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The world's most comprehensive encyclopedta of the rnilitary vveapons of the A&th eentrury

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Volume 8 Issue 96

Published by
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@ Ae'ospace Pib rsl-inq Ltd 1985
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Themilitary value of an aircraft that was ind.ependent of

nJnways and couldland andtake off in difficult terrainwas

well appreciated duringWorldWar II, butit wasnot untilthe
post-war years that practical machines wete put into
production. Durtng the 1950s helicopters hegan to undertake
what were at the time novel tasks of battlefield casualty
evaeuation, command liaison and se arch and rescue.

Although the concept ol rotary wingeC flight has exercised man,s in- One area where the rapid development of the helicopter was welcor^.t ..,..::
genuity for centuries, rt was not untrl the 2Oth century and the advent of sea, where it revolutionized communications, suppfy and anti_subrr,a:::.: =

ihe internal combustion engrne that such aircraft could become a reality, warfare. This HRS-3 (the IIS Navy version of the Siiorsfu^S_S5) rs abo.::: :: . ,
on the icebreaker USS Glacierrn J gdg. - _
Even so, the challenge presented by the technical problems encoun
tered ensured that the development ol the helicopter would be a long
process. and rescue, through battlefleld casualty evacuatron to carr;t:,:; _: _
The first practrcal helicopters suitable for mtlitary use made therr about their commands.
appearance during World War II, wtth Germany producing both small it was not until the mtd 1950s that the change whrch rrias .t r-,::
observation machines and larger multi-purpose aircralt in some num :
helicopter an essential feature of the modern battlefield cdrl.! : i -
bers, At the same time, Igor Srkorsky was the leadinq light rn American until lhat ttme po'wer was provided by lhe piston enslrle ..,...-
helicopter development, and L P Bratukhin was head of a Sovlet desrgn heav7'oronelofallureandraLl].dLhearrlrameUnmA1C-l.
team producing even larger and more powerful machines. the f,rst fltght of the turbtne powered Aerospatiale Aloue:.= -
To the mrlitary, the prospect of being able to move men and equip_ smooth hghtweight powerplant opened the way to hrgher s.:=:r: l
ment by arr rnto areas unsuitable for conventronal aircralt was attractive payloads together wtth much increased safety.
Trials were arranged durrng the last years of war, and helicopters
operated off shtps and in climatic conditions ranging lrom Alaskan B_eforelong both the IISAF and the tJS Army were canverts to the he:::::::
vrinter to Burmese monsoon By the outbreakof war rn Korea the mrlitary From the start, the air force saw the helicopter as a means of.ei..,.. , -
downed pilots, but the late I g|ls saw the iirst expression ot the co: : :
helicopter vrras being adapted to tasks ranging lrom seaborne .earch air mobility. Shown here are Piasecki H-2I s in IJS service =:- -

F$ A6rospatiale SE 3I3B Alouette II

Of conventional confrguration but stur-
dy design, the A6rospatiale Alouette II
was one of the first true light multi-
purpose helicopters and excelled in a
varrety of roles This adaptability was
facilitated by its reliable turboshaft en-
gine, easy maintenance, and landing
Qtear which could be either of wheel or
skid type or floats, with provision for
emergency flotation gear
The Alouette II origrnated as the
Sud-Est SE 3i20 Aiouette (lark), a
three-seat light hehcopter designed
mainly for agricultural purposes, The
f,rst SE 3120 prototype was flown on 31
July 1952, powered by a 149.]-kW
(200-hp) Salmson 9NH radial engine,
and a year later estabhshed a new Ln-
ternational helicopter closed-ctrcuit
duration record of 13 hours 56 minutes.
The basic arrframe was then com
pletely redesiqned to take the 268 5-
kW (360-shp) Turbom6ca Artouste I
turboshaft, and the flrst of two pro-
totypes, designated SE 3130, was flown
on 12 March 1955 followed by three
pre-productron arrcralt rn 1956, The
Alouette II was granted a French certi-
flcate of airworthiness on 2 May 1956,
and was soon in demand on the inter-
national market, In 1957 Sud-Est Alouette IIs had been ordered by cus- Turbom6ca Artouste II CO turboshaft, French commanders were the first to
merged with Sud-Avration, at which tomers in 22 different countries and the derated to 268.5 kW (360 shp) see the potential of light helicopters
time the designation of the Alouette II type was being assembled by Repub- Performance: (at maximum take-off sucft as tiese A louettes as mobile
was altered to SE 313 B, remaintng un- lic in the USA and Saab in Sweden, It weight) maximum speed at sea level H Q s, and it w as while leading his
changed after Sud's take-over by also became the frrst French aircraft of iBS krn/h (115 mph); maxrmum men from an Alouette thatColonel
Aerospatiale, any kind, and the flrst helicopter in the cruising speed at sea level 165 krn/h anpierre of the I st REP was killed.
From the beginning, the Alouette II world to be granled an American cer- (103 mph); rate of climb at sea level
proved a most successful design and tification. 2BZ m (925 ft) per minute service milesr: fliqr- endurance with maximum
was found particularly suitable for op- In the military role, the Alouette II ceiling 2 50 m (7.055 fi); hovenng
1 fuel at sea level4 hours 6 minutes
erations in higher altitudes. Thus, dur- can be fitted with a wide variety of ceiling in ground effect 1650 m Weights: empty 895 kq ( I 973 lb);
ing the period 9-13 June 1958, an rockets, missiles and guns. (5,4 l5 ft); hoverinq cerlingr out of maxrmum take-off 1600 kg (3,527 lb)
Artouste-powered Alouette II set up a ground effect 920 m (3 020 ft); range Dimensions: main rotor drameter
helicopter altitude record of l098i m Specification with maximum fuel at sea level 565 km 10.20 m (33 ft 5.6 in); diameter of tail
(36,027 ft) for all classes, and a height A6rospatiale SE 3I38 Alouette II (351 miles); range wrth 545-kg (1,202- rotor LBI m (5 ft I1,3 in) length (rotor
record of 9583 m (31,440 ft) in the 1000/ Type: light general-purpose lb) payload at sea level 100 km (62 blades folded) 9,70 m (31 ft 9.9 rn)
1750-ks (2,205/3,BSB-lb) category. By helicopter mrles); ranqe with 390-kq (B60tb) r
heiqhr 2.75 (9 fr 0 3 rn): maLnrotor
September 1960 no less than 598 Powerplant: one 395, 2-kW (530-shp) payload at sea level 300 km ( lBO disc area B l 70 m'Z (879.4 sq f0

€= %usht-sikorsky R-4 and R-o

DerMngr its place in history from the
iact that it was the flrst helicopter
ordered in quantity for service with the
US forces, Sikorsky's imtral production
helicopter was based on the VS-300 of
.939. A prototype of the two-seat XR-4
:onducted its maiden flight on 13 Janu-
1942, Iollowed by rhree pre-series
YR-44 (134,2-kW180-hp Warner R-
550-1) and 41 YR-48 (with a larger
::abin) heiicopters Seven of the latter
,',ent to the US Navy as HNS-I
::achines, All bore the company de-
::gnation Vought-Sikorsky VS-3I64,
as a result of their gross weight
-:oreasing from the prototype's -l titj,if$sstY:i1llryiryr' :'
-- -1 kq (2,450 ]b) to 1315 kq (2,900 lb)
r:v suffered a drastic fall oftop speed
::n 164km,,h (102mph) to 121km/h
,l nph), Nevertheless the early R-4s main rotor replaced by the larger unit to Canada. Problems with the R-6A's AVoughtSikorsky R-4 comes in to
'-:-iertook valuable trials work, includ- introduced from the YR-4A onwards. engrne shortened service life and led land by the side of a B-29
:-3: ieployments in Burma and Alaska Metal skinning replaced fabric on to plans for an R-6B powered by a Superfortress on the Marianas
the first US heircopter landing the more streamlined VS-3I68 or R-6, a Lycoming O-435-7 of 167.8-kW Islands a few weeks atter the end of
=-:=:dashrp. inMay 1943 preparrno prototype of which flew on 15 October (225 hp), but this farled to emerge, as thewar.
i:: -,',alr for 100 R-4B models (149. 1- 1943, powered by a 167.8-kW (225-hp) did the R-7 which would have had a
.:',','230-hp R-550-3), 22 of which be- Franklrn 0-437-7. Five pfe-series XR- 179-kW (240-hp) O-405-9.
-=::-= HNS-ls with the US Navy and US 6A helicopters with the 179-kW (240- 2438 m (B 000 ft); range 209 km (130
l.: ".: Guard. Diversions were made to hp) 0-435-9 included three passed to Specification mrles)
:-: - K of two YR-4As, five YR-4Bs and the US Narry as the XHOS-I, although Vought-SikorskyYR-4B Weights: empty916 kg(2,202 lb);
-:: :.-iBs. these mainly serving the main production was by Nash- Type: iwo-seat general-purpose maximum take-off I 150 kq (2,535 lb)
i.:-;^- \^-- as the Hoverfly Mk I, apart Kelvrnator Corp of 26 YR-6A and 193 Dimensions: main rotor diameter
r::: l:e iorwarded to the Royal Cana- R-6A helicopters. Of the 193 the US Powerplant: one 134 2-kW (180-hp) 11.58 m(38 ft0 in); tuselagelength
:--- -l: Force. The sole XR-4C was Navy absorbed 38 as the HOS-I, whlle Warner R-550- I radral pislon engLne 10 79 m (35 ft 5 in); heisht 3,78 m (1! .
:-= ::-gr-ral prototype modified tn 1943 the UK received only 43 of a planned Performance: maximum speed 5 in); mainrotordiscarea 105,36 m'
-':,-: ::. R-550-1 in place of its 123-kW 150 Hoverfly Mk II hehcopters mainly 121 km/h (75 mph); climb to 2438 m (1 134 I sq ft)
R-500-3 and its 10,97-m (36-ft) for the RAF and supplied one of these (8,000 ft) in 45 minutesi service ceilinQT Armament:none
ffi Vought-sikorsky R-5
Known to its manufacturer as the duced 137, mostly for the RAF and
Vought-Sikorsky VS-327 the R-5 de- Royal Nar,ry, followed by 12 mainly civil
rived from earlter demonstrations of Widgeon helicopters featudng a rede-
hehcopter viability by the R-4 and a slgned flve-seat cabin, Dragonflies
USAF reguirement issued in i943 lor undertook experimental helicopter
an observation helicopter. Five XR-S passenger and mail services, and
prototypes were acquired and flew proneered SAR and casualty evacua-
from lB Auenrst 1943 onwards, two of tion with the armed forces. Military
them later being fitted with Britrsh models comprised the Royal Navy
equipment and redesignated XR-SA, Dragonfly HR.Mk I and Dragonfly
A pre-production series of 26 YR-SA HR.Mk 3; and the Dragonfly HC.Mk 2
helicopters, two of them transferred to and VIP Dragonfly HC.Mk 4 of the
the US Narry (and later to the US Coast RAF Dragonfly export customers in-
Guard) as the HO2S- I, was foliowed by cluded Ceylon, Esypt, France lraq,
only 34 of a planned 100 R-54 SAR Italy, Thailand and Yugoslavia plus
models which saw operational use Brazrl and Jordan wrth Wrdgeons.
with the Air Rescue Service as its first
helicopter. The type had provision for Specification
a stretcher mounted externaliy on VoughtSikorsky R-58
each side of the fuselagre, and 20 (plus Type: SAR/general-purpose
a single YR-SA) were converted to R- heiicopter
5D standard with a nosewheel landtng Powerplant: one 335,6-kW (450-hp)
gear, a rescue hoist and provision for a Pratt & Whitney R-985-AN-5 radial
second internal passenger, The YR-5E piston engTine maxrmum take-off 2 189 kq (4, 825 lb) Designed concurrentlywilh the XR-5
was a dual-control rrarner conversion Performance: maxrmum speed Dimensions: main rotor drameter the R-5 was a tandem two-seater
of five YR-5As. The nosewheel, an ex- 171 km/h (106 mph); climb to 3048 m 14.63 m (48 ft 0 in); fuselage lenqth helicopter powered by a 335.6-kW
tra 30.5 cm (12 rn) of rotor span, four (10,000 ft) in 15 minutest sewice ceilingr 12.45 m (40 tr l0 in); height 3.96 m ( I3 I- (450-hp) Pratt&Whitney engine and
seats and a maximum weiqht of 4389 m (14,400 ft); ranse 579 km (360 0 inJ: marn rotor disc area 168 I i mr was used by the US Navy, US Coxt
2BI2kg (6,200 lb) characterized the miles) (1,809,56 sq ft) Guard and theAfu Rescue Service.
civrl Sikorsky S-51 of 1946, I I ofwhich Weights: empty 1715 kg(3,780 1b); Armament: none
entered USAAF service in 1947, desig-
nated R-SF, followed by 19 hoist-
equipped H-5G helicopters in l
(the earlier aircraft also adopting'H in
place of 'R). Finally 16 H-SH models
were ordered in 1949 with inter-
changeable wheel or pontoon landing
qtear and a 2948-kg (6 500-lb) gross
werght. The US Navy cancelled 34
more HO2S-L hencopters, but bought
EB H-SF variants known as the HO3S-I,
for duties includinq arrcraft carrier
plane-guard, while the US Coast
Guard obtained nine similar HO3S-IG The US N avy version of th e S - 5 I
helicopters, The designatron XHO3S-3 desigmated HO3S-J and a total of^''":
was used by a rotor test-bed modifica- was ordered for the fleet and nine c:
tion, and HO3S-2 was the unadopted the similarHO3S-lG for theUS Caas:
naval H-SH. In the UK Westland beqan Guard. Westland built the S - 5 I u r d e:
Iicensed manufacture of the Westland licence in the UK as theWestlanci
WS-51 Dragonfly during 1948 and pro- D ragonfly with Leonides engtne.

ffi iilu rvroder 42

On B December 1945 Bell flew the pro- the flrst major version was the HTL-4, Specification
totype of a classic helicopter design, The Model 47 has been built under BellModel4TG-SA
the Bell Model4T On B March 1946 this licence by Agusta in Italy Kawasaki in Type: general utility helicopter
was awarded the hrst approved type Japan, and Westland in the UK (the Powerplant: one 197 6-kW (265-hp)
certrflcate issued for a civil helicopter Model 47G-2 for the British army, with Avco Lycoming VO-435-B 1A flat-sx
an]'where in the world. The Model 47 the name SioLx), and rn vanous roles piston engine
remained in continuous production by Model 47s have seffed with more than Performance: maximum speed at sea
Beli into 1973, and was also built under 30 armed services level I69 km h(105 mph) cru.srng
hcence by Agusta in Italy from 1954 to Experimental versions have been speed 137 km/h (85 mph) at 5 000 ft Simpie, cheap and reliable. the Ee:.
-976. The Model 47 has been used on a numerous Perhaps the lwo most Lm- (1525 m); service ceiling3200 m Model4T firstflew in 1945 and
.arge scale by armed forces all over portant were the Model 201 (servrce ( 10,500 ft); range with maximum fuei remained in production until I 7 5.
.re world, its srmplicity and low cost designation XH-I3F) and the Model 412 km (256 mrles) Seen here before its debut n Kcrea
:rore than outwerghing its limited 207 Sioux Scout The Model 201 was Weights: empty equipped 786 kg US Army H-13 passes over a mrr s:
:apabilities. powered by a Continental XT51-T-3 (1,732 ib); maxrmumtake-off1293 kq column of M4 (Sherman-derivec,
In 1947 the USAF (then USAAF) pro- (licence-built Turbom6ca Artouste) (2,850 rb) battle tanks including an M4A3EE
:::ed 28 of the improved Model 47A, turboshaft, The Model 207 was the frrst Dimensions: marn rotor drameter 'EasyEight'.
::wered by 1 17. l-kW ( 1 57-hp) Frank-
-.:. true armed helicopter poweled by
O J35 I piston engrnes, lor servjce the 193 9-kW (260-hp) turbocharsted
='.'aluatron: l5 were designated YR-13, Avco Lycoming TVO-435-A1A piston
.-::e YR-13As were wrnterized for engine, the Sioux Scout featured a re-
::id-reather trials rn Alaska, and the vised cabin seating two in tandem
::-ance of l0 went to the US Navy for small stub wings containlng additional
-',ailatron as HTL-1 trainers Llttle fuel and helping to offload the main
-.i:: ',rras lost by either service in de- rotor in forward flight, and a remotely
- t_-j that the Model 47 was an excel- conrrolled chrn barbetre. containrng
,=: :.achine and the orders beqan to two 7 62-mm (0.3-rn) M60 machine-
__-,r -:- quns, and movable 200" in azimuth,
- ,: US Army's first order was issued with elevation from -45'to +15'
: -:=3 53 berng accepted under the Bell s production ol Model 47s even-
r::-r:-:::on H-138; all US Army ver- tually came to an end ln late 1973, ver-
:. :i -.',-:re later named Sioux srons of the Model 47G-5 bernq the last
-i L --. ,- crocurement began with L2 to be built.
i- --2 --::ine HTL-3 hehcopters, but
The Helicopter Goes lo War
diers, or ergh: s:reichers and one medic, I:
A machine capableof vertical take-off has obvious military qualities, afact would seem iha: :hts aircraft would enable the
recognized by G ermany and the USA in W orld W ar I I. I t needed a few more years of milrtary to develop some rnteresting taciics
development before the helicopterwas reliable enough to go towar. and indeed the first use made of the H-19
seemed to do jLrsi that, Even while rt was on its
origlnal provrng trial in Florrda, the test pilot
one Captain Joseph D, Cooper, was told to
report, with chopper, to Seoul. A field security
detachment had lsolated a crashed Mikoyan-
Gurevich MrG-15 f,ghter on a sand bar behind
enemy lines, and some unsung genius in G-2
(US Army intelligence) had realized that a heli-
copter would be the ideal way of flying in tech-
nicians to strip the MiG of its more interesting
parts, and then to fly out the parts; the techni-
cians had to make their own way back through
enemy lines, Thrs is exactly what happened,
the H-19 perlorming brilliantly in the hands of
Cooper, But that was it, and the H-l9s were
then used only for medevac, except by the US
Marines, who used their HRS versions ior
medevac and utrlrty flrghts, later expanded to
supply and troop drops This use did not catch
on with the rest of the UN forces ltghtrng in
Korea; but interestingly enough, it was to be
the British Navy/Royal Marines who would
show how helicopters could be used in a more
aggressive role.
Meanwhile, while Korea was going on, the
French were having their own problems in
Indo-China, In 1950, French forces had two
Hrller 360s (made in the USA) By the time of
Dien Bien Phu tn 1954 they had 42 choppers, a
mrx of Hillers, and Sikorsky H-Ss and H-19s.
Once again they were used exclusively for
medevac until Dien Bien Phu itsell when there
occurred an incident that totally soured the
French on using helicopters even for medevac,
Though Leonardo da Vincl rs often credited The first helicopter in Koreawas
use of the and in so doing alfected the conduct of the
with the rnvention of the hehcopter concept in humanitarian: the evacuation of wounded troops Algerian war, Very simply, the French used
the last quarter of the 15th century, he was in to the real The Sikorsky R-S proved many of the helicopters wrth Red Cross markings to rescue
fact insprred by children's toys working on the concepfs used later, such as slinging litters to take some downed pilots: such evacuation of non-
slrefcfter cases not able to fit into the small cabins
helicopter pnncrple, and such toys had been oftheday. wounded personnel is contrary to the rules of
oopular rn ancient China where they were war, and while the Viet Mrnh stood for it the first
known as 'bamboo dragonflres', Desprte thts
early start, however, rt took the period up to
World War 1l and the genius of Srkorsky to
produce the first practical mllrtary helicopter,
:he R-4, generally used for rescue work, Since
:he idea had been around for some 500 years, tt
:culd have been expected that the milltary
'..;ould immediately see the incredrble poten-
-al that the helicopter offered. Perhaps inevit-
,l-y the milit"ry did not,
Helicopters were originally seen as berng
-leal for medical evacuation (medevac), but
.:re suited for other roles, They were not
:: ,';erful enough to transport the large quantr-
:s of men and equrpment then needed to
-,','ale war (remember that a well-equipped
:-=,:on of the 1980s could probably outgun a
:':roany of the 1940s). When the Korean War
::'-<e out, Bell 47s were extensively used for
:-:i=-,-ac, but they couid carry only two (poss-
,:--; .rree) stretcher cases at a time. No one
:-=r rcught of using them lor special forces
'.-;: operations, largely because specral
--:::s as such did not exist (except for Brltish
r-:--;1eld security detachmenls, which swan-
:-=i :l:'and the battlefleld doing who knows
l---1,';e',.er. the new Slkorsky S-55 (operated The former escort-carrier turned helicopter- makes a change from her usualASW aircraft load
:',' :-e -S ,A,rmy as the H-19) was an altogether carn'er USS Sicily cruises off Inchon harbour in butforeshadows the helicopter assault ship of
,::l:r trJrcpper', Ii could carry up to I0 sol- I 952. Her complement of USMC HRS helicopters today.
Post-War Helicopters

.::e they later blew two heltcopters out of the

s-q,' Ai this polnt the French stopped chopper
:--ghts, and the use of helicopters in warfare
,-.ent on the back shelf,
in 1956 at the US Army Avration School at
: crt Rucker, Alabama, a certain Colonel Jay
had obtarned permission to form a
Sky Cavalry Platoon', Even though he was able
:o demonstrate the hehcopter's manoeuvrabil-
-:y and potential flrepower, the brass were noi
-mpressed (they were probabiy still reeling
,rom the fact that the tank had replaced the
rorse) and the platoon became known as'Van-
derpool's Fools', It was perhaps smail recom-
pense that Vanderpool's platoon would later in
Vretnam become the US Army's Air Cavalry,
which was one of the most effective units under
American command,
Meanwhile (there were an awful 1ot of wars ;*-*- -
gcing on rn the 1950s), the British had become
er,rbroiled in Malaya, This'Emergency' cannot "**;;q$!!:,#*;l*:l#
be compared strictly with Vietnam or Algeria;
there were far fewer terrorist troops on the
ground; they did not have even the passive
support of the malorrty of the local population;
there was not a corrupt and ahenated 'local'
government in power; and the British were
reasonably popuiar, The British also were
lucky enough to have two men (Generals
Briggs and Templer) who were to prove them-
selves geniuses in the art of counter- Above: On 23July 1953,'somewhereinKorea', a The French armywidely employed the Piaseck
insurgency warfare. The basic princrple was to wounded soldier is evacuated from a front-line H-21 in Algeria during the closing stages of the
isolate the terrorists from therr food suppltes dressing station. The Bell H- l3 helicopterwill have conflict. Using tactics forged in the jungles of
(unwrlling villagers) and to force them to con- the casualty at an airstrip in minutes, and he will be Malaya, the H-2 I s achieved great success jn i:e
centrate ln certain areas, where they could be in a hospital inJapan in a few hours. desert and did much to dispel the French worr.'
destroyed, ovet the use of helicopters after Dien Bten Phu.

' .i:.
-. "


The Helicopter Goes to War

Thrs strategy dld depend on British troops

spendrng long perrods in the jungle, where
supply obvrously became a problem, The RAF
had not shown much interest in helicopters,
and oniy possessed lightweight craft that were
not large enough lor the job But the Royal
Navy, whrch is responsible for resupplyrng the
Royal Marines, seized the opportunities
offered by the hehcopter with both hands,
Royal Marine Commandos hidden away in the
ulu (jungle) could be supphed by hehcopter
easily and efficrently. Small raiding parties
could be easlly airlifted into postion, and heh-
copters bbgan to be used in a far more aggres-
Sive role.
Helicopters inAlgeria
It was a lesson that the French in Algeria
were slow to discover for themselves, Soured
by their experience at Dien Bien Phu, the
French hardly used hehcopers at all untrl the
closlng stages of the Algerian war, The French
initially rehed heavrly on paradrops to pursue
the rebels, a tactic dictated as much by the fact
that the L6gion Etrangdre were amongst the
finest parachute troops in the world as by the The US Marine Corps welcomed the troop- to win its aggressive spurs, was very much a
demands of iocal conditions, It was not until carrying helicopter, seeing in it a means of post-World War II phenomenon. But even dur-
General Challe of the French air force became avoiding the worst aspects of making an rng Brliish operations in the Radfan (up-country
commander-in-chief dunng December 1958 ampftrbjous assault. The use of large numbers of from Aden) during the mid-1960s, paradrops
that heircopters began to come into their own, troop-carrying helicopters such as these of VMR-
26 1 and VMR-262 aboard USS Siboneyenab/ed
were still the method of chorce of getting infan-
Using the pnnciples established by Briggs and coastal defences to be bypassed by'vertical try rn place quickly, aithough the SAS on one
Templer in Malaya, Challe developed a hlqrhly envelopment'. occasion sent in a pathfinder team (to prepare
mobrle helicopter force that could act as rein- the drop zone) by chopper, only to rediscover
forcement for para operations or could be used that a few determined enemy troops (in this
in areas where paradrops were impossible. ter speed and mobrlrty could make up lor few- case Yemeni tribesmen) could make a para-
Culminating in Operation 'Jumelle' in the er troops, particularly since those (fewer) drop very uncomfortable, not to mention
Kabyle mountains in July 1959, these tactics troops would be equtpped with vastly rm- dangerous. On thls particular occasion it was
proved extremely effective, bui by then rt was proved weaponry. The French had successiul- the Royal Marines who got into position first,
too late, The politrcrans had decided, and once ly experimented with the firing of rockets from having walked there, which did not do very
again men, women and children on both sides hehcopters during the Algerian war, and much for the traditional rivalry between para
proved to have died in vain. obviously machine-guns could also be used. lt and marinel
The debate about how helicopters should be is easy to see why such a controversy should
used had been going on since the end of World take piace rn the first rnstance: to develop the A W e s tland W hir lwind ( lice nc e - bui It S ikor s ky
War IL Thrs debate was between those who helicopter in the latter role would and did re- S-55) is seen aboard HMS Albion during the S ue z
saw heiicopters as flying ambulances or supply quire an enormous financial commitment in operations of 1956. Helicopters had become part
trucks, and those who saw helicopters as terms of equrpment and training, And counter- of a carrier's regular complement, performing airl
heralding a new type of warfare, where qrea- insurgency warfare, where the helicopter was sea rescue lasks as well as general utility duties.
Post-War Helicopters
A Bristol Sycamore deploys British troops in the
battle against EOKA terrorists in Cyprus. The
helicopter gave the British a great advantage in
counter-insurgency operations, enabling small
unifs lo be rnserted withoutwarning in formerly
inaccessible country.

However, the SAS and Royal Marines were

to use choppers to good effect during opera-
tions in the Trucial Oman States; by this time
the helicopter's value had been established,
even though it was berng mainly used by spe-
cial forces. For the Brrtrsh at least it took Borneo
to establish how vital the helicopter could be .*
with regular troops, i-€d
The Malaysian Conflict
The 'confrontation' between Indonesia and
the fledgling far-flung country of Malaysta was
a war in all but name, It happened because the
establishment of Malaysia ran counter to In-
donesia's own territorial ambitions, and the In-
donesian president, Sukarno, was under great
pressure (notably from his forelgn minister) to
export Indonesia's own brand of socialism,
And, of course, there is nothrng like a good,
patriotrc war to divert one's citizens from the
fact that there are grave problems at home.
Accordingly, Indonesia openly supported dis-
sident, minority groups in Borneo, large tracts
of which Indonesia claimed for itself. Sukarno
declared a 'Confrontairon' and it was left to the
British to sort the mess out, because at that time policeman and one Border Scout. The Britrsh wasted on the Americans. Almost too cr=:. -
the Malaysian armed forces were no match for retaliated swiftly. A main force was sent to reliance was placed upon helicopters in i-.:.-
the Indonesians, (The Indonesian marines, for recapture Irong Jawi and, secure in the know- nam, and no amount of military hardw-are :=:-
example, were an extremely well trained ledge that the lndonesians wouid not stick make up for political inierference, misma:a;:-
force, which probably accounts for the lndone- around, other smaller forces were helicop- ment and stupidrty, But many Britrsh obse r,'=:s
stan reluctance to use them againsi Brrtish tered into position to cut their line of retreat, felt that the Air Cavalry was one of, ri r:. .:-=
troops except rn the very beginning: rt is al- The operation worked, and thereafter the tech- most efficient arm in Vietnam, It was ihe:, ::--.
ways embarrassing to have one's best troops nique ol ambushing retreating Indonesians the hehcopter gmnship was developed ar:d :-=.
defeated,) The problems were formldable, In- played an ever important part rn winning the helicopters won the respect and alfec:tc: :- -:-=
tttally, there were only flve Brrtish battalions to war. average soldier, Indeed, one of the fa-.-:-:,,=
cover 1600km (1000 miles) of jungle frontier, By the end of 1965 there were 14,000 Britrsh sayings rn Vietnam was 'give me a hLrss t:l j:
and the Indonesian troops could and did cross troops in Borneo, and because the hehcopter me a favour', huss being HUS (Hehcop:er -:"-
at any point they chose. Extreme mobility was allowedsuch mobility, most of themwere com- ity, Slkorsky)
demanded, and the chopper really came into bat troops. The Indonesians tended to send And now the rocket-armed heliccc::: --=
its own, Border lntelligence was gathered by parties of between 100 and 250 men across the seen as berng an ellective defence r;:.---'
SAS mobile patrols and by statrc forward in- border rn an attempt to expand Indonesian tanks, particularly in Europe.
telligence offlcers (FIOs) based in friendly territory on the basis of occupation, British It seems only apt that the two mcs- r.l::-.
kampongs, and usually guarded by a small de- bases close to the border had to be big (up to mrlitary weapons (tank and chopper' s-t-'. :
tachment of Ghurkas, (The majority of these company strength) to contain these tncursions, be pitted against each other: do nc: ;:: s'-:
FIOs were rn fact NCOs from the Intelligence but at the same time smali enough to be de- prrsed rf the chopper wirrs,
Corps, and when this was pointed out to the fended by a platoon because of manpower
War Office, it rnsisted that they be cailed for- hmrtations. Again, the chopper provided the
By the 1960s the helicopter had become an
,vard intelligence non:commissioned officers, key because a platoon could now be rein- essenfJalcomponent of the military scene. I ts use
or FINCOs, and the I Corps suddenly became forced to company levei in a very short space in combatvaried from themassed Air Cavaln,
hiown as the 'finks'. Stll], it made someone in of time. operations inVietnam to re-supply missjons ior
fie War Offlce happy,) British lessons learnt in Borneo were not single posts in the Radfan, as by this Belvedere.
'Hearts andminds'
FIOs and I'lNCOs allke did a superb job of
border watching, but could not have done so
without the use of the chopper, They were used
icr resupply, for evacuating sick villagers, for
iropping SAS patrols in otherwise inaccessi-
i:1e areas (or at least, accessible but too tate)
=d, on at least one occasion, flying a pig into a
<anpong as a qift from the British on the occa-
s-:n of the marriage of the village chiels
:=:ghter. 'Hearts and minds' played a vrtal role
:- Bcrneo, and those teams ofRoyai Engineers
-:: spent months on the border clearrng hell-
::c:er landing sites in likely areas also found
--r::e to build dams and fix the village water
-:,: the end of September 1963 150 Indone-
:---: crossed the border and attacked Lhe vil-
-=;: cf Long Jawi, kiliing one Gurkha, one

Piasecki H-zI
Developed from the US Navy's HRP-2,
the Piasecki PD-22 tandem-rotor heli-
The Air Rescue Sewice took the
initial production batch of 34 H-21s
copter prototype (US Air Force de- and christened the type 'Workhorce'.
srgination XH-2I) was first flown on I l TheH-2lAswere powered by a932-
April 1952, Eighteen YH-2 I helicopters kW (1,250-hp) engine, giving a
had been ordered in 1949 for USAF max imum take - of[ w eight of over
evaluation, these being followed by an s000 kg(t1,s00 tb).
initial production batch of 32 H-2IA
helicopters, named Workhorse in
USAF service, For use by the Military supplied to West Germany, serving
Au Transport Service Arr Rescue Ser- with the army's Heeresflregerbataillon
nce, the H-2lAs were each powered 300, The H-21C, redesiqnated CH-2IC
by a derated 932,1-kW (1,250-hp) in July 1962, had an underfuselage
Wright R-1820-103 engine; the first sling hook for loads of up to 1814 kg
flew in October 1953, Sx more were (4,000 lb), Productton deliveries were
burlt to USAF contract but suppled to made between September 1954 and
Canada under the Military Assistance March 1959, later helicopters acquir-
Prognam. ing the company designation Model43
The second production variant was when the Piaseckr Helicopter Cor-
the H-21B, which used the fu1I power of poration became the Vertol Aircraft
the 1062.6-kW (1,425-hp) R-1820-103 to Corporation in 1956. The H-2iA and
cover an increase in maximum take-off H-21B retrospectively became the
weisht from 52 16 ks ( I 1,500 ]b) to Model 42.
6804kq (15,000 lb). Some 163 were Two turboshaft conversions of H-
built, mainly for Troop Carrier Com- ZiC airframes were the Model 7l (H-
mand, and these had autopilots, could 2lD), with two Ceneral Electric T5B
carry external auxiliary fuel tanks, and engines flrst flown in September 1957,
were provided wrth some protective and the Model 105 which had two Avco
armour. They could catry 20 troops in Lycoming T53s. From the latter was Powerplant: one 1062, 6-kW ( 1, 425-hp) Weights: empty 3629 kg (8,000 lb);
the assault role. designed the Vertol 107 (Boeing Ver- Wright R- 1820- 103 Cyclone radial maximum take-off 6668 kq ( 14, 700 lb)
The US Army's equivalent was the tol H-46 series) piston engine Dimensions: rotor diameter each
H-2IC Shawnee, of which 334 were Performance: maximum speed 13.41 m t44 ft0 in); lenqlh, rotors
built, This total included 98 for the Specification 21 I km/h (131 mph.1 atsea level turning26 3i m(BOTt4 in); herght
French army, i0 for the French nalry PiaseckiH-2lCShawnee service ceiling 2362 m (7,750 ft); range 4.70 m (J5 il 5 in) rotor disc area, tolal
and sx for Canada; 32 Shawnees were Type: troop/cargo transpofi 644 km (400 miles) 282.52m2 (3,041.07 sq ft)

%= fi"re"ki HUp Retriever

Left:After the Sperry autopilot
trials fulfilled every
expectation, the HUP-2 was
developed and 193 supplied to
the U S N avy. T he s ignifi cantly
im proved dir ection al stability
of the HUP-2 enabled the
desr'grners fo dr'sp ense with the
endplate fins.

Retriever lands on the fantail oI
the US Navy crujser USS Helena
(CA-75). Although most HUPs
were assigned to search and
rescue mr'ssion s, a number
were fitted with dunking sonar
The 'flyinq banana' shape ofthe HRP-I e quipme nt f or anti- s u bm arine
n'as discarded in the Piasecki Model warfare.
PV-14, of which two XIUP-I prototypes
were ordered for evaluation rn the res- the French navy. The US ArmY
cue and aircraft-carrier planeguard ordered an initial batch of an improved
roles. This model was developed rnto version in 1951, this beinqr knorm as
:he PV-I8, US Navy designation IIUP-I the H-25A Army Mule. Powered bY the
ReEiever, which featured angled end- R-975-46A ensine, the H-25A intro-
plate fins on the horzontal tail surfaces duced power-boosted controls,
mounted to the rear rotor pylon. Some strengthened floors and enlarqed car-
32 HUP-1s, each powered by a single go doors. Fitty similar machtnes were
3:1 S-kW (525-hp) Continental R-975- transferred to the US Navy under the
3i engnne, were built for the US NavY designation IIUP-3, three servinq with
ceinreen February 1949 and i952; the the Royal Canadian Narry's Squadron
1si squadron, HU-2, took delivery of VH-21, Under the unr-fred desiqnatlon
-= rnitial aircraft in February 1951. system introduced in September 1962,
Successful Sperry autopilot trials in the HUP-2 and HUP-3 were redesig-
XHJP-I led to development of the nated IJH-258 and UH-25C.
HIIP-2, whose improved directional
allowed the endplate fins to Specification
te deieted, and the more Powerful Piasecki IIUP-3
li-1. l-kw (550-hp) R-975-46 engine Type: utility/cargo hehcopter
r,-as fltted. A total of 339 was built, in- Powerplant: one 410,1-kW (550-hP)
:.:cirnq 193 for the US Nalry, A number Continental R-975-46A radial piston
:- these were designated HUP-2S engine 547 km (340 miles) 10.67 m (35 ft 0 in); lenqrth, rotors
;' f,tted wrth dunkrng sonar equip- Performance: maxtmum speed Weights: empty 1782 kq (3,928 lb); turnlng 17,35 m (56 ft 1 I in); height
:-::t ior anlL-submarine operatlons, 169 km/h (105 mph); service ceilinQt maximumtake-off2767 kg (6, 100 lb) 3.Bl m(12 tt 6 in): rotordrscarea, lolal
S:ne 15 IIUP-2s were also supplted to 3048 m(10,000 ft); maximumrangte Dimensions: rotor diameter, each 178.76 mz (1.924.23 sq ft)

ffi ititt", Model 360, UH-12 and OH-23 Raven Post-War Helicopters
Hiller Helicopters Inc, was formed in
i942 for the development and produc
tion of rotary-wing aircraft, Early work
on the Hiller Model XH-44, uH-4 Com-
muter, and the IIH-S which rntroduced
a newly-developed 'Rotor Matic' rotor
control system, led to the Hiller Model
360 prototype. The company's flrst pro-
duction helicopter followed and this,
known as the Hiller UH-I2 since Hrller
had become part of United Hehcop-
ters, was of simple construction, incor-
poratinq a two-blade main rotor and a
two-blade tail rotor on an upswept
boom. The design was highly success-
fu1, beinq built extensively in two- and
three-seat conigurations {br both civrl
and military use, and an early Model 12
was the first commercral helicopter to
record a transcontinental flioht across
the United States, More tian 2,OOO
were built before production ended in
1965, some 300 of this total being ex-
ported, and throughout this period the
power and capability of the helicopter
was steadrly improved,
The commercial UH-I2A to uH-t2D
became the OH-23A to OH-23D Raven
respectively for service with the US 23Gs which it operated with the de- rently from thrs companv rnclude the Overshadowed to someextentby the
fumy, and the US Navy acquired UH- signation CH-l12 Nomad, and the UH-lzE a four-seat UH-i2E4 and rur Bell and Sikorsky desrgng the Hiller
l2As as HTE-I and HTE-2. The UH-I2E Royal Navy used a number of ex-US bine-powered equivalents desrgnated H-23 made a significant contribution
was basically a dual control Navy HTE-2s under the desrgnation lrH-I2ET and UH-t2E4T respeCrively. to helicopter operations in the
versron of the OH-23D and was burlt Hiller HT.Mk2. These have as powerplant a 313.2 kW Korean war. This example has j ust
also as the military OH-23G, A lengr- At the height of UH-12lOH-23 pro- (420-shp) Allison 250-C20B turboshalt collected casualties fromYoju for
thened-fuselage four-seat civil UH- duction Hiller was acquired by the which is deratedto 224.5 kW (301 shp) evacuation to a casualty station.
l2E4 was produced as the military OH- Fairchild Stratos Corporation to form in this application.
23F, and later civil versrons with up- Farrchild Corporation, but in 1973 a i32 km/h (82 mph); service ceiling
rated powerplant included the UH- 12E new Hiller Aviatron company was Specification 4025 m (13,200 ft); ranqe 330 kn (205
variants suffixed L3, L4, SL3 and SL4. lormed. acquffrng fiom Fairchrld de- HillerOH-23D Raven miles)
OH-23s were exported to Argentma, sign rights and production toolinq for Type: three seal mrl tary helicopte r
i Weights:emptyB24 kq(1 816 lb):
Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Cuba, Domr- the UH-12E, and initially continued to Powerplant: one 24O 9-kW (lll-'6p.1 maximum take off 1225 kg (2,700 lb)
- nica, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexrco, provide support for the worldwide Avco Lycomrns VO-540-A iB flat-iix Dimensions: main rotor drameter
Morocco, the Netherlands, ParaEuay, fleet of UH- 12 helicopters, In the mid- prston engine
Switzerland, Thailand and Urugmay. 1970s production of the UH-12E was Performalce: naxrmum speed
10,82 m (35 ft 6 in); lenqth 8.53 m (28 i
0 in;: height 2.97 m (9 il 9 rn,; mdn ror::
The Canadian army acquired OH- restarted, and versions available cur- 153 km h (95 mph ): cruising speed disc area 92.4 7 m'z (995.38 sq fr)

asffi: usA
ffi-r A.t r

Known to the US Army as the H-19

Chickasaw, the Sikorsky S-55 was
generally similar in layout to the
Iater models of the H-5 series but
had a novel engine arrangement,
mounting the powerplant in the
nose. This provided maximum ca.bin
space, the long extension shaft
being carried diagonally up to the
main rotor gear drive,
Expanding its horizons with ever lar- were the HRS-l and HRS-2, 60 and 101 I9B) models; and 30i US Army H-ISD
ger and more operationally useful heli- of wluch, respectively, were used for (UH-I9D) transpofis, There was only
copters, Slkorsky flew the prototype US Marines transport. Ten of the latter civil productron of the S-5SA, with its
YH- 19 (company designation Sikorsky were diverted to the Royal Navy and 596 6-kW (800-hp) R-1300 engine, and
$55) on 10 November 1949 with the named Whirlwind HAR.Mk 21. Ten the S-55C, which combined R-1340
ltO.I kW (550 hp) of a Wriqht R-1340- observatron model HO4S- I hehcooters power with the downward-canted tail-
-i piston engine. This was located in also joined the US Navy, althougir the boom (or broken back) introduced
--:-e nose for ground-level access and US Coast Guard failed to adopt the mlh the H-19B. fhe proposed HRS-4
-: provide maximum cabin space for planned HO4S-2. There followed a wrth a 764 3-kW (1,025-hp) Wrrghr R-
:p to 10 passenqers. The USAF fol- series of models powered by a 522,0- lB20 did not materral.ze, Sikorsky built
,:'r;ed flve trials YH-l9s by a contract kW (700 hp) Wrlqht R-1300-3, com- almost 1,300 S-55 series he[conters for
::: 50 H-I9A
helicopters, some of prising 105 US Marine HRS-3 (later CH- crvil and mrlttary use at home and
were converted for SAR as the l9E) hehcopters; 79 ASW HO4S-3 (UH- ebroad, but this total was swelled by
S'H-19A (later re-desiqnated HH- l9A), l9F) aircraft, including 15 supplied to Iicensed manutacrure in Japan of 44 by
--: US Army bought 72 of the H-I9C the Royal Navy as Whirlwind HAS.Mk Mitsubishr in France by Sud-Est; and
-=:er UH-I9C) type and named it 22; 30 US Coast Guard HO4S-3G (HH- in the UK by Westland, The last-
Ctrickasaw, These had 447.4-kW (600- l9G); 264 USAF H-I9B (UH-I9B), of mentioned beqan wrth Wriqht R-1340
:: ?-1340 engdnes, Naval equivalents which some became SAR SH-I9B (HH- engines with the Westland Whirlwind
Sikorsky S-55 (continued)

Sikorskg S-55
Searchand Rescue
Helico fer

TheUSAF used the majority of itsH-19s to equip

the Military Air Transport Service (MATS) Search
and Rescue helicopter squadrons, desigmating
aircraft assigned to this role SH-J9s. ?fiese
helicopters were fitted with a hydraulic-electric
hoist on the starboard side of the fuselagejust
above the door. Using this, aslingcould be
lowered to a maximum distance of 30.4 8 m ( I 00 ft).

'i-" -'' '! -

Sikorsky S-55 (continued)

turbine power, typically the Sikorsky Dimensions: main rotor diameter

S-55T with a 626 4'kW (840-hP) 16. 15 m (53 ft 0 rn); fuselaqe length
ArResearch TSE-331. 12 BB m (42 ft3 in); herqht4.06 m(13 ft
4 rn) main rotor disc area 204 95 m'
Specification (2,206. 19 sq ft)
SikorskyH-I98 Armament: none
Type: t0-passenqerutiltty helicopter
Powerplant: one 596,6-kW (B0O-hp)
Wright R- 1300-3 radial pston engire Settling down on to the surlace of
Performance: maximum speed Long Island Sound near BridgePort,
180 km/h (1 12 mph); cruisrnq speed Connecticut, thisUSAF H-19 shows
146 krn/h (91 mph); initial climb rate off its amphibious landinggear
31I m(1,020 ft)perminute; ranete during a testflight.ln the medical
579 km (360 miles) evacuation role theH-19 could carry
Weights: empty 23Bl kq (5,250 lb); eight litter patients and one
maximum take-off3583 kq (7,900 lb) attendant.

: Sikorsky 5-56
The ungrainly Sikorsky 5-56 was pro- loaned to the US Army in 1954 for trials
duced in response to a 1950 require- under the desiqnation YH-37, as this
ment of the US Marine Corps for a was followed between 1956 and MaY
transport helicopter capable of airlift- 1960 by 94 production H-37A Mojave
inq 20 troops or the equivalent in car- helicopters All except four were mod-
jeeps, Four prototypes,
gto, such as two ified from June 1961 onwards to H-378
designated XHRZS- I, made their initial standard, with Lear automatic stabi-
flights from lB December 1953 on- lization equipment (to permit ioading
wards, provinq the manufacturer's flrst and unloadingt at the hover), a rede-
trrvin-enqine helicopter to be one of the signed cargo door and crashproof fuel
fastest (and largest) rn the West at that tanks. These were known as CH-378
time, Further claims to distrnction by from 1962, and the programme natural-
the arrcraft were its rare employment 1y included those based in GermanY
of a retractable landinq qear, and from 1959 onwards, Commercial suc-
equipment with night flyinq aids. In- cess eluded the 5-56, even thougth its
stallatron of engines in outboard pods dynamic and control systems were
provided stowage for the mainwheels, adopted by the later 5-60, 5-64, 5-65
kept drive shafls short qnd reduced and the abortive Westland Westmlns-
obstruc ions in the 53.8-mr (1,900-cu lt) ter,
cargto hold to a minimum, Entered via
hydraulically-powered clamsheli Specification
doors or a smaller side door, the hold Sikorsky CH-378 Mojave
included a winch hoist with monorail. Type: rransport helicopter
Deliveries of55 HR2S-I helicopters (36 Powerplant: two Pratt & WhitneY R-
more were cancelled) to the US 2800 Double Wasp piston engines
Marines began in 1956 for equipment each rated at 14 16,8 kW ( 1,900 hp) for
of three helicopter transport (medium) normal, or 1566.0 kW (2,100 hP) for
squadrons, and these aircraft were re- emerQtency runnlng
Cesignated CH-37C in 1962. TVro more Performance: maximum sPeed normaltake-off 14061 kq (31,000 ]b) The Sikorsky 5-56 was the largest
-rere produced as the HR2S-IW air- 209 krri/h (130 mph) at sea level; initial Dimensions: main rotor diameter helicopter to become operational
borne early warning model with a bel- climb rate 277 m (910 ft) per minute; 2L95 m(72 ft 0 in); fuselage lenqrth with IJS forces up to the end of 1961.
iyr-mounted AN/APS-2OE radar scan- hovering ceiling 335 m (1, 100 ft) out of 19 76 m(64 ft l0 rn) height6.TI n(Q2ft Unusually the HRZS- l, as itwas
rer and additional operatrngr crew, but ground effect; service cerling 2652 m 0 rn) mainrotordjsc area3TB 24 m' known to the USMC, featured
(8,700 ft); ranqe 233 km (145 miles) (4,071.5 sq ft) retractable landing gear and night-
-arled to stimulate a production order, flying aids.
lu,lore successful was the aircraft Weights: empty 9385 kq (20,690 lb); Armament: none

warning models fitted with APIAPS- Above: Equipping three USMC machines, designated H - 37 M oj ave'
IleS-55 wasprimarily designed as a
From 1 96 1 the army modified their
x ansport helicopter to US MC 20E radar in a massjYe bulbousnose transport squadrons from 1956, the
Although auseful concePt, the AEW 5-56 uzas subse quently evaluated by H-37s by fitting Lear automatic
specif ca fi ons, bu t S ikor s kY also
modelfailed toattract any orders. theUS Army,which then ordered94 s tab iliz a tion equipment.
produced two HR2S- I W earlY

Korecrn Rescue Post-War Helicopters

Popularly known as a'Whirlybird' and at the time regarded with considerable in iO5-km,/h (65-mph) wrnds, pulled both sea-
scepticism in some quarters, the helicopter soon won acceptance in the Korean men to safety. The R-4 (later H-4) and R-5 (H-5).
War. Ditched pilots could not survive long in the icy water off Korea, and rescue the latter being Sikorskys S-51 and the US
helicopters proved invaluable. Before long the helicopter's potentialfor clandesfine Navy's HO2S/HO3S, were the real pioneers of
air rescue in the days before the arrival of the
missions was also noted, and the C IA acquire d an all- black H - I 9. H- 19, The first rescue from a carrier at sea took
place on 2 November 1948, when a Grumman
ist Lieutenant Joseph M, McConnell Jr F-86 The very idea of accomplishlng air rescue F8F Bearcat pilot from the USS Leyte (CY-32)
Sabre piiot ofthe 39th Fighter Squadron, even- with a whirlybird (a popular term in the 1950s) went into the drink and was plucked up by
:ually shot down 16 MiGs to become the rank- was new and far from ful1y accepted, The US Ensign Robert Lynch in an HO3S-l ofsquadron
ing ace of the Korean War, but on 12 April 1953 Air Force's rescue misslon had been central- HU-2,
(moments after he had despatched kill number ized in the late I940s under the Air Rescue The H-S/HO3S- I (built in the UK as the West-
eiqht) it seemed that McConnell's war, and his Service (ARS) headquartered at Scott Field, land Dragonfly) was the principal helicopter
life, were finished. The Sikorsky H-l9A orbit- Illlnois, and a sloqan boldly proclaimed the avarlable to the US Army, US Alr Force and US
ing over the Yellow Sea island of Cho-do, a ARS hope 'that others may live', But ARS was Navy rn the early part of the Korean conflict.
silvery, bulbous helicopter of the 3rd Air Res- equipped with the Grumman SA-16 Albatross, Powered by a 600-hp (447.4-kW) Pratt & Whit-
cue Squadron, was an unproven and not very Boeing,SB-17 Flylng Fortress, Boeing $B-29 Su- ney R- 1340 reciprocating engine driving three-
reassurinq machine: few men really trusted perfortress and other fixed-wrng types, all de- blade main and tall rotors, the 48-ft (14 6-m)
helicopters yet, and fewer still were prepared srgned to airdrop supplies, food, medical gear Srkorky H-5 barely had room for an extra crew-
to entrust their lives to it. McConnell had no and rafts, and expected to loiter overhead until man to operate its horst, Its slim, narrow firsel-
choice: his F-86E Sabre (51-2753), Beauleous vessels or ground parties could reach the vic- age had no space for the person being res-
Bulch, had been riddled with 37-mm cannon tim, Fixed-wing aircraft provided the range cued, so external litters were fitted. It was ex-
fire from a MiG; smoke was seeping up into his and endurance to fly long rescue missions, and tremely vulnerable to North Korean small-arms
cockpit; and his wingman was shoutrng at him the 5A'-16 could land on water to take aboard flre. The H-5/HO3S-1 is best remembered by
about a long tongnre of fire shooting from his the sick, the stranded and the shot-dowri. Heli- mrihons who watched Mickey Rooney die rn a
exhaust and telling him to punch out, He might copters vlbrated furiously, guzzled fuel, often hail of gunfire trying to rescue William Holden
reach the helicopter, a few miles south of the su-ffered radro faiiure, and lacked the 'staying in the Korean War film based on James
bitterly-contested Yalu river battle zone power' to carry out a 1ong, difflcult search and Michener's The Bridges at Toko-n.
krown as MiG Alley: he might reach the chop- rescue (SAR) operation. As recently as a few
per, but he would never get home, days before the 25 june 1950 outbreak of Ko- US Navy helicopter rescue
rean fighting, Congress was scrutinizing prop- A real-life Rooney, Lleutenant (JG) Charles
Successfullift osed USAF helicopter purchases wrth a crrtical Jones of squadron HU-1, was hit by small-arms
Tbrenty minutes later, after a harrowrng ejec- eye. One legislator is quoted as saying 'lt fire in an HO3S-l near Sariwon, North Korea, on
tion, McConnell was being dragged through doesn't have wingsl'. 23 August 1950 His aircraft leaking fuel and
freezing-cold water, then lifted aloft, rn a yoke Igor Sikorsky piloted the first American heli- hydrauhcs, Jones miraculously nursed the
dropped by the H-19. He lived to fight again. copter, the VS-300 in 1939. A few Sikorsky chopper 160 km (100 miies) south before drtch-
He was extraordinarily lucky. Arr rescue with R-4s, fragile craft wrth barely room for a pas
any chopper, under any conditions, was a new sengter, and nicknamed Hoverfly, arrived in TheSikorsky R-5 made the firstrescue using a
and outlandish notion in those days, Few re- Burma before VJ-Day, The first actual rescue hoist off the US coast in I 945 , and the Navy's
HO 35 - 1 s, like thrs mode,l seen h er e, w er e involvd
member, now, the terrible clatter or violent using a hoist was achieved on 29 November
in the first rescue operations in Korea. Although
shaking of those early rotary-wing craft. Few 1945 when an oil barge with two seamen broke the US Navy's carrier-based HO3S- I s were
remember that communrcation was difficult, loose in heavy seas near the Sikorsky plant at withdrawn in J anuary I 95 1 and replaced by
that the mere act of finding a man to be rescued Bridgeport, Connecticut. Company test pilot Piasecki HUPs, some continued to work from other
took brash, 'seat of the pants' flying. Dimitry Jimmy'Vrner, flylng an R-SD (43-46642) Navyvessels.
.. :

.--j rn ihe Han river the frrst loss of a rescue vessels. rncapacitated, and that took only moments in
:--:--::pter in the confllct A shipmate, I:ieute- Not wrshrng to share actor Rooney s fllm fate, the Yellow Sea, the helicopter crewman had to
:-..,-. l:hn Thornton, shot down rn another helicopter crews were happtest when the leap into the water to put the pilot in the sling.
.. - j S - nonths later became a prisoner of war stricken pilot of a Grumman Panther, McDon- Airman John Crawford did just that for Lieute-
.-: ',-,, :ird a hallyears Though the US Navys nell Banshee or Douglas Skyraider could get nant (JG) John Abbot on 22lanuary 1952, know-
jng 'har he would have Lo warl ln rcy wa'er
.-r: :r i:ased HO3S-t were replaced in Janu clear of the heavily-defended enemy land
.:" ,::- cy the Piasecki HUP-I some con- mass and drtch at sea. Even then the rescuer wrthin range of small-arms fire and hope hts
-:.-=: .: rperate from other US Navy surface took a terrible risk If the man in the water was pilot could deposlt Abbot on a nearby ship,
Post-War Helicopters

The helicopter has proved well suited to

clandestine operations. These began in Korea,
when this Sikorsky H- 19 salvaged much of the
wreckage of a downed Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15
ftom an isolated area behind enemy lines. The
salvage ofthe Soviet aircraft gave British and
American intelligence personnel an insight into
the machine that had plagued the UN forces since
its dramatic arrival over the Korean front.
Wreckage of at least two further MiG-l5s was
subsequently recovered by Royal Navy and US
helicapters, and two intact examples were later
obtained for study by defecting Polish and Korean

carrying or loitering capability It rr,.as r,.:.=

into actron in Korea reachrngt stateslcie _: _

al Air Command untts (the frrst being a. _....

and later its H-19s, were fly1ng from Korean ley AFB, V-rgtn-a r only in rare lg5l
bases, The first helicopter rescue ofa pilot from H-19 he[copter crews of the 3rd ARS _, '- .

behrnd enemy llnes in Korea was accom- fleld tents or, at times, metal-slab Burle: : -,.
plished by Lreutenant Paul W van Boven ofthe ings at bases like K- 14 (Krmpo AB near S - .
3rd ARS, who successfully retrieved Captain
- Their helicopters were serviced ur:-.:: . l
Fooert f. Wayne on 4 September 1950. most primitive of conditrons, fuelled frc:--,-.. : .
Enterthe H-I9 held pumps and maintained out-of ::-:.
under tarpauhn. Whrle a hgh et prlo' _. _

It was a quantum jump from the H-5 which home after 100 mrssions, rne he ccr '
rescued Wayne to the H- 19 which dragged Joe served a l3-monrh Lour. Iong enouql- .. ... .

McConnell up out of the Yellow Sea, The H-19 hrs prospects for survival problema:r:=
had made its first flrght l0 November 1949 and The H-l9snere ilown in searrnq r _ .. -
was powered by the Pratt & Whitney Wasp in the s.lmmer aro rn sleet ano :t. '- .

R-1340 It was large enough to carry people winter Korea is prone to gale-force ',-'-:'. .. _.
and,/or payload, Its range of 483 km (300 mrles) both seasons, and at times the weath:t . .. .
was scarcely dramatic but represented an im- poor that the choppers could not erei a.. - -
provement over that of rts predecessor peninsula's high mountain ranges \,lrl . ,-.
After the inrtial months of seesaw irghttng, fighler aces wore whrsked oack -'
followed by China's November 1950 entry into hrch vrsroili y excursions duobeo r ' .

the Korean War, the confllct stabrlized by mid, (rest and recuperation), whrle hehcc.: _-:
1951, the battle ltne berng lrttle changed lrom cue prlots remarned Ln rhe field s ru r'-..
rhen :nrrl rhe 27 July 1953 armisrrce The hrghly mud or rce or n rndstorms or al. -h r e . - :

specia--zed job of escorting helicop'ers -n'o ARS H-19s were lost in incidents ai.r-.- =_
Communist terrain at flrst fell upon the North the simple dtffrculty of maintainrng :::
American F-82 Twin Mustang and later the
Lockheed F-80, Fighters drd not always protect ClAoperations
the choppersfromharm however andone H-5 By the time a stalemate led to se..-:::'= ' .
was shot down by a MrG-15. The H-19 ofiered the Korean confl1ct, the H-19 and -:: r: ...
improved range and endurance but litt1e im- variants were in widespread use .4.. ,:.-. , .-
provement in terms of vulnerability to small YH-19, orrgrna-ly a servrce-'esl cr-..; . ..
arms AA and MiG attack But as many as four moved to the battle zone, painted ai_-.,. ,-, - '
rescued airmen could be hoisted aboard an devoidof rnsignia wasusedinCIAi:::- : ,- -.-
H-19 and a little-known fact is that some of them lines operations, The US Nar,ry HC-S- - . ,:
couid shoot back Commander Howard Marine HRS-I were rn rmdespreai ,.:= -
Wheeler, an expert on armed helicopters 'ime ol the 1953 armrsrice and ,. .
notes that the H-19 was the lirst chopper to = =-
to transport negotiators to ihe tr..c: s_.= . . ,
- ::ld f,nd hrm before he froze to death carry a door-mounted 12.7-mm (0,5 rn) qun. munlom,

. -:-< 30 minutes and earned Crawford the Sikorsky's rather ungainly H-19 (the civrlian The earher H-5 inspired So,le. -:.., .' .
.'.:: nEhest Amerrcan award for valour, the S-55 US Navy HO4S-i and US Marine Corps producedacopy, theYakovleu I.... , -
- .:SS. HRS- I and later manufactured in the UK as the turned out to be unsuccessful E=r=, :,:
= -.,S lrlavys achievements notwlthstand Westiand Whirlwind) saved 13 downed air- shoolrng stopped in Korea ..
-s the US Air Force which racked up men in the 1950-3 Korean struggle and per- Force H- l9s were turned or,'er :: : ::: --
. :-:lccpter combat rescue. The 3rd Arr formed various roles other than rescue for the inlndo-China Onedecadeane:---: ; .:- :
= j=tuadron had moved from Hrckam
. US Army and US Marrnes. It may have been the handful of H-19s was str1l bei::r -.=-'
: =. -.'--L to lohnson AB, Japan, when the irrst genuinely practical military helicopter. It South Vietnamese atr iorce a: '.:.= := ;
: r1: tc shoot, Soon the squadron's H-Ss, was certainly the frrst with any signiflcant load- 'he American i-voh -m -. - '
I tfir nni-t 'Hare'
:': :-l it had become clear to the
' A semi-derelict example of the Mil
S:;-:t leadership that helicoPters Mi - I'Hare' is shown in Finnish
;r::-i be necessary for many military markings. T he'H are' was a very
tasks, and a speciflcation for a good fir st-generation helicopter but
-seat general-purpose helicopter cried out for {urther develoPment
-r;:s rssued. One of three design and a turbine powerplant. The
.'..l:aux asked to produce helicopter designwas updated to become the
i:sr;ms was that of Mikhail L, Mil, MirMi-z.
-r:-:se last prenous desiqm had been
--:-e A-15 autogtyro of 1938, The first pro- ing the production run, from 100 hours
::1,pe. desigrnated GM-I, flew in au- in 1951, to 500-600 hours in 1956, and to
::r:r: 1948 and was the first Soviet pro- 1,000 hours in 1960.
::cron he[copter of the classic sing- The Mi-] also started the record-
r=-rctor layout, It was selected for pro- breaking tradition which has typtfied
i:ctron over the twin-rotor Bratukhln Soviet hehcoptet development setting
rompetitor and single-rotor Yakovlev up variety of ciass records tn the late
Yak-100. The Soviet air force demons- 1950s, Long-distance records of up to
rated the type for the first trme rn 1951 I224krn (761 miles) were set, as well Union, and manufacture of the tYPe 140 kr/h (BZ mph); hoverinq ceilinQt
as aspeedof i41.2 km/h (87,7 mph) in a paved the way for Polish production of 2000 m (6,562 ft); ranse 590 km (367
- fte Mil Mi-lT, gven the NATO re- miles)
pcrirng name 'Hare', 1000-km (62l-mile) closed circurt, the later Mi-2.
Production of the Mi-] in the Sonet Weights:empty 1760 kq (3,880 lb);
Fioat-equipped (MIIP) and trainer
Union tailed off rn 1956-8, being qra- Specification normal loaded 2400 kg (5,29 I 1b);
{Mi-lU) versions of the basic Mi-17 MilMi-t maximumtake-off2550 kq (5,622 lb)
-r;ere produced in quantity, in addition dually transferred to the Polish state
io Sovlet air force and navy co- aircraft factory WSK-Swidnik, Both the Tlpe: utilrty and tratningT helicopter Dimensions: main rotor diameter
airframe and engfne were ]icence- Powerplant: one 428,8-kW (575-hP) 14,346 m (47 ft 0.8 in); tuselage length
:peration and ltaison aircraft, The
built in Poland, WSK-manufactured Ivchenko AI-26V radial piston engine 12.00 m (39 ft4.4 in) height3.30 m (10 ft
:i-erhaul hfe of critical components
aircraft being designated SM-1, About Performance: maximum speed 9,9 in;, mainrotordiscarea l6l 64 m'
such as the transmtssion and rotor (1,739.9 sq ft)
lead was substantially improved dur- 150 SM-]s were deliverd to the Sovlet 205 lrn/h (127 mph); crursing speed

ifir vri-e'Hoplite'

NATO defences, It is therefore more attack and traimnq helicopter

er put into production in the Soviet Un- Iikely that pilots and weapon operators Powerplant: hvo 32 1. 4-kW (43 I -shp)
-he Mil I\{i-2'Hoplite' was developed learn ther skills on the Mr2 before Isotov GTD-350 turboshafts
l:l ihe early 1960s by the Mtl bweau as ion. Instead responsibility for the type
a straiqhtforward turbine-powered was assigned to PZL-WSK-Swidnlk proceedrng to the Mi-24 'Hind' Performance:maximum speed at sea
;ersion of the Mi-1, the availability of now in Poland as part ol a Comecon PZL has developed a slightlY en- level2l0 kn/h (130 mph): crursing
:re shaft-turbine engjne having re- rationalization progrramme, becoming larged versron of the Mt-2, destqnated speed I90 km/h (1]B mph): service
-;olutronized the design of the helicop- the only Soviet-desigmed helicopter to Mi-2M, but this l0-seat aircraft appears cerling 4000 m ( I 3. 123 ft): maxlmum
rer. The twin turbines develop 50 per be buitt solely outside the Soviet Un- to be aimed mainly at the civil market, range 590 km (367 mlles); range with
ion. Production in Poland started in A reported version with a lighter skid erghtpassenqers 240 km (149 miles)
33nt more power than the Mr- 1's piston
engine for barely half the dry weight, 1965, and continues in the mld-l9B0s landing grear (the only use of such a Weights: empty 2402 kg (5,296 lb);
The Mr-2 is now the standard train- feature on a recent Warsaw Pact heli- maximumtake-off3700 kg(8, 157 lb)
nole than doubling the payload. The Dimensions: main rotor diameter
:lselaqe of the Mi-Z is comPletelY ing helicopter of the Soviet Union, and copter) has not been proceeded with,
hai also been seen armed wlth anti- but efforts have been made to sell a 14,56 m (47 ft 9,2 in); fuselage length
irfrerent from thal of lls pl'ogenltor'
tank gnuded weapons, Its role, howev- US-engined version of the Mi-2 tn the I 194 m t39 11 2. I in); heisht 3.75 m (12 ft
.arrying the engines above the cabin,
er, may be as a weapons tralner rather United States. 3 6 in): marnro-ordiscarea 166.5 m'
-rJthough some of the pornts of com- (1,792.25 sq ft)
:llcnality between the Mr- I and the Mi- than an attack helicopter, as its slow
speed and relatively old{echnology Armament: up to four AT-3 'Sagqer'
2 were elimtnated during develoP- (possibly AT-5) anti-tank guided
nent, the overall dimensions of the two rotor system (which limits its manoeuv- Specification
rability for low-level'nap-oflhe-earth' MilMi-2 weapons or a combination of rocket
l,pes remain closely similar. pods and qn-in pods
The Mi-2 was flown in 1962, but nev- flying) would render it v.rlnerable to Type: eight-passenqer transport

itilr nni-+'Hound'
--:-,-eloped to flight-test status in only
s:;en months following a Personal
ricycle landing gear, but added a pair
of clamshell loadrng doors capable of
bious development, tested in 1959, and
the Mi-4V for high-altitude operalions
Soviet Union's flrst armed hellcopter,
with a machine-gmn rn the nose of the
:l:t nom Stalin, the Mil Mi-4'Hound' admitting a small mtlitary vehicle or with a two-stage supercharQter fitted to navigator's gondola and rocket pods
.'iis at first considered to be a Soviet most light infantry weapons such as the ASh-B2FN engme. The Mi-4 was on outrigQiers from the fuselage, This
::py of the SrkorskY S-55 until it was anti-tank Quns, It was thus a far more also put into production at the Shen- version was introduced as an interim
::elized that rt was considerably lar- capable military transport than its yanq plant in China, as the H-5. armed helicopter wLIh the expansion
:=r -&an the later S-58, It was thus the Western contemporaries, and several The Mr4 has been one of the most of the Soviet tactical air forces in the
1s: of a tong line of larqe Mil helicop- thousand of the type were built. important helicopters in service with late 1960s, More recently, Mi-4s have
::IS The Mr-4 entered sewice in 1953 the Soviet armed iorces. At the 1956 been equipped with prominent aerials
The first prototype Mi-4 was com- Early production aircraft had wooden- Tushino air display, a formation of 36 for communicatlons jamming equrp-
l-e:ed inApril 1952, It shared the basic skinned rotor blades ofvery short life, Mi-4s demonstrated their ability to ment.
but later aircraft had all-metal blades land a sizeable and well-equipped ln- With the nse of the Soviet navY, the
--_;:ut oi the S-55, with the powerful Mi-4 found another new role: a number
::::al enqine in the nose and quad- Special verstons include an amphi- fantry force; later, the type became the
Mil Mi-4'Hound' (continued) Post-War Helicopters
The Mil M i-4, dubbed'Hound' by
NATO, was one of the world's largest
helicopters when it entered service.
It was built in enormous numbers
and formed the backbone of the
Warsaw Pact's helicopter forces for
manyyears.ltstill serves in a
number of roles with a variety of

of the type were fitted with search

radar beneath the nose and used as
anti-submarine warfare aircraft in the
Black Sea and Baltic areas. Other ASW
equipmeni includes a magnettc
aaomaly detector (MAD) installed in a
'bird' towed behind the helicopter,
and the type presumably also carries
dunking sonar, The Mr-4 ASW variant
paved the way for the later introduc-
lon of the Mr-]4'Haze'.
Type: 12-seat transpofi and anti-
submarine rryarfare helicopter
Powerplant: one 1267,7-kW (1,700-hp)
Shvetsov ASh-B2V two-row radtal
plston engine
Performance: maximum speed
210 h/h (130 mph); cruisrngrspeed
160 krn/h (99 mph); sewice ceiling
6000 m (19,685 ft); hovering ceiling
2000 m (6,562 ft); normal range 590 km
(367 miles)
Weights: empty 5390 kg (1 1,883 tb);
maxrmumtake-otr7800 kq(17, 196 lb)
Dimensions: main rotor diameter
21,00 m(68 ft 10.8 in); fuselagelength
16.79 m(55 fl I in): herght 5. lB m(17 il
0 in): main roror disc area 346.36 mz
(3,728,3 sq ft)
Armament: 7. 62-mm (0. 3-in) machrne-
gun in ventral gondola, and rocket or
gun pods; (ASW) depth charges or

The MilMi-4 has been produced as

theWhirlwindH-25 or H-5.One has
been fitted with a Pratt & Whitney
Canada PT6 engine, but this version
has not entered sewice. Chinese Mil
Mi-4s are believed to have beenused
in action recently against Vietnam.

>K tristol Type 171 Sycamore

-ate rn 1944 the Bristol Aeroplane craft jorned the test programme in
3ompany formed a Helicopter Depart- February l94B and on 25 Aprit 1949, to
:rent at Filton and recruited Raoul Haf- facilitate its flight to the Paris Salon, it
:,er from the Airborne Forces Ex became the flrst Britrsh hehcopter to
;erimental Establishment, where he be granted a civil certificate of airwor-
:ad been leadrng a British rotorcraft thiness, An Alvrs Leonides radial was
::velopment team. Drawing on pre- rnstalled in the third arrframe which
',';at experience with his A.R.lll Gyro- appeared in the static park at the l94B
;1ane, Hafner started work on a single- SBAC exhibition at Farnborough. De-
=:gine four-seat helicopter for both signated Type 171 Mk 2, this helicop-
:-;il and military applications. The ter made a successful first flight on 3
,::k of a sufficiently developed British September 1949, although a second
::-grne of the required power ied to take-off attempt ended abruptly when
::lection of the widely-used 335,6-kW the rotor disinteqrated. With a streng-
-50-hp) Pratt & Whitney Wasp Junior thened rotor, development flying was
-,:1he flrst two Bristol Type 171 Mk I resumed while work contrnued on the
:rriotypes, developed to Minrstry of assembly of 15 production Type l7l
: -oply Specificat on E.20 45. Mk 3 helicopters
lhe design featured a hqht alloy
:-rr section and a stressed-skrn tail- Continuedonpage 1920
: -:m attached to a central engine and
;=-lbox mounting, the rotor head
,-.i:g fitted with three wooden mono- The Bristol Sycamore was
- -;;e blades, After extensive compo- under p owered, bu t its su per b ly-
-=:- testrng, ground running of the de s igne d and we ll- b alance d rotor
---::-cleted airframe began on 9 May system made it efticient and a joy to
:= and the flrst flight was made by fly, despite its lack of
:- -r- Marsh on 27 July, The second arr- autostabilization.

The sycamore played a crucial role in Britain's operations agains.t the EQKA the Cyprus-based Sycamores in the internal
mountain flying and helicopter assault techniq.ues and secunty role occurred on I November 1955,
i"rroiitti, pioieeii"g when a Commando unlt engaged in arms sear-
"ew and. search oierations (sometimes using cabin-.
;;;ai;i;i;sin swift\ordon ches was transported rnto the Black Forest area
froiitea iachine-guns for defence suppression). The most spectacular ml'ssjon of the Kyrenia mountains, The helicopters
iii ti" or" that reiulted in the death ot ine tOxe chief of staff ' proved so successful that by the end oJ 1.95-6 the
Cyprus Search and Rescue Flight had 14 Syca-
UK's powered controls or autostabrlization requtred mbres on strength, l0 of them asslgned to inter-
During the period after World War II the
*ifii-w invilvement ou"tr"". especially in by contemporary Ame,rican deslgns. The Syc- nal security duties.
In Cyprus there was littie knowledge of the
i1'J has prouiO"O much us'eful amore wasusedin the communrcattons, search
f* tf,"-gtfikr'utn1ed forces and has and rescue, assault
ii""iri"b and transport roles at home helicopier operations which were being con-
opeiutionif' evaluation of equipment and overseas and the-final example was not ducted rn Malaya, and many techniques had to
-lii i"&"riD"iinq ttr" rgSOs tfre Ur prcjnanty retired until August 1972. The capabilities.of be re-invented, Hellcopter pllots in Cyprus
GO tiie *titO in th"e development of h'elicopter the Sycamore are best seen by-examtnrng
the faced different problems from those encoun-
;;il;;;; in Maiaya aircraft's role in Cyprus, where the typ-e played tered in Malaya since troop deployments were
JJ-th" MiJale"'t"r"rt "i ""b"ri"n""
East aitiroriqh it rehed largeiy a major part in the war aqainst EOKA, and in usually to precipitous sites on mountains,
where landtngwas impossrble, The Sycamores
;;li;;;;; bultt (and soriretimes stislitty- develoqins lelicopter tactics,
*pit*Ol n*ericin helicopters such Js_the The1955 flrst Sycamores in Cyprus arrtved tn were flown without doors to save weight and to
permit rapid deployment of troops, Trials using
SiF*rtv=S-Sl iotf,er*rs" thi WestlanO Dra- May and were,tntended for search and
(Westland Whirlwrnd) rescue dutres. Inrtially the aircraft were not a Whirlwind Mk 2 proved the superlority of the
;;;$),'Sitot.flv S-SS Sycamore at high altitudes, as were encoun-
*'fn"Sik";.ky S-Sg (Weittand Wessex)- used with much tmagtnation srncestafftheofficers
ild pilots
tered in the Cypriot mountain ranges, and ln
id,,iri,"liyBrrtish designed hehcopter assigned were inexper.tenced and
:o iuitfr tfre noyal eir Force was woeluily ignorant of the helicopter's iactical October 1956 the Internal Security and Search
o"lshtfrLgrislol sycamoie, aprodtct of the potential, Thqarrivat of Str John Harding as the
-1""ni"ii"tu1q" and Rescue Fliqhts became No. 284 Squadron,
retaining the Sycamore as its equipment
h;il;ii;;-pion"einuoui uufnei The Syca- sovernoro^f Cy^prys.wa;proba-blTtheturnins The anti-EOKA campaign peaked in early
;;itil" a relatively'only r.uff fr"fi"opter wirich ioint As. Chielof ihe Impertal General Staff,
ihree passengers in Harding had_seen the advantages of helicop- 1957, the Sycamores being intensively and im-
u"io**oOate aginatively used. Initially the standard proce-
;;ni;i*rth the l0 paJsenqeri of thdearly, ters
"oufO and in Cyprus he encouraged their use^
iniorand-hrshcon- and gave-his support to the developmgl!-o-f dure was for troops to be dropped at remote
#il;dil;wr,iii*'ino observation posts wrth supplies for 48 hours A
hiion. h6*eu"r, tfre eaify Wit,ii*tttOi *"te mountainflyingtechniques Bythe.endof 1955 larger force was prepared to be liited in if
;;E t" ""--p"t", feinei uniUt" to take-off theinternaisecurttysrtuationhaddeteriorated
necessary. Later the 'cordon and search' tech-
,rih t *"f"f load The Sti"u-ot" was, by all and pressure had grown to use the hehcopters^
nlque became more common, whereby firing
nV rn support of army operatrons, The first use of
uriidiO not need'the
Soldiers leap from a hovering Bristol Sycamore
near Makheris Monastery, a terrorist hideout n:i:
in the T roodos M ou ntains. This oper ation r e s.:. :'= :
inthe death of a number of EOKAmen, including
GregoriousAfxenthiou, chief of staff to the EaKi-

l '/.t,\
r'ilt'. i:.1,, :r :
i, I, rrii.'1i.,.*. :j;
. ,

r''..i,ii l"'+li'i""l

:rarties dropped from individual helicopters

.:aled off villages while a pre-posrtioned main
.: rce arrived by road. A variatron on thrs iype of
: oeration can be illustrated by the seairng off of
:.e village of Kharch in the Kyrenian mountain
-:]]Qte. Four Sycamores put a cordon ol 12
-:cps around the village while three soldrers
::n another hehcopter were put rnto Kharch
, lnnounce a curfew and undertake a search
:.: cordon was maintained for 45 minutes
, -:-ng which a bus and civrlians trying to leave
=:3 turned back.
l:uce declared
-:, April 1957 Archbrshop Makarios returned
., ieiention to Athens and EOKA declared a
",.': No. 284 Squadron continued regular cor-
' :nd search operatlons to try and locate
. .s (the EOKA leader) his armed bands
.-. relr weapons Between Aprii 1956 and
.. -?47, the 1O No, 284 Squadron Sycamores
..::,-i:ed to internal security duties flew 2,561
.-: and delivered 3,436 troops 'in anger'
. ..: r..rer 4 000 received trainrng in helicop- Plan for Cyprus on I October 1958 led to an The first helicopters in Cyprus were the
- ':-,:re operations, Early in 1958 No 284 intensiflcation of EOKA vrolence, especially Sycamores of the Searcft andRescue a.n c , -: :s---::.
.. :lon s Sycamores flew perhaps their most against crvilians This caused the Sycamores to S ecurity F lights. T hese were com b i n e c :o :::.: -',' :
284 Squadron which, after the emerger.:, :: ::.-: :
=: =:ular sortie Five Sycamores, equipped fly an unprecedented number of casualty eva
No. 103 Squadron. A winch-equipped S','c::. - : = -.
. ricin-mounted, side-firing Bren guns, fer cuatlon sorties until the squadron was sup- the latter unit is seen here over St Hilaric: C :: :.:
- - - .rcops to Makheris Monastery a terror- plemented by No. 230 flying Prestwrck
..,.:-away 915 m (3 O0O ft) up in the Troodos Pioneers and by the Whirlwinds of the Jornt
= cut only 32 km (20 miles) from Nicosia, Experimental Hehcopter Unit. Even after this
- 1,:ration resulted in the deaths of a num- the Sycamores continued to fly intensively, The campaign agalnst EOKA'.,.': - : r ,: -: : -
, - :eirorists including Gregorios Afxen- eventually settling into peacetime activity after lmpossiblo wrthou- Lhe S7c;r,-. : ' '
.-:n chief ol staff to Grivas, the ]rondon and Zurich conferences and the on to f,ght in the Bruner campa- j':. .-. - -
'= :.roduction of the British Partnership return to Cyprus of Makarios tn March 1958. with No. 110 Squadron
Bristol Type l7I Sycamore (continued)

In these, airframe changes included

a shortened nose and a 0.20-m (B-in)
hcrease in cabin width to accommo-
date three passengers on the rear seat. A Bristol Sycamore HR. Mk 14 of No. I I I Squadron, a search and rescue and
In order to marntain essential systems communications unit based inNorthern lreland. Unusually the aircraft carries
in the event of enqtne failure, the squadron markings - black and white wavy lines inherited from the
accessory drive was transferred from squadron's Hunters.
the engrne to the rotor gearbox, The
imtial production batch included one modiflcations evolved from Mk 3 ex- more than B0 Sycamore HR.Mk 14 heli- Powerplant: one 410,1-kW (550-hp)
Sycamore HC.Mk I0 and four SYca- perience; these included ialler land- copters equipped with winches for air- Alvrs Leonides 73 radial pis on engine
more HC.Mk lI ambulance and com- ing gear, four cabin doors and the sea rescue duties, initially with No, 275 Performance: maximum speed
munications machines for evaluation pilot's position moved from port to star- Squadron, Fighter Command, which 2A4km/h(127 mph) atsea leveli
by the Army Air Corps, and four Syca- board. Dellveries included three Syc- received its flrst helicopter on 13 April cruising speed 169 km/h ( 105 mph);
more HR.Mk 12 helicopters for rescue amore HR.Mk 50 and seven Sycamore 1953. Sycamores dm operated in the endurance 3 hours
duties wrth RAF Coastal Command. HC.Mk 5l helicopters for the Royal Au- Itght assault and reconnaissance roles Weights: empty L72B kg (3,810 Ib);
T\ro Sycamore Mk 3A helicopters, stralian Navy, three Sycamore Mk 14 in Malaya, Cyprus and Borneo. maximum take-off 2540 kq (5, 600 lb)
with a frelght hold behind the engtne aircraft for Belgian air force use in the Dimensions: main rotor diameter
bay, were built for British European Congto, and 5O Sycamore Mk 52 heh- Specification 14,8 L m (48 ft 7 in); length, rotors folded
Arrways. copters for the Federal German army SycamoreHR.Mk 14 14.07 m (46 ft2 in), hershr 3.71 m (12 ft
The main production was the Type and navy; the Royal Air Force re- Type: five-seat communicationVSAR/ 2 .n); main rotor disc area 172 22 m
l?7 Sycamore Mk 4, incorporating ceived two Sycamore HR.Mk 13 and Iigrht troop-carryrnq helicopter (1,853,8 sq ft)

>K tristol Types I73 and 192 Belvedere

The first British tandem-rotor helicop-
ter, the Bristol Type I73 combined two
sets of Sycamore rotors and control
systems, each powered by a 428,8-kW
(575-hp) Alvis Leonides engine. Thesd
were each arranged to dnve through a
foeewheel clutch so that, with both
rotor gearboxes interconnected by a
shaft, elther engine could drive both
rotors in the event ofan engine failure,
The first of two prototypes, de-
veloped to Ministry of Supply Spe-
cification E.4/47, made its flrst hoverinqt
ilight on 3 January 1952, flown by TheBristol Belvederewas originally designed as a naval helicopter, with little
C.T,D. Hosegood, but ground reso- need for a capacious fuselage and with a high nose-up sit to allow for easy
nance problems delayed further prog- loadingof a torpedo.TheNavy requirementwas met by theWessex.
:ess until July, The first flight from the
arrfleld at Frlton took place on 24 Au- planes wrth anhedral and end-plate
gust, and thrs Tlpe I73 Mk I helicopter finsi they were later brought up to pro-
appeared at the SBAC show in duction standard for delivery to the
September. RAF evaluation followed, RAF, Modifications included the sub-
and rn 1953 naval trials were under- stitution of metal rotor blades and com-
raken aboard the aircraflcarrter HMS pound anhedral tailplanes, the provi-
Eagle. sion ofpowered flying controls, sliding
The second prototype, desiqnated doors, improved air tnlets and en-
Type 173 Mk 2, was first flown on 3l larged low-pressure tyres. The
Auginst 1953 and was transferred to the eleventh aircraft was completed by
Royal Air Force in Augmst i954 for Westland as the flrstBelvedere HC'Mk
irlther naval trials. I, delivered to No, 66 Squadron at RAF
Three more prototypes, designated Odiham in August 1961, This unit was
Type i73 Mk 3, were bullt for the also the last to operate Belvederes,
Ministry of Supply, having 633.8-kW disbanding at RAF Seletar in March
1350-hp) Leomdes Major engines, four- 1969,
blade metal rotors and a taller rear
!-rion. Only the first progressed Specification
beyond the ground-running stage, be- Bristol (Westland) Belvedere HC.Mk I
;:rnilg hovering trials on I November Tlpe: short-range tactical transport
,356 The third had the shortened Powerplant: two 1092,S-kW (1,465-shp)
:;--laqe and long-stroke landing gear Naprer Gazelle NGa,2 turboshafts
:: --ne Type I9I naval version, Performance: maximum crursing
The Royal Air Force had a require- speed222 krn/h ( I38 mph) service
::=:ri for a personnel and paratroop ceiling 5275 m (17,300 ft); range with
r3:-sport and casevac helicopter, also payloadof2722 kq(6,000 lb) 121 km
of lifting bulky loads on an (75 miles); ferry ranqe 740 km (460
-pable sling, An order for 22 of the miles)
=;cemal192 version was placed in April Weishts: empty 5277 kq (11,634 Ib);
-9:3. later increased to 26, all to be
"yp€ maximum overload take-off 9072 kg The Belvedere had a superbly shaft failure and the aircraft proved
)..aprer Gazelle-powered The pro- (20,000 rb) desigmed rotor system, and the ple as an t to fly. I t w as m aintenance-
:::;re first flown at Weston-super- Dimensions: rotor dlameter, each prototypes could be flown without intensive and performed poorlY in
].".r-e cn 5 July 1958, was joined in the 14,91 m(48 ft 11 in); length rotors autostabilization. The engine and Aden with N o. 2 6 S quadron, although
::',-elopmenr programme by nlne pre- turning 27.36 m (89 ft 9 in); height gearbox arr angem ent allowe d for a their record in Malayawas good due
p::duction aircraft, These originally 5.26 m(17 tr3 rn) rotordiscarea total safe landing to be made in the event to better maintenance.
:-ad wooden rotor blades, and tail- 349. 1B m'z (3,758.7 sq ft) of either engine or synchronizing
Armed Forces of the World

Soviet Na
Durlng the past 20 years or so the S:'. e: iary has,
Part I

Channel and North Sea, and on occasion lay anti- maintenance, repair and res-::". '3: :--,: r ,':i-
under the guidance of Admiral o' i^: =:ei oi the shipping ground mines and bomb targets ashore as nam (at the ex-US base of Ca- ::-- ::{ :":-::
Soviet Union Sergei Gorshkov, er.o',:: .:o a ser- farwest as the United Kingdom and the Brest penin- Yemen (at Socolra and Ader z^= =-.- =. =- -.-=
vice that is now capable of worldu de cce'ai ons in sula of France. L ike the \orthern Fleet, tne Baltic Dahlak lslands, which replaced a case - S:-:
These bases are also visited by Pacific Fieet a ':': ,
direct support of the combineo ro : cal and Fleet has a naval infantry regiment and a spetsnaz
strategic aims of the Soviet state. brigade. The latter has been particularly active in and, on occasion, by Black Sea Fleet air un is .^
For geographical reasons the na\1 .as cer-orce recent years with its squadron of midget sub- long-range reconnaissance and training flights. tsa
been divided into four separate fleets. O'tnese tne marines operating in Swedish territorial waters in cause of the close proximity of Japan, South Korea
Northern Fleet, as the primary corroo..^i o= ihe 'realistic' trainlng missions. and the People's Republic of China to the Pac{l:
Arctic Command, rs the most impoltan:. -^e':eet's The Black Sea Fleet, which includes the small Fleet's bases and their wealth of decisive targets. a
headquarters and main operationa! case s Sever- flotilla confronting lran on the land-locked Caspian divisional-sized force of two naval infantry regirr^-
po varny, Sea, has lts headquarters at Sevastopol, with other ents with support units is assigned to the fleet's
omorsk, with other bases at Grerr <^a.
Archangelsk and on the Motovskiy G"l=. -re rajor- major bases at Balaklava, Poti and Odessa This fleet amphibious warfare ships. There is also the obliga-
ity of the SSBN fleet is asslgned io ir's area, provides the majority of the surface vesseis, includ- lory spetsnazbrigade for the covert operations and"
together with a significant proportion c' :ne Soviet ing at least one 'Moskva' class helicopter carrier, as in the large Northern Fleet, this is backed by a
naval air force. For land operations and spec'al mis- assigned to the Mediterranean Squadron. lt has no number of smaller independent units which have
sions a naval infantry regiment and a speisnazspe assigned nuclear submarines, and in war lts primary received highly specialized training in the fields oi
cial forces brigade are also allocaied. Scn e elght to mission will be to attack targets on the Turkish Black parachuting. underwater demolition and assassina-
0 of the f leet's conventional and nuclear at-tack and Sea coast and to seize the Dardanelles so as to tion. lt is interesting to note that the Soviet army
cruise-missile submarines are ass.gned to the provide free access for Soviet naval units into the h;erarchy cons.ders this naval inlantry division to be
Soviet Mediterranean Squadron at any one time. ln Mediterranean. The naval air force units will also equivalent in operational capabilities to two moto-
wartime the fleet's main operating areas would be launch air attacks against NATO surface ships and rized rifle divisions.
the Greenland-lceland-United Kingdorn iGIUK) Gap, reinforcement convoys located in the eastern half of The main striking force of the Soviet Navy is.
northern Norway and, for the submarine jorce. the the Mediterranean as part of the overall strike plan however, its force of strategic missile submarines.
whole of the North Atlantic and its contiguous seas. co-ordinated by the Soviet Naval Main Headquarters These are a major component of the total Soviet
There is also an Atlantic Command. but this in fact near Moscow. nuclear-war{are capabilities, and provide an assurec
comprises the Baltic and Black Sea Fleets. The for- Because of the growing importance of the Pacif ic 'second-strike' force under which Soviet politicc-
mer has its headquarters at Baltiysk, with other Fleet in strategic plans. there has been a significant military actions at lower levels can be conducted. Br,
major bases at Kronshtadt, Paldiski, Liepaja. Klaipe- transfer of reinforcements to the region from the late 1984 the force comprised two 'Typhoon' class
da and Riga. There are few if any nuclear sub- other three fleets, as well as a programme of new (each with 20 SS-N-20 SLBMs) plus more boa:s
marines assigned to the Baltic Fleet, as its prlmary vessels built in the shipyards of the Soviet Far East. building, 14'Delta lll'class ieach with 16 SS-N--:
role in wartime within the enclosed and relatively The main base and headquarters are at the old tsar-
shallow Baltic Sea area is to support the Soviet ist port of Vladivostok, with other major bases at
The Soviet navy's I B'Delta I' classSSBNs are
army's flank during any advance along the Baltic Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy and Sovetskaya Gavan. armed with 12 SS-N-9 SLBMs, and are deployed
coastline and to eliminate or capture strategic NATO Detachments of surface ships and submarines can with both the Northern and Pacific Fleets. They
coastal positions, islands and natural 'choke-points'. also be seen forward-deployed throughout the year can, from the safety of 'bastion' areas off f}e Sovr'et
The Baltic Fleet's long-range missile-carrying air- in the lndian Ocean and South China Sea. On such coastlines, hit targets in the continental United
craft will also attack naval targets in the English deployments the vessels regularly use the Soviets' .States.


Armed Forces of the World SovietNavy ffi
S-3Ms), plus more submarines building, four'Delta medium bomber unlts and the Strategic Rocket
'cass (each with 16 SS-N-B SLBMs), lB',Delta l', Forces'SS-20 and SS-4'Sandal' IRBM fields in their
: ass (each with 12 SS-N-B SLBMs), one'Yankee ll' mission of destroying enemy rear-area infrastruc-
: ass (wth 12 SS-N-I7 SLBMs) and 23 'Yankee l' tures. The Northern Fleet's'Typhoon' and SS-N-20
: ass (each with 16 SS-N-6 SLBMs), all second- and combination has also opened up a new field for
:" rd-generations SSBNs, with only two 'Hotel ll' Soviet SSBN warfare as the submarines' structure
each with three SS-N-S SLBMs) and a converted has been designed for operations beneath the ice-
lotel lll'class (with six SS-N-B SLBMs) trials vessel pack of the Arctic circle, with sufficient strength for
e:t of the first-generation SSBNs. To assist these boats to break through the thinner patches in order
cr rps" forces, 13 'Golf ll' class (each with three to fire missiles. This capability was hitherto unavail-
SS-N-5 SLBMs) and a solitary'Golf lll'class (wlth six able to the Soviets, and has complicated the
SS-N-B SLBMs) conventionally-powered SSBs re- strategic ASW mission for the USA and her NATO
marn in operation. Of these, six of the 'Golf lls' are allies, as the hunting down of these rnammoth craft
wrth the Baltic Fleet, six are with the Pacific Fleet requires a number of highly trained crews in nuclear
and the remaining one is with the Northern Fleet. All attack submarines of the latest quietened design
are assigned to the theatre nuclear strike role with and fitted with the most up-to-date sonar and
iheir 800-kiloton warhead equipped SS-N-Ss, as are weaponry technology to ensure that they \,Vill be
rhe single obsolete 'Hotel ll' SSBN units serving in able to get in the first and decisive shot during any
the Northern and Pacific Fleets. The two missile under-ice engagement. Kiev rs one ofa cia ss of four deployed to the Pacitic
research and development platforms, the 'Hotel lll' At present only one Soviet shlpyard is buildlng Fleet (two), NorthernFleet(one) and BlackSea
and the 'Golf lll' units, are in the Northern Fleet and SSBNs, that at Severodvinsk on the White Sea. With Fleet (one). They carry Yakolev Yak-36 'Forger'
are believed to have a limited wartime intercon- covered building slips for all-year working, the ship- WOLfighters and ASW helicopters.
irnental role. yard has production line building programmes for
Of the modern craft the Northern Fleet has the the 'Delta lll' and 'Typhoon' classes. A derivative of
lion's share, with the two 'Typhoons', 17 'Delta ls' the former is expected to replace the class on the
and'Delta llls', the four'Delta lls', the single'Yank- slipways in the mid-1 980s, whilst'Typhoon' building
ee ll'and 14'Yankee ls'. The last generally operate will continue at the rate of one unit every other yeai
on forward- deployment patrols off the US eastern until the early 1990s at least. The other shlpyard
seaboard, whilst the'Yankee ll','Deltas' and which produced SSBNs was in the Far East at Kom-
'Typhoons' maintain the 'second-strike' option wtth somolsk, about 450 km (280 miles) inland of the
their longer-range missiles off the coast of the mouth of the Amur river in Siberia. This yard partici-
Soviet homeland in 'sanctuary areas'. The 'Yankees' pated in the'Yankee l'and'Delta l'programmes, but
are tasked with the destruction of time-sensitive then had to switch to nuclear attack submarines as
targets such as Strategic Air Command bomber the later SSBN designs are too large to travel down
bases on alert, and with the disruption of the USA's the Amur rlver to the sea.
strategic command, control and comrnunications
'acilities ln the first hours o{ a nuclear exchange.
The Pacific Fleet has the same missions, and Below : One of only a few' H otel I I' c/ass SSBNs
performs them with nine 'Yankee l'and 15 'Delta l' remaining in service in their original role. Recent
and 'Delta lll' units. ln recent months it has been reports indicate that at least one unitftasbeen
revealed that several 'Yankee ls' assigned to the converted to a submerged command and control
two fleets have been switched to assist the USSR's posl.

Above: Kirov carries the heaviest armament seen

to date on a Soviet surface combatant, and can act
as the command and control centre for a surface
action battle group.

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