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Volume 8 Issue 95

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Chris Bishop
Chris Chant
lan Drury

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John Ridyard der of British Land Forces during the
Falklands campaign.

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Since the end of World War I it has been recognized that the T he C olom bian navy subm ar ine
Piiao (5528) was commissioned in
suhmarine has the potential for waging trae strategic war, 1 97 5 and is of the West German'Type

Withthe advent of nuclearpowerit seemedthatthe old- 209'56-m (183.7-ft) design. Armed

with eightbow torpedo tubes and six
fashioned, diesel-powered vessel had had its day - but this reloads, she has amaximum
has not proved, to be the case. underwater speed of 22 kts.

For most nations today the diesel-powered submarine provides a cost- ASW and antr-ship torpedoes, and caused the Royal Naqr' .: :.:.,.':-:
effective solution to the problem of sea denial by undersea craft, Only ASW delensrve tactics and airborne patrols for around thre: :,- , . ,.
the very large and rich nations can afford the nuclear powerplants so, as its intelligence on the whereabouts of the Argentrr:: : -. : . -.. - =
required to give the submarine relatively unlimited endurance to per- force was hmited, to say the least,
form its designated tasks, However, the dresel desrgns do have the Before this the oniy other trme that a submarine force pla , = r : :- :, .

srgnificant advantage of being extremely quiet and when operating in majorwarafterWorldWarllwasduringthe 1971 Indo-Pak-:.=-. .- :- -:
the silent running state are virtually undetectable, Thus the smaller naval Pakrstani navy had the ex-American World War II 'Tenc:- :--:. - -
powers can, ifnecessary, use such vessels to effect considerable influ marine Ghazi sunk by Indian forces during a minelaying op:r: - -:. - -
ence on the peacetrme affairs in those marrtime areas which interest majornavalbaseatVishakhapatnam, Inexchangeforthrsloss :-. :'. .
them, and in times of conflict use their defensive and offensive capabrli- 'Daphne' class boat Hangor sank the Indian nar,ry frigate -.-:-,.-., - -
torpedo attack, the first sinkrng gained in this fashion since ri-: r,: -. .-: .
ties to create a real threat to opposing forces.
The realrty of the latter is no idle threat, as the 1982 Falklands war
The most successfulWestern export submarine of the post-war perrc. :: :: i
showed when the Argentine navy used a single Type 209 submartne to WestGerman'Type 209', which has been sold to navies in all parts oi i:=
harass the much larger and better equipped Bnttsh task force, The boat world. The Peruvran Casma (.S31), on her trials in the North Sea, ls s.ho;','.: ;,. : :.- .
in questron, the San.Lurs, made three abortive attacks with wire-gnlded West German navy Westland Sea King SAR helicopter overhead.
TS ionor,"'class
Designed by the French Directorate of
Naval Constructron as very quiet but
high performance ocean-gloing SSKs,
the 'Agosta' class boats are each
armed with four bow torpedo tubes
that are equipped with a rapid-reload
pneumatic ramming system that can
Iaunch weapons wrth the minimum of
noise siqnature, The tubes are of a
completely new design which allows
the submarine to frre its weapons at all
speeds and at any depth down to rts
maxlrrum operational limit,
The four boats in service with the
French nalry as its last conventionally
powered submarines are the Agosla
(5620), Beveziers (5621), La Praya
(5622) and Ouessanf (5623), Al1 were
authorized in the 1970-5 naval prog-
rarrme as the follow-on class to the
'Daphn6s', One, 1,a Praya, has since
been refitted with a removable swim-
mer delivery vehicle container aft of
the sail to replace similar facilrties that
were available aboard the now-
deleted submanne.l/arza1, The Span-
ish nalry built locally four 'Agrostas' in
the early 19BOs, namely the Galerna
(S7l), Saroco (572), Mistral (S73) and
Tramontana (S74) ustng French elec- Pakistan narry has apparently turned to 3430 kW (4,600 hp) with one electric Agosta (55'20) ls lead ship of the last
tromcs and L5, F17 and EIB torpedoes. the USA for the supply of the Sub- motor driving one shaft cl a s s of conve n tionally - p owered
Pakrstan purchased in mid-1978 two Harpoon missile, Spain is still deciding Speed: 12.5 kis surfaced and 17.5 kts submarines to be built for the French
,.nits (built originally for South Africa between the two systems, The four dived navy. Allwill befitted tofire theSM-
but embargoed) as the Hashmat French submarines are due to be de- Divingdepth:300 m (984 ft) 39 Exocet submergedlaunched anti-
(5135) and Hurmat 5136). Paklstan is leted in the period 2002-3, operational and 500 m ( 1,640 ft) shrp next few years.
mr'ssr7e rn the
]crou,n to be interested rn acquiring a maxlmuln
fiuther hvo 'Aqostas', and an order is Specification Torpedo tubes: four 550-mm (2 l, 7-in) Electronics: one DRUA 23 surface-
believed to have been placed in 1983, 'Agosta'class wrth 533-mm (21-il) Iiners search radar, one DUUA 2A sonar, one
but whether France or Spain is to be Displacement: I 480 tons surfaced and Basic load: 23 550-mm (2 1, ?-rn) or 533- DUUA lD sonar, one DUUX 2A sonar,
:he building country is not yet known. 1,760 tors dived mm (21-1n) anti-submarine and anti- one DSUV 2H sonar, one ARUR ESM
All the French units are to be equip- Dimensions: Iength 67,6 m (22 L8 ft); ship torpedoes, or 46 Lnfluence gnound system, one ARUD ESM system, and
ped dunng the mid-1980swiththe sub- beam6,B m(22.3 f1); draughtS,4 m mmes one torpedo fire-controVaction
surface-launched SM,39 version of the (17 7 ft) Missiles: SM.39 Exocetunderwater-to- inlormation system
Exocet anti-ship missile, whtle the Propulsion: two diesels deliverrng swface anti-ship missiles Complement: 54

il 1952 plans
were requested from Min6we (5647), /unon (5648), 76nus
STCAN for a second-class ocean- (5649), Ps7cfid (5650) and Sjrdne
;curg submarine to complement the (5651) entered sewice between 1964
-arger 'Nawal' class. Designated the and 1970, Of these two were lost (the
'Daphne' class, the boats were pur- Min5rue in 1968 and the Eu4tdice tn
p:sely designed wrth reduced speed 1970) wrth all hands while operating in
-: order to achreve a grreater diving the western Medrterranean. The re-
:epth and heavier armament than was maining boats all underwent an elec-
p:ssrble with the contemporary tronics and weapons modernization
-irethuse' design of conventionally- foom 1970 onwards, Besrdes those for
p.:,',.ered hurter-killer submarines, To the French navy, a further i0 were
::duce the crew's workload the main built for export, Portuqal recerved the
.lnament was contained in 12 exter- Albacore (S163), Earracuda (S164),
:-r-ly-mounted torpedo tubes (eight Cachalote (5165) and Del.lih (5166), of
:::,'.'ard and four aft), which eliminated which 5165 was sold to Palestan in 1975
-:= need for a torpedo room and re- as the Ghazi (5134). Pakistan also has
-:itrs. Further crew reductions were Ihe Hangor (S13I), Sfiusftuk (S132)
::-aie possible by adopting a modular andMangrro (S133). South Africa oper-
::placement system for onboard ates the Maria Van Rjebeeck (S97),
::-a,ntenance. The design uses the Emily Hobhouse (S9B) and Johanna
:: :b1e-hull construction technique
J-: the accommodation spaces split Above: Lead shipoftheclass, the
:;::ly fore and aft of the sail, below
-r:::h Below: Once the'Daphne' Daphn6 (S64i) runs on the surtace
is the operations and attack cen- class units wear out they with her diesels. Of the nine
will not be replaced, as the remaining units of the class, only the
-:- :ctal of 11 units was built for the Frenchnavywill Daphn6 fias no t undergone a full mid-
:::::r narry The Daphne (5641), Di- concentrate on building life modernization which changes
ane 13642), Don's (5643), Eurydic6 only nuclear attack the shape of the bow area hy adding
,ii-=' Flore (5645), Galatee (5646), submarines for the future. a larger sonar dome.

."".---.. ---...1r-.f..-*-
'Daphn6' clags (continued) Modern Diesel Submarines
Van der Merwe (S99). A further four, srnce World War IL 1825 kW (2,448 hp) withtwo electric Basic load: 12 55,:-r-:- - - -:-. -,::'-
IheDelfin (561), Tonjna (562), Marso- motors drilrng two shafts submarine ard a:.:-..--; . . : j- -: -
pa (563) and JVarval (564) were built Specification Speed: 13,5 ktssurfacedand 16 kts 24 ground iniluence r::::s
under licence rn Spain and are cur- 'Daphn6'class dived Electronics:one Cai;:-- .- -.--, r=
rently undergoing a modernization SGbrace*"ni' 469 tons surfaced and Diving depth: 300 m (984 ft) search radar, one DLr,.{ 2..::-- - :,=
similar to that applied to the French 1,043 tons dived operational and 575 m ( 1,BBO ft) DSUV 2 sonar. one Dllii- - ::,= :::--
boats, In 1971 the Pakistani submarine Dimensions: Iengrth 57,8 m (189,6 ft); maxlmun DUUA 2 sonar ando:-e :-':i = ::':=.
Hangor sank the Indian navy frigate beam 6,8 m (22.3 ft); drauqht 4.6 m Torpedotubes: 12 550-mm (21.7-in) conrroVacrion inforna: :.-. 1.-.::.
Kftu,ki during the Indo-Pakistan War: (15 I m) located as eight rn the bows and four in Complement: 45
this was the first submarine attack Propulsion: two diesels deUvertng the stern

ffi ibu"ron'class
development for use in future sub- The 'Oberon' design has also been Propulsion: two diesels ciel;e::-;
Burlt in the late 1950s to the mid-1960s
as the follow-on design to the 'Por- marine classes . The Orpheus has also sold to several foreign navres, Chrle 54BB kW (7,360 hp)'*rth r,r: :-::-: :
porse' c1ass, the'Oberon'class was out- been fitted with a spectal five-man bought the O?rr'en (22) andHyatt (23); motors drivrng two shafts
wardly identical wtth its'predecessor lock-out drving chamber in its forecas- Brazil the Humaita (520), Toneiero Speed: 12 kts sMaced arc - - : .c-'
wlule internally there are a number of ing for covert operations, and for train- (S21) and Riaciuelo (522), Canada the dived
drfferences. These include the sound- ing by the Special Boat Squadron and Ojibwa (72), Onondaga (73) and Oka- Diving depth: 200 m (656 ft)
proofing of all the equipment for stlent Special Air Service. The Onyx served nagan (74), and Australia lhe Oxley operational and34O m (1 I,: -
running and the use of a higher-grade rn the South Atlantic during the Falk- (557), Otway (S59), Ons/ow (560), maxlmum
steel for the hull to allow a greater lands war on periscope beach recon- Onbn (561) Olama (562) and Ovens Torpedotubes: eighl 533-r:.l:- :. --.
maxmum divlng depth. A total of 13 naissance operations and for landlng (S70), The Canadian and Australian un- locaredas su Ln the bows a:.: :,', : ::.-:
units was commissroned into the Royal special forces, and whrle performingr its have been modermzed to a higher inthe stem
Naqr between 1960 and i967, They these duties she rammed a rock, which standard than that prevailing in the Basic load: 22 533-mm (21-Ln)
were HMS Oberon (S09) Odin (S10), caused a live torpedo to become stuck Royal Nalry's units. submarine and anti-ship torpe i: =.
Orpheus (S11), Olympus (S12), Ogns in one o{ her bow tubes. This weapon Bntrsh boats carry only iB tc:r=: : = :
(S13), Ons/aught (S14), Otfer (S15), had to be removed in dry dock after Specification Electronics: one T\7pe I 006 sr:::: :=
Oracle (S16), OceJof (S17), Otus (SlB), she had returned to Pofismouth. The 'Oberon'class search radar, one Tlpe lB7 scr,- ::-:
Opossum (S19), Opportune (S20) and two shortened 533-mm (21-rn) stern Displacement: 2,030 tons surfacedand Type 2007 sonar, one TYpe lEe s::-=:
Onyx (S2I). The 'Oberon' has since tubes that wete used for Mk 20S antr 2,410 tons dived one torpedo fire-controYactto:
been modified with a deeper casinq to escort torpedoes have recently been Dimensions: length 90,0 m (295.25 ft); information system and one ESlil
house equipment for the imtial training converted to cafiy additional stores beamB,l m(26,5 ft); draught5.S m system
ofpersonnel for the nuclear submarine such as extra stocks of beer (lB 0 f0 Complement:69
fleet, Several other units are also being
modifled for thrs role, The Opossum is Although somewhat long in tie too::.
now operating with a new GRP bow the' O beron' clas s are s till
sonar dome and has been used recent- considered to be amongst the
]y as a trials vessel for an integrated su bm arine s
qu ietes t conve ntion ai
combat operations centre that is under ever built and will sewe on into tAe
1990s as training boats.

ffi lttphotder'ctass
To meet a requrrement for a new con- batteries to ensure the absolute mini-
ventronal submarine class for the Royal mum exposure time of any part of the 'Upholder'class
Navy, Vickers Shipbuilding and En- masts above the water, The armament Dispiacement: 2, 160 tons surfaced and
gineering l,td has developed the fit includes a new posttive drschargte 2,400 tons dived
'Type 2400'or 'Upholder' class. As wtth and fully automated weapon-handling Dimensions: length 70.3 m (230,6 ft);
most new submarine classes, the system which avoids the stability prob- beam7.6 m(25,0 ft); draughtS.4 m
emphasis has been placed on standar- lems that arise at torpedo launch and (17.7 ft)
dization and automation to reduce the limitations that are sometimes Propulsion: two diesels wrth one
crew numbets. The flrst of the class made on the platform's speed and electric motor drivrng one shaft
was ordered in l9B3 with an estimated manoeuvrability, The weapons car- Speed: 12 kts surfaced and 20 kts
completion date of 1988, A class total of ried will include the heavyweiqht dived
12 units rs envisaged at present to re- Tigerfish electric and the Spearfish Divingdepth:300 m (984 ft)
place most of the earlier'Oberon' class thermal-powered dual-role wire- operationaland 500 m (1,640 ft)
vessels. Also included in the design guided torpedoes, as well as the
are several advanced noise-reduction American Sub-Harpoon anti-shtp mis-
features that will reduce the radiated sile, As part of the sensor fit a towed- The llist vesse.l of the ne',+'' - p : : - : :
norse levels below those genqrated array sonar will be carried, as will the conventional submarlne c-'a.-s -: :.-
even by the very quiet 'Oberon' class, Type 2040 active/passive bow sonar be en or der e d and is erpec1ee :c
There wrll also be a reduction in the based on the French Thomson-CSF enter sewice in tlle.lafe J 98ts .r=e:
short time required to recharge the Argonaute set, with the new Spearfsi tor-oec-o a-::
S u b -H ar p o o n an tr:sfu p rnrss:.r'es.
r jtain is one of the few nations with a significant nuclear
submarine capability, but like the other nuclear navies (with
:n e notable exception af the United Sfa tes) marn tains a large
conventional submarine force. The'Oberan' class, now over
2C years old, has provided the backbone of that force since the
' srrengrh o' rhe Royal Navy s convenl o'ra s-bT€r ne tSSKI force
- ---erl
. *J's3s l3'Oberon'and 1wo'Perpoise'ciass vessels. O'lnese 15 boals,
'- c:.,e wiLh lhe 1st Srrornarire Squaoro. oased al l-MS )olph,n, Ports-
^':.rtn, and two rnrith ihe nuclear attack submarine (SSN) 3rd Submarine Squad-
".:. at Hlv4S Neptune, Faslane. The remaining four are either undergoing ref it or'
=.caged rn specialist trials. Although the denrise of the dlesel-powered sub-
'-ar',ne was discussed at cenain earlier times by factions withln the Ministry of
-. .'-.:^. :recaJSe of tre general e"thusiasm generated 'or ruclear-oowered
-- r: r€S t rapidly UeCame appa"ent lnat r^ese ldrge- d-d rnuch more
.\:jrsrve crafr cotld nol uedena<e certain ioles tnat an SSK:ould aliempt
: :rer wrth the same safety factor or wtth reasonable chance of success. Thus
:'-.e conventional submartne laid superior claln'r to the conduct of operattons
,'!'tir n th-- relatively shallow waters of the cont;nental sheif reg on, or as the
^ r p atform lor conduct ng clandest ne ooeral o s q1 1r 59g6i6l 'orces, or 'o"
- "ss.o^s of a surveillance oi recon"a ssatce nal-'c T.e use ol t^e'Oberotr'
:rass boat HMS Onvx with SDecial Boat Servtce un ts aboard and for various
:.ic^ s,-uevs n tne Fal,lanci lslands dur ng Irp
982 war s a case n poirt.
-"e loval Navy also employs'ts suomariTe: ^ 11tr -o'e stanttatd tesks ot
--.untering hostlle surface shipping (for both sea dental and economic warfare
:-aionsi,t"rrct unO r"tcr"'of d"owned friendly airmen, the laying of small
:if ensive minef ields in restricted shipping routes 1io block or htnderthe passage
:i hrgh-value surface units or convoys), and as very quiet listening posts at
ratural 'chcke points'. This last allows SSKs to n',onrtor and report the move-
r.-ents of hostilb subsurface craft (especia ly SSNsr so that lriencily SSNs can be

,.,ectored on to them to trail or, ln wartime, s nk tiem The latter iask also opens
Jc ihe possibility of the conven[ronal boat rnC:r :e.:ain ctrcumstances being
aole to 'anrbush'the hostile craft with its c'n-n rveaocf svstems. althoLrqh this
!\'oijld aierl the enemy to its presence there dtner nrajor peacetirn; task
.r- cn takes up a considerabte a-ornr o' .re
'': ^nq vessel's 'or botn suosuriace dno 5;rro e
5' -n ts iiTe s lo act as
-1.\-nlls Tney clo th s by The limited space on the hull of a surfaced submarine is underlined in this
r:T 1Q as'targets'd.Lrtng exercises ano br o'r r o
I - \oe-ie nce ls' pgrs,gnnel n photograph of a crewman beingwinched aboard a helicopter. Practice in
rne runnrng and operating of a submarine at sea. such manoeuvres ls essen llal as sick bay facilities aboard a crowded sub are
not geared ta serjous cases.
The Perisher
By far the hardest of the serv ce ti'a n ng coL,'ses s ire Commanding Offrcer's
Oualifying Course (COOC) or, as it is mcre crr-nrcn y Kno\/n, 'the Perisher'. the dtfference tn speed betw'een the submerged 'Oberon' and any potenr':
-n s lastf for f ive months, during which up tc a dozen su tably experienced and targei, the sk:pper has io use hrs search and attack periscopes more than wo;.il:
.;-a .'ied sJDrrar ne o"icers lto^l T'e ro.a: \r' . €: I "leno y navies are put his counterpart in a nuclear srbmanne. This helps hrm to anticipate what th:
lnrough an intensive and very expensrve serres oi t-: r exercises designed to target is about ro do so that re can place h s boat rn the best avarlable position t:
rest t6err pctential and surtability to command a s,:brnarne Land-based simula- engage it. ALthough ne has a iorceco frre-controi system with computer to a.
.tts co.rpied a max:murn of fo;r'- ga:.< -e -o3 e's a1o -ar t rne odtrol hrm, the skipper siill has ic ass si tnese calculaticns by obtaining the course anl
e,rcraft are used, and specialrst training tn mrnelavirg- surve ilance'reconnalss- speed cf the target snip.throrgr. f inc rg is bear- ng and range via the periscopes
arce and the deliverv ot ipeciai fordes and agenis is gi','en. The pi-ize for The former is simply ihe ang 3 l:9m i1s srbn a:rne at rruh cn tne target rs see.
. tccessf u lly compietinq the cou rse f or a Royal ;'!a',,\' of f icer is the command of a and s read off a 360" scaie,r'T +. i's i:a- s r:3.' po rted precrsely at the shrr
.lbrnarine 6r the'post'of first lieutenant on a nrcrear submarlne (which must Taking the range is more con-I .r-:l :f c --JJ Tes a split-image devrce on tl:
-avetwoqualifiedccmmandofficersatall periscope to rarse a second - ;g= r' .' : .aro-1 ao -i! e ihe true image. When ff =
ieav ng the submarine service and possibly tne ic;,al l"lavy as well waterllne of the raised image's icc:iec ai lre rco ct the real image's masts tn=
On batrol the heart of the 'Oberon' is the coni|o roon , v;hich s the area
I rectlv beneath ihe sa I structure. Wlthin thrs are iocated all the necessary
sensor, lire-control, propulsion and d vtng controls, anc ihe action inforrnation HMS Orpheus rs seen leaving Malta in the days when it was an important Royai
) j sters to coritro' 3nd' gnt t-e1,c- at' a' a sJOmerged statc Tne Navy base. The boats at Malta were inheritors of a fighting tradition secand to
sonar, communrcation and radariECM systems ail nave the r own l ttle 'shacks' none dating from the bitter struggle for control of the Mediterranean during
within this area, while the rest share the i-enraining scace avaiiable. Because of WorldWarll-

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Above: The I st Submarine Squadron berth atGosport. The'Aberons'and the Below: Space is at a premium in the diesel-electric powered boats, unlike t:e:.:
two remaining 'Porpoise' class boats are to be replaced by the newly much larger nuclear-powered brethreri. AWoildWar lI submariner woula
developed'Upholder' class, but should remain in servicewellinto the l99As. pro bab Iy fee I a t home in this' O beron' class control r oom, red- lil wh il e
operating at night.

r-esulting angle in minutes of arc is read off a scale; an imaginary right-angle

rnangle ls then drawn from which the third unknown angle is deduced, and using
tne height of the target's masts lwhich would be accurately known from
rntelligence data if it is an enemy warship) the length of the triangle's base (the
range) in yards can be calculaled. By takrng precise timings as the ranges are
obtained, an accurate measure of the target's speed can be determined. AII the
oata from the sensors and periscope observations are used to prepare a target
olot from which the relevant information is fed into the torpedo fire-control
computer to work out the firing solution {i.e, the point at which the torpedo
launch has the greatest chance of success with the conditions given).
To attack thelarget the skipper has a choice of two torpedo types. For the
srmple beam attack and in areas where wire-guided or acoustic-homing torpe-
does would be relatively useless, he has the trusty and well proven Mk 8, whlch
began its lif e back in '1927 and served throughout World War ll. Unfortunately, to
make a reallv effective attack with this model the skipper has to close to a point
well wlthin its maximum range, The Mk B can be fired at offset gyro angles if
required, and has two speed settings (44.5 kts or 40 kts) for ranges oT 4,54 km
(2.82 miles) and 6.36 km (3,95 miles) respectively. Since i9B1 the skipper has
also had available the Mk 24 Mod '1 Tigerfish dual-role wire-guided torpedo. Wilh
a top speed ol 35 kts for attack and a slower search speed, the maximum range
rs in the order of 22km \13.67 miles). This electrically-powered torpedo was
shown recentlv in a blaze of publicity to be able to sink the exrcountY' class
destroyer Devonshireby breaking her back. However, what was not made clear
was that considerable damage had already been done by a dtrect hit frorri a Sea
Eagle missile; moreover, it was not revealed what amount of internal damage
control features were present. Before this, a series of three Tigerfish fitings
from nuclear submarines in the South Atlantic under simulated war conditions
all missed their tarqet. A f urther ref it of the torpedo is now under way to try to
rectify the problerrs 'o.Lnd. their bows pointing towards ihe land and woli apart The cie\rys lnen c:: - : - :. :
a rattle device so that the submarine can accurately plol therr posri:c.: : - -.
Covert operations this is established the skipper then geirtly brings his submerged s-:^':'-:
For the covert minelaying mission the forward torpedo compartment is re- between them with the periscope raised to snag the rlpe. l-1e tler ',':r:r:
stored with Mk 5 ground mines and Mk 66 buoyant mines. Such operations speed slightly and tows the two canoes towards the shore . At a c.:=-:- '
principaliy require expert navigation coupled with the skipper's inbuilt ability to 1-6 km (1 mile) orso from the beach, the skipper lowers hrs per scc.; i'r =: :
remain unobserved. Once in enemy coastal waters he can rely only on his off sharply to let the SBS paddle the rest of the way The subseeui.- : -. -- - :
passive sonar systems, depth sounder and the occasional quick perisiope look the exact reverse of this procedure. lf an agent is involved, the rend:.. : -. :
to check for surface shtps and to fix his position. well be at sea with a smali boat or at a secluded coastal spot. ln i: s :::: .-:
Unless he has a special diver lock-out chamber available, the skipper has to overriding consideration is not to be spotted during the apprcecri ci',.. .- : -: .. :
bring his boal temporarily to the surface to unioad agents or special-f orce teams. since that would not only hazard the submarine but also tne ac-- . ,. - r - '.
ln the case of the Special Boat Squadron, four-man teams are usually delivered everything is carefully planned and done extremely quretlv.
by two-man canoes from several miles off shore. These canoes, together with Although now showing their.ages ihe'Oberons'are strli abie i. ;.= =:--
the men and equipment, are stowed in the forward torpedo compartment accounts of themselves, and are consldered by many st:li .l:c :: :-= '--,'
between the reloads. and unloaded on lhe surface via the forward torpedo conventional submarines operational, Forthe future there is tne ic:, - : - - ::
loading hatch onto the deck, where the SBS unit embarks. As soon as the class or Type 2400, which will eventually take over all ihe r'ar:-s .::. : -,
unloading is f inished the submarine drves and the loaded canoes simply f loat off . undertakenbythe'Oberons',andwiththecarriageof theSuc-l-a:c::-:--.':-:
They are then tied toqether with a long length of rope and are positioned wtih misslle {if money is avaiiable) introduce new capabiirties
G "iffi5';06' and 'Type 209' classes : :
Israel ordered three of the 'Tlpe 640' variant from
Vickers in Barrow, all being commissioned in 1977.
They were originally to be fitted with the SLAM
anti-aircraft missile system in the fin.

Studies began in 1962 by IKL for a fol-

Iow-on development of the 'Type 205'
design, The new'Type 206'class, built
of high{ensile non-maqnetic steel,
was to be used for coastal operations
and had to conform with treaty limita-
tions onthe maximum tonnage allowed
to West Germany. New safety dences
for the crew were fitted, and the arma-
ment fit allowed for the carriage of
wire-grr-uded torpedoes, A-fter final de-
srgn approval had been given, con-
struction planmng took place in 1966-8,
and the first orders (for an eventual
total of lB units) were placed in the
following year, By 1975 all the vessels,
U13 Io U30 (S192-199 and S170-179),
were in service, Since then the class
has been given extra armament in the
form of two external GRP containers to
carry a total of 24 ground mines in
addition to their normal torpedo arma-
ment, From l9BB onwards 12 of the
class are to be modernized with new
electronics and torpedoes to form the
'Type 206A'class.
In the mid- 1960s IKL also designed a
new class of submarine for the export
market that became the 'Type 209' (four 'Type 1500' plus two more pro- operational and 250 m (820 ft) The G reek navy'?pe 209' Amphitrite
class in 1967, Desiqned specifically for jected) and Israel (three 'Type 640' maxlmun (SI 17) was part of the second batch
the ocean-groing role, the 'Type 209' plus three larger units proiected), Torpedo tubes: eight 533-mm (2 l-in) of four procured. The first batchwas
can, because of its relatively shofi Each country can choose its own bow the first export order placed for the
length, operate successfully in coastal equrpment fit and crew complement Basic load: eight 533-mm (21-in) antr- design, and they were delivered in
waters, The 'Type 209' and its variants level according to the amount of submarine or anti-ship wire-guided the period 1 97 I -2, with the second
have proved so popular that over 40 money it is willinq to spend, torpedoes, or 16 influence ground group following in 1979-80 (huilt to
have been built or ordered to date by a Dunng the 1982 Falklands war the mines, plus another 24 mrnes in the larger 56-m/ 183.7-ft length).
number of forergn navies. Five varia- Argentine Type 209 submarine ,San external containers
tions have so farbeen constructed: the Lus made three unsuccessfuI torpedo Electronics: one Calypso surface- motor driving one shaft
original 54.3-m 'Type 209' UB.l-ft long attacks on vesseis of the British task search radar, one low-frequency bow Speed: 10 }<ts surfaced and 22 kts
version (960 tons surfaced and 1,105 force, but because of her presence sonar, one high-frequency attack dived
tons dived), the 56-m 'Type 209' 183,7-ft tied up considerable British ship and sonar, one WM-B torpedo fire-controV Diving depth: 300 m (984 ft)
lonq versions (980 tons surfaced and aircraft resources in trying to find her. action information system, and one operational and 500 m (1,640 ft)
1, IBS tons dived), the 59.5-m'Type 209' ESMsystem maxtmum
195,2-ft long version (1,000 tons sur- Specification Complement: 22 Torpedo tubes: eiqht 533-mm (2 I -in)
faced and 1,285 tons dived), the 64,4-m 'Type 206'class bow
(21 1,3-ft)'type 1500'variant (I,660 tons Displacement: 450 tons surfaced and Specification Basic load:14 533-mm (21-in) anti-
surfaced and I,850 tons dived) and the 500 tons dived 56-m'Type 209' class submarine ahd antiship wire-gnrided
smaller lTlpe 640' 45-m (147,6-ft) lonq Dimensions: lenqth 48.6 m (159.4 ft); Displacement: 980 tons surfaced and torpedoes, or 28 influence ground
coastal derivative (420 tons surfaced beam 4.6 m (15. I ft); draught 4,5 m I, lB5 tons dived mmes
and 600 tons dived), The countries (14 B ft) Dimensions: lenqth 56,0 m (i83,7 ft); Electronics: one surface-search radar,
which have bougrht these vessels are Propulsion: tvvo diesels deliverj ng beam 6.2 m (20,3 ft); draught 5.5 m one low-frequency bow sonar, one
Greece (four 54,3-m and four 56-m 895 kW (1,200 hp) with one electic (r8.0 ft) passive intercept sonar, one torpedo
'Type 209s'), Argentina (two 56-m motor drivinq one shaft Propulsion: iow diesels dellverrng fl re-controyaction information system,
'Type 209s'), Peru (six 56-m 'Type Speed: l0 lcts surfaced and 17 kts 1790 kW (2,400 hp) with oneelectric andone ESMsystem
2O9s'), Colombia (two 56-m 'Type dived Complement:31-35
209s'), Turkey (12 56-m'Type 209s', Divingdepth: I50 m (492 ft)
most of which are being built locally ThePeruvian navy has taken delivery
with West German help), Venezuela of a total of six'Type 209' submarines
(two 59,5-m 'TVpe 209s'), Chile (two inthreebatches between 1975 and
59,5-m'Type 209s'), Ecuador (two 59.5- /983. Tfte Casma(S3l ) carries a total
m 'Type 209s'), Indonesia (two 59.5-m of I 4 American NT-37C dual anti-
'Type 209s' plus a further four pro- s hip/ ASW tor pedoes as her main
jected), Brazil (two 59,5-m 'TVpe 209s' armament in preference to the
plus a further one projected), india normal W es t G erm an we aPons s old

I 886
'Romeo' class Modern Diesel Submarines
Although it was the Sovrets who built
the first 'Romeo' class submarines in
1958 at Gorky,as an rmprovement on
their 'Whiskey' desiqn, the construc-
tion coincided with the successful in-
troduction of nuclear propulsion into
Soviet submarines, so only 20 were
actually completed out of the 560 boats
originally planned.
However, the desiqn was passed to
the Chinese as part of the develop-
ment of thetr weapons productron in-
dustry, and the class has been built in
China since 1964, the first boats being
completed at the Wuzhang shipyard
under the local designation'Type 033',
Three further shipyards, located at
Guangzhou (Canton), Jiangnan (Shan-
ghai) and Huludao, then joined the
progffamme to give a maximum yearly
production rate ofnine units during the
early 1970s. Thrs rate has now been
reduced to two vessels per year, A
total of 98 'Romeos' has been con-
structed to date for the Chinese nalry,
wLLrle a further l0 have been expofied
to Egrypt (six) and North Korea (four
with another 11 built locally with
Chinese assrstance),
Of the original Soviet boats only 10
remain operational with the Soviet
navy, Six were transferred to the
Egryptians in 1966-8, two to Bulgaria in
the early 1970s and two were loaned to
Algeria in I9B2-3 for a five-year period
as training boats, before Algena's ac-
quisition of more modern submarines,
In physical appearance both the
Chinese and Soviet 'Romeos' are Propulsion: two dresels dehvering or antr-submarine torpedoes, or 36 With only afew'Romeo'class units
essentrally identical except that the 2983 kW (4,000 hp) with two electric AMD- 1000 inlluence ground mrnes left in service, the Soviet navy has
SoEet boats tend to have extra sonar motors driving hvo shafts Electronics: one'Snoop Plate' surface- transferred six to EWpt, two to
installations around the bow. Speed: 6 kts surfaced and 13 kts dived search radar, one medium-frequency Bulgaria and two toAlgeria.The
Divinq depth: 300 m (984 ft) Feniks bow sonar, one hrgh-frequency Iatter are on loan and are being used
Specification operational and 500 m (1,640 ft) Herkules bow sonar, and one 'Stop to train Algerian naval personnel in
'Romeo'class maxlmum Light'ECMsystem submarine operations prior to
Displacement: 1,330 tons surfaced and Torpedo tubes: eight 533-mm (21-in) Complement: 60 transfer of more moden units such
1,700 tons dived located as sx in the bows and two at as the export'Foxtrot'.
Dimensions:length 77,0 m (252,6 ft); the stern
beam 6,7 m (22,0 ft); draught 4,9 m Basic load: 18 533-mm (2l-in) anti-ship The Chinese have adopted the Soviet
(16 I ft) 'Romeo' class as their main
submarine production Upe. China
hasmanaged toexportthe design to
Egypt and North Korea.

il fitxtrot'class
Burlt in the periods 1958-68 (45 units) units attached to them as part of their have apparently not been frtted (con- motors driving three shafts
and 1971-4 (17 units) at Sudomekh for subsurface forces. trary to several reports). The Soviet Speed: lB kts surfaced and 16 lts
the Soviet Union, the 'Foxtrot' class is The first foreign recipient ofthe type 'Foxtrots' were built in three distinct dived
still ln production at a slow rate for was India, which took eight brand new subclasses that differ only in the prop- Divingdepth: 300 m (984 ft)
export, The class has proved to be the boats between 1968 and 1975. India ulsion plant The last group is thought operational and 500 m ( 1,640 ft)
most successful of the post-war Soviet was followed by Libya (with srx units to have sewed as prototypes for the maxtmum
conventronal submarine designs, a tot- received betvveen 1976 and 1983) and follgw-on 'Tango' desrgn. The sub- Torpedotubes: 10 533-mm (21-Ln)
al of 62 entering service with the Soviet by Cuba (three boats handed over be- merged non-snorkelling endurance of located as sx at the bows and four ai
navy, T\mo were subsequently struck tween 1979 and 1984), These drffer the class is estimated at around 5 to 7 the stern
off as a result of damage sustained in from the standard Soviet units only in days at very low (2-3 kts) speeds, Basicload: 22 533-mm (21-in) antr-sac
accidents, one of them apparently having export-grade electronic and and anti-submarine torpedoes, or 44
caused by a collision with the ltalian weapon fits, although the Indian nalry Specification AMD-1000 rnfluence gnound mrnes
Iiner Angelino Lauro in the Bay of Na- units are very close to the Soviet ves- 'Foxtrot'class Electronics: one 'Snoop TYay' swiace-
ples on 10 January 1970, after which the SCIS, Displacement: l, 950 tons surfaced and search radar, one medium-frequerJj
unit was seen later at a Soviet naval Like all Soviet conventional and nuc- 2,500 tons dived Feniks sonar, one hiqth-frequency
anchoraqe off Morocco with B m lear submarine classes, the 'Foxtrots' Dimensions: length 9 1,5 m (300.2 ft); Herkules sonar, one torpedo f,re-
(26.2 ft) of i1s bow missing, AII four are fitted to carry the standard Soviet beamB,0 m(26,25 ft); draught6, I m controyactlon information system r:. :
Sovret nauy fleet areas operate 'Fox- lS-kiloton yield anti-ship torpedo as (20,0 ft) one'Stop Light' ECMsystem
trots', and the Mediterranean and Indi- part of its weapons load, but no liners Propulsion: rhree diesels deLvering Complement: B0
an Ocean squadrons regmlarly have for 400-mm (15,7-in) ASW torpedoes 4474 kW (6,000 hp) with three electric
'Foxfrof inAction
Below: The regular 'Foxtrot' depwments to the
Together with tlze British 'Oberon' class, ffteSovje t 'Foxtrot' conventionally- IndianAcean theatrehave now been taken over by
powered submarines have probably been the mosl successful desl'En of the post- the more modern 'Kilo' class, but they can still
provide an effective attack forcewh6n facing the
war years. Still effective almost 30 years after its first introduction, the 'Foxtrot' is IesswellASW-armed navies such asChinain the
only now being surpassed by more modern designs. Far East.

Since 1958, when it fi.rst entered service with

lhe Soviet nar,ry, lhe 'Foxtrot' class has proved to
be the most successful of the Sovlet post war
conventional submarlne desiqns. In technical
terms the 'Foxtrot' was a development of the
earher 'Zulu class long-range ocean-gorng
type wrlh a more streamlined sail and a sensor
outfit simrlar to that fitted to the contemporary
medium-range 'Romeo class. The largte con-
formal medium-frequency Feniks passlve de-
tectron sonar was housed in a large rubber-
covered bulbous extension to the bow with the
smaller active high-frequency scanning Her-
kules attack sonar frtted into a rubber sheathed
elhptrcal radome atop rt. A iurther cone-
shaped sonar installation, simrlar in appear-
ance to a 'fez', is often fitted to the top of the
Herkules radome. The exact purpose of this
protrusion is not readily apparent, although it
has been suggesled that it is an underwaler
telephone system.
A more plausrble explanation, however, is
thal because of its size and tocation it rs prob
abiy a close-range active sonar for collision
avoidance and ninefield detection purposes.
There is a iourth sonar system. which comprrs-
es four 1-m" (10.76-sq ft) plates located around extremely difflcult to distinguish from those diesel-electric plant as the 'Zulu' class, while
the middle region of the forward edge of the emanating from merchant sh1ps, especially the second group may have been fltted with a
sail. This is believed to be a passive system for when lhe submarine is rn lhe licrnuy of a-ma jor newer model of dresel than that oi the flrst
the interception of active sonar transmissions shLpping lane. For locating the origrn ol radro group. The f,nal group rs thought to have acted
from enemy surface or subsurface units, To srgnais the 'Foxtrot' also carries a direction- as the propulsion tesr beds for the follow-on
complement these subsurface sensors the boat finding'Quad Loop' antenna. 'Tango'-deiign, and may have tried additronal
also has a retractable mast-mounted 'Stop silencing features to ensure that the new sub-
Lrght' ECM system and a Snoop Tray hiqh- Three subgroups
deflnition surface and air-search radar, The During the construction period of the fox- The 'Foxtrot' class rs used all ov er the North
talter, like most submarlne radars, operates on trot' for the Soviet navy three distinct sub- Atlantic by the Soviet Northern Fleet, as shown by
the l-band frequency since nearly all the com- groups were produced, these dilfering from this 'Foxtrot' at anchor in the Gulf of Mexico, some
mercial navigation radars available use thrs each other only in the propulsion plant frtted, 80 nauticalmileswest of the American port of Key
frequency: when it operates tts srgnals are ih.ts The frrst subgroup had the same three shaft West.Florida.
Modern Diesel Submarines

::inne class obtarned even better perform- Soviet 'advisers' aboard) ensures that a poten- TheNorthernFleet supplies all the submarjnes
, :.::s from the nuclear submarLne low tial economic warfare threal rs ner,er lar away that are deployed with the Soviet Mediterranean
:r:fuency sonar systems that the class carries. from the sea lines of communicatlon cf key squadron; at any one time there are six to eight
,:-: maximum underwater speed of the 'Fox- interesr to the West. They also pr lride a valu. 'Foxtrots' and one or two 'Tangos' there. This
'Foxtrot' is being shadowed by Lire USSJonas
::: is 16kts, although the boat rarely attains abie covert method ol supplying weapons and Ingffam (DD938) in the e ar ly I 9 7 A s.
:-s except in escape and evasion manoeuvres other equlpment to gn-rerriila forces friendly to
-. -: rapidly depletes the batteries. Full the Warsaw Pact in the regions where the mers and their equipmenr ior coverl rec,:.
-- : :kelinq facili'ies are fiLted wrrh the intake
Libyan and Cuban navies operate, nalssance mtssions and rn-,-/ar-rl.--e i:r- : ::
-:-r elnaist ourlets mounted in lhe rear In wartime the Soviet units would also be- tasks against loreign naval bases anc p:i:s ,- -.
,..: section of the sarl to aliow recharging of the come nuclear capable weapons platforms possible that several of the S'u'veCish sr;:. -::.
..'': batterles while running submerged just since they are fitted to carry and fire the stan- oi Sovrel submarrnes mav :ra'.-: c=::. -. : . -
:=-:'r,r the surface, The standard submarine dard Soviet lS-krloton yield nuclear-warhead trots performing such mrssLc ns .. : :-...-.... -: :. -:
:--rrch and attack periscopes are carrted, antr-shrp torpedo lrcm the bow tubes. This poses. The 'Foxtrot' is partrculari-: s *:: : - , r :.-.
. ;eiher with their associated photographic capabrhty rs not matched by any Western navy, wcrk because of rts ver;' l j. -- -::: :' '. ..-
: :::nnaissance equipment, and could allow the 'Foxtror' to srnk an aircralL- when runnrng srlen' a:. r . . i
carrier with a single shot or destroy a fair-sized several units of the cla:: i.: = ..'. , ..
Armamentfit port or naval base, Of the 22 torpedoes carried, verted to cdrr! Speclo. i'.': . .. . -... ..-
. he armameni is ihe same as was fitted to the up to four can be nuclear armed, the remainder bers ior coverl opera-: . -:-.. -.-_ : ..:..
-'.lu' class, with six bow 533-mm (21-in) torpe- belng either straight-running or acoustic- number of obsolere -,'". .l'.. . i.: . ...
:r, :ubes and four 533-mm stern tubes. The bow homing ASW and antr-ship HE-warhead mannes thal were kn: ..:- . ..: . - --
.:es have a torpedo compartment to allow weapons. There is no evidence to suggesl as thismannerin lhe lJ:-t...'- -.-'
.=r'.iicing of the weapons and stowage of 12 some sources do that any 406-mm (16-in) torpe- The 'Foxtrot'class is i-: .: ::::.:-:. .:. ::-- . - -
-:-:ads, while the aft lubes have no such factli- do tubes are or have ever been fitted aft in the intothe l990swrththe: .. ,*' - -.'-.: . '. .-.:
-=s For the niinelaying role the Sovlets tend to 'Foxtrot' class, since reliable reports from the earliest units are no\' >.::-.:.-- -. ::.-:: : :-
: : clace each olthe iorward torpedoes with two Indian nalry confirm that lndian and Soviet units serve lleet because :- .:-=-r i:= l:.= -, - ..,
: liD-1000 influence-activated qround mines, are fitted wlth the larger 533-mm weapons the class still remains -r- s-- ., :--:-..--. -:r' : - r.. :.
.'':ile retaining the aft torpedoes for self- With a submergted endurance of nearly a week lirr export 27 years aiter ihe ::--: -.'.'1s .::
.:.-:ince. The ranqe of lhe Foxtrot' allows il to at very low speeds before needing to rebharge duced lestifies -o the hr :h r+ :a:: -. .:.. --'. ':.'-
:-:rate rn the covert mrnelaying role .in all irs batterics. the 'Foxtror' can underlake patrol class is held by the Soviets, Tnrs ,,-:e .;; ,s ec:r:: j
: -::pean waters and aLong the most rmportanl durations of up to 70 days before rts supplies by many Western nations, ,r,.hc silll c::s-i::
:-::s of the American continental coastlines, and diesel {uel run out the class a malor threat in the ASIV en';rrl..-
i-:e an activity is well within the Soviets' Spetsnaz transport
ment of the I980s. The Royal Nar,ry noicis r:
- -cacity as they are ihe world's leading expo- some esteem as the 'Foxirot is the coniempcr--
:--=:is of offensive mine warfare, One role rn whrch the FoxLroL'rs known to be ary oi its own 'Oberon' class, ',';hich rtsell rs slli
- re preseirce of export versions of the Fox- used at irregular rntervals is rn the transporta- considered amonqst the best of its type avari
. : Cuban and Ljbyan naval service (rviLh tion of groups of naval Spetsnaz combat swim- ab1e.


},J,f:SLil$li'KCr r.''.

!t,.:ltr":ri11,;i:j'ivtr;; i]l:'rr:. .


A crew member of a'Foxtrot' class patrol submarine prepares to dive into the Atlantic to retrieve a sonobuoy s
,lropped by aNATO maritime patrol aircraft. CapturedNATO surveillance equipmentis of obviousvalue to the
Soii6t submarine service intheendless cat-and-mouse game betweenthem andWesternASW forces' Armedwith d*
sx 533-mm (2I -in) torpedoes in the bow and four 406-mm ( I6-in) torpedoes in the stern, a 'Foxtrot' is capable of
L 8 kts on the surface and l 6 kts submerged. rt


i9ri#!* &
-_- - _ _" "--

4.2:.. :.e I
I -.:':::: 11* a

Modern Diesel Submarines

Diesel -Ele clric Patrol
A total of 62 'Foxtrot' class units were built
from the late 1950s onwards in several subgroups.
Of the total, two have been written otf due to
accidents whilst some of the older units which are
in their Z|thyear are believed to have entered the
resewe fleet to be reactivated only in the case of
generalwar. Surprisingly, even after this period of
time the basic desigm is still being built for the
export market, with new-build sftipsber'ng
transferred to India, Libya and Cuba, albeit with
downgraded ele ctronic sy s tems.
t fiLngo'class
Built as the Soviet navy's interim long-
range successor to the 'Foxtrot' class in
the Black Sea and Northern Fleet
a-reas, the first unit of the 'Tango' class
-was completed at Gorky in 1972, Since
then a total of lB have been con-
s[ucted in two sllghtly different ver-
sions, the later type beinet several
mefies ]onger than the first in order to
accommodate the flre-control systems
necessary for launching the torpedo
tube-launched SS-N-15, the Soviet
equivalent of the American Subroc
underwater-launched ASW missile
nuclear warhead, The bow so-
r4'1th a
nar installations appear to be the same
as those fltted to the latter classes of
contemporary Soviet nuclear attack
submarines, while the propulsion plant
s almost certainly the same as was
iested on the last subgroup ofthe 'Fox-
fot deslgn, The battery capactty is
said to be much higher than in any
preceding Soviet conventional sub-
marine class as a result of the in-
creased pressure hull volume, this
allowing an underwater endurance in
excess of a week before snorkellinq is
lequred. Coupled with the new arrna-
ment and sensor fit, this would appear
io make the 'Tangos' ideal for use tn
ambush operations aqainst Westem
eucleal submarines at natural 'choke-
coints'. Present indications are that the'
construction of the class has stopped,
possibly suggesting that the definitive dived and mrssile re-control sonar one
fi Evolved from the 'Foxtrot' class, the
successor to the 'Foxtrots' is now ready Divingdepth:300 m (984 ft) torpedo fl re-controVaction
information 'Tango' class long-range patrol
-or volume production. operational and 500 m ( 1,640 ft) system, and one 'Brick Group' ESM submarine has been in service since
maxlmuln system the early 1970s. The examPle seen
Specification Torpedo tubes: eiqht 533-mm (2 -in)
1 Complement: 60 here was photographed off the US
Tangto'class located as sx in the bows and two at coast during the Soviet navy's 24th
Displacement: 3,000 tons surfaced and the stern deployment to the Caribbean, in
3.700 tons dived Basic load: lB 533'mm (2 t-in) anlL- transit to Havana during late
Dimensions: length92.0 m (301.8 ft); submarine and antr-ship torpedoes, or December j,984.
beam 9.0 m (29 5 ft); draught 7,0 m 36 AMD- 1000 rnfluence ground mines
123 0 ft) Missiles: two SS N-15 underwater to- Production of the 'Tango' class is now
Propr:lsion: three diesels delivertng uriderwater anti-submarine missiles believed to be ended at the Gorl<y
{474 kW (6,000 hp) wrth two electric Electronics: one'Snoop Tray' surface- shipyard. The design appears to be
motors driving two shafts search radar, one low-frequency bow an improved 'Foxtrot' but with the
Speed:16 ktssurfacedand 15,5 kts sonar, one medium-frequency torpedo sensors andSS-N-15 ASW missiles of
the third generation nuclear vessels.

The later'Tango' class units were fhe sysfems ass ociated with the ASW First seen at theJuly 1973 Sevastopol hump. The submarine to the front of
apparently built to a slightly longer missile fire-control and targetting Naval Review in the Biack Sea was the'Tango' in the line is a'WhiskeY
Ienglhin order to accommodate all functions. the'Tango' class prototype with the Twin Cylinder' cruise missile boat,
ch ar acter is tic rcis e d f orec asing which is used for training.

f if,to'ctass Modern Diesel Submarines
The 'Kilo' class submarrnes are the
probable replacements for the 'Whis-
key' class units in the Sovtet Pacrflc
Fleet, and as such are classed as
medrum-range vessels. Built at the riv-
er shipyard of Komsomolsk in the
Soviet Far East, the first unit was laun-
:hed in early 1980, At least a further
ive were in service by late 1984 with
production believed to have been
siepped up to two units per year. The
sroner hull form, more advanced than
.ee other contemporary Soviet con-
'.':ntional submarine designs, rs more
:_,prcal of Western teardrop-shaped
iesigns, but is well suited to the en-
:-:sed waters off the Soviet Paciflc
::astlines and rslands, in August 1983
:: first operational 'Kilo went to the
-,-..i Vietnamese naval base at Cam
..=h Bay for the testrng of tts weapons
..'srems under tropical conditions, and
:- re follov,rng year the first siqrhttnq of
= -{tlo' in the Indian Ocean was drs-
:-:sed by the Royal Australian Nalryt
--,- presence of the 'Kilo' class in that
-:a rs thought to be due to the re-
:-llement of the normal pair of 'Fox-
::: class submarines as anoperational
,--:essity, the new boats having far
:-:re sophisticated sonar systems The
-::ament is said to include some
.- :s
of specrahzed minelayrno eq uip-
:::t. possibly for the Soviet 'rising
:-,:e' weapons. The new low-
:=quency sonar is situated in the front
,:e bow above the six 533-mm (21-
bow torpedo tubes. A probable
:--s total of between 24 and 30 unrts rs
- 'lected by the mid- l99Os.
Medium- range boats, the' K ilo' cias s
have been entering sewicewitlt ne
Soviet Pacific Fleel srnce J 980. I,|rs
boatwas seen in transit to the Indiz:.
Ocean from the im por tant S ouiet
base at C am R anh B ay in Vietnan.
where it is thought to have replacec
one of two much less capable
'Foxtrot' class boats.

A.bove : The'Kilo' c/ass is nol Below: Built atKomsomolsk at the

pr ecisely understood, although most rate of at least one ayear, the'Kilo'
relrabJe sources expect the class to c/ass rs tft e lirs t new operational
be fhe successor to the elderly diesel-electric powered design to be
Whiskey/ Foxtrot' units in, initially, builtfor a number of years by the
the Pacific Fleet. Sovrefs. /f rsbe/r'eved that they have
s peciali ze d mine- laying e qu ipm e nt
aspafiof theiramament.
'Enrico Toti' class
.{s the first rndigenously-bullt Italian
sirmarine desigp since World War II,
-:e'Enrico Toti'class had a chequered
sart as the actual plans had to be re-
cast several tlmes. With reasonable
:apabihtres and performance, the four
umts are the AffiJro Eagnolni (3505)
Enrico Toti (S5OO), f,nrjco Dandolo
iSS13) and Lazzaro Mocentgo (S514),
',vhich entered service in l968-9 for use
in the notodously difficult ASW condl-
tions encountered in the central and
eastern Mediterranean regions For
ihese operations the boats' relatively
small size and minimum sonar cross-
sectlon stands them tn qood stead. The
marn armament carried is the White-
head Motofldes AlB4 533-mm (21-in)
wire-ouided torpedo. This is a dual
ASW"antr-ship weapon with an active/
passive acoustic-homing head that fea-
tures enhanced ECCM to counter de-
covs launched or towed bY a target
witti a launch weight oi 1300 kg
(2,866 1b),a large HE warhead and a
range in the order of 2Okm (124
miles), the electrically-powered Al84
can be used by the 'Enrico Totis' in
'ambush' situations at natural 'choke-
points' to attack much larger oPPo-
nents such as Soviet SSNs or SSGNS.

'Enrico Toti'class maxlmum Third of the'EnricoToti'class was bow in this view. The crew for this
Displacement: 524 tons surfaced and Torpedo tubes: four 533-mm (21-in) tft e Enrico Dandolo (S 5 I 3 ) which relatively small class is four officers
bow shows off the characteristicJP-64 and 22 other ratings.
59 I tons dived
Dimensions: lenqth 46, 2 m ( 15 1,6 ft); Basic load: sx A I84 dual-role wire- active sonar system housing on the
beam4,7 m(15,4 ft); draught4,0 m gnrided torpedoes, or 12 gnound
(13 I ft) influencemines The 'Enrico Toti' class was designed
Electronics: one 3RM20/SMG surface- specifically for the shallow water
Propulsion: two dtesels deltvering
search radar, one IPD44 sonar, one areas found around the ltalian
i64l kW (2,200 hp) with one electric tline. Ar med with f our bow
motor driving one shaft MD64 sonar, one torpedo fire-controy co as
action system, and one ESM sYstem €-€ torpedo tubes for thewire-guided
Speed: 14 kts surfaced and I 5 kts
Complement: 26 A184 heavyweighttorPedo, the four
vesse/s ft ave a top sPeed of 20 kts
Divingdepth: 180 m (591 ft)
operatlonal and 3OO m (984 ft) submergedfor a shorttime, butcan
sustarn J 5 kts fo r one hour .

'Sauro' class
During the early i970s it rapidly be- wire-gmided torpedo, but these can be
came apparent to the ltalian navy that a replaced by several types of Italian
new submarine design was required ground mines if required. In February
for defence against amphibious land- i9$ a tfrird pair of'Sauro' class units
ingis and for ASW and anti-shipping was ordered from ltalcantieri for dellv-
tasks in the local area, The result was ery later in the decade. These will be
the Italcantieri design for the'Sauro' slightly larger and have longer torpe-
class, whose first two units were the do tubes to accommodate the Amer-
jVazioSauro (S518) and CarioFecio dj ican Sub-Harpoon anti-shtp missile,
Cossato (SS 19), which entered service
in l9B0 and 1979 respectively following Specification
major problems with their batteries, A 'Sauro'class
further two units,lhe Leonardo daVin' Displacement: i, 456 tons surfaced and
ci (5520) and the Gugliermo Marconi l,63l tonsdived
(5521) were then ordered, and these Dimensions: length 63.9 m (209,6 ft);
commissioned into servtce in l9Bl and beam6,8 m(22,3 ft); draughtS.T m
1982, The class has a single pressue
hull with external ballast tanks at the Tfte Leonardo da Vinci (5520) r
bow and stern and a buoYancY tank in launched, in October I 979. The
the sai1, The pressure hull is made from seven-bladed propeller used on the
the US-developed HYB0 high-tensile craft is noticeable, and is typical of
steel, which allows a deePer diving the improvements made to
capability than on the previous 'Enrico submarines since the war in order to
Toli' design. The main armament is the improve their speed and
Whitehead Motofides AlB4 dual-role manoeuvrability.

'Sauro' class (continued)

(18,7 ft) ?Ire Nazario Saur.o(5518).A third pair

Propulsion: three diesels deliverrng of this type was authorized in the
2394 kW (3 210 hp) with one electric 1983 budget, withlonger torpedo
motor driving one shaft tubes to accommodate the American
Speed: I 1 kts surfaced and 20 kts S u b- H arpoo n anti- s hip miss ile.
dived Future naval plans will include a
Divingdepth:250 m (820 ft) fourth pair iI funding permits.
3perational and 4 10 m ( 1,345 ft)
Torpedotubes: six 533-mm (21-in) bow search radar, one IPD70 sonar, one
Basic ioad: 12 Al84 dual-role wire- Velox MS sonar, one torpedo flre-
3mided torpedoes or 24 gnound controyaction information system, and
-nfluence mines one ESM system
Electronics: one MIWBPS7O4 surface- Complement:45

E io' ctass
The'Yuushio' classrs ffie marns tay of a projected Ii-boat submarine fleet that
,uill eventually be armed with the American Sub-Harpoon an/i-sftrp missile.
AJI the classes incorporateJapanese-built equipment, weapons and
electronics into their designs.

,1e latest in a lonq line of Japanese torpedoes are about to enter produc-
:jrmarine designs, the'Yuushio' class tion for the submanne semce. The
: expected to total l4i-rnits by the trme electronics carned are ofthe latest de-
:lnstruction is compieted. It is essen- signs, and are known to include sever-
-ally an enlargted verston of the eariier al licence-built Amerrcan systems. A
.:ar-drop 'Uzushio' class with an in- new design of submarine is currently
::eased diving-depth capability, Of tn the imtral desigm phase as the follow-
:ruble-hull construction, these on class for constrcrctron in the 1990s,
_:panese boats follow the US Nalry
:-:clear attack submarlne practice of Specification
bow sonar array wrth the tor-
,--iv1ng a 'YuusNo'class
;:do tubes moved to amidshrps and Displacement: 2,200 tons surfaced and
-::gled outwards, The first of the class, 2,730 tons dived
':.e Yuushio (SS573), entered service Dimensions:length 76.0 m (249,3 ft);
:- 1980 with Ihe Mochishio (SS574), beam9.9 m(32.5 ft); draughtT 5 m
Selosftio (SS575), Okishro (55576, (24 6 fD
ly'adasijo (SS577) f/amasftio (SS57B) Propulsion: two diesels dehverrng
j.dthe as yet unnamed follow-on untts 2535 kW (3,400 hp) with one electric
-:,1owing at yearly intervals, From the motor drrving one shaft
-', adas,hio onwards the class is fitted to Speed: 12 kts surfaced and 20 kts
:rrry and flre the American Sub- dived
-:arpoon anti-ship missile while to im- Divingdepth:300 m (984 ft)
;:ove the torpedo armament indige- operational and 500 m ( 1,640 ft)
---:usly-designed ASW and anti-ship maxlmutn
Torpedo tubes: six 533-mm (2 l-rn)
The'Yuushio'class wasbased on ffie amidships
earlier'Uzushio' design, of which the Basic load: lB anti-submanne and anti-
Isoshio r,rras tlre third unit. With a ship torpedoes
double-hull teardrop shape, the Electronics: one ZPS-4 surface-search Tft e Yuushio (55573) is equipped with automatic three-dimensional controjs.
U zus hios' introdu ced the angled
' radar, one ZQQ-4 bow sonar, and one remote engine control and a ZYQ- I digilal information processing system
amidships torpedo tubes into SQS-36(D sonar within its high-lensi/e stee/ tea rdrop huL| structure. A new 2400-tonie type is
service in the early I 970s. Complement:75 projected to follow the 'Yuushio'c,lass.

e:ii:,,,- siirt,ti:dt:iii: u.

l:iir{tirti:3:i,tlli,. t:

'Sjoormen' class
The flrst of the modern tYPe of sub- same as those fitted to the latter Swed- Specification maxlmur
marines for the Swedish navy was the ish submarine classes, and it is these 'Sjoormeni class Torpedo tubes: four 533-mm (21-in)
'Sjoormen' class designed in the early together with the hull design that Displacement: 1, 125 tons surfaced and bow andtwo 400-mm (i5,75-in) bow
1960s by Kockums, Malmo and built bY allows the optimum manoeuvrability 1,400 tons dived Basic load: eiqht Type 61 533-mm (21-
that company (three units) and Karls- characteristics to be used throuqhout Dimensions: lenqth 5 1.0 m (167.3 ft); in) anti-ship wire-gmrded torpedoes or
the speed range, though they are more beam 6, 1 m (20,0 ft); drauqht 5,8 m 16 influence ground mines, plus four
Lrona Varvet (two units), The class
comprrses the Sj6ormen (Sot) Sjoje- noticeable at the lower end: for exam- (19 0 ft) Type 42 anti-submarine wire-gnrided
ple, a 360" turn can be achieved in five Propulsion: four dresels del ivering torpedoes
lonet (Ste), Sj6hunden (Shu) Sicibjor- 2, 100 hp (1566 kW) withone electric Electronics: one Terma surface-
nen (Sbj) andSj6hdsten (Sha) With an minutes within a 230-m (755-ft) dia-
'albacore' type hull for sPeed and a meter circle at a speed of 7 kts under- motor drivinq one shaft search radar, one low-frequencY
trilrn-deck arrangement the class is ex- water; if the speed is increased to Speed: 15 l<tssurfacedand20 kts sonar, one torpedo fire-controVaction
tensively used in the relatively shallow ]5 kts the same turn will take only two dived information system, and one ESM
Baltic, where its excellent manoeuwa- and a half minutes, which means the Divingdepth: 150 m (492 ft) system
brlitv and silent-running capabilitles class can easily outturn most of the operational and 250 m (820 ft) Complement: lB
greatly aid the Swedish navY's ASW Warsaw Pact ASW escons encoun-
operairons. The control surface and tered in the Baltrc, as well as most of
hydroplane arranQlements are the the NATO escorts.

Tie Sj6lejonet (S/e) of the'Sj 6ormen' manoeuvrability is of greater

class runs onthe surface inthe importance than diving depth, since
submarinet m aior operating area of much of the sea is relatively shallow.
the Baltic. In such a region speed and

The fivevessels oI the'Sj6ormen'

c/ass are design ated the Type-A I I B
by theirbuilders. Fittedwith X-
configuration stern planes for
can, atmedium speeds submerged, incr eased manoeuv r ability, theY
?lre Sjobjornen (Sbj) shows the sail-
mounted hydrop lanes w hich out- turn mos t of the W es t's and carryfour 533-mm (21-in) and two
increase the v e s sel's underw ater Warsaw Pact ASW vessels likely to be 400-mm ( I 5.7 -in) calibre torPedo
manoeuvring capabilities. The class encountered in the Baltic. tubes for anti-ship and ASW
tor pedoes re s pective ly.

Sioormen cutaway drawing keY

11 Batteryroom 21 Snorkel 31 Periscopewe ls
1 Screw 32 Watertightbulkheads
2 Sinole shaft 12 Controlroom 22 Omnidirectional antenna
3 Batteries 23 Directionalantenna 33 Torpedoroom
3 X-c6nfigurationfin 1
34 Torpedotubes
4 motor
Electricpropulsion l4 Torpedo oadinghatch 24 ObservationperiscoPe
25 Attack perlscope 35 Trimtank
5 Dieselgeneratingset I 5 Watertiqht communrcat on
26 Bfldge fin with hoisting 36 Foruardescape/access
6 Central monitoring station hatch
7 Outercasing 16 Fueltank equipment
'17 Keel 27 Accesstrunk 37 Compressedalrstore
B Aftescapehatchwlth 38 Bowtubecovers
coupling for rescue craft 1B Ballasttank 28 CtC
9 Crewquarters 19 Pump 29 Radioroom
10 Washroom 20 Conningtower 30 Torpedostore

The difficulty with which Norway and Sweden have made any identification of
submarine incursions into theii territoriat wateis in the last ie* yeirt miy marine's days were numbered, at leasi as rar " -
suririsinsiivieiitnenishtechnotowpouredintoanti-subniarli2iil$16. "ie*iitn. j}|.ffi,fi'"f;:S#: T,";':"".o,i"""n?;*#H;
pasf decade . What might detect a puclear submarine in the ocean, however, is iO'g igO tiliitjS, i3i -,ilj o" u sinste tuel'ng ::
unlikelytobe_lnqghuseinpinpointingasmall,quietboatintheshallowwatersofthe Uranium ZSS iuperseded 6y en cir'a:
ContinentalShelf. iez rre mrte-s) or-ie::-
The Royal Navy's new 'Type 2400 class sub- Initially, this new type of warship was pow- But it was the increasingly sophjsticated'.:*=
marines are to be diesel-electric powered. Bu1 ered by petrol engines, which were noisy, in- of advanced electronics for anti-submari:re
,s it yet another example of hanging onto pasl efficient and highly dangerous, (Needless to warfare (ASW) that re-emphasized the rc.te
Elories, or that the services are being provided say, only one steam-powered subrnarine oper- that diesel-electric submarines could pla_.-
-*rth inferior equipment? After all, are not nuc- ated in World War I, namely the British 'K' Basically, it is far harder to detect a diese-
iear submarines the proven best and most class,) By I9l2 all the major navles had re- electric submarrne than a nuclear submarirre
practical submarines available? A simple 'no' placed petrol by diesel engines, and the use of Secondly, nuclear submarines take up to three
arswers ali these questions and the recent the snorkel tube allowed diesel engines to run years to build and are extremely expensive s:
fascos off the south coast of Sweden illustrate even while the submarine was below the sw- that they are simply not cost-effective rr ceria-:-
.he advantages and disadvantages of both face, Later, however, it became apparent that roles where their chances of being damagec
trpes of submarine. But before considering the submarine would often have to dive to a or destroyed are high. in many ways, nuclear
]rese events it is instructive to look at the oper- depth at which the snorkel tube simply could submarines are more fragile than their humbie
a'jonal requirements that led to the develop- not operate: thus there appeared the combrna- relations, and it is relatively easy to sgs y,,11-,:
nent of both diesel and electric submarines, tion diesel-electric submarine, and the rest is this is the case. Nuclear powerplants are fari_-;
Submarines were first seriously proposed in recent history: certainly Germany came ex- complex creations, In a submarine, the nuclear
ire lSth century, although primitive diving tremely close to winning the war at sea with her prle is used to heat water to steamwhich in tr.u::
lel1s and diving suits had been used much U-boat lorces in both world wars, Life in both runs a turbine, providing direct drive to '.he
earlier. The early construction history is a com- German and Allied submarines was nasty, propeller shaft(s) and electric generators useC
crration of genius, farce and tragedy, Many brutish and inclined to be short. The Amer- ln turn to power the boat's electronics andrbr::
s.rbmarines sank on their first voyage with all icans called their submarines pig boats be- provide an alternative propulsion system i1a
rands. Many would not sink at all, One of the cawe that is exactly how any submarlne smelt battery storage. (Electric motors are sti.ll 'ure
potentially most successful designs (American) after a few weeks at sea, quietest available, and are used for silent ru::-
-,';as turned down by the French navy on the Aside from the cramped and squalid living ning, when the boat goes into an ultra gu:e:
;[ounds that it was too horrib]e a weapon, conditions, one of the greatest problems with state,) In other words, there is an awfirl lot tha:
However, the submarine's first effective mis- diesel submarine was refuelling, because rn can qo wrong in a nuclear submarine, parlici:-
sions were undertaken during the American order to refuel they had either to return to a larly when some unfriendly soul ls droppurg
,Var of independence, and by the end of the shore base or rendezvous with a tanker on the depth charges in the vicinity: it does not need a
-9th century all the world's major navies were surface, where they are at their most vulner-
eguipped with at least a few submarines, Para- able, Also, refuelllng at sea in a heavy swell can Nowhere are modern diesel-electric boats more
Soxically the UK, which has now subordinated be extremely difficult, not to mention danger- relevant than in the shallow, constricted waters of
the Baltic. In the potentially deadly game of hide
:il lts armed forces to the nuclear submarlne/ ous, In a storm it was well nlgh impossible, So and seekplayed outamong the islands, the
frident missrle progtramme, was one of the last when the keel of the USS,A/autulus, the worid's massive power of the nuclear submarine would
:cuntries to accept the submarine as a viable first nuclear-powered submarine, was laid in stand out like a bull in a china shop, hence most
June 1952, lt seemed that the diesel sub- boats are smal4like theSwedish NAcken

g"s !

Silent Running - The Diesel Option
direct hit to fracture a steam ptpe, Another and vital role to play, True, it rs possible to ern Sweden, and then between Denmark and
weakness is the life-support system lrluclear equip a diesel-electric submarine with sur- Sweden (the Skaggerak) before they can
submarines are designed to stay beneath the face-frred cruise missiles, but that is ignoring escape into the North Sea. There, incidentally,
surface for months on end, Therefore, the hfe tlieir advantage over their blg brothersl a in time of war unrts of various navies would be
support systems have to be farrly complex; if diesel-eiectric submarine is smaller and quie- waiting to clobber them, Stmtlarly, that narrow
battery capacity is the permanent worry of the ter than a nuclear submarine, which is why a channel beiween Sweden and Norway also
captain of a diesel submartne, the maintenance Soviet'Whiskey' class conventional submarine makes it that much harder for a NATO fleet to
of good air on his boat ts the permanent worry finally ran aground in Swedrsh territorial wa- steam into the Balttc,
of a nuclear submarine commander, A simple ters, Simply put, diesel-electric submarines Solo missions
combrnation of circumstances could result in a are best suited to clandestine reconnaissance,
small but poisonous phosgene gas drscharge inshore sabotage and inshore minelaying One should not think only in terms of fleets
(for example by an overcorrection rn oxygen tasks, and this is exactly how they are used by steaming in either direction, however, but also
levels coupled with a freon qas leak from the all the major navies of the world. The problem take recognizance of rndrvidual submarines,
refrigeration system) and that could force the of refuelling at sea has reportedly been solved partrcuiarly nuclear submarines carrying inter-
nuclear submarine up to pertscope depth ln oy NATO {orces. us-no methods ranging from contrnental balhstic missiles, Needless to say,
order to recycle its alr, And that would greatly an umbihcal passed Irom a surface tanker to some time before war actually broke out, both
increase its chance ol detection. the submarrne below, to a submarine refueliing sides would try to increase ihe number of thetr
from a static supply dump actually flxed to the nuclear submarines at sea: the Soviets would
Nuclear/diesel contrast bottom of the sea, andwhlch mayor may not be try to get as many under the sheiter of the
However, nuclear submartnes are aopreci- rn lriendly waters. And since the diesel sub- Arctrc ice cap as possible, while the Amer-
ably faster than diesel-electric submarines An marine's efflciency has improved by at least icans would try to get as many of their hunter
average of over 30 kts submerged is claimed 1 000 per cent over the World War II variety, killers as close into the Soviet malnland (and
for most of them, while the Soviet 'Alpha' class one can safely expect them to be in use for malor porls/ as possible
submartnes are reported to have a maximum many years to come. Given the long range and accuracy of the
submerged speed in excess of 40 kts, as are Trident missiles carried by the 'Ohlo' class
the monster Soviet 'Typhoon' class units, whtch
Baltic operations boats of the US Navy, rt is likely that they would
each have not one but three nuclear reactors But what about that 'Whrskey' class sub' be launched from remote locations probably
And because nuciear submarines are largter marine stranded in Sweden? The Soviets have safe from Soviet interference, Thus Soviet
than diesel submarines (more power from the a verv considerable fleet in the Baltic, based on attack submarrnes would probably see their
plant allows for a bigger boat) there ls more Leningrad, and a glance at the map shows that main duty as protecting their own SSBNs. It is tn
room for \Meapon systems, electronic warfare for that fleet to get out of the Baltrc, it has to send
systems and electronic countermeasures sys- its submarines to run the gaunilet inttrally be-
tems, Today there are two types of nuclear tween the Danish rsiand of Zeeland and south-
submarinest those equipped to fire balllstic
and cruise missiles, and those designed to des-
troy such submartnes, A11 of this leaves the
diesel-electrrc submarine wtth an interesting

TheSoviet navy has spent the time sinceWorld

War Il in analysing the special forces and
equipment r6quiied tor the modern war with the
ainof creating suchunits. The immediate resuJf is
seen in the periodic operations in the Baltic againsl


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,: l,r,'

.'...+::;€$11i 1;,"i+l,t.l
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:1:f r';1t1;
Modern Diesei Subnrarines
,:' protection that the diesel-electric sub-
',::-ne can play a part in lts 'silent state' it can
Sweden is avowedly neutral, past experience break out between Nt-: - .
- has shown that in Sovret eyes the only neutral participatrng counrrie. ' -..
.-= -r wait, undetected by the faster but noisier country is one that rs basically sympathetic to bombed wiLhin a mar:e: ' :'
- ---ear-powered submarine, the Sovlet cause and can be relied upon to do likely is a Soviet conver ..::.n- j
lrom the NATO point of view, it is known that the decent thlng in time of war, Actually, the at the very most, low-yre-: :' .---
' .: Soviets keep 13 nuclear submarines at sea fact remarns that so important rs Sweden in Eur:l
:. :ry glven time, So if this number suddenly strategic terms that neither side could allow
weapons) inWestern
cessitate Atlantic resupp-; --: '
=' .-.. -.

USA and Canada to the UK ::.t .

.,.rreased, it would be a fair indication that her to remain neutral in time of war, However, - :
: , :rething was up, and that something could be since Sweden ls not part of NA IO, the Soviets ports. If the Soviets could cr-:'.'=:. ::
:.: imminence of war, probably do not know as much as they would voys from getting through Ni - , - -" , r. :
like about the type of underwater detection would be forced to decide L +-'.-,'-=
Swedishdefences devices the Swedes undoubtedly use, devices surrender or the move to l::.:t- .

-r milrtary terms, the Swedrsh/Danrsh chan- ranging from active sonar to passive hydro- weapons, an escaiation tha: '.'.'-
:.:- rs a 'choke point', and there is no doubt that phones. The Soviets have thus been using their -:
best, a very holiow victory, Th'us ::= :i : : - :
. . -s strewn with listening devices and detection 'Whiskey' class submarlnes to examine the js of enormous strategic signifr:.-.-=
::-.'ices of one krnd or another. As has been Swedish defences (coupled with dlving teams Soviets can no more allow NATO r'-:.:: , -.,=-
:aen nuclear submarines are noisler than and smali tracked submersibles that can ex- nuclear submarrnes into the Bal.-: -- .: -- -
:-esel-electrrc submarines. They can also be amine the sea bottom) for several years, They their own fleets than they can allo-,v:h::-:=-.'=.
.lentrfied by propeller nolse and hydrodyna- would, in time of war, use the same submarines to be bottled up rn the Baltic
:.ic noise, which is the flow of water over the to lay nuclear mines, both to deny the Baltic to Flna1ly, there is a point here that ma:--.- t:: '
--.-r11 interrupted by various protrusrons and incoming ships or submarines and to keep mentatois seem to have missed Gr-.-e:- .:-=. .- -
-rfices. Soviet submarines have always been Swedrsh vessels bottled up rn port, a role Soviet submarine was carrying nuclear :--:.::
-lisier in this way, mainly because of the con- emphasized by the lact that nuclear radration when she stuck on the sandbank, there ,s : -
-:ued use of free-flood hoies, Now although was detected in the bows of the stranded indication ol the nuclear mines' oricins i. -s
Soviet submarine, a diesel-electric type, qurte conceivable that the submarrne :=:.-.
It is a common fallacy that if war should ever than laying mines or going through the e:.=:-
clse of laylng mines, was stmply snitchin; -
coupie belonging to someone else.
lhis is one of the specially-modified'WhiskeyV'
--lass djese/submarines converted to the frogman-
: arrying role. with adiver lock-out chamber
: yward. U sed with tft e naval ^Spets na z brigade s.
:rese re gularly operate within Swedish
:nd Norwegian teftitorial waters on training and
--econnaissance missions.


The bottom'walkinq mrfi i submadne lreadmg

away fro4 the lWhiskelt',uniS is bdlieted to be a
,Spirje{--D-urlf variaa tat the GermanWorld War II
'Seefeufe/' desr'gn that was to he used forspeclaj

lrlt':.€ &'i'r'

'Vastergotland' class
are arranged in an X-confignrration that used for influence ground mrnes m Speed: 12 kts surfaced and 20 kts
Designed by Kockums, Malmo under a
is connected in pairs to two separate place of the torpedo load. The class dived
l97B contract, the fow vessels.of the
hydraulic systems and, until fairly re- may also be fltted in the sail wtth four Divingdepth:300 m (984 ft)
'A-17' or 'Vastergotland' class were operational and 500 m (1,640 ft)
ordered in 1981. The bows and sterns cently, was a purelY Swedish sub- vertlcal launch tubes for the RBS 17
were built by the Karlskrona, Varvet marine desigm feature, Only two of the anti-ship mrssile variant of the air- maximum
control surfaces are used at any one launched Bofors RBS 15 missile, Torpedotubes:four 533-mm (2f -in)
shipyard and the mid-bodies and flnal bowand two 4OO-mm (15.75-in) bow
assembly by Kockums. The Taster- time for manoeuwinq, thus providing a
hrgh measure ofredundancy except in Basicload: eight Type 61 533-mm (21-
g\tland (Vsd), Itdlsjng/and (Hgd),
in) anti-ship wire-gnlded torpedoes or
S6dermanland (Sbd) and Ostetgot- the case of a direct hit right aft by a Specification
16 influence gnound mines, plus four
/and (Ogd) are all due to enter servlce torpedo, Two hydroplanes are also 'Vastergotland'class
fitted to the sail and are connected to a Displacement: 1,070 tons surfaced and Type 42 anti-submarine wire-gmided
in the period l9B7-9, The tnternal l, I40 tons dived torpedoes
arrangement of the two main water- common control shaft, The torPedo
tubes are arranged in the unique Dimensions: length 48, 5 m (159, I ft); Electronics: one Terma surface-
tight compartments allows sufficient beam 6, I m (20,0 ft); draught 6. I m searchradar, one low-frequencY
sface for sx spare berths for trainee Swedish afianqment of the four long
533-mm (21-1n) tubes over the two (20 0 ft) sonar, one torpeo flre-controVaction
submariners. Each comPartment is informatlon system, and one ESM
short 400-mm (15,75-in) tubes. Each Propulsion: two diesels delivering
also provided wlth its own set of fittings system
tube set has its own reload compart- 161 i kW (2, 160 hp) with one electric
for d-eep-diving rescue vessels such as Complement:2I
ment. The largrer tubes can also be motor driving one shaft
the Swedish URF, The control surfaces


'Zwaardvis' and'Walrus' classes

Based on the US NavY's teardroP hu1-
Ied conventional submarine'Barbel'
class, the Zwaardvk (SB0I) and filsr-
erftaai (5807) of the 'Zwaardvis' class
were ordered in the mid-1960s Be-
cause of the requirement to use in-
digenous Dutch equipment wherever
poisible, the dbsiqn was modified
These modifications included the
placement of alt noise-producingt
machinery on a false deck wlth spring
suspension for siient running Thg tw9
uniis entered sewice with the Dutch
navy in 1972.
At the same time the need began to
arise to start the design of a new class
to replace the eiderly 'Dolfijn'and 'Pot-
iis' Classes. The new desigm evolved
as the 'Walrus' class, and was based on
the 'Zwaardus' hull form with similar
dimensions and silhouette but with
more automation, a smaller crew,
more modern electronrcs, X-
confignrratron control surfaces and the
Frenah MAREI hightensile steel hull
matedal that a]lows a 5O per cent in-
crease in maxtmum divrng depth. The
first unit, Ihe Walrus (5802), was laid with a teardrop huLl, she
down in 1979 for commissioning in 1986 The Zwaardvis (S 806) runs at speed on the surface. B.ased on the American'Barbel' class
and the second, Zeeleeuw (5803), a iii, iiTG iii";iioiotoiirn-ae"is"ed_and
false deck.
-builtequipmentinternally andhas allnoise-producinsmachinery
year later for sewice entry in 1987 A mounted-on a spring-suspended
further pair is due to be laid down in Basic load: 20 Mk 37C antt-submarine
1986, with the final pair in 1991. In 1981 Basic load: 20 Mk 37C antr-submarine Propulsion: three diesels delivering
and Mk 48 dua]-role wire-guided 4101 kW (5,500 hp) with one electric and Mk 48 duat-role wire-gnrided
Taiwan ordered a pair of 'ImProved torpedoes, or 40 influence grround
torpedoes, or 40 inlluence ground motor driving one shaft
Zwaardvis' class units for her navy, and mtnes
Speed: 13 kts surfaced and 20 kts
these will be dehvered in mid-I9BS I1lINES
Missiles: Sub-Harpoon underwater-to-
and mid-1986 respectivelY Electronics: one Tlpe 1001 surface- dived
search radar, one low-frequencY Diving depth: 450 m ( 1,476 ft) surface anti-ship missiles can be
sonar, one medium-frequency sonar' operational and 620 m (2,034 ft) carried in place oftorpedoes
Specification maxlmum Electronics: one Type 1001 surface-
'Zwaardvis'class one WM-B torpedo fire-controVaction
information system, and one ESM Torpedo tubes: six 533-mm (2 I-in) bow search radar, one OctoPus bow sonar,
Displacement: 2,350 tons surfaced and one Type 2024 towed-array sonar, one
2,640 tons dived system
Complement:67 Gipsy III torpedo fire-control system,
Dimensions: length 66.0 m (216,5 ft); one SEWACO VIII action information
beam 8,4 m (27,6 ft); draught 7 1 m system, andone ESMsYstem
(23,3 fr) Specification
'Walrus'class Complement: 50
Propulsion: three diesels delivering
3132 kw (4,200 hp)withone electric Displacement: 2,390 tons surfaced and
motor driving one shaft 2,740 tons dived
Dimensions: lenqrth 67 7 m(222 1 fl); Ordered in the late I 97 0s, the two
Speed: 13 kts surfaced and 20 kts 'Walrus' class submarines are much
drved beamB,4 m(27,6 ft); draught6.6 m
(21 7 ft) improved versions of the'Zwaardvis'
Divins depth: 300 m (984 ft) desigrn, w i th more moder n
operationaland 500 m (1,640 ft) elecironics, greater automation and
rnaxlmuln asmallercrew.
Torpedotubes: su 533-mm (21-in) bow

Armed Forces of the World

SovietAir Forces
Part 4
..rntil recent years, the post-revolutionary Soviet
navy (Voyenno-Morskoy Flot, or VMF) restricted its
activities to coastal defence, augmented by long-
range strike aircraft operating from land bases.
Now, in an immense expansion programme still in
progress, the USSR is acquiring the ability to project
its military power anywhere on the world's oceans.
Small aircraft-carriers are in service, and a larger
vessel on the stocks, stressing the role which air-
craft will play in the achievement of this augmented
Aviatsiya-VMF (Naval Aviation) is a comparatively
large air arm of over 1,500 aircraft assigned to the
four surface fleets: the Baltic Fleet (2f5 aicraft),
Northern Fleet (425), Black Sea Fleet (405) and
Pacific Fleet (440). Equipment is grouped into Reg-
iments each of two squadrons, plus an HO, and
whilst two or three strike regiments constitute a
Division, reconnaissance, anti-submarine warfare
(ASW) and transport regiments operate autono-
Since the great carrier battles of World War ll, it
has been recognized that naval power requires air
cover in order to operate (and even to exist) in a
hostile environment. Thus, between 1976 and late
1984, the VM F commissioned four'Kiev' class ASW
carriers of 37,000 tons, equipped with a 185-m (607-
ft) angled deck; the first three of these are now in information for surface-launched anti-ship missiles). Sole fixed-wing carrier aircraft employed by the
service with all except the Baltic Fleet. This is lust Recently, Ihe Ka-21 'Helix' has been deployed, this Souiet navy aboard its four carrjers (Minsk,
the beginning: a full-size carrier is presently under being a similar intermeshing rotor design having a Novorossisk, Kharkov and Kiev) is the Yakovlev
construction at Nikolayev, on the Black Sea, and this longer fuselage and only two fins; it is expected to Yak-38 'Forger-A' and its two-seat trainer version.
will catapult-launch conventional f ixed-wing aircraft replace the 180 Ka-25s in naval service. The 'Helix- These aircraft areVlSTOL capable but do not
possess ffieperform ance of the Sea Harrier
of as-yet unknown types when in service. A' and 'Helix-B' operate in the same roles as their because they employ lift engines which act x
Befitting the novelty of the VMF of the ASW 'Hormone' predecessors, and will also serve aboard deadweightwhen the aircraft is in level flight.
carrier, these vessels have been equipped with new the helicopter carrlers Moskva and Leningrad l1B
aircraft. The Yakovlev Yak-36MP 'Forger' fighter- each) and on the stern platforms of'Kara'and 'Kres-
bomber caused a minor sensation in the West when ta' class cruisers.
first seen on the Kiey in July 1976. and similar air- The main weight of Aviatsiya-VMF airpower is
craft now serve on board the Minsk and Novoros- based on airfields in the coastal regions, where 400 Converted bombers continue to serve a use'-
srsk and are assigned to the latest addition, the bombers and as many ASW, reconnaissance and role in Naval Aviation, the 'Badger' again predor: -
Kharkov, at the rate of about a dozen to each. Po- tanker aircraft form a formidable striking force. nating: there are about 1 00 in the electronic role, i 3
wered by a horizontal turbojet and two lift engines, Spearheading this are 1 1 0 Tupolev Tu-22M 'Back- reconnaissance versions and a few tankers. A'e"*
the Yak-36 (including its two-seat 'Forger-B' trainer fires' (additional to those operated by the air force) Myasishchev M-4 'Bisons' also undertake recc"-
variant) is a rudimentary design lack ng operatlonal armed with AS-4'Kitchen' cruise missiles fitted wlth naissance, as do 95 Tupolev Tu-1 42 'Bears' and rl
equipment such as radar. lt is a whole generation a conventional (1000-kg/2,205-lb) or nuclear (350- Tu-22 'Blinders' .f u142s are almost equally div:cie:
behind the BAe Sea Harrier. but such does not indi- kiloton) warhead. Two 'Backfire' regiments are between the 'Bear-D', which pinpoints targets '.-
cate that the USSR wishes to remain second-best in assigned to anti-shipping strike with the Northern missile-armed ships and aircraft, and the'Bear-F 'c'
this area for long. Fleet (concentrated in the Kola Peninsula and anti-submarine operations.'Bears' deployed ::
ln addition. the ASW carriers operate around 20 around Arkhangelsk) and one to each of the other Cuba and Angola patrol the central and soutner
nelicopters. At first, these were the Kamov Ka-25 three fleets. Atlantic Ocean, whilst others have recently bee-
'r-lormone' (16-22 ASW 'Hormone-As' and three Numerically the most significant bomber is the based in Vietnam. The 'Blinder-Cs' are basec -
Hormone-Bs' to provlde over-the-horizon targeting Tupolev Tu-16 'Badger', the navy having some 250 Estonia and the southern Ukraine for phc::-
'Badger-Cs' with AS-2 'Kippers' and 'Badger-Gs' reconnaissance of the sea approaches to the USS=
carrying AS-5 'Kelts'. These are operated in the tac- Specialized antl-sub types total a further 400 o's:
tical role, but both 'Badgers' have also been seen aircraft, including the Ka-25s and Ka-27s previous .
with a pair of underwing 45-6 'Kingfish' Mach 3 mentioned. Long-range missions are undertaken :.
missiles of 220-km (135-mile) low-altitude range. 60 llyushin ll-38 'Mays', similar in appearance
In the Baltic area, a regiment of 35 Sukhoi Su-17 role to the US Navy's Lockheed P-3 Orion, and tnes:
llip 'Fitter-Cs' is assigned to anti-ship and amphibious patrol the lndian Ocean from a base in the Yen-e^
c support roles with a varlety of appropriate ordnance, Republic. Nearer the coast (within 370 krn 23i
including the AS-7 'Kerry'. This small missile, which miles), B0 Beriev M-1 2 'Mail'twin-turboprop arnc- -
also arms the 'Forger', has a 100-kg (220-lb) HE bians f ly surveillance missions, mainly for the Nc::--
warhead and a range of 11 km (7 miles). ern and Black Sea Fleets. The third type of AS,',
helicopter is the Mil Mi-l4 'Haze-A', of which -ii
are in service, assisted by 10 'Haze-Bs' for rr -:
About B0 Beriev M-12'Mail' amphibians remain in
countermeasures. Naval Aviation assets are co--
service, mostly in the Noilhern and Black Sea pleted by about 330 training and support aircra-r.
fleets. These are used for offshore anti-submarine
and general maritime surveillance patrols. Power A far greater force of tactical helicopters ( . :::
is provided by twolvchenkoAl-20D turboprops region of 3.500) is assigned to support of the Sc', ::
which give the'Mail' a top speed of 608 |m/ h army (Sukhopputnyye Voyska). The recent ;o:r:-
(378 mph). tion of a separate Army Aviation branch fron' :-:
Armed Forces of the World
-:::-.-.\'ng assets of Frontal Aviation has had little
="::: cn the allocatlons of assault and transport
-= :3oters to ind vidual units, so that regrments and
s:-:Crons are assigned at all levels from Theatre of
'.'rary Operations down to Division. There are also
. - -e
ded cated neliborne un ts.
Tact,cal helicopter forces are designed for close
::3peraton with the armv in anti-tank, gunship,
assaJlt, resupply, heavy-lift and observation roles.
-'.'c cal of support missions is the regularly practised
::cloynrent of troops, equipment and supplres be-
^ iC enemy ines less than 20 minutes after the end
:' a nuclear, biologicai, chemical or conventional
c: n" ba rd ment.
Pr me equipment for this transport mission is the
'',i : \,'1i-8'Hip', of which 1,600 are in service, prob-
:. y now backed by the improved Mi-17 'Hip-H' The
'- c' carries up to 32 troops, together with AT-2
S."vatter' or AT-3'Sagger' antl-tank missiles,
-achine-guns and rocket-launchers.
)efend ng the 'Hip' assault mission would be
s:me of the 1,000 or more Mi-24 'Hinds' now in
s:\,ce. The 'Hind' began operations carryrng eight
-'rcps into battle, but was soon recognized as an
:"ect ve platform for anti-tank (and now anti-
-: copter) weaponry. A completely redesigned
-:se rn the'Hind-D' introduced tandem cockpits fot' Lockheed Hercules'. Stillwidely used onSovietwarships, the Kamov
: :i and weapon operator, together with a chin gun Yet further upgrading of the helicopter fleet will Ka-25'Hormone'first entered service in 1966.It is
now giving way on some ships to the Ka-27 'Helix'
.--iet and target-acquisition sensors. AT-2 'Swat- take place shortly. As if the world's largest helicop-
which emp)oys a similar configuration. The coaxial
::'s' have given way to laser-guided 4T-6 'Spirals' in ter and two highly effective combat machlnes were folding rotors take up little deckspace and lfiese
-Jre recent versions, and allowed Soviet sources not enough, flight-testing is now in hand of the new aircraft are often hangared whilst on ships. Their
-: claim a tank:helicopter loss ratlo of up to 19:1 in lVil lVi-28 'Havoc'. This is an agile and potent com- duties range from missile targeting through anti-
::iile training exercises. bat helicopter (not unlike the Hughes AH-64 submarine patrol to general transport. A major
Srpporting the forrnidable combat team of 'Hip' Apache), and sets new Soviet standards rn perform- drawbackof this type is the lackolnight and
j 'Hind' is the Mi-6'Hook' heavy-lifter. About 400 ance and battlef ield survivabilrty. all-w eather s o n ar - d ip p ing cap a bility.
:= :nese are in service for tnternai or underslung The 'Havoc' illustrates the continued priority
::'rage of guns, vehicles and supplies or 70 fully- being given to development of rotary-wing forces in
::-r pped troops in the hold. They would be most terms of their quantity and quality, and confirms the
helicopter's promtnence in Soviet military doctrine Used byNaval Aviation for electronic
<:lv to operate behind the front llne, and could reconnaissance arou nd NATO forces, the Tupolev
:'rve rnvaluable as a'flytng bridge'for shuttle-lifting and tactics. Operational techniques are belng re Tu-1 6'Badger-F' carries electronic equipment in
::i plete mobile units over narrow obstacles such fined as a result of experience in Afghanistan (where pylons under the wings. Other versions of this
:s rnfordable rivers. Despite its capabillties, the 'Hips'and'Hinds'are used in some numbers), furth- aged bomber are employed on ECM, missile
- cck' s being augmented by the even larger Ml-26 er honing a weapon whose devastating capabilitles carrying and level bombing duties. Anti-shipping
-a o' which, with twice the payload and a larger are often underestimated by those too easily en- 'Badgers' carry A5-6 'Kingfish' missiles under their
::'go hold, is already being regarded as a 'VTOL thralled by fast iets wings.



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