school right now']
/Goy, ol ha:5irir) ö:Sünnö
mekdebe gi00in./

Eııyn aK 6oncyn! Good luck! ~ Have a good tripî


/Yo:lui] a:k bol0un!/ ['May your road be white!']

Onap 6y oiohm repcyıınep. They should see this play.


/Olor bu 03mnı gör0ünlör./ [or: 'Let them see this play']

Türkmen indicates the third person imperative with the suffix -c b iıı/c H iı /-em/0in/
in the singular and -c w H Jia p /c M H Jie p /-0jnlar/6inler/ in the plural, with the negative
forms -M a c b iH /M e c H H /-ma0m/me0in/ and •M acuıiJiap/M ecH iınep /-m aöınlar/
meOinler/, respectively. The basic function of the third person imperative is to express
the wish, suggestion or instruction that someone will perform an action or that an
action will occur. Most commonly, its English equivalent is 'may/let (someone/
something) do'.

Eh3 6wp ap3yB<n.m aflaMJiap, sm n aflaMnap, renim ap3yB Sflenmı, roif, 6n3fleneM
6wp C03, Sup cerop rajıcbiıı! (N) /Bİ8 bir ar8uwcul a:damlar, ya8ya:n ardamlar,
gelii} arSuvv edelirj, goy, biSSenem bir 0öS, bir Setir ga:10ın!/
We are people fiili of fantasies, people who write, come, let’s spin our fantasies,
let them go, and may one word, even one üne remain behind us. ['Let’s
fantasize']
Mood 275

FoS, H H ca h h cu h , 6M3e H3Me. (G) /Goy, yanBa yanOın, biSe nâ:me./


So, let it burn, what do we care?

- BpuraflMpnepH H9Xmhh caJ}nafltmH3? - Ilim aıar doncyıı, nunantt BojıcyH


jprifHn GeııneflHK. (G)
/'Brigadirieri nâ:hili 0ayladıjjı5?" "Pılarnı boldun, pıla:nı bolBun diyip belledik."/
"How did you elect brigate-leaders?" "We appointed them by saying, 'Let so-and-
so be one, let so-and-so be another one'."

Mite Xyflaa ıuyKYP ®aP hiuhmh3, xeMMe flHiuıepHn daptıctm a trrrtıa p 6ep.nn.
Ö n M e c H H , y 3aK a m a ç t ı n . (TV18.1) /İne Hudarya şükür ba:r i:simiS, hemme
di:nlerii] ba:rı0uıa ıgtıyarr berdi. ÖlmöOün, u8ok ya:sa0m./
Well, thank God, he [S. Nıyazov] gave us freedom for everything, for each and
every religion. May he not die, may he live long.

cana 6y ^aH iiM -T eH H M İ (TV18.2)


TypKMeHMCTaH ATa-BaTaHMM , r y p S a n 6 o n c y H
/Türkmönü00a:n Ata-watanım, gurba:n bol0un 0aıja bu jarnrnı-tenim!/
Türkmenistan, my Fatherland, let my soul and body be a sacrifîce for you!

The third person imperative also expresses an instruction or indirect command that
someone should perform an action. Since this usage often entails making a suggestion
or giving advice, it may be seen as an extension of the primary funetion of wishing or
suggesting that some action vvill occur. In these cases, appropriate English equivalents
are 's/he/it/they should do (something)' or 'let him/her/it/they do (something)'.

On 6H3HIÎ 6pHraflaMti3tın narra MettflaHJiaptiHM repMeKTO 6onca, spntp ıny epe


re n c H H . (G) /Ol biSig brigada:nu8ır) pagta meydanlarını gönnökcü bol0o, erti:r su
yere gelOin./
If he vvould like to see the cotton fıelds of our brigade, he should come here
tomorrow.

Mbipar renx,eKflnp- On rence, Mana rapaıubin nypcyn. (G)


/Eje, Mırart geljekdir. Ol gelöe, marja garasıp duıBun./
Mother, Mırat is supposed to come. When he does, have him vvait for me.
['he should vvait for me']

roücana, ra3, MaMtiHH 6«p MMCHH-ne. (G)


/Goy0ono, gı:8, caryuıı bir ic0in-le./
Leave him be, girl, and at least let him have his tea, ali right? ['he shoııld
drink']

Xa3Hp xoBnyKMan, p a c a rn c H M n a n re n c H H . (G)


/Ha:8ir howlukma:rj, ra:0 alkımlarp gel0in./
Now, don’t rush it, just let him come a little eloser. ['he should come']
276 Turkmen Reference Grammar

CopacbiHJiap, uıon Sup flnttx;ernMM flHepHH flypapHH. (G)


/0o:ro0unlor, sol bir diyjegimi diyerin durorun./
Let them ask, Fil keep saying the same thing I intended to say. ['they should
ask']

MemiHK miuh 6 ap a#atnjıap c a ra T 5-fle rejiCH H . (N )


/Menlik i:si ba:r a:damlar 0a:gat 5-de gel0in./
People who have business with me s h o u l d c o m e at 5.

HIoji epnepfle repcenm, HeMe, copaıufltıpun, 6enK3M xy#aif Sapfliip-fla, öejncaM


TanbiJicLiH-fla, xob. (TV13.3) /Sol yerlerde gör0öıjii8, neme, 0o:rosdurur),
belka:m hudaty ba:rdır-da:, belka:m tapılOınna, ho:w./
If you see him anywhere, you know, ask around, maybe there really is a god, hey-
maybe h e really s h o u l d b e f o u n d .

Forms o f the Third Person imperative


To form the third person singular imperative, Turkmen adds the suföx - c u h / c h h /-0ın-
6un/0in-0ün/ to stems of verbs. The plural is formed by adding + j ı a p / j ı e p /+ lar-
lor/ler-lör/ to this suffix.
The negative of the third person imperative is formed by adding the partide -M a/& ıe
/-ma/me/ between the verb stem and - c m h / c h h /-0m/0in/, - c L i H J ia p /c m u ıe p /-Omlar/
Sinler/, while a question is formed by adding the partide -mu/mh /-mı/mi/ to these
suffbces.
For paradigms of the imperative mood suffixes, see 638-641. The suffixes - a i i / a t i
/-a:y/â:y/, - u 6 e p / n 6 e p /-ıber/iber/ and - a B e p ( H )/e B e p (n ) /-awer(i)/ewer(i)/ freqquently
appear wiüı forms of the imperative mood (see 297, 316).
Mood 277

Conditional Mood
The conditional mood indicates the speaker’s attitude toward the perfonnar.ee of real
action. In this mood, a condition is placed on an action; if the condition can be met or
will be met, then the action is regarded as real. Real action must be distingui.shed from
unreal or unfulfillable action which is expressed in the subjunctive mood (see 287).

On copaca, Men aflflaptiH. If he asks, I’ll teli him.


/Ol 0o:ro0o, men aydann./

Copaca/ıap, aü,aapuH. If they ask, I teli them.


/8o:ro8olor, aydyatrın./

Türkmen indicates the conditional mood by adding the suffıx - c a /c e /- 8a/'3e/ in the
positive and -M a c a /M e c e /-ma8a/me0e/ in the negative, plus personal endings, to the
verb stem. As in English, the clause containing a verb in tlıe conditional mood is
subordinated to the clause expressing the main action. The verb of the ma in clause
carries the suffix indicating the present indefinite ( - a p / ü a p /-ya:r/yâ:r/) or future
indefinite ( - a p / e p /-ar/er/, rarely -JK,aK/iK,eK /-jak/jek/) tense, or occasioııally the
imperative mood suffixes.

X aB a, c fc in a r ÖepM Jice, 6 ji3 n n ıu y xanH M M 3 a n a l ı c a r e p e K . (G )


/Havva, 8 ı:lag berilöe, biBiıj su ha'.lr.mıS ala:y6 a gerek./
Yes, i f a prize is g iv e n , this carpet of ours i s l i k e l y t o g e t it.

06an o M eTH imeıı r e j ı n n T a j ı a n rM T c e jıe p H a fim u rç e ıı. (G)


/0 :ba:tj o cetinnen gelip ta:la:p gi98eler nâ;biljek./
How w ill you know i f they come from that side of the village, break in and
run away?

« X a ı m r e p e jııı, cL U iaH tm ıtm rep ce M , 6 np 3aT H biK ca, HHbiHa re n e p M H » flilöflM.


(N) /"Ham gö rö lü , 6 ı:nanısıp g ö rö ö m , b ir Sa:t cıköa, ya:nııja ge le rin " diydi./
He said "Well, we’ll see. When I give it a try, if anything happens, I ’ll coıne to
you."

- M tıp a jib i, 6 y A ü T ry ü b iH b iH x a H U r a p p a n f ltıp . Onu a M u p c a n , e p jo ıe k m m a


r o s p u c ? (H )
/"Mıra:h, bu Aytgnyı:mq ha:ni garraıpdır. Onı ayır8 ak, yerine kimi goyoruı3?"/
"Mırah, this Khan of Aytguyı has grown old. I f we remove him, who are 've
going to put in his place?"
278 Turkmen Reference Grammar

EpK, 6h HiıifleH xeM aüptmeaM, e n e e n ıo t rapaM tnu flo n a n ap n u t t m


o ü n a n sıp u H . (N ) [6 h = 6 y ] / Y e ri, b i irsden h em a y n lö a m , y e n e öıjkü ga ra yıs
d o io n o r d iy ip o y lo n y a rn n ./ [b i = b u :]
Well, îf I q u it this job, I thin k that the previous outlook is going to retum again.

O h h B3YH aY3eTMeceH, xmm khm nY3eTMe3>xaH oryn. (BH)


/Om ö:8ürj diiSötmöööi], hi:£ kim dü5ötmö5, ham oğul./
I f you do n ’t co rrect it yourself, no one else will co rrect it, dear son.

XaBa, 3cacbi h i o j i 3dxmct HeKeeK, to b h HimıeceK, roBtı ıım nan nypcaK,


flypMaH majıan flypcaK, aÜJiMK, xyaaa myKyp, eTİiap. (TV7.4)
/Hawa, e0a:8ı sol 8â:hmet cek0ek, gowı i:sle0ek, gowı i:sla:p durOok, durmam
i:sla:p duröok, a:ylık huda:ya Şükür, yetyâ:r./
Yes, basically if we do that labor, if we vvork well, if we keep vrarking well, if
we keep vvorking without stopping, the salary, thank God, is enough.

Ilîon epjıepfle ropcerjua, Heıne, copamjjbipbnı, gejncsM xyflaö Bap/jtıp-fla, 6ejiK3M


TantmcEm-fla, xob. (TV13.3) /Sol yerlerde gör0örjü8, neme, 0o:rosduruq, belkâ:m
huda:y ba:rdır-da:, belka:m tapılOınna, ho:w./
I f you see him anywhere, you know, ask around, maybe there really is a god, h ey -
maybe he really should be found.

Xa*c*;ara3Em&ı elcejfçe ryn n n TOJieceif Tenecponhiiibi KecaçeK RMÜm, nbn anıtın


Aypnap. (TV17.2)
/HakjagaSırjı yekeje gün gi:c tölöOör) telefonurjı ke0jek diyip dıSasıp du:rlor./
I f you pay your bili just one day late, tbey keep after you, saying they’il cut off
your telephone.

3jı6exne, 6y m m oünanbnıibiKjibi 3TceK, xeMMenepnn 63x6nz?MHe Cojıap.


(TV12.4) /Elbetde, bu i:si o:ylonusukh e00ek, hemmelerir) bâ:hbi:dine bolor./
O f course, if we do this in a weli thought out way then it wi!l be to the benefit of
everyone.

The main verbs o f sentences with conditional clauses usually are in the present and
future tenses because the past cannot be changed, so that m ost condıtions o f the past
would refer to unreal action (subjunctive mood). However, the conditional clause may
be placed in the past if speaking of a specific action in the past.

C o p a c a M , aÜTMaflHH. I f I a s k e d , y o u d id n ’ t te li m e .
/9o:ro0om , aytmadııj./ [sense: 1 don’t re m em b er i f I asked ]
C o p a n c a , aüxa;aK flbi. I f a s k e d , h e plan n ed to te li them .
/0o :ro l 0o, aytja kd ı./
Mood 279

TypKM eH nepun r a p a n ıc t B i r a m r y ro ıe 6jtn en flan-ne r y n 6ıraeH r a p m tı a n M a r u


6 o n c a , 6y xajna>m T eıcflen e ÜHKtmaHjıaH co n p a, ra p a m c tra jıtırirn r e iM e n m e
ryHyHH ca n a n r a p a ıu a n n tır tı ymmh m etin e öoJTMaraM axM aım tıp. (N )
/T ürkm önlörürj gara50ı81ıgı g ü llö b ile n d â :l-le g ü l b ile n g a rsı a lm a ğ ı bo!0 o, bu
h alkırj G ö :k d e p e y ık ıla n n a n 0oi]ro, garas0ı6h gıi] g e h n e g in e gününü 8a:na:p
g a ra sa n lıg ı ü£ü:n ş e y le b o lm o g o m ahm a:llır./
I f the Türkmen met independence with flowers and not with bullets, probably it
was so because this people had been counting the days waiting for independence to
come since Gökdepe was destroyed. [past tense because of the past participle in
rapamannEtK /garasanlık/]

A Türkmen conditional clause also may be equivalent to an English subordinate


clause of time in the sense of 'when one does (something)', rather than of 'if one does
(something)'.

3*;e, M tıp a T reıt*;eKflHp. O n r e n c e , M ana ra p a ın tın flypcyH . (G )


/Eje, Mıra:t geljekdir. Ol gel0e, marja garasıp duröun./
Mother, Mırat is supposed to come. W hen he does, have him wait for me.

«Xam>t repejm , c t m a n t ı m b i n r e p c e M , 6«p 3ar vtiKca, m am a renepnH»


(N) /"Hanı görölü, Oırnanısıp görOöm, bir 8a:t cık0a, ya:nırja gelerin" diydi./
He said "Well, we’ll see. When I give it a try, if anything happens, Fil come to
you."

F o k eHYM nepHH, Hp-MÜMHiunepMH K e n 6 o n c a , M a n fla p M u n u K xeM ocMsp.


(TP12.2) /Gö:k ö:nümlörür), i:r-iymisleriq köp bo!0o, ma:lla:rcılık hem ö0yar./
When you have a lot of crops and fruit, animal husbandry also develops.

3rep peMOHT MiujıepH remıpsıjıce, cyB KecHre*;eK 6o n ca , erçYHneH ra 3 e rn e p fle a


(TV17.2) /Eger remont iısleri gecirilO e,
TeneBJtqeHHefle xam ca x a 6 ap öepMJiüsp.
0uw keSiljek bolOo, örjünnön gaSetlerde ya: telewideniyede halka habar berilyâ:r./
When repair works are done, if the water is to be tumed off, word is given
beforehand to the people in the nevvspapers or on television.

Addition of the habitual past tense suffix -apuu/epnn /-ardı/erdi/ and occasionally
of the definite future suffix -«.an/jKen /-jak/jek/ to the main verb forms the equivalent
to English 'if it does (something), it would do (something)'.

Dlonap a r a t oöıeıcrnep K o n ejiH öep ce uıon nporpaMMaHM xeM aypMyma


npaaM 3 ftepfltı. (TV9.4) /Solor ya:lı obyektler köpöliiberöe sol
re T O p M e ıa n ıre
programma:m hem durmuso geciımeklige yarrdam ederdi./
I f projects like these keep increasing, it also would assist in the realization of
this program.
280 Türkmen Reference Grammar

3rep Kejııran mıiHfle 6«p 3aT 6ap Gonca, Betine r a r a arupM a3flu. (H)
/Eger kellâ:q i£iıme bir 5a:t ba:r bo!0o, beyle gatı a:gırmaS8ı./
If there was anything in your head, it wouldn’t h u rt so bad.

Eomıaca, snu TypKMeH #eBneTHMH3HH HnaTtiHa uıy epfle enııuflHpHneH reK


BHYMnepM aJiTHJiHn 6epwıee xeM, GHyM S om y jıtın ı flepeflmt*;eK, xeMeM ap3aH
6axajıap,naH 6a3apnapfla enyM Tan^up^KaK. (TP12.2)
/Bolmoöo, ya:s ttirkmön döwlötümiiSüi) i:la:tma Su yerde yetisdirilen gö:k
ö:nümlörü ekilip beril0e hem, ö:nüm bolculugı dörödüljök, hemem ar8a:n
bahalardan ba:8arlarda ö:nüm tapdırjak./
Otherwise, if the produce raised here was delivered to the population of our young
Türkmen State, an abundance of produce wou!d be created and it would be
possibie to fînd produce in the markets at a cheaper price.

When the main verb of a sentence ends in the conditional suffix -ca/ce /-0a/0e/, a
question is formed that is more polite or less direct. its English equivalent is 'vvould
one please do (something)?' When the suffix of permission -afi/afö /-a:y/â:y/ is added
to this construction, a more polite offer or suggestion is intended, in the sense of
'would one be so kind as to do (something)?'

CH 3 G3YHM3 6MneH TaHblIU 3TCeHH3. (TV7.4)


/0iS ö:8üi)ü8 bilen tanıS e00eıji8./
Would you please introduce yourself.
- KepHM, aÜHMM-ca3 flyHÜacHHe rHpmunnM3, hukukim 3flMMJiepnnn3 6apa#a
ryppYH Gepattcenm. (N) /"Keri:m, aydun-0a:8 diinyâ:0ine gi:risirji5, ilkinji
â:dimlerir)i8 ba:rada gürriir) bera:y0ei)i8.7
"Kerim, would you be so kind to talk about how you entered the world of songs
and music, about your first steps?"
- ATa, X33Mp ceH ryp*;aK TeaıptuıtiH flHpeKToptı. Typ*;aK TeaTptrattu hiuh
xaKHHfla-fla aftaafican? (O) /"Ata, hâ:8ir 0en gurjok teatnnıi) direkton. Gurjok
teatnmi) i:si hakuna-da ayda:y0ai)?7
"Ata, now you are Director of the Puppet Theater. Would you be so kind to
speak about the vvork of the Puppet Theater, too?"

For expressing the conditional with nouns, adjectives and participles, the word
Sonca /bol0o/ 'if it is' is used.

Küp aflaM 6aü Gonca, My3 aflaM rap tm . Bap aflaM naTbnua Taparmapu Gonca, öy3
aflaM ona rapuibi. (G) /Bir a:dam ba:y bolGo, yüS a:dam gan:p. Bir a:dam pa:tısa
tarapda:n bol0o, yüS a:dam oıjo garsı./
If one man Is rich, a hundred men are poor. If one man is for the Tsar, a hundred
men are against him.
Mood 281

3rep-fle, aTa-6a6axtaptmfla a ö f lb i M cyııraTEina eMpyHH Sarm ujıan 6ap (fonca,


oıifla ouyu e3 TSCHpHHJtn reJDK,eKKH Hecrame enıpfeHfliırHHe 03yM-3 UHaHsnbiH.
(N) /Eger-de, ata-ba:balaruına aydım Bungotuna: ömrünü bagısla:n ba:r bol6>o,
onno onuq ö:S tâ:0i:rinirj geljekki neSline yetiryâ-.nnigine ö:8üm-â: ınanya:rm./
If, then, among his ancestors there was someone who dedicated his life to the art
of singing, then I myself believe that he will leave his influence on the futu rs
generation.

In a usage confined primarily to the written language, the conjunction are]) /eger/
'if' may be placed at the beginning of a conditional clause, and OHfla /onno/ 'ı.hen' at
the beginning of the main clause. Use of either element is optional, but neither element
changes the meaning of a conditional clause (see 450).

IYPPYHH3 6y ornaH 6apactnma Gonca, OHfla on metine: ksh BarTflaH 6apıı on


orjıantm aartiHflaH 6n3e MaTepnan rerrösp. (G)
/GürrüıjüS bu oglon ba:ra0ınna bol0o, onno ol şeyle: kâ:n wagtdan ba:ri ol
oglonui) ayagınnan bi8e material gelyâ:r./
If your talk concems this young man, then the situation is this: for a long time
materials have been gathering about that young man. [literally: 'materials have
been coming from the feet of']
3 re p Gapcarç, ıno TaMfla ranbiHbm caKMUctı noraHbiMnup. (G)
/Eger baröai], so ta:yda gapı:nırj 0akcı0ı menii] dogonumdur./
If you get there, the guard at the door there is my brother.

Clauses which contain a verb with the conditional suffix -ca/ce /-0a/0e/ plus one of
the particles -fla/ne /-da/de/ (vvritten with a hyphen) or xeM/-aıw/eM /hem/-a m/em/
express concession, whose English equivalents are 'although/even though 0x12 does
(something)' and 'even if one does (something)'.

CopacaM-na, aÜTM aflbi. Al though I asked, he didn’t teli me.


/0o:ro0om-do, aytmadı./
CopacaMaM, aÖTMaflbi. Even if I asked, he didn’t teli me.
/0o:ro0omom, aytmadı./ (~ Although I asked...)

Eoccaıı 33«,e orayHbffli nrrMerHHe flYluYilMe3JII1K 3flnn, öamnaH rapuibinbiK


ropReann yrpan fiojıca xeM cona6aıca on-fla pa3btm.nc 6epfln. (G)
/Bo00a:n eje oglunui] gitmegine dü5ünmö51ük edip, basdan garsılık görköSıip
ugra:n bol0o hem Ooıjobaka: ol-lo ra:8ıhk berdi./
Although Bossan-eje started protesting at fîrst, aeting as though she didn 1:
understand her son’s leaving, in the end she also agreed.
282 Turianen Referenee Grammar

Ym ryH r e n c e - n e , S u ıp e T 06a flOJianMaflbi. (TJ)


/Ü£ gün ge£0e-de, Esret o:ba: dolonmodı./
Although three days have passed, Eshret has not retumed to the village.

Y 3 y n eH 3aflLi c o n c e n n e c e n e M , G a p tıS ıip , b u k h flypıcyH H 6epMe3. OHflaH e ıp M


ohm 6auifla Y 3Me3Jinre M antnıiM anu. ( N ) /Ü Sülön S a:d ı Ö oq 0eple0 erjem , barn b ir,
örjkü d u rku m berm eS. O n n o n ötril o n ı baSda ü Sm öfilü gö ça lışm alı./
Even if you attach the broken-off thing later, it won’t produce the former shape.
Because of this, you should just try not to break it to begin with.

Tenses in the Conditional Clause


Formations that combine participle and gerund forms of verbs with the word Gonca
/bol0o/ express present, past and future tenses in the conditional clause of a sentence.
Turkmen forms the present tense by.combining a verb ending in the present
participle suffbc -sm/ftaıı /-ya:n/ya:n/ and the word Sonca /bol0o/.

IloMTa rnnüaH Goncan, ıny xaTaM skht. If you’re going to the post
/Pocta: gidyâ:n bolOorj, su hatam akit./ office, take this letter, too.

3 rep EeMmc BaTannhinLiK y p m y ım a n o n 6h 3h h k o jix o 3HMH 3 400 re ıcra p epe


n a r r a 3KÜ3H 6oJica, x s 3n p 170 0 reK T ap e p e n a r r a 3KİÎ3p .
(G)
' /Eger Beyik Watancılık ursunnon ör) biSir) kolhoSumuS 400 gektar yere pagta
ekya:n bol0o, ha:8ir 1700 gektar yere pagta ekya:r./
Whereas our collective farm has been cultivating cotton on 400 heetares of land
since before the Great Patriotic War, now it cultivates cotton on 1,700 heetares of
land.

3 r e p ÖHJieT 6 wp a-fla 6 n p ıi 3He r y n e n y n fle n anuHHH Gonca, oHâa roııiM a*ıa 0 ,50
MaHaT MeuöepHHfle kom hccm oh ü u r U M a jıu ııa p . (TP2.1 )
/Eger bilet bir ya:-da bimarce gün örjünnön almyatn bol0o, onno gosmoco 0.50
manat möcbörünnö komi00ion yıgım alınya:r./
I f a ticket is p u r e h a s e d one or several days prior (to departure), then an additional
.50 manat is c o lle c t e d as commission.

nettjja GepHaıı Gonca, 6eöneKH n yjjaıoıapbt xeM


3 r e p - fle xycy cu eT 'tM n n K 6ı o e
(TV8.4)
x y c y c u c tte -n iH n H re rem ıpM em iH K re p e n .
/Eger-de hu0u:0uyet£ilik biSe peyda: beryâ:n bol0o, beyleki pu:dokIon hem
hu0u0u0uyet£ilige geçilmeklik gerek./
And if privatization is to benefit us, it is necessary to transfer the other branehes
(of industry) to private ovvnership as well.
Mood 283

The past tense is fonned by a verb ending in the past participle suffix -aH/eH
/-an/en/ pius the word Gonca /bolöo/. The main verb may be in the imperative mood or
in the present indefinite (-sp/Ksp /-ya:r/yâ:r/) or future indefinite (-ap/ep /-ar/er/)
tenses.

On aBTOöyc rııaen Gonca, 6 h3 nraçs ranaptıc. If that bus left, we’ll be late.
/Ol awtobu0 giden boi0o, bi8 gi:]â: ga:lan0./

A î a n e n e H 6ojıca, on sn n y n tı fliıeHHH k h m Gojınp? (G)


/Atar) ölön bol0o, ol ya:sulı diyenii) kim bolya:r?/
If your grandfather died, then who is that old man you’re talking about?

On ö m th t MeHH c e e H S o n c a , x ö k m 3h T a n a p . (G)
/Ol yiğit meni 0öyön bolOo, hökma:n tapar./
If that young man loves me, he’ll certainly find me. ['if he loved me']

3 rep H3biJiMantiK Goncan, oHna X0Bnyıd (H)


/Eger yaSılmadık boföorj, onno howluk!/
I f you have not subscribed, then hurry!

In th e co n stru ctio n 'i f o n e d id (so m eth in g), o n e vvould h a v e d o n e (so m eth in g )', th e
m a in v e r b stan d s in th e h a b itu a l p a st (-a p R u / e p H H /-ardı/erdi/) o r d e fin ite fu tu re
(-)v& K Jx£K /-jak/jek) ten se, w h erea s th e con stru ction ' i f o n e h a d d o n e (som eth in g), o n e
vvould h a v e d o n e (so m e th in g )' re q u ire s th e p a st p e rfe c t te n se (-tın g b i/ n n n n /-ıpdı/
ipdi/).

On flHpH Gonan Gonca, MeH 6eiine M acrapanunurun am aruııaa ranMaafltiM.


(G) /Ol di:ri bolon bol0o, men beyle ma9garacıhgıt) asa:gınna ga:lma88un./
If he w e re stili a liv e , I vvould not have felt s o ashamed.

CoırraHceîfy h ra n m u n m c 6n p B a r r Gonan Gonca, 6enKH, o h h xapeM e


Tam na^apH M , 3MMa X93Hp oH yn m ep -n m e 6 o io h a m a r e M e ^ ö y p ö o n y n fltı. (N )
/0 olta:n 9öyün gi:t)islik b ir vvagt b o lo n b o l 0o, b e lk i, o n ı h a re m e taslad ardı, em m a:
h a: 8ir onur) sertin e b o y u n e g m â :g e m ejb u :r b olu pd ı./
If there had been sufficient time, probably Soltansöyün vvould have throvvn her
into his harem, but he vvas obliged to submit to her condition now.

Ce3 aöflbm renen Goncanbre,6axaMLi 03yM KecjReK. (N)


/08S a y d ıp g e le n bofâorjuS, b a h a m ı ö : 8ü m k eö jek ./
I f y o u c a m e se e k in g m arriage, I vvou ld s e t m y p r ic e m y s e lf.

Goncamjs, t o b h s u h i i c h h i o . (H) /Gelen bol0orju8, gowı edip0iqi8./


re n e n
If you had come, you vvould have done well.
284 Türkmen Reference Grammar

The future tense is fonned by a verb ending in the future participle suffbc -jrçaıc/aneK
/-jak/jek/ plus the word Gonca /bolöo/. Because the future conditional is not used in
English, its equivalents to the use of the Türkmen future tense in the conditional clause
may be expressed as 'if one wants to, do (something)', 'if one intends to do
(something)' or 'if one’s gonna do (something)'.

On c o p a w ,a K G on ca, copacH H . If h e’s gon n a ask, let h im ask.


/Ol 0o:röjok bol0o, 0o:rö0un./

CeH 6a3apa rH TaçeK Goncan, If y o u ’ r e g o n n a go to the market,


M en H ax a p u a rap ap tra . I’ll start dinner.
/0en ba:8ara gitjek bolöoıj,
men nahan atararm./

Mhjimc roınyHH ıopaa ra#aM öac^aK Gonca, 6H3HH rena;erMMH3 narbmıa


flGBpyHe rapaıifla-fla xac naa^jrajıtı repyuttsp! (G)
/İj]li0 gosum yu:rdo gadam baOjak bol0o, biSiıj geljegimiS pa:tısa döwrünö
gararjda-da ha:0 pa:jıgalı görünyarr!/
I f the English artny in te n d s to s te p foot in the country, then our future a p p e a r s
to be more tragic even than it was in the Tsarist period!

Man caKJia3K,aK Goncan, mjikh ÖMnen ot- hMm repeK. (TVI 1.4)
/Ma:l 0aklajak bolOoıj, ilki bilen ot-iym gerek./
I f y o u w a n t to r a is e livestock, first of ali you need feed.

İleHe y3aK BarrnaöHH 6np epHK nn 'A \C K G on can , caMoneTntı n rrc e n roBbi
6 o n a p eHflitec ÖH3-3. (TV9.2) /Yörnö u5ok wagtlaym bir yeri:k gitjek boföorj,
öamolotlı gi00ei) gowı bolor öydyâ:0 bi8-â:./
But i f y o u w a n t to g o somevvhere for a long time, us, we think i t ’ s b e t te r if you
go by plane.
3 re p peMOHT MiımepM ı-emıpıuıce, cyB K ecH Ji^ eK 6 o n c a , enyHfleH rasernepfle a
TeneBHfleımefle xanKa xa6ap G epn n ii3p. (TV17.2)
/Eger remont ksleri gecirilOe, 0uw keOiljek bol0o, örjünnön gaSetlerde ya:
telewideniyede halka habar berilyâ:r./
When repair works are done, i f the water is g o n n a b e t u r n e d o ff, word is g iv e n
beforehand to the people in the newspapers or on television.

Emce, ceH T o a rn T » ,e K Goncan, M ana jrçan 3T, 6 onapMW ? (T15.3)


/Bi:ke, 0en toyo gitjek bolOoıj, marja jarj et, bolya:rmx?/
Bike, if y o u ’ r e g o n n a g o to the toy, cali me, okay?
Mood 285

Other Uses o f -calce I-Bal6el


The suffix -ca/ce /-0a/8e/ combines with a variety of particles and verb fonns to ;xpress
nuances of moods. Some of these formations are treated under Modal Formations (see
304, 309, 310) and Particles (see 463).
The vvord BoıiMaca /bolmoöo/ 'if it is not' by itself may express speculatio» in the
sense of 'I suppose' or 'I think', or it may be used with ÖHpHflHp /bi:ridir/ 'maybe it
is one o f as an equivalent for T vvonder i f .

f l y p f l t ı ApTH TM H 6 o jııu y H a flyuiYHM eflH: « O j i n a j ı ı ı p a n B o p e ıı 6 o jiM a c a -;ıa


CİHpMRHp?» (G)
/Durdı Artıgır) boisuno düşünmedi: "Ol dâ:lirâ:p yörön bolmo8o-do bhridir?"/
Durdı didn’t understand Artık’s behavior: '1 vvonder if he’s gone out of his
mind?"

Eııp M yn &Y3 M aHaT B o Jia iiM a c a . (TA2.2)


/Bir müi) ü£ yü5 manat bola:yma0a./
I suppose it’s one thousand three hundred manats.

Use of the conditional suffix with the verb AHiiîneK /diymek/ 'to say' indicates
uncertainty.

O ji AHÜcerç can a aflaM fltı. (G) /Ol diyOeıj 0a:da a:dam dı./
If you mean him, he was a simple man.

O n a p M y H tı o w h 3 fln n f ln t îc e - n e a n e n n M p jıe p . (G )
/Olor mum oyun edip diy0e-de diyennirler./
Maybe they said this as a joke. ['even if they said it as a joke, they nonetbeless
said it']

A3paK HjrrapaK «HtİMeceH oKyBbiHbi t o b u OKaap. (TV4.4)


/A:8ra:k yaltara:k diyme0ei) okuwum gowı okoya:r./
He might be a little bit too lazy, but he studies vvell. ['if you don’t say he’s a
little too lazy']
Hq RHİıceH u ıy n nypaH HaüflaH 6 n p Kace HlıeÜMH. (TV15.5)
/lc d iy 0er) 5ul duron c a :y d a n b ir k a : 0e ic e y in ./
If you w ant me to drink, I’U have a cup of this tea sitting here.

Turkmen expresses 'it is/would be better i f by means of a construction witlı a verb


ending in the conditional suffix -ca/ce /-0a/0e/ followed by the word roBbi /gowı/
'good' and often by a form of 6onMaK /bolmok/ 'to be'.
286 Türkmen Reference Grammar

3n 6eT# e, npfle-ra«m e6y 3 a T Jia p tm aY3elra^erHHM6hjiM 3h. İ îe n e nppsK


HY3enflHJice roBbi-fla. (O) /Elbetde, i:rde-gi:cde bu 8a:tlanr) düSöljögtinü bilyâ:n.
Y8:nö i:rrâ:k düSöldülOö gowu-da:./
Of course I know that sooner or later these things will be cörrected. However, it’s
much better if they’re cörrected sooner.

BeünsK 036erMcraımaH remm ajıapjıap, Sene 6h3Uh 03ymh3KH öeiineKu


BenafrrnapbiHflaH reıran a j ı c a j ı a p r a r a ro B b i G o n c a n . (TP12.2)
/Beyla:k Ö:8bögü00a:nnan gelip alya:rlar, yö:nö biSirj ö:8ümü8üq beyleki
wela:yatlarmnan gelip alOalar gatı gowı boljok./
They come here from Uzbekistan and buy (vegetables), but it would be much
better if people came from our own other provinces and bought them.

KeHe y3aK Barrnattbra 6iip eprac nroneK Goncan, caMonerabi rırrcen ro B b i Gonap
eiiflftac 6h3-s. (TV9.2) /Yö:nö u8ok wagtlayuı bir yeri:k gitjek bol0orj, Oamolotlı
gi00ei] gowı bolor öydya:0 bi8-a:./
But if you want to go somewhere for a long time, us, we think it would be better
if you go by plane,

The combination of a verb in the conditional with the word HaaMa(p)? /nâ:dya:(r)?/
'what is one doing?' expresses an appeal.

Ara, etceaçe B3YH nıy m a roıuyıl GnneH HeHeH ypyuıat;aK, ceH xeHH3eM narotıifleH
raÜTcan Haatta? (G) /A:ga, yekeje ö:Süıj Sunco gosun bilen nenerj urussok, 0en
heni:8em patliıjden gaytöai] nâ:dya:?/
Older brother, how will you fîght such an army by yourself? Shouldn’t you give
up this idea before it’s too late?

Forms o f the Conditional Mood


Türkmen indicates the conditional mood by attaching the suffix -ca/ce /-9a-0o/0e-0ö/
to the stem of a verb. Person and number are expressed by adding the same endings as
for the past indefinite -a b i/flH /-dı/di/. The singular first person suffix is -caM/ceM
/-0am-0om/0em-0öm/, the second person is -cai(/cen /-0aıj-0oi)/0er)-0öi]/ and the
third person is -ca/ce /-0a-0o/0e-0ö/. The plural first person suffix is -can/ceK /-0ak-
0ok/0ek-0ök/, the second person is -canbn/ceHio /-0axjı8-8oıju8/0er]i8-0öi)U8/ and the
third person is -cajıap/cejıep /-0alar-6olor/0eler-0ölör/.
To form the negative, the negation partide -M a /ıu e /-ma/me/ is added directly to the
verb stem. Questions may not be formed in the conditional clause.
For paradigms of the conditional mood, see 642-643. Constructions of interrogative
pronouns and verbs ending in - c a / c e /-0a/0e/ form meanings like 'whatever' (see 206).
The forms 6 o j ı c a /bol0o/ 'as for', O o j i M a c a /bolmoOo/ 'otherwise' and e r c a M
/yog0om/ 'if not' are used as conjunctions (see 443).
Mood 287

Subjunctive Mood

The subjunctive mood expresses the speaker’s attitude tovvard unreal action. In this
mood, the action has not been performed in the past and it cannot be performed in the
future. In the subjunctive mood, the speaker speculates or wishes that an action would
or could have occuıred.

copacanntın, aüflapflbiM. If you had asked me yesterday,


/Dü:n 0o:ro0oqdug, aydardım./ I vvould have told you.
[~ 'If only you had asked']

copaH G o jıc a a u n , aöflapnH M . Ifyou would have asked me


/Dü:n 0o:ra:n yesterday, I would have told you.
bol0odug, aydardun./ [~ "If only you would have asked']

3 r e p MeH <])HpMafla HirnıeftaH If I were working at the fiım,


6oncaflbiM, MeH X33np on ep e I’d go there right now.
ntnepnHM. /Eger men firmada [~ 'If only I were working']
i:sleyâ:n bolOodum, men hâ:8ir
ol yere giderdim./

On copajrçaK Concaabi, copapflbi. I f he had vvanted to ask me,


/Ol 0o:rojok bolOodı, 9o:ra:rdj./ he would have asked me.
[~ 'If only he had wanted to']

B h 3 6 y huih MppaK SaıunaH I wish we’d started this work


6ojıcagbiK! /BiS bu i:si i:rra:k sooner! [~ İ f only we’d started']
basla:n bolOoduk!./

Turkmen indicates the subjunctive mood vvith the suffix -caatt/ceaH /-9adı/0edi/ in
the positive and -Macaabi/ıvıeceaM /-ma0adı/me0edi/ in the negative. This suffix may
be attached to the verb of a subordinate clause to indicate 'if one had/would have done
(something), (then)', or to the verb of a simple sentence to express 'I wish one
had/would have done (something)'.

0ÜMY3e reneıı 6oncaabiuu3,6wp waK 6nnep rnqepflHnn3. (G)


/ÖymüSö gelen bol8odur)u8, bir cak biler giderdirjiS./
I f you would have come to our home, Fm sure you vvould have knovvn long ago.

r bimtnibi Me{İHe»;eKflH.
3 r e p MeH eTHUlMeaHK 6ojıcaMaı>ı, oıtfla o n mt M onna
(G) /Eger men yetişmedik botöomdı, onno ol it mo:llo Gücını ceynejekdi./
I f I vvouldn’t have come in time, then that dog vvould have chewed up the molla,
Gılchı.
288 Türkmen Reference Grammar

«MeHHHKH öoncaHM...», flHÖflupep. (N) /"Menigki boI0odı...", diydirer./


It will aıake me wish 'İ f it were only mine..."

3rep CTaıiHH ohh Tyccar 3TMsre ctınaHtııuaH Gojıcagu, oHfla tıeKHcraep


ro 3ranan rypysapflbuıap. (N) /Eger 6calin om tu00og etmârge 0ı:namsan bol0odı,
onno ceki001er go:8golor| turuSordulor./
If Stalin would have poisoned him, then the Chekists would have risen in
rebellion.

flamxoBy3a n o p a c eTceKfltiK.! (H) /Dashowu8a: ti:5ra:k ye00ekdik!/


I wish we would reach Dashhowuz as quickly as possible!

Kanan uıy rYHnepHMJOH repcegH, flyuifofleH apMaıuiH raiMeşıpf. (H)


/Ka:kai) su günlörümüSü görtödü, dilnyâ:den arma:nlı gitmeSSi./
If your father had seen these days of ours, he would not have left the world with
unfulfilled desires.

Forms of the Subjunctive Mood


Türkmen indicates the subjunctive mood by adding the suffix -capıu/ceuıı /-0adı-
0odı/0edi-0ödü/ to the verb at the end of the subordinate clause of the sentence or of
the main clause. This suffbc consists of the conditional suffbc -ca/ce /-0a/0e/ and the
past indefinite suffbc -flbi/flH /-dı/di/.
The personal endings may be added to both or to only one of the elements - c a / c e
/-0a/0e/ or -Hm/jjh /-dı/di/. The preferred first person forms are -caMnbiM/ceMUHM
/-0amdım-0omdum/0emdim-0ömdüm/ (also -cap(MM/ceAHM /-0adım-0odum/0edim-
0ödüm/, but rarely -caMflbl/ceMJiıı /-0amdı-0omdı/0emdi-05mdü/) in the singular and
-caK flbiK /ceK A H K /-0akdık-0okduk/0ekdik-0ökdük/ (also -c a flU K /c e flH K /-0adık-
0oduk/0edik-0ödiik/, rarely -caKjibt/ceKAH /-0akdı-0okdı/0ekdi-0ökdii/) in the plural.
The third person forms are - c a flb i/c e flH /-0adı-0odı/0edi-0ödü/ in the singular and
- c a jjb ijıa p /c e A H jıe p /-0adılar-0odulor/0ediler-0ödiilör/ in the plural. However, in the
second person, the singular form -caRbin/cejj(HH /-0adıjj-0odurj/0edij)-0ödüi)/ and
plural form -caftbinbi3/cenHHH3 /-0adıgı5-0oduqu8/0edii]i6-0ödür)ü5/ are preferred över
-cai(aı»ın/cei(AHH /-0aqdı/]-0of]dur)/0egdig-0öi)döi]/ (and -canflbi/cenflu /-0aıjdı-0oıjdı/
0er|di-0ör)dü/) and -canu3flbiHbi3/cenH3j(HHH3 /-0ai)i88ıi)i8-0ojju88ui)u8/0er)i88irji8-
0öi]üS5ür]ü8/ (rarely -cat<bl3j(bi/cenM 3A H /-0arjıS8ı-0oi]u88ı/0ei)i88i-0öi)ii8Sli/).
The negative and the interrogative are not formed in the subjunctive mood.
For paradigms of the subjunctive mood, see 644-645.
Mood 289

Desiderative Mood
The desiderative mood expresses the speaker’s desire or hope that an action will be
perfonned by her/himself or others. English indicates this mood by formatiom; like 'I
wish one does (something)' or 1 hope one does (something)'.

MeH my xam,iHM caTMH anaaguM! I wish I could buy this rug!


/Men 5u ha:k:m 0atm ala:yadun!/ (~ I hope I can buy this rug!)

CeH ona KOMeK ajuaeoHH-fla! I really wish you’d help her!


/0en oıjo kömök eda:yedii)-dâ:!/ (~ I really hope you’ll help her!)

In Türkmen, the desiderative mood is indicated by adding the suffixes -aafli.ı/aejjM


/-a:yadı/â:yedi/ in the positive and -MaHflbi/ıvıaeAH /-ma:yadı/mâ:yedi/ in the negative
to verb stems. The word Gcjikh /belki/ 'maybe, perhaps, hopefully' and/or the partide
-fla/na /-da:/dâ:/ typically appear in sentences with verbs in this mood.

X y fla Ü M M , s f le H H u e m y K y p . EemcM, n ı y f l w n 6 n p 6o.n-3nHH.nHK Ö o jıa n f lb i- A a ! ( G )


/H u d a : y ım , e d e n ig e ş ü k ü r . B e lk i, s u y ıl b i r b o l- e li: n lik b o la :y a d ı- d a :! /
Oh God, thanks for what you’ve done, and we really hope that, if possible for
once this year will be plentiful.

In addition to fornıs in the desiderative mood, Türkmen has several mcans of


expressing the idea of 'to hope that one will do (something)'. The word yMHT /umı:t/
Tıope' may appear with a possessive suffix followed by 6 ap /ba:r/ 'there is' to mean
'to have hope', or the verb yMbiT 3TMeK /umı:t etmek/ 'to hope' may be us; d in a
construction with nııönn /diyip/ 'that' to mean 'to hope, saying that...'

MeH ceHM ene-fle ropaeAHM-fla! I really hope I ’ll see you again!)
/Men Seni yene-de görâ:yedim-dâ:!/ (~ I really wish 1*11 see you again!)

CeHM eHe-fle repıvısre yMtıfibiM 6ap! I hope I ’ll see you again!
/8en yene-de görmâıge umudını ba:r!/

CeHM ene-fle repepMH «HÖıın I hope I ’ll see you again!


yMbiT aaKapmı! /âeni yene-de
görörün diyip umı:t edyâ:rin!/
290 Turkmen Referenee Grammar

Forms o f the Desiderative Mood


Turkmen indicates the desiderative mood by adding the suffix -asiflbih e m /-a:yadı/
â:yedi/ to the stem of a verb. Person and number are shown with the same endings as
for the past indefinite tense suffix -flu/nh /-dı/di/. The first person suffixes are
-anflUM/aeHHM /-a:yadun/â:yedim/ and -aanbiK/aeHHK /-a:yadık/â:yedik/ in singular
and plural; the second person suffîxes are -annMH/aeflni{ /-a:yadır)/a:yedirj/ and
-aHabinbo/aenMHHs /-a:yadıi]i8/â:yedir|i5/ in singular and plural; and the third person
suffixes are -annu/senn /-a:yadı/â:yedi/ and -aanuJiap/ae^HJiep /-a:yadılar/a:yediler/ in
singular and plural.
When the stem ends in a vowel, the first vowel of this suffix, which has inherent
length, replaces that vowel. The same process applies vvith the addition of this suffıx to
the negation partide -Ma/Me /-ma/me/, which results in -Maanbi/Maenn /-ma:yadı/
mâ:yedi/. Questions are rarely formed in the desiderative mood.
For paradigms of the desiderative mood, see 646-647.
Mood 291

Other Mood Suffixes

Türkmen has several suffixes that indicate nuances of mood, including those of desire
(-ac/ec /-a0/e0/), intention (-MaKMu/MeıCMH /-makcı/mekci/), obligation (-Majıtı/MejiM
/-mah/meli/) and permission (-aü/ait /-a:y/â:y/). The suffix of desire functions only in
a verbal formation, while the suffıxes of intention, obligation and permission produce
verb forms that appear as the final verbs of sentences.

Suffıx o f Desire
In Türkmen, the most common means of indicating the desire to perform an action
consists of a formation with a verb ending in the verbal noun suffıx -ac/ec /-a0/e0/,
plus one of the possessive suffixes, followed by the verb renıneK /gelmek/ 'to come' in
the third person of several tense forms. For example, the third person present indefinite
tense form -acbi/ecH re n ü a p /-a0ı/e0i geiyarr/ literally means 'his/her desire to do
(something) comes', but is equivalent to English 'he/she wants to do (something)' or
'she/he feels like doing (something)'.

On 6wp T33e Maıuun anacu rejıföap. He wants to buy a new car.


/Ol bir ta:Se maSıtn ala0ı gelyâ:r./

Ara, MeHMH Monna GapacbiM renenoK, ce6s6n oKaMaK kmh . (G)


/Ata, menirj mo:lla: baraöım geleno:k, 0eba:bi okomok kı:n./
Father, I don’t w ant to go to the molla, because studying is hard.
X hm KHMMU-fle S3 a a ra SuneH enyMHH YCTY*le rHfliecH rejiMes. (G)
/Hi:c kimiıj-de ö:8 ayağı bilen ölümürj ti00iinö gide0i gelmeS./
No one in his right mind wants to go to his death.
MeHMH on ceanepM cH3e a ü fla c u M renttap. (G)
/Menir) ol 0ö81örii 0i6e aydaGım gelya:r./
I feel like saying those words to you.
OpcrenflH 6nneH Hs3hk ©3jıepHHHH Kopne orynnaptmtı r e p e c n e p n renüapflH . (G)
/Or0gelli bilen Na:8ik ö:81örünüq körpö ogullorunı göröGlörü gelyâ:rdi./
Orsgeldi and Nazik wanted to see their younger son.
ApTtrrbi Ayanacu, oHflaH aptnm anacu rejınu. (G)
/Artığı du:8Ia:0ı, onnon a:nnı ala0ı gelli./
She felt like punishing Artık and taking her revenge on him.
OHyn TH3p3K eityHe eTecH renüapflH. (G)
/Onur] ti:8râ:k öyünö yete0i gelyarrdi./
He w as eager to get home as quickly as possible.
292 Türkmen Referenee Grammar

CeHHH H3XHJBi penKfle K eüııeK caTtm anacbirç reniiap? (TV5.4)


/0enirj nâ:hili rerjkde köynök öatrn alaGıi] gelya:r?/
What color dress do you w ant to buy?

- ©3yMe 6ııp -rese caraT anacuM rejıiıap. (TV5.4)


/"Ö:Sümö bir ta:8e 0a:gat ala0ım gelyârr."/
'T feel like buying myself a new watch."

The third person form of this suffix also appears in the word Gojıacbi /bolo0ı/
which expresses the speaker’s surprise ('it would seem/appear that') at some
development.

C ohkm Ban-fla AMaH MeKflenfle re p y H M e fe p -n e Gonacu. (G)


/0oqkı wagtda Amam mekdepde görünmöyâ:r-le bolo0ı./
It would appear that Aman has not been in school lately.

BM3e xjıq 3aT Öojıacu eK. (G) /BiSe hi:c 8a:t bolo0ı yo:k./
I t would seem that there is nothing for us.

Forms o f the Suffbc o f Desire


To indicate the desire or lack of desire to perform an action, the possessive suffbces are
added to a verb ending in the verbal noun suffbc -ac/ec /-a0/e0/,‘ vvhich is followed by
the verb ren inen /gelmek/ 'to come' in its third person singular form in a given tense
(rejıiiap /gelyâ:r/ 'it comes', rejin» /gelli/ 'it came', and so on). This results in the
formations -acbiM/ecıiM rejiMeK /-a0ım-o0um/e0im-ö0üm gelmek/ and -acbiMU3/
ecMMH3 rejiMeK /-a0ımı8-o0umu8/e0imi8-ö0ümü8 gelmek/ in the first person singular
and plural, -acu n /ecıın rejiMeK /-a0ıi)-o0ui)/e0iıj-ö0üi] gelmek/ and -acbinti3/ccnnn3
rejiMeK /-a8ırjı8-o0ur)u8/e6iıjiS-ö0ür)üS gelmek/ in the second person singular and
plural, and -acbi/ecu rejiMeK /-a0ı-o0ı/e0i-ö0ü gelmek/ and -acnapu/ecnepH rejiMeK
/-a01an-o01orı/e01eri-ö01örü gelmek/ in the third person singular and plural.
Addition of the suffbc -ac/ec /-a0/e0/ to a verb stem ending in a vowel lengthens
that vovvel, and this suffbc is vvritten -ac/ac /-a:0/a:0/.
To indicate a negative, the appropriate negation partide is added to the tense form
of the verb rejiMeK /gelmek/.
For paradigms of the suffbc of desire, see 648.

1 The ıh ir d person p lu ra l fonm i n - a c j ıa p u / e c j ı e p H /-a81an/e01eri/ shovvs that th e b a s e f o rm m u s t b e


-ac/ec /-a8/eB/ (ü s rp a M M a m u K a 337-338) to v vhich the third person p l u r a l p o s s e s s i v e suffix
-JiaptlAncpH / - l a n /l e r i / h a s b e e n a d d e d .
Mood 293

Suffbc o f Intention
Turkmen indicates an intention or plan to perform an action by adding tb>: suffbc
-MaKHbi/MeKHH /-makcı/mekci/ to the stem of the main verb of a sentence, cr to the
verb of a conditional clause. English equivalents to this formation include 'woııld like
to do (something)', 'intend to do (something)', 'plan to do (something)' and 'want to
do (something)'.

M eH TeneBH3opa cepeTMeKHH. I w o u ld like to w a tch


/Men telewiSoro öeretmekci./ television.
MeH my r y H aruıaM TeneBH30pa I p la n to w a tc h television thi:;
cepeTMeKHH. /Men sü:n agSam evening.
telewi5oro Oeretmekci./

M eH nıy h u i h hhhhkh x e n f l e f le I in te n d to fin ish this jo b


ryTapM aKHbi. /Men su i:si next week.
inniki hepdede gutormokcı./

On 6H3HH 6pnraflaMU3bm narra MeföflaHJiapbmtı repMeKHH Gojıca, s p n ıp ıuy epe


rencra. (G) /Ol biSii] brigada:mı6uj pagta meydarnlannı görmökcü bol0o, ı:rti:r su
yere gelOin./
If he would like to see the cotton fields of our brigade, he should come here
tomorrow.

Ey ryn-3pTe KepKü capu yrpaMaKMU. (N) /Bu:n-eıte Kerki 8a:n ugromoktı./


He pians to set off for Kerki today or tomorrow.

M e H ceH H ajiTLnt*,tı ry H f lo r u an ry H y M e M artrpM am bi. (TV3.4)


/Men 8eni altınjı gün doglon günümü ca:gırmak£ı./
I would like to invite you to my birthday (party) on Saturday.

The tense of -MaKqbi/MeKHH /-makcı/mek2i/ refers to immediate action s or to


actions in the near future. Forms of the past indefinite tense suffbc -fltı/flM /-dı/di/ may
be added to the verb CojiMaK /bolmok/ 'to be', or occasionally to -MaKibi/ı.ıeıoiH
/-makcı/mekci/ itself to express the past tense.

Ey ryH x y M a p T y r y n , eH e yjıneTJiepH M H H a ıib m a rHTMeKHM OojlJtyM. (N)


/Bu:n humaır tutup, yene tilpötlörümür) ya:nuıa gitmekci bollum./
I got this strong desire today and wanted to go to my friends again.

3 3 H 3 xaH H H übETbiHMaK ilbiTH asm biH bi auiHflHn, rnona Bapbin ro m y n M a K H U flb iM .


(G) /E8i:8 ha:n:ır) yıgıncak yıgnaya:nmı esidıp, Sogo banp gosuknokcudum /
Hearing that Eziz Khan was gathering the people, I decided to go and join him.
294 Türkmen Reference Grammar

The partide -nbip/nııp /-dır/dir/ also may appear after -MaKMu/MeKMH /-makfiı/
mekci/ to add the nuance of confirmation to the intention, in the sense of 'one actually
intends to do (something)'.
Cana canMan, 6Mpnııe 6epnn rofi6epn6epMeKMU(nnp. (G)
/0ala: 0alma:n, bi:rine berip goyberibennekcidir./
He actually intends to go ahead and give (his daughter in rnamage) to someone
without getting any advice.

AMepmcajöiaH reneH 6n3HecMennep jjoKMa ceHaraTHHtm, raüraflan mımeiiaH


ceHaraTMH K3pxaHanapbnu>ı rypMara Mas roıOMnaptiHbi
reHYKnııpMeKHHflHpnep. (N)
/Amerikadan gelen bi5ne9menler dokmo 0ena:gatınu), gaytadan i:sleyâ:n
0ena:gaur) ka:rha:nalanm gurma:ga ma:ya goyumlorunı gönükdüımökcüdüriör./
Businessmen from America actually are planning to launch their first
investments for the construction of weaving and recycling industrial enterprises.

Forms o f the Suffix o f İntention


To indicate intention, the suffîx -MaKHbi/MeKMH /-makcı-mokcı/mek£i-mök£ü/ is
added to the stems of verbs. Number and person are indicated by the noun or pronoun
that serves as subject of the sentence. its negative is formed by adding hsji /dâ:l/
separately after a verb vvith this suffix.
For paradigms of the suffix of intention, see 649.

Suffix o f Obligation
To indicate a moral or factual obligation to perform an action, Türkmen adds the suffix
-Manbi/MenH /-malı/meli/ to the stem of a verb. This formation is equivalent to
English 'have to do (something)', 'should do (something)' and sometimes 'must do
(something)'. By itself, this suffix is understood as expressing the future indefinite
tense, while its person and number are indicated by the noun or pronoun which serves
as subject. This suffix may be added to the predicate or to the attribute of a sentence.

M eu 6y muim stmciih . I have to do this work.


/Men bu i:si etmeli./

Xa3npKn flOBypne napnMHtın naxmın MaKcaınapu 6ojiManbi, hsmshhh ycTyKUe


HinjıeMejiH? (N) /Hâ:5irki döwürdö paıtiyamr) na:hili mak0atlan bolmolı,
na:ma:nii) ü00ünnö i:slemeli?/
Which goals should the party have at the present time, what should it be
working on?
Mood 295

By Hn?a«fla 6 m m em-ne uıon öhkm MrapaMa xaüfla rajraçaKflHraMBisa ch3,


H3MX,MJiap, xac aöflbm re3 eTnpMenHCHHH3. (N) /Bu yagdayda biSirj yene-de Sol
örjkü elgarama ha:IIa ga:ljakdıgunıBa 0i6, yaSıjılar, ha:0 aydııj göS yetirmeli0iqi5./
You vvriters have to see most clearly of ali that, under these conditions, we would
remain longer in that former dependent condition.

3n6eTfle, MapenepHH epMHe eTHpujiMe.™ MexncTnepHHHn amaıc


repKe3MnMerM tobm 3aT. (N) /Elbetde, £â:releriq yerine yetirilmeli möhlötlörünüi]
anık görköSülmögü gowı 8a:t./
Of course, it’s a good thing that the times when the measures have to be carried
out are clearly indicated.

Mıifln MeH HaMe stmcjih? U suM a eBpynHn, canaM BepMejiMMH? (BG)


/İnni men nâ:me etmeli? I:8una öwrülüp, 0ala:m bermelimi?/
Now what am I to do? Should I turn around and say hello?

HaMas oKaMa3flan oaan rsper rbiJibin, 3HflaMwnı,ı apaccajıaMajibl.


(TP13.4) /Nama :8 okomoSSon 080i ta:ret gıhp, enna:rmi]i ara00alamalx./
Before praying, you must perform ablutions and cleanse your body.

Eynapflan 6 amra-fla M y cy jiM a m iH Öepjrçaii 3TM eiiM napsnapu Sapflbip. (TP13.4)


/Bulordon basga-da mu0ulma:mr) berja:y etmeli parSlan ba:rdır./
And besides these, Muslims have (other) obligations they m ust fulfill.

3aT TeneMeJlM Han cyB y^hh. 3MMa ıuy c y B re^HpennepM y^ını, raynapttH
Typöacbffla, KpaHTbraa, ıuona 6h3 TejıeMejiH Gonapuc. (TV17.2)
/ 8a:t tölömölü dâ:l 0uw ücü:n. Emma: su 0uw geçirenleri iicikn, sulorui]
turboOuno, tarantına, sogo biS töiömölii bolya:n0./
We don’t have to pay a thing for water. But for their bringing in this water, and
their pipes and their faucets, for this we do have to pay.

To express the definite future tense, this suffix is used together with thefuture
indefinite form of the verb ö o jiM a K /bolmok/.

Xep humhk Bonca-fla rejiMejiM 6ojıapcbiH. (G)


/Her nicik bol0o-do gelmeli bolorOurj./
Nevertheless, you will have to come.

Llroca, mm» Benamun orm ı ermııep. O m ı oiincıınupMemı 6ojıap, rtranapii


eromep, onapu nypMyma mjKapıvıanbi Gojıap. (TV16.3)
/inha:, inni Wepa:nıi) oglı yetiîer. Om öylönniirmölii bolor, gı:81an yetiser, olon
durmuso çıkarmalı bolor./
Now Wepa’s son here will come of age. It will be necessary to get him m arried,
and the girls will come of age, and it vvill be necessary to m arry them off.
296 Türkmen Reference Grammar

For obligations that appeared in the past, the past indefinite tense marker -flbi/flu
/-dı/di/ with personal endings may be added to a verb.

Ahjim KecenjB aneTMenıiflu, oh eflH snuaH AKaçaryj^eH re3rynaK öojiMajibiflbi, oh


flepT anutu HypflyMHpafla rapaMajıunıı. (G)
/Aya:h ke0ellâ: ârjetmelidi, on yedi ya:sa:n A:kjagüUön gö5gulok bolmohıdı, on
dö:rt yarslı Durdumıraıda garamalıdı./
His wife h a d t o t e n d t o the sick person, s h e h a d t o look after seventeen-year old
Akjagül, and s h e h a d t o look in on fouıteen-year old Durdumırat.

When the suffix -Majıu/rvıejııı /-mah/meli/ is used in combination with the


conditional form 6 o j j c a /bol0o/ or the subjunctive form G o jıc a flb i /bol0odı/, it also
means 'to have to do (something)'.

3rep 6apMajibi S o n c a , tmji KaKapctm. (G) /Eger barmalı bol0o, til kakarOııj./
If she has to go, please give me a Cali.

The confirmation partide -flLip/ftnp /-dır/dir/ also may be added to this suffix to
confirm an obligation in the sense of 'really should/have to do (something)'.

MeH X33Hp raflim, flyKaHH aHMajibiHbipbiH. (G)


/Men hâ:8ir gidip, dükamı acmalıdınn./
I really have to go now and open the shop.

Forms o f the Suffix o f Obligation


Türkmen indicates obligation by adding the suffix -Manu/ıuejiM /-m alı-m olı/m eli-
mölü/ to the stem of a verb. Number and person are indicated by the noun or pronoun
that serves as subject of the sentence. This suffix is a compound of the verbal noun
suffix -Ma/Me /-ma/me/ and the attribute suffix /+lı/li/. Therefore, a negative
-Macu3/MecH3 /-ma6ıS-mo8uS/me8iS-mö0üS/ may be formed by attaching the
privation suffix + c u 3 / c n 3 /+0ı6/0i5/ to the verbal noun (see 539); however, placement
of the modal word flan /da:l/ 'is/are not' after this suffîx is more common.
Verbs with the suffîx of obligation -M ajibi/ıvıenH /-mah/meli/ share with participles
the function of serving as attributes (o K a J iM a n tı KHTan /okomolı kita:p/ 'a book
which should be read'); unlike paniciples, however, such verbs freeiy function as
predicates (M e H 6y K H T a fiu o K a M a n u /Men bu kita:bı okomolı/ 1 should read this
book').
For paradigms of the suffix of obligation, see 650.
Mood 297

Suffbc o f Permission
Turkmen expresses permission or a request for permission to perform an action by
adding the suffbc -aü/aü /-a:y/â:y/ to the stems of verbs. When used in combination
vvith suffbces of the imperative, this suffbc usually is equivalent to English fonnations
for both permission ('may do') and suggestion ('why not do?'), depending on :ontext.
In combination with mood and other suffixes, this suffix contıibutes to the formation
of new meanings that are related to permission, such as suggestion, advice, im istence,
caution or premonition.

Bemcu MeH ona 6y T33ejiHra Maybe I shouldn’t teli him


aüT M aafibiH ./Belki men oqo bu this nevvs.
ta:8eligi ayuna:yaym./
E m3 flam ap u K r a ^ a e n » ? May we (two) go outside?
/Bİ8 dasan:k gidâ:yeli?/
Illy KHTaötl OKatıcaH, Ken 3aflbi I think if you read this
eBpeHepcHH- /Su kita:bı oka:y0ai), book, you’11 leam a lot.
köp Sadi öwrönör8iiıj./
C m3 TypKMeHHCTana rejiDÜMCJiH. You should come to
/0İ8 Türkmönü00a:na gelâ:ymeli./ Türkmenistan.

In combination vvith the imperative suffbces, the suffbc -aH/afi /-a:y/â:y/ may be
understood as asking or granting permission or making a suggestion relaied to a
request or command, depending on the conteat. English equivalents to suc.ı fornıs
include 'I/we/you/she/he/they may do (something)', 'may I/we/you/she/he/they do
(something)', 'vvhat about doing (something)?', 'why not do (something)?', and 'why
don’t I/we/you/she/lıe/they do (something)?'

Uly KMTaötı OKantibiH? May I read this book?


/Su kita:bı okaryaym?/ (~ Wlıy don’t I read this book?)
E m3 CM3MH önnen Mapa May we (ali) go to Man vvith you?
rHflaejmn? /Bi8 0i8ir) bilen (~ W hat about us (ali) going to
Mara: gidâ:yeli:rj?/ Man vvith you?)
CH3 KMHO rHH3İİH!(. You may go to the movies.
/8i8 kino: gidâ:yi:r5-/ (~ W hat about going to the movies?)
O ji ö n s e re jıa ü c ııu . She may visit us.
/Ol biSe gelâ:y0in./ (~ Why doesn’t she visit us?)
298 Turianen Referenee Grammar

A xaB, aflaMiıap! By Mtrn MHparamm AHHa6ere öepsejiHn! (G)


/A ha:w, a:damlar! Bu yıl mi:ra:plıgı Arnnabege berâ:yeli:jj!/
But hey, gentlemen! W hat about giving the post of irrigator to Annabek this
year!

Onap «paflHaTopttn vaT aMtmnMp» flHJMspnep. «^aT a^aıt 6onca roBy-fla,


6e%,ep3ÜHH» hhM#mm. Onap «paflHaTop eK» flHÜflHnep. (TV17.2)
/Olor "radiatorui] cat acıpdır" diyya:rler. "Ğat acan bol0o gowu-da:, bejerâ:yirj"
diydim, Olor "radiator yo:k" diydiler./
They say "Your radiator’s cracked." I said Tine, so it’s cracked. W hat about
fixing it?" They said "No radiators."

Oıtfla moHyn öıuıeH aKtiJitrnti3bt jıenan rapaünn! (N)


/Onno sonuıj bilen akıhrjiSı deıja:p görâ:yii]!/
Then why don’t you try to compare your intellect with his! [or: 'you may try to
compare']

The suffix -aö/aii /-a:y/â:y/ may be combined with the conditional suffix (-ca/ce
/-8a/0e/) to express a suggestion or advice that is equivalent to English 'I think' or 'I
suppose'.

IIIohm flartiHb! ceH anatican, ohcoh, ceHHe apMan rajiMa3. (G)


/Som dağımı 0en ala:y0aıj, onöorj, Oenne armam ga:lmaS./
I think if you m arry someone like this, then you’ll never wish for
anything.

Ewp Myn ^Y3 MaHaT 6oJiaÜMaca. (TA2.2)


/Bir müi] iic yü8 manat bola:yma0a./
I suppose it’s one thousand three hundred manats.

Use of the suffix -ati/ati /-a:y/â:y/ with the suffix of obligation (-ManM/MeJiH
/-malı/meli/) adds personal conviction to the obligation, in the sense of suggesting,
advising or insisting on the right or sensible course of action to follow, and may be
equivalent to English 'should do (something)' or '(properly) would want to do
(something)'.

IIIoji KapTouKantBH ajibin, « t t a a , MeH ıtbinaH epjje sunam. MeH cH3e flenfmnif.
. nbinan epHMeM am pap» Ruftun Ö apun aftaaiİMajibi. (TV9.4)
/Sol kartocka.-ıjıSı alıp, "inha:, men pıla:n yerde ya:saya:n. Men 0i5e degisli. Pıla:n
yerimem a:gırya:r" diyip banp ayda:ymalı./
You should take that card of yours (to the doctor) an d go an d say "Here, I live
in such-and-such a place. I’m supposed to see you. And my such-and-such a place
huıts." [advice]
Mood 299

A hthG hothk x©KMeH repeK. H h^h my 3aT raiİTanaHMa3 onu uiohh HMaÜMejiH.
(TV17.3)
/Antibiotik hökma:n gerek. İnni su 8a:t gaytalanmaS ya:lı Som icarymeli./
You definitely need antibiotics. Now you should take them so that this thing
won’t come back. [sensible action, not obligation]

İle n e TaKCH Tyraçajc 6oncanH3 car 3idihh3h ra.ıntıptın, o h c o h flypaHfla MeH


ram an epmc 6apsw jpriijm aü^atİManu. (TV9.2) /Yö:nö tak0i tutjok bol0or)u8 0ag
eliıjiSi gallınp, on0oıj duroıuıo men pılarn yeri:k barya:n diyip aydarymah./
But if you want to stop a taxi, you should raise your right hand, then when it
stops, you would w ant to say you’re going to such-and-such a place. [sensible
action, not obligation]

Enp aflaM stpaMaca, flOKTopa rHaaiİMenıı. (T9.4)


/Bir ardam yaramaSa, doktoro gidarymeli./
When a person is sick, he should go to the doctor. [sensible action, not
obligation]

In the negative, the suffix -Majııı/MejiH flan /-mah/meli dârl/ implies only that one
is not obiigated to do something, as in 'I don’t have to do (something)' (for example,
because someone else will, or because it is not necessary)'. Combined with the suffîx
-aii/ati /-a:y/âry/, the formation -aÜ M anu/attM ejıu «ajı /-arymah/ârymeli dârl/
indicates insistence that one should not do something due to personal conviction or
cautiousness, as in 'I don’t think I should do (something)' or 'I shouldn’t do
(something)' (for example, because it is vvrong, or because I am concemed about the
results or effects of the act).

MeH 6y xanMHtı caTManu «an. I d o n ’t have to seli this rug.


/Men bu harlımı 0atmah dârl./

MeH 6y xajiNHH caTaÜMajıu flan. I d o n ’t th in k we should seli this


/Men bu harlımı 0ata:yma!ı dârl./ rug. (~ I shouldn’t seli this rug.)

When the modal word xoKMan /hökmarn/ 'definitely, absolutely' is used with
-aiİM ajıtı/aiİM eım /-arymalı/iirymeli/, the urgency or necessity of the obligation is
stressed, in the sense of insistence. This construction is equivalent to English 'it’s
necessary/mandatory to do (something)'.

MeH oHyn ca3tma xeKMan HymYHaiİMenH. (BH)


/Men onuq 0ar8ma hökmarn düsünârymeli./
I t ’s absolutely necessary th a t I u n d erstan d his music.
300 Turkmen Reference Grammar

Illy h u m x ö k m 3 h e p m ı e e r a p a Ö M e jiH . (TV 12.3)


/Su i:si hökmaaı yerine yetirâ:ymeli./
I t’s mandatory that we complete this work.

The suffix -aft/ait /-a:y/â:y/ may be combined with the descriptive suffix
-anep/eBep /-awer/ewer/ (see 316) or with suffixes of the infinitive or participies to
express a premonition that an action should not or will not be performed.

THflaÜMSBepcifHİ /Gida:ymâ:wer0in!/ I don’t think she should go on!

renaü>K,eK eK. /Gelâ:jek yo:k./ Noone vvill even come.

Xa3iıp iuoji c0BX03a aflunu H3fl6ipttn, araa 6onaÖMaıma mui 6ap. (N)
/Hâ:8ir sol 0owho5o a:dıgı ya58ınp, agöa: bola:ymakda i:s ba:r./
Now there may be a problem even in signing up for that state farm and becoming a
member.

Forms o f the Suffix o f Permission


For the indication of permission, Turkmen adds the suffix -aft/afi /-a:y/â:y/ to the
stems of verbs. When added to a stem that ends in a vowel, this suffix replaces that
vovvel. Combination of the suffix -ati/aii /-a:y/â:y/ and the imperative suffixes of the
fîrst person (-aübiH/eünH /-aym/eyin/, -ajıw(n)/ejiH(ıö /-ah(:rj)/eli(:i))/) results in the
pronunciations /-a: yayı n/â: yeyin/ and /-a:yalı(:rj)/a:yeli(:rj)/, which must be written
-asiibiH/aeiİHH and -aflnu(q)/aejiH(ıO-
To form the negative, the negation partide -Maİme /-ma/me/ may be added either
before (-Maü/Maö /-ma:y/mâ:y/) or after (-aÖMa/aÜMe /-a:yma/â:yme/) the suffix
-ati/atı /-a:y/â:y/.
For paradigms of the suffîx of permission, see 651-653.
Mood 301

Modal Formations
Türkmen expresses many nuances of mood by means of formations constructed of tvvo
or more vvords, one or both of vvhich is a verb. These formations indicate the s peaker’s
attitude tovvard the action. In addition to the varieties listed belovv, Turkmen expresses
some nuances of mood by means of modal vvords (see 377) and particles (see 4,‘İ7).

Abiliıy
To indicate the physical or mental ability to perform an action, Turkmen uses a
formation with two verbs, the first of vvhich expresses the main action and entls in the
gerund -u n lım /-ıp/ip/, and the second of vvhich is the verb ÖHJiMeK /bilmek/ 'to
know, to know how (to do)', vvhich carries the tense, negation, person and number
markers. The most common English equivalents for this formation are 'can/able to do
(something)' and 'can’t/couldn’t/ vvon’t be able to do (something)'.

5fÇanH fei - c e H c u p ı c a B , onan G ı i J i M e p a m , 6 a p f l o ı c r o p a rHT. (G)


/Jarjcı - 0en 0ırkaw, oka:p bilmerOii), bar doktoro git./
Jangchı, you’re sick and you vvon’t be able to study. Go on, go to the dcetor.
By florpbi, MeH 6y ce3Jiep 6ııneH unajıaıuMaH nypyn GmiMepmı. (N)
/Bu dogn, men bu 0ö51ör bilen ıla:lasma:n durup bilmerin./
This is true, I can’t disagree vvith these vvords. ['I can’t stand vvithout agn:eing']
©HKM-euKynHK 6onanga 6 h 3 cecM M H 3eM MbiKapbin ÖHJiMeüapflHK, yM H yM H 3eM .
(N) /Öıjkü-örjkülük bolonno bi5 0e0imi5em çıkarıp bilmeyârrdik, ü:nümüîom./
The way it used to be, we could not utter even a vvord, even a sound.
O H f la n r a v b i n r j n r y j i b i n G m iijk ,c k f la jı 3KennM. ( N )
/Onnon ga£ıp gutulup biljek dâ:l ekenim./
It tumed out that I couldn’t escape him by running avvay.
MeH 63yMMH H3Me y>niH cyfla »larbipbinannbirbiMa x h m aKtuı eTtıpun
GmiMenHM. (O)
/Men ö:8ümüi) na:me iicü:n 0udo ca:gmlya:nnıgıma hi:c akıl yetirip bilmedim./
I couldn’t com prehend at ali why I vvas being summoned to court.

CaraT hsto -ks , aftAbin GmiMepcHHMH? (TV3.2)


/0a:gat nâ:ce-ka:, aydıp bilmerOiıjmi?/
I vvonder, could you teli me what time it is?
Bananına, M eH r a n a n ÖHJiîrçeK R a n - a a , Gsııifle m u i h m 6ap-na. (TV3.3)
/Bağışla, men gidip biljek da:l-lâ:, bâ:îde i:sim ba:r-da:./
Sorry, I really w on’t be able to go, I ’m really busy at five (o’clock).
302 Turkmen Reference Grammar

Moda! Formations
-Hn/raı öHUMeK to b e a b le
Ability
/-ıp/ip bilmek/
-Mam>ı/M3HH tobm repMeK to li k e to d o ( s o m e th in g )
/-ma:nı/mâ:rii gowı görmök/,
Affirmation
-Maıaı/MSUH xanaMaK to lik e to d o (s o m e th in g )
/-ma:nı/mâ:ni ha:lamak/

-tm/nn 6epMeK to d o f o r s o m e o n e
/-ıp/ip bermek/
Beneflt
-tm/raı aıiMaK to d o f o r o n e s e lf
/-ıp/ip almak/

-ca/ce repeK probably do, likely t o do


Conjecture
/-0a/0e gerek/

-M artı/M era HcneMeK to w a n t to d o


Desire
/-m agı/m egi iO lem ek/

-un/un re p M e K to tr y to d o
Experimeru
/-ıp/ip g ö r m ö k /

-M aKjn>nc/MeKHKK r e p e K to n e e d to d o (s o m e th in g )
/-m aklık /m ek lik gerek/

Need -M asc/M eK repeK tö n e e d to d o (s o m e th in g )


/-mak/mek gerek/
(+a/e repeK to n e e d (s o m e th in g )
/+ a /e g e re k /)

-un/mı S o n M a K c a n d o , p o s s ib le to d o
/-ıp/ip b o l m o k /
-M aıc/M eK S o n M a K o k a y to d o , p r o p e r to d o
/- m a k /m e k b o lm o k /
Possibility
- c a / c e 6ojTM aK can d o, m ay do
/- 0 a /0 e bolmok/
-M aK /M eK MyMKHH p o s s ib le to d o
/- m a k /m e k miimkihn/
-aH /eH S o n M a K to p re te n d to d o
Pretense
/ - a n / e n b olm ok/

-Maca/Mece 6onMaK to h a v e to d o ,
Resolve
/-ma0a/me0e bolmok/ to r e s o lv e to d o
Mood 303

İ t e H e 6 h 3 n r a x e p a fla M J ia p H H a c ep e T ce K , o H fla a 3 a * ; t i K y ü iT e ıı m K 3 a T r e p y n
6 n n e p ı ı c . (TV13.2)
/Yö:nö bi8 sâher ardamlanna 6 ere88ek, onno a:8ajık ürtgösük 8a:t görüp bileriB./
But if we take a look at city people, then w e c a n s e e that some things are just a
little bit different.
By yrypfla r a p a u ı c t i 3 K >pflyM M 3Bm T e n e ıc e ıiH n e p H - f le ıceıı ınu 6nTMpmı GnnJueK.
(TV11.4) /Bu u g u r d o g a r a s 8 ı 8 y u : r d u m u 8 u i ] t e l e k e c i l e r i - d e köp i : s b i t i r i p b i l j e k . /
In t h i s r e g a r d , t h e n , t h e e n t r e p r e n e u r s of o u r i n d e p e n d e n t c o u n t r y a l s o will b e a b l e
to accomplish m a n y t h i n g s .

Affirmation
Türkmen expresses 'to like to do (something)' by adding the verbal noun in the
accusative case -MaHbi/MaHH /-ma:nı/mâ:ni/ to a verb stem followed by the phrase
roBbi re p M e K /gowı gönnök/ 'to like ('to see well')'. The idea of 'to like (something
or someone)' is expressed by a noun in the accusative case followed by t o b u re p M e K
/gowı görmök/ 'to like'.

M eH ohm t o b u r a p iia p H H . I lik e h im .


/M e n o n ı g o w ı g ö r y a r r in ./

C eH MemtHr s a e KBİhıenmn D o y o u lik e m y n e w d re ss?


r o B t ı re p ü a H M H ? /8 e n m e n ir)
ti i:8 e k ö y n ö g ü m ü g o w ı g ö r y a r ı j m i ? /

M e H r a H T J it ı r a p a r a f i t i iw m 3hh I l i k e t o d r in k b la c k te a w ith
tobh re p ü a p H H . /M e n g a n tlı g a ra su g ar.
c a :y ı i£ m â :n i g o w ı g ö r y a r r in ./

Another common way of expressing 'to like' is with the verb xanaMaK /harlamak/
'to like to do (something)', whose object is a verb ending in a verbal noun in the
accusative case (-Manbi/M3nn /-ma:nı/mâ:ni/). The same verb expresses 'to like
(something)' when the object is a noun in the accusative case.

MeH OKaMaHM xaüanpı,iH. I like to read.


/Men okomarnı ha:laya:nn./
E h3 6y nura raTH xajıaaptıc. We İlke this work a lot.
/BiS bu i:5i gatı ha:laya:n0./
Onap xanamHpnap. They like each other.
/Olor ha:lasya:rlar./
304 Turkmen Reference Grammar

M e H c o M c a 3TM3HH t o b u r e p iia p ıiH . (TV5.3)


/Men 6om0o etmâ:ni govvı göryâ:rin./
I like to make so m a . [coMca /0om0o/ is a pie usually filled with meat]
CeH xaücH naitu hmmbhh xanaan? I okmh, rapaMtı? (TV17.3)
/0en hay0x ca:yı icmâ:ni ha:laya:i)? Gö:kmü, garamı?/
Which kind of tea do you like to drink? Green or black?

Benefît
When placed after another verb ending in -tın/un /-ıp/ip/, the verb öepMeK /bermek/
'to give (to)' indicates that an action is performed for the benefît of someone else,
while the same formation with aJiMaK /almak/ 'to take (from)' indicates an action
performed for oneself.

AMaH xaiM 3*;ecHne onan Öepan. (G) /Ama:n hatı ejeOine oka:p berdi./
Aman read the letter for his mother.
Xep T33e 3aT Kene 3aTflaH flepsn, ouyu repeKjm xeM riiMMarabi Tapannapuıibi
Kaöyjı 3flM n a j ı a p , e 3 y H e cıiHflHpüap. (N) /Her tâ:5e 8a:t kö:nö 5a:tdan dörâ:p,
onur] gerekli hem gımmath taraplarını kabu:l edip alya:r, ö:Sünö 0irjdiryâ:r./
Each new thing arises from an old thing; it adopts its necessary and valuable
aspects and absorbs them into itself. [ 'i t a d o p t s f o r i t s e l f ]
- C o n a H b in Tene4)O H HOMepuHH attjjLin 6 e p c e H e . Meıifle eK. (TV17.4)
/'0ona:nır| telefon nomerini aydıp berflene. Menne yo:k."/
"Would you teli me Sona’s telephone number? I don’t have it." ['Would you say
for me']

Conjecture
Turkmen expresses conjecture vvith a verb ending in the conditional suffix - c a / c e
/-0a/0e/ follovved by the vvord r e p e K /gerekJ 'need'. its English equivalents are 'likely
do (something)', 'surely do (something)' and 'probably do (something)'.

X a B a , c b u ı a r 6 e p n n c e , 6 m 3HH m y xajiM MBi3 a j ı a t t c a r e p e K . (G)


/Havva, 0ı:lag berilGe, bi8iq su ha:lı:mıS ala:y0a gerek./
Yes, if a prize is given, then this carpet of ours is lik e l y to g e t it.
E h 3 h h nnKpMMM3ne, TypKM eH CG3H ÖM3HH 3paM bi3M H 6ııpM H »^i M Y n i l i m n t ı r t ı n t m
opTajrapbiHfla, TaKMbmaH 1,5 Myn f a n «leMecH MyHflaH en H U K aH f o n c a r e p e K .
(TV13.5) /BİSİ13 pikrimigce, türkmön OöSii biSir) era:mıSır| birinji müljyılligmır)
oıtolorunno, takmı:nan 1,5 mürj yd cemeöi munnon ör) çıkan bolOo gerek./
In our opinion, the vvord Turkmen p r o b a b l y e v o lv e d in the middle of the first
millennium A.D. or about 1.5 thousand years ago.
Mood 305

MeHMH co3yMe ceH AYiUYHeH Goncan repeK? (G)


/Menirj ööSümö 0en düşünün bol0oi) gerek?/
Surely you understood what I said?

Meix M an tı ctuıaM aHH, ona xopMaT roÖMasH xanK , 3XTMMan, eK Gonca repeK. (N)
/Mı:hma:m 0ı:lamaya:n, orjo hoımot goymoya:n halk, âhtima:l, yo:k bolöo
gerek./
A people that does not respect the guest or honor the guest probably does not
e x ist.

Desire
Türkmen has several means of indicating the desire to perform an action. The most
common formation for expressing a desire to perform an action consists of the. verbal
noun suffix - a c / e c /-a0/e0/ plus a possessive suffix, follovved by the verb re jiM e K
/gelmek/ 'to come' in the third person of several tense forms (see 291).
In addition, the verb HcrıeM eK /i01emek/ 'to want, to wish' may be used v/ith the
infinitive suffix in the accusative case ( - M a r t ı / M e n i /-magı/megi/) to express a desire to
do something. Rarely is this verb used to express a desire for an iteni (e.g., Müh cyÜT
H C jıe ü a p M H /Men 0ü:t i01eyâ:rin./ 'I want/wish milk'); rather, that idea is exprc;sed by
a noun or pronoun in the dative case follovved by r e p e K /gerek/ 'necessary'.

MeH eyto HMMerM HCJieüapHH. I w ant some milk.


/Men 0ü:t icmegi İ01eyâ:rin./ ['I want to drink milk.']

Mana cyÜT r e p e K . I w ant milk. ['I need milk.']


/Mağa 0ü:t gerek./

A verb ending in the second person singular form of the conditional suffix -:an/cen
/-0ar)/0eıj/ expresses an expectation, as in English 'if you want to do (some thing),
then...'

rHTceH, MaıuuH rejmH. (G) /Gi00eıj, ması:n gelli./


If you want to go, the car is here.

(G) /İy O e rj, n a h a r t a y y a : r . /


M iiceH , u a x a p T a ü a p .
I f y o u w a n t to eat, the food is ready.

Experimerıt
The formation -budun r e p M e K /-ıp/ip görmök/ indicates that someone 'trie s to do
(something)' or 'gives (something) a try'. English has a colloquial formation 'see if
you can do (something)' that is very similar.
306 Turianen Referenee Grammar

Ü3un repflu. /YaSıp gördü./ He tried to write.

Hmnan repn». /İ:51a:p gördü./ He tried to work.

By O T y p m m ja o T y p u n ropAyıvt B ena, y e n i ran >ı M M iııaK 3KeHK. (G)


/Bu oturguCdo oturup gördüm weli, ü00ü gatı yumSok ekeni./
I tried sitting in this clıair, however, its seat tumed out to be too soft.

«XaHM repenM, c u H a ı ı u m u n r e p e e M , 6h p 3aT u tiK ca , HHtına re n e p H H » flHÜflH.


(N) /"Hanı görölü, 0ı:nanısıp görflöm, bir 5a:t cık0a, ya:mıja gelerin" diydi./
He said "Well, we’ll see. When I give it a try, if anything happens, I’Il come to
you."

Need
Standard Turkmen uses a formation that consists of a verb ending in the noun-forming
suffix -M aKJiM K /M eK JiH K /-maklık/meklik/ followed by r e p e K /gerek/ to express 'it is
necessary to do (something)' or 'need to do (something)'.

U Io H y n y ıw H xeM öeöneK M BenasrrnaptmaM en6anı»n.uıaptnn.tn 6y M ecenefle


oK jıaH M aK Jibirbi r e p e K . (TP12.2) /Sonug ü2ü:n hem b e y le k i w ela:yatlarııgam
yo-.lbascılarunıj bu m eO e led e o :y lo n m o k lu g ı gerek./
That’s why it’s also necessary for leaders of the other provinces to think about
this issue.
3 r e p -fle xycyct.ıeT»oınH K 6H3e n eüfla SepSsu 6onca, SeSneKM nyflaK n apH xeM
x ycycbictıe-niHnHre re m ıp M e m iH K r e p e K . (TV8.4)
/Eger-de hu0u:0uyetcilik bi8e peyda: beryâ:n bol0o, beyleki pudoklon hem
hu0u0uyetcilige geçirmeklik gerek./
If privatization is to benefit us, it w ill b e n e c e s s a r y t o t r a n s f e r the other branehes
(of industry) to private ownership as well.

Some Türkmen may use a non-standard formation consisting of a verb ending in the
infinitive suffix -M aıt/M eK /-mak/mek/ followed by the word r e p e K /gerek/ 'necessity,
need, (it is) necessary'. Possessive suffixes are added to -Man/MeK /-mak/mek/ to
indicate number and person. This is equivalent to the formation in -M aK JiH K /M eK JiH K
r e p e K /-maklık/meklik gerek/.

Ths Barıca miuhhh3h ny3rYHe cajiMaK r e p e K . (G)


/Ti:5 w a g td a i:Siıji8i düBgünö Salm ak gerek./
You need to put your affairs in order as quickly as possible.
Mood 307

Tauna 6h3hh 03ymh3iihkh: ohei xeKMaH naHjıamMaruMb» repeK! (G)


/Galla biSiq ö:6timü8ügkü: om hökma:n pa:ylasmagımıS gerek!/
The grain belongs to us: we definitely need to share it!

Turkmen uses the word repeK /gerek/ '(it is) necessary' as the predicate of a
sentence to express a need for something. As an equivalent to English 'to need
(something)', a noun or personal pronoun is placed in the dative case (+ a/e /+a/e/),
followed by r e p e K /gerek/. In impersonal constructions, the best English equivalents
are 'one needs, you need'.

EarmM SojiMaK yMHH a^aMa 6apu-en>ı yn caHH 3aT repeKMHnı. (N)


/Bagtlı bolmok Ucü:n a:dama ba:n-yo:gı üc 0a:m 5a:t gerekmiş./
They say that a person needs only three things to be happy.
M yna cy6brnibi c y fiy ıu a M a repeK Han. (N)
/Murjo 0ubı:th 0ubu:tna:ma gerek dâ:l./
This doesn’t need the slightest proof.
CyB f l i o j e 3 K e p a H w n M K flan, 3 İ t c e \ ı M a jifla p v M J ib rn .ı, M ü B e m ı m r n ,
6ajn.ocMttni.irbi ocflypMeK yMHH xeM repeK. (H) /0uw dirje ekera:ncılık dâ:l, ey0em
ma:lla:rcılıgı, mi:weciligi, ba:lık£ılıgı ö00ürmök ücü:n hem gerek./
W ater is necessary not only for developing agriculture, but also animal
husbandry, horticulture and the fishing industry.

Possibility
There are several ways to indicate the possibility of doing an action in Turkmen. The
most common of these is a formation consisting of two verbs in which the first verb
communicates the action performed and ends in -un/an /-ıp/ip/, and the second verb is
a form of GoiiMaK /bolmok/ 'to become' which expresses the possibility. The latter
verb appears in the third person of the present or future tense. This formation expresses
both possibility and permission in Turkmen. The typical English equivalents are 'you
can do (something)', 'one can do (something)', 'it’s okay to do (something)' and 'it’s
possible to do (something)'.

H hJIIIM M CKM n ÖOJİSPMH? Can one smoke


/Çilim çekip bolya:rmı?/ [~ Is it okay to smoke?]
5K,birbinflbiKfla t o b m x am .ı ajıwn öojıap. You can buy good rugs
/Iıgıllıkda gowı ha:h ahp bolya:r./ at th e Jıgıldık.

Ey en ra ra 6a-rra. Myırflaıı üykj™ apaSaHbt eypyn 6onMa3. (G)


/Bu yo:l gatı batğa. Munnon yiiklii arabamı 0ürüp bolmo5./
This road is very muddy. You can’t drive a loaded cart along it.
308 Türkmen Reference Grammar

roıoıuıapii car-aMaH 06a a n ra n öojıca, 6h3hh yntı joıt 6HTHpflHTHMM3 Gonapatı.


(G) /Goyunlon 0ag-ama:n o:ba: ekip bo!0o, biSii) ulı i:s bitirdigimiS bolordı./
I f h e c a n g e t th e sh e e p to th e v illa g e s a fe ly , this w o u ld p ro v e to b e a g re a t su cce ss
fo r us.

Snöeifle 6 y 3 a ra a p öapafla m e ra B a rrtm m o u m e xeMMeTapannaÜHH aHftkuı


6 o jı* ,a K Ran. (TP12.2) /Elbetde bu Sa:tlar barrada gı:0ga wagtır| icinne
h e m m eta ra p lay m a y d ıp b o ljo k dâ:l./
Of course it will n o t be possible in a short period of tüne to speak
comprehensively about these things.
C o M ca 3flHJienne a -fla c u r p t r n sthhm s-fla r o it a y n sthhh y jıa H tın 6 o n a p . (TV5.3)
/0om 0o e d ile n n e y a:-d a 0 ıgn i) e tin i y a :-d a g o y n u g e tin i u lo n u p b olya :r./
W h e n s o m s a is m ad e, o n e c a n u se e ith er b e e f o r la m b .

A fo rm a tio n w ith th e in fin itiv e s u ffix -M an/M eK /-m ak/m ek/ a n d a th ird p erso n
form o f öon rn aK /bolm ok/ a lso e x p re sse s p o s sib iiity .

H hJIMM HCKMeK ÖOJlHp. One may smoke here.


/Ğilim Çekmek bolya:r./

tJaii MMMeK 6ojiflp. You can drink tea.


/Ca:y içmek bolya:r./

Pecny6 nıiKaHBm HJiaTtiHHH m h jh ih cocraBUHnaKH e 3repnmnepM 4-ick^i


Taörom aflaH rep M eK ö o ııa p . (TV13.1) /Re0publika:mi) i:la:tınıi] milli:
0o0towunna:kı öSgörüSlörü 4-n|ii tabliGadan görmök bolor./
One may see the changes in the national composition of the population of the
republic in Table 4.
EiTMias;eKnepMMM3H m hjuim p y x fla TepG uejıeM eK GojıaHOKjıtı. (TA16.4)
/ Y e tg in je k le rim iS i m illi: ru :hd o te rb iy e le m e k b o lo n o :kd ı./
It wasn’t possible to raise our youngsters in a national spirit.
OöanapuMH3a, nrexepnepHMH3e Ha3ap aünacan, onapım aöaflaHnauiflbipbin-
(TV12.5) /0:bolorumu6o, saherlerimi8e naSar aylaöar),
h h h h tb ih b i re p M e K ö o n a p .
oloruıj abada:nlasdınlya:nnıgını görmök bolya:r./
If you take a look at our villages and our cities, you can see that they are being
made to prosper.

Türkmen also uses the formation -MaK/MeK 6on M aK /-mak/mek bolmok/ 'to be
okay to do (something)' for the expression of social proprieties, in the sense of 'to be
proper to do (something)'.
Mood 309

©e rwpeHHHM3fle KOBUiyHM3MutucapMaH rapMeK öoJiaHOK. (T15.2)


/Öyö gi:renii)i55e kövvsüıjüSü £ıkamıa:n gi:nnek bolono:k./
It isn’t proper to enter a house without removing your shoes.

Kupunun GÖyne nffleHHHae enyHfleH btmsh rHTMeK öojıap. (T l5.2)


/Bi:rinii) öyünö gideniıjde ötjünnön jarj etmâ:n gitmek bolya:r./
It’s okay to go to someone’s house vvithout calling beforehand.

The combination of a verb ending in the conditional suffbc -ca/ce /-0a/6e,' follovved
by the vvord fiojıap /bolya:r/ also expresses possibility. its English equivalents are
'you can do (something)' and 'it may be done'.

3 tjim öepera rtortiH TaMfltıpa sunun a-fla ne^ıuı flyxc«KacbiHa canwn


6ııııiHpceHeM 6onap. (TP5.5) /Etli börögü gıSgın tamdıra yapıp ya:-da jejir)
duhovvkoöuno 0ahp bisirflerjem bolor./
You can bake meat böreks either by lining them in a hot tamdır or by putting
them in the öven of a gas stove. [öepeK /börök/ is a pastry usually filled vvith meat
or cheese]

«TYpKMeHMCTaHbin 03anKH CCCPfle mkh rpaxflaHJU,ıra pa3bPiMJitiK 6epcn eıce-


T3K fleBJie-mHniHH Gejuıan rcnceK 6ojıap.» (TV14.5)
/Türkmönü00a:mt) o6olkı e0-0-0erde iki gıraSdanhga ra:8ıcılık beren yekî-tâ:k
dövvlötdiigünü bellâ:p gec0ek bolor."/
'İ t may be noted that Türkmenistan is the only state in the former USSR vvhich
greed to dual citizenship."

«HIy aparaTHaıutnaıapbm MyrçuaH 6eiinaK-fle ecflypsuiMenme uiY6xejıemıece


6onap.» (TV 14.3)
/"Su a:ragatnasıklarır) munnon beyla:k-de ö00üriilmögünö siibhölönmöOö bolor."/
"It may not be doubted that from now on these relations vvill be developed."

Another formation for indicating the possibility to perform an action consists of a


verb ending in -M aıc/M eK /-mak/mek/ follovved by the vvord m y m k h h /münıkü:n/ '(it
is) possible'. Appropriate English equivalents for this formation are 'it’s possible to do
(something)' and 'one can do (something)'.

KûMiibiOTepHH KOMern ÖHneHCM öefijıe 6a%rn>iK 6apa#a Hen-MaK 3TMeK


MYMKHH. (N)
/Kompyuteriıj kömögii bilenem beyle ba:ylık ba:rada cen-cak etmek mürrıldi:n./
With the help of a Computer it’s possible to speculate about such riches.

Ey Taöflan W3xepn cumraıuan mymkhh. (TV4.4)


/Bu ta:ydan saheri 0ı:nlamak mümküın./
From here one can observe the city.
310 Turkmen Reference Grammar

By Taüfla MtıxMaH renen^e, MtıxMaH-3aT rence, w ih m neıcMare MtiKMarbi


m y m k h h . (TV4.4) /Bu ta:yda mı:hma:n gelenne, mı:hma:n-6a:t gel0e, çilim

cekmâ:ge çıkmağı mümkü:n./


When a guest comes, if a guest or the like comes, he can come ou t to smoke a
cigarette here.

Pretense
The formation -aH/eH öonıvıaK /-an/en bolmok/, which consists of the past participle
suffix -aH /en /-an/en/ and the verb ö o n ın a K /bolmok/ 'to be', expresses the idea 'to
pretend to do (something)'.

H aM e, H3Me flHÖMn, ceH ÖHnMeflHK 60/ıan ö on ap cb iH . (G )


/Nâ:me, nâ:me diyip, 0en bilmedik bolon bolya:r0ır)./
You keep saying "What? What?", p r e t e n d in g y o u d o n ’ t know .

3 * ; e r a 3 cyEyH 6 auibiHfla MOMMantın OTypbm, s n m m lOBymnfcipaH 6 o n y n ,


x ,o r a 6 a rapauiflb i. (G ) /E]egı:5 0uwurj basın n a c o m m o lu p oturup, e lin i
yuvvusduron b olu p , jo g a :b a garasdı./
Ejegız sat hunkered down över the water, p r e t e n d in g to wash her hands, and
waited for the answer.

Resolve
Forms of the verb 6 o n M a K /bolmok/ 'to be' in various tenses may combine vvith a
verb ending in the negative conditional suffix -M aca/M ece /-ma0a/me0e/ to express
confırmation of a possibility. When these forms stand in the negative, they express
decisiveness or resolve to realize a possibility.

©3yHH 6 y e p e aTaı® an co n , xhm 3aTflan, x m KMMfleH ro p K M a ca G o n c a n . (G )


/Ö:5üi)ü bu y e re atarjdan 0oi), h i:c 8a:tdan, h i:c k im d e n gorkm oO o b o ljo k ./
After you get to this place, y o u w o n ’ t have to be afraid of anything or anyone.
[literally: 'it won’t do if you’re afraid']

CeHH 6a3apnaflbm reHeıiMeflUM, HnuMKHne e3yM rMTMeceM GoJiMaflbi. (G)


/0eni ba:8arladıp gönönmödüm, innikile ö:8üm gitmeOem bolmodı./
I ’ m not pleased with letting you do the shopping, next time I ’ H h a v e to go
myself. [literally: 'it wouldn’t do if I don’t go']

Illy ryH OHyn SHtma rMTMeceM 6ojiMa3. (G )


/Su:n onuij ya:nına gitme©em bolmoS./
I ’ll have to g o to her today. [literally: 'It won’t do if I don’t go']
Descriptive Verbs
Türkmen describes many types of action by combining two verbs, the first of which
indicates the main action and ends in the gerund -un/un /-ıp/ip/ or, less frequently, in
the infinitive form with the dative case suffix -Mara/Mare /-ma:ga/mâ:ge/. The second
verb in this fonnation is one of fifteen or so common verbs which carry the tense,
negation, person and number markeıs.
Most o f these verbs which serve as the second component lose part of their primary
lexical meanings when they appear in such descriptive formations. They describe or
define the main action expressed by the preceding verbs by adding a nuance of their
primary meanings (see table, 312). For that reason, they may be called "descriptive
verbs,"1 and they may be categorized according to their function in describing the
beginning, duration, direction, completion and other characteristics of the action.

Beginning of Action
To express the idea of 'to start to do (something)' or 'to begin to do (something)',
Türkmen combines two verbs, the second of which may be a lexical expression with
6aniJiaMaK /başlamak/ 'to begin' or yrpaınaK /ugromok/ 'to leave, to start off (for
example, on a joumey)', or one of the descriptive verbs flypMan /durmok/ 'to stand, to
stop', O T y p M a K /oturmok/ 'to sit down' and 6 e p M e K /bermek/ 'to give'.
The verbs fiamnaMaK /başlamak/ 'to begin' and yrpaMaK /ugromok/ 'to leave, to
start off' may follow other verbs ending in -bin/Hn /-ıp/ip/ and indicate ali tenses
except the present indefinite (and, usually, the past indefinite), where the infinitive
suffix in the dative case (-Mara/Mare /-ma:ga/mâ:ge/) is used. Tlıese verbs retain their
primary lexical meaning in such formations.

AmorbiM anı>ra;a rypneMare GaniJiasıp. My grandson is just now starting


/Agtıgım yaıjıja gürlöma:ge baslaya:r./ to talk.
OKan öanuıaatı. He started to read.
/Oka:p başladı./ [at a specific time]
OKan fiaınnap. He’ll start to read.
/Oka:p basla:r./ ['I think' or 1 hope']
On HuraeMarc yrpaap. He’s going to work.
/Ol i:Slema:ge ugroya:r./ ['setting off for']

1 rpaMMamuKa 309-310 treated such formations under 'compound verbs," along with moda]
constnıctions (as -unlun ÖoiiMaK /-ıp/ip bolm ok 'to be possible to do') and