Sie sind auf Seite 1von 22

Volume 9 Issue 104

Published by
Orbis Publishino Ltd
@ Aerospace P'ublishing Ltd 1 985
Colour profiles, diagrams and cutaway
drawings @ Pilot Press Ltd

Editorial Offices
War Machine
Aerospace Publishing Ltd
179 Dalling Road
London W6 OES

Managing EditOr: Stan Morse


Editorial: Trisha Palmer
Chris Bishop
Chris Chant
lan Drury

Design: Rod Teasdale


Colour Origination: lmago Publishing Ltd,
Thame, Oxon

Typesetting: SX Composing Ltd


Consultant Editor: Major General Sir
Film work: Precise Litho Ltd
Jeremy Moore KCB OBE MC, Comman-
Artists: der of British Land Forces during the
U. Hasegawa Falklands campaign.
Keith Woodcock
Frances Pitt
Distribution and marketing offices :
29858 Orbis Publishing Ltd
Orbis House Picture acknowledgements
20-22 Bedfordburv Cover photogmphr Jon Irake. 206l: ton lake l {:D 2062: US At ForceruS Air Force. 2063: RAF Mseum,
Printed in Great Britain London WC2N 4EiT Hendon. 2064: Awtin J. BrcwD4JS AE Fore Zt65: US Au Forcq{JS Air Porce. 2066r US Air Force/US Air
by The Artisan Press Ltd Telephone: 01-379 671'1 Force/US Air Force. 206?: US Aii Force.US -r: a.re. 2068: US Air ForceruS Air Force. 2069: US Air porce.
2012: US Air ForceruS At Forcey'US Nara. 20?3: \!.D. 20?4r Royal Ciladim Air Force. Z0?Sr MoD. 20??:
Subscription Manager: Christine Allen Circulation Director: David Breed Robert Hut Library. 20?8: Robert Hui I-rtrFrt -€ber Hut Libmry,lRobert Hut Library. 20?9r MoD. 2000r
0488 72666 Marketing Director: Michael Joyce Aviation Letter Photo Seryice.

HOWTO OBTAIN ISSUESAND BTNDERS FORWARMACHINE


lssues can be obtained by placing an order with your newsagent or direct from ourSubscription AUSTRALIApleasewriteto: cordonandcc:ci AJSt Lrd, 114WilliamStreet,pOBox767c,Melbourne,
Department. lf you have difficulty obtaining any back issues from your newsagent, please write to us Victoria 3001 . MALTA, NEWZEALAND. S.\cArCRE & SOUTH AFRICA: Back numbers are availableat
stating the issue(s) required and enclosing a cheque forthe cover price of the issue(s). cover price from your newsagent. ln case ci c qcJlw, write to the address qiven forbinders.

UK/EIRE EUROPE MIDDLEEAST AMERICAS/ASIA-/AFRICA AUSTRALASIA/FAR EAST


ISSU E PRICE: 90p/ lRfl .1 5 lSSUE PRICE:90p ISSUE PRICE:90p ISSUE PRICE: USS' .95 eco ISSUE PRICE; 90p
SUBSCR PTION: SUBSCRI PTION: SUBSCRIPTION: SUBSCRIPT]ON: SUBSCRIPTION:
6 N,4onths:f26.00 6 Months air: f44.72 6lvlonths air: f50.18 6 Months e.. 1i9.24 6 Months ai: f64.22
1 Year: f52.00 surface: f36.'14 surface: f36.14 surfa€: f36.14 surface: e36.14
BINDER: Please send 83.95 'l Year air: €89.44 1 Year air: f100.36 '1
Year a -: €' 9.08
T l Year ai: t128.44
per binder, ortake advantage swlacet L'12.28 suiace: f72.28 surtece. 112.28 sudace. f72.28
of our special offer jn early BINDER: (inc. Postagei BINDER: (inc. Postage) BlNDER: (inc. Postage'
issues. air: e5.50 air: f8.25 a:.: f9.50 AUSTRALIA
surface: f5.00 surface: f5.50 surface: f5.50 ISSUE PRICE: AUS$2.15
Obtain BINDERS from
MALTA SOUTHAFRICA First Post Pty Ltd,
Obtain BlNDERSfrom ISSUEPRICE:SAR2.a5 23 Chandos Street
your newsagent or Obtain BINDERS from St Leonards.
Miller(N/alta) Ltd. anybranch olCentra NSW 2065
MA Vassalli Street. News Agency or
Valetta. Malta lntermag. PO Box NEWZEALAND
Prlce; f3.95 57394. Springfield 21 37 ISSUE PRICE: NZ $2.65
obrain BINDERS lrom
SINGAPORE yournewsagentor
ISSUE PRICE: Slng54.50 Gordon & Gotch iNZ)
Obtain BlNDERSfrom Ltd, PO Box '1 595.
MPH Distributors Wellington
601 Sims Drive
0347-21
Sinqapore 1438

ADDRESS FOR BINDERSAND BACKISSUES NOTE ADDRESS FORSUBSCRIPTIONS


--: : trJf,l.S1r^g LiTrteo Binders and back issues are obtainable subiectto Orbis Publishing Limited
I = : j:rse availability of stocks. Whiist every attempt is made to Hursl Farm
-:-:2 3:diordbury keep the price of the issues and binders constant, the Baydon Road
*: _:: ^ publishers reserve the right to increase the stated Lambourne Woodlands
prices at any time when circumstances dictate. Binders Newbury
T€*ephone: 0'l -379.521 1 depicted in this publication arethose produced {orthe Berks
U K and Australian markets only. Binders and lssues RG1 67TW
may be subject to import duty and/or local taxes, which Telephone: 0488-72666
--:: -:: :3s:al Orders should be made payable to Orbis Publishing Limited. are not ircluded in the above prices unless stated.
: - r:- :- :,-s :.c ude postage and packing and prices are in sterling. All cheques/Postal Ordersshould be made payabletoOrbis
Publishing Limrted. Postage and packaging is included ,n
l;:. ::-:::'esoldatthecoverprlce. andwedonotchargecarriageintheUK subscription rates. and prices are given in Sterling.
ffimgff*Wmw
Wwmmffiffimwff ',&
4. ':i";E.'*s.
'iiire:r:.,,:,.'ii
'r:1.111r.:l=i',

&kswm#ffi
ffrorn Af'g&enisfan fo Grenada, "fro.m f/re eqlaafos fo d'ftepoie4
f'fte nesdem "€m ilitary transpavt ai"sevaft is am I'ndr's;re:rsa.bJe
parf of flne armed forccs of today" f&is widespread use fcnand The Rayal F"ir Faree returerJifs lasfHaslrngs fran sport aircraft inJanuary J 968,
replacing them with LackheeC Hercwles.,{t handiul of ilastings ?.1-rik 5s, usec
r'fs onfgJn mof, as.rmdgyfef .be eqreefed, durfngr Woa,JdWar II,hat far the traininga{V-tarce erews, "so/diered on until the 19V0s.
im ffte ensui.rng yeers as esa"e"firete Jesso.srs were abserr&ed,

Although iherr origins may be traced to operations such as lhe RAF-run of lhe Suez campaign in 1956.
evacuation from l(abu1 in l92B ihe air drops of World War II's closing Apart irom a levr ercursions into the realm of twin-boom configmrai.cir
siages, and mercy missions like the iO-Cay Operation 'Manna' of 1945 or r-rthers with massive central pods, the post-war period v'ras also one in
when 33 Brrtish squadrons flew-3, lB0 sorties to feed the starving pecple which ihere evohzed the basic transport aircraft design that has sjnce
cf the I'Jetherlands, air transpoit as it later evolved vvas an entirely persisted wiih lovr-slurrg fuselages on muiti'wheel landinc qrears set rn
posi-rnrar derzeiopment; it was only the introduction of new iypes such as iheir sides coupled with sharply raked rear sections incorporaling
the Blackburn Beverley, Antonov An'i2 and Douglas C-124 Glcbemas- ramps so that loads made possible by tne new generaiion ol po.wei-
.er rhat made it possio-e plants could be swiftly ernplaned, Srnall rnronder iherefore that the
The mociern theory of few aircrait with huge capacities, the antiihesis period beca.me the one associated wrth the so-called 'fire brrgade'
cl the massive airborne operatrons before the Aliied viciory irr Europe, operaiions, when the linited Nations rn particular qurckly moved sub-
irrras to be seen in its pioneer iight in a pamphlet produced lor troops stanttal numbers of trocps to tlie worlci's trouble spots,
about to be n'roved by air for operations againsi Japan irr 1945. This
opened with the rnrords 'You aie making history This rs the first time that
reguiar and large-scale moveilent oi troops has been undertaken,
An ArmstrangWhitwarth Argosyrs seen dor,zards f}re en d of its service life.
althcugh lhe size of the aircraft was comparatlvely puny and their range ijke ser"era/ offter desig;:-" of ijre J 940s anei J 950s iheprobJem of loading and
hmited; so it vras iel1 to types ]rke the British Handley Page Hastings and unlaading largrc ear6roes wassolved by tlte adoptian of a twin baom
Vickers Vaiettas to fty the frrst of the new-type sorttes in anger at the time canflgurraticn, allowing unrestrjcted eccess lo the aiycrafi"

, .i ,l
-,r'ta
-\ Gl:l !
l"
i !

-.* i
;si. ,i

*fi%
t1
a- ;;;g
t\
&' ,rt
Operation' Plainfcre' :
The Berlin Airlift Even jre Handley Page Halifax, in the transport
In the years immediately following the German surrender in I 945 , the Allied varia:rr oi the bomber which had so recently
presence in Berlin, in the heart of Soviet-occupiedGermany, was in constantdanger been bombing the German capital, was press-
of being overwhelmed. When the Russr'ans emba rgoed all goodspassing through ed into sewice dwing the Berlin Airlift of I948
'their' territory, the only access to the beleaguered city was by air. The ei'enls that led up to the employment of
these 4l crvil a:rcraft, together with other civil
machures and hundreds of Douglas Dakotas
and Avro Yorks, together with 14 Handley
Page Hastings transports, had begnrn with a
deterioration in the relations between the
Sonet authorities and the other three powers,
all recent alhes, whrch controlled the zones into
which the former German capitalwas divided,
To reach this city at all a trip of some 160 km
( I0O mrles) had to be made through Soviet-held
territory, so that it was easy to piace restrictions
on the road and rail supplies reaching a Berlin
whrch Stalj.n now felt to be an anomaiy after the
creation of a virtually independent West Ger-
many, Consequently when the Soviet author-
rties announced that their gnrards would re-
serve the nghi to inspect ali vehicles coming
from the three Western zones as from 3l March
1948, the West suspended all but'trains and
motor vehrcles taking food and essential goods.
The Soviei countermeasure came with the ban-
nrng ol ail travel to Berlin from mrdnight on 18
June, and sx days laler food trains were stop-
ped, The reaction to thls was to keep the city
supplied by air, and to do so a vast armada of
milltary transports and civil machlnes was
assembled, together with a massive number of
Above:lnthe earlymorning atGatow, in the British Below: Tempelhof saw a temporary cessation of crews, some of them capable of taking in the
sector, ablockof USAF C-54s unload coalUownin operations during the nightof 28 February, butthe Shoft Sunderland flying-boats detailed to use
from Fassberg. Gatow was the Berlin terminal for vicious weather cleared by morning, leaving a the crty's Havelsee for landing,
the reliet flights originating in the British-occupied blanket of snow on the tield. Flying could proceed, Thus beqan Operatlon 'Plainfare' which
sector of Germany.ln the harsh winter, coalwas an and the USAF C-54s, each capable of carrying l0
tons, continued to bring in badly-needed suppfies.
brought aircraft to Tempelhof and Gatow at
essenlra,lelernent of the reliet supplies, and many
thousands oftons were brought in.
9O-second intervals, usually with a turn round

:,t:,,::,..::.9.):,,:.:.:;

lfl::aaa.:::t.l::: ..
Post-War Transport Aircraft

€,€
€*=*l€==..tre$"'|

time of no more than 30 minutes both by day The movement of supplies was not the limit It should be remembered that while the bulk of the
and night, their cargoes for the trips home of the problems of Operation'Plainfare', for the airlift capacity was supplied by the USAF and RAF.
being Berlin's manufactured goods in place of alrfields involved had huete demands made civil operators flying aircraft sucfi as ffiese
Lancastrian tankers made an extremely important
the food, coal and wet supplies that had been upon them with the result that their enlarge- contribution to the airlift.
brought in. Tanker aircraft excepted, there ment and maintenance became the responsi-
was no restriction of any particular machrne to bility of the Royal Engineers and the Ploneer
a specific type of cargo; one atrman remem- Corps; the Royal Army Service Corps super- eratron had tasted for a period of 15 mon-:s
bers the sight of spilled grain from an earlier vised ground transport arrangements and the during which 49,733 sorties had been floi,rm c-'-
run beginning to sprout inside a Douglas DC-3, 7th Armoured Division was in charge of secur- the RAF alone, the later ones being large--.-
germinated by the moisture splashed from ity, in collaboration with the infantry, performed with Yorks, flylng alongside ::.:
another load, Largest of all the transports involved in the Skymasters wrth which the US forces spec:a--
To achieve the remarkable turnround airlift were the Douglas C-124 Globemasters, ized. Independent airltnes were also lnvol;e:
fignrres, tracks to Berlin were not made through and these so influenced military transport these being entrrely responsible for the mc',':-
the same corridors as those home. Even when thinking that it was at this ttme that it was real- ment of fuel and oil, one of the chief ai:::-;:
they were to and from the USAF base at Tegel rzed how advantageous it was to use a lesser these being the Airflight organization ''',-:--::-
(at the end of the most northerly of the three number of very large aircraft rather than a flew Avro Tudors,
corridors over the Soviet zone), arrcraft leaving larger number of smaller ones, The size of the Not generally known is the fact that Cpe:=-
Berlin were restricted to an altihrde of 305 m contribution made by these giants is obvious tion 'Plainfare' was originally describei =s
(1,000 ft) the eight flight paths to a maximum of from the fact that their capaclty was more than 'Knicker', and later as 'Carter Paterson' (:-i= :--:
1676 m ft) above them being reserved
(5 500 twice that of a C-54, although on the debit side of the British national carriers at the ttne. ::-
for tracks of machines to Berlin, with one for was the fact that the great weight of the larger fore the final name was adopted, Nc: -s -:
emergency use. Douglas tended to break up the aerodrome generally known that there were 1i s3:-: j
Major among the aircraft making the US con- taxi tracks and runways at Tempelhol accidents claimrng the lives of 5I atr,-ne:- - : -
tribution was the Douglas C-54 Skymaster, Wlth operations taking place round the was the cost of the flights that brough: :l 3',-::-.
each of these aircraft capable of carrying I0 clock seven days per week, it was clear that Berliner an averaqe of I ton of fooi a:-- s-;-
tons. They also had the advantage of longer the Allies were determined to keep Berlin sup- plies, the grand total beinq 2363.i8 .:-.=.
periods between servtcing than the DC-3s, so plied at all costs, and although there was a (2,325,809 tons). This figure migh: :a',-= :::..
that with fewer crews involved larger quanti- small lessening in the Intensity of the program- exceeded further had rt not bee: :-=: --:-:
ties of material could be transported, more me as a result of the weather in November arrangements (made by US Ma'::-l=:=:=-
berng addedafter mid-Octoberwith the retire- 1948, the pace showed no sign ofsiacking by 12 William H, Ttrnner on flrst taki::; ::::::,::,:
ment of the C-47s, This time also saw an oiflcial May 1949 the date on which the Sovlet author- some time after the ongrnal a:-: '. ,: -' --.-
amalgamation of the British and US effort into ities announced that the lifting of the blockade ched) placed the RAF fltghts at a 5-s=1'.'=:, . ; =
the Combined Air l,lft Task Force, many of the on surface traff,c would take effect as from one ldeally the above flgnrres mpr=::-.: j -.-.:'
British Yorks henceforth being reserved for the minute past midnight. Even so, the airlift was are, could have been exce:::: .' =, ,
movement of awkward cargto which took lon- continued for a further four months in case tremendous indication ol }e ;::=
ger to unload, restrictions were reintroduced. ln total the op- transportation on the qrani s:t-=
Nord Noratlas
Resembling such desrgns as the Fatr-
child C-82 and C-I19 in having a twin-
boom layout, the Nord Noratlas de-
nved from the earlier Nord 2500, the
new machine lyrng for the flrst time in
1949, With a crew of five (pilot, co-pilot
and navigator at the front and a radio
operator and fllght engineer aft) the
Noratlas is capable of taking a con-
siderable military load in the remain-
der of the central pod by virtue of its
reinforced floor whrch, with a max- Above: One of l0 Noratlas supplied Below: France accepted delivery of
rmum height of 2.75 m (9 ft) and a deck to Portugal, now replaced by the over 200 Noratlas, more than half
area of 9.9 m (32 ft 6 in) bY 2,4 m (7 ft C - I 30 Hercules. Extensively used in remaining active into the I980s. With
rouille de France aerobatic team. the colonial struggles in Angola and a cargo capacity of some I tonnes,
I0 in), can accommodate 36 fullY-
armed paratroops, or alternatively 45 Although the prototype Noratlas was Mozambique, it is believed that some the Noratlas can carry up to 45 troops
ordinary soldiers. Military vehicles powered by hvrn ll93-kw (1,600-hp) ex-Portugaese aircraft are still in or 36 fully equipped paratroops. It
Gnome-Rh6ne 14R radial motors, pro- operation in the latter country, joinedintheArmee del'Air
has been
can also be carried, and offloaded
quickly through the twin rear cargo duction versions have flown with a s u pp lem en ti ng S ovie t - s u p p lie d C- I 60, a more
by the Transall
doors that are removed for air drops. choice of French-built Bristol Hercules aircraft. moderndesign.
Although the major operator of the engrnes, in one form driving reverse-
Noratlas when new was the Arm6e de pitch fow-blade propellers.
l'Air, for which more than 200 were
produced, 186 saw sewice wrth the Specification
l,uftwaffe's three tactical transport Noratlas
wings, LTG 61, 62 and 63, Of this num- Tlpe: military transport capable of
ber 136 were manufactured under Ii- tal:rng vehicles, freight, 45 troops or 36
cence by Flugzeugbau Nord, the re- paratroops
mainder being supplied from France. Powerplant: two 152 1-kW (2,040-hp)
When from 1968 the type began to be SNECMA-built Bristol Hercules air-
phased out ofuse by the six l8-aircraft cooled radial piston engines
German squadrons, about 40 were Performance: maximum speed
sold to Greece and about halfthat num- 440 kn/h (273 mph) at sea level; rate of
ber to Israel. Ten were used bY Por- climb 375 m (1,230 ft) perminute;
tugal. service ceiling 7500 m (24,606 ft);
Apart from the versions ofthe Norat- range 3000 km ( I,864 miles)
las flying with the French transport un- Weishts: empty 13075 kg (28,825 lb);
rts, others were used for training. in- maximum take-off 23000 kg (50,706 lb)
cluding some operated by GrouPe- Dimensions:span32.50 m (106 ft
ment Ecole 316 for navigatronal in- 7,5 in); length21,96 m(72 ft0,6 tn);
struction, while the type has also been height600 m (19 ftB.2 in); wlngarea
used as a back-up machine for the Pal 101.2 mz (1,089.3 sq ft)

ffi fif"ing C-97 Stratofreishter


One of the most capable transport air-
cra-ft to see service with the US Alr
Force, the Boeing Model 367 flew for
the first time on 15 November 1944 and
was essentially based on that com-
pany's highly successful B-29 Superfor-
tress, whose wing and engine layout it
directly inherited. This was maried to
a revised fr:selage which rncorporated
the now-famous'double-bubble'
cross-section and which resulted in
the type possessing a portly appear-
ance which rather belied its versatility.
Evaluation of three XC-97 Pro-
totypes was accomplished quite swift-
ly and satisfactorily, culminating in July
1945 in an order for l0 YC-97 aircraft Ahove: Derived from Boeing's
for firrther evaluation, but it was not wartime B-29 Superfortress, the C-97
until March 1947 that the C-97A Strato- was the resultot a requirementfor a
teighter was committed to produc- I o ng - r ang e, h igh- c a p acity tr ansp or t
tion. The initial contract was modest, aircraft. This machinewas the third
covering just 27 C-97A troop/cargo of the initial batch oI 50 production
transports, although 23 more were aircraft. It had an APS-42 weather
ordered in the following year. The next avoidance radar in a chin radome.
new-burld version (again a pure troop/
cargo aucraft) was the C-97C, which Right: Boeing were supPlYing large
featured a strenqthened cabin floor numbers of aircraft to the newly
and detail changes, but onlY 14 were independent USAF in the late I 940s.
built and these, like the earlier C-97As, TheC-97 gave longrange support to
;';ere assigned to the Mllitary Air the B-50 (a developed B-29 ) as well as
T:arsport Sewice, to the revolutionary new bomber, the
Experiments conducted w.ith three B-47 . Few would have guessed that
-":craft which had been fitted with the C-97s would still be supporting the
3ceing-deveioped inflight-refueliing USAF 3jyears later.
bccm revealed that the C-97 posses-
-=C corsiderable promise as a tanker KC-97E, of which 60 were built, and
a:rcraft; lt was in this role that the type these were foilowed by 159 examples
most widely used, equipping over of the KC-97F which differed mainly in
{l Sirategic Arr Command squadrons
",?s that it featured sliQthtly more powerful
a: rs peak in the mld- to late- 1950s, The engdnes. Both of these sub{ypes were
-= dedicated tanker model was the convertible tanker/transports unlike
Boeing C-97 Stratofreighter (continued) Post-War Transport Aircraft

the KC-97G, which possessed the abil- tasks as electronic countermeasures Above : O ne of the las t suwiving Below: An ANG KC-97L refuels an
ily tofulfi1 both misslons without re- (EC-97G) search and rescue (HC- KC-97Ls, displaying one of the J47 jet F - 4D P h an tom while on detachment
course to reconfignrring the aircraft, 97G), SAC mission support (C-97K) engines fitted to s ome AN G tankers to R hein- M ain AB in G erm any. W hen
Thts was the definitive Stratofreighter, VIP-type transportation (VC-97) and in the I 970s to enable the Z1-year-old it first flew, the main US fighters were
no less than 592 being manufactured research into h:rboprop powerplants airtr ames to operate with younger, the piston engined P-47 and P-S 1,
before production came to an end in (YC-94), whrle small numbers also high-performance jets. The last and inflight- r e fu e lli n g w a s vi r tu a I ly
1956, saw sewice overseas, most notably KC - 97 was retired in I 978, the type un(<not4tn.In.the span of one type's
Subsequently, the advent of the with Israel and Spain in the inllight- having provided over 30 years of career, aircraft have seen an
Boeing KC- 1 35 Stratotanker resulted in refuelling ro1e, servrce. enormous increase in pertormance
the then-surplus KC-97s being mod- andcapability.
ifled for other duties, Many former Specification
tankers had the refuelling gear re- KC-g7c
moved and were extensively em- Type: transport and infllght-refuelling
ployed as pure cargo aircraft by the aircraft
Air National Guard, while this orga- Powerplant: fow 26 10-kW (3, 500-hp)
nization aiso acquired a number of Pratt & Whitney R-4360-59 Wasp Major
tankers, some of which were later radial piston engrnes
retrofitted with two J47 auxiliary jet en- Performance: maximum speed
gdnes in place of the underrr.nng fuel 604 lsn/h (375 mph); cruisingspeed
tarks. Knovrn as the KC-97L, this model 483 kn/h (300 mph); service ceiiing
possessed enhanced performance 10668 m (35,000 ft); range 6920 krn
and eventually became the last ver- (4,300miles)
sion of the Stratofreighter to see ser- Weights: empty 37421 kq (82,500 lb);
vice with the USAF in any capacrty, the maximum take-off 79379 kg
final examples being retired in the (175,000 lb)
summer of 1978, Dimensions: span43,05 m (141 ft 3 in);
In addrtion to use as a tanker and/or length33.63 m(110 ft4ln): height
cargo aucraft, variants of the Strato- 11.66 m(38 ft3 rn): wingarea 159.79 m'z
freighter undertook such disparate (1,720 sq ft)

ffi Sougtas C-54 Skymaster and C-l18 Liftmaster


Initially conceived as a fow-engine
commercial airliner and irst flown in
prototype form as the DC-4E in June
1938, the Douglas Aircraft Company's
first venture into large transport air-
craft proved unsuccessful, prompting
a return to the drawing board which
resulted in the smaller but more cap-
a-ble Douglas DC-4A which did flnd
favour, most notably with US arrlines
anxious to improve transcontinental
servlces.
Fitted with seats for 42 passengers,
the two dozen DC-4As on the produc-
tlon line at the tlme of the US entry rnto
World War Ii were taken over by the
US furny Air Force and given the ser-
vice designation C-54 Skymaster,
Douglas C - 54 S lqm as ters of the
403rd Troop Carrier Command are
sen during the May I 9 52 operation
to transport paratroopers of the
187th Regrimental Combat Team to
Korea. More than 100 aircraft carried
over 1000 tonnes ofmen and
equpmen t across the S ea ofJ apan to
theb new lacations.
Douglas C-54 Skymaster and C- I 18 Liftmaster (continued)

Thereafter, the basic aircraft was sub- extensive service with the USAAF, Service plus 65 R6D (later redesig- AC-54 k shown in the olive drab
jected to conslderable redesign which almost 200 Skymasters were diverted nated C-II8B) transports for the US colour scheme carried on the North
resulted in the appearance ofa gener- as RSD aircraft to the US Navy and US Navy's small number of airlift squad- Atlantic run du r ing Wor ld W ar I L
al-purpose cargro version known as the Marine Corps, examples remaining rons. Although most of the suwiving Scaled down from the original over-
C-54A, 252 of whichwere built, Further active with these three services until aircraft were retired in the 1970s, a ambitious pre-war design, the C-54/
refinement led to the appearance of the mid-1970s, albeit in ever dimi- handful of C-tiBAs and C-llBBs re- DC-4 Iamily came to be one of the
improved variants, these being the C- nishing numbers. mains active with Naly Reserve trans- mainstays of post-war long-distance
548 (220 burlt), C-54D (380) C-54E The Skymaster also proved popular port squadrons in mid-1985, some of travel, both civil and military.
(125) and C-54G (162), and by the ttme with overseas air atms, as did the C- these being former USAF examples,
production terminated no less than ll8 Liftmaster which succeeded it in Weights: empty 23358 kg (5 1,495 Ib);
i,245 had been compieted, this total productron in the late 1940s, this being maximum take-off 44089 kg (97, 200 1b)
including 79 DC-4s built in the post basrcally an enlarged and pressunzed Specification Dimensions:span 35,8I m (l t7 ft 6 tn);
war era for commercial operators, C-54 wrth more powerful engines, c-ll8A Ienglh 30,66 m (100 ft 7 rn); height
In US sewice the C-54 proved to be Flown rn prototype form as the XC- Type: four-engine transport aircraft 8.66 m (28 ft 5 in)i wing area 135.36 m'
a most versatile machine, undertaking 112A in February 1946, a civil counter- Powerplant: four lB64-kW (2, 500-hp) (1,457 sq ft)
the movement of troops, cargo and part (the DC-6) was built in substantial Pratt & Whitney R-2800-52W Double
casualties, while speciaiized modifi ca- numbers, of which qurte a few found Wasp radial piston engTines The BerHn Airlift saw the first maior
tions fulfilled such tasks as navaid their way into military sewice, Produc- Performance: maximum speed testot air logistics on the grand scale,
calibration, search and rescue, weath- tion for the US armed forces totalled 573 ].cn/h (356 mph) at 5974 m and it w as the I 0 - tonne capacity ot
er reconnaissance, missile tracking, 166, comprising 101 C-1184 transport (19,600 ft); cruisinq speed 504 km,h the C-54 which proved vital to the
communications and general-purpose and one VC-ll8 presidential atrcraft (313 mph)at6218 m(20,400 ft); normal mass ive U SAF contribution to
transport duties. In addition to seeing for the USAF's Military Air Transport range 6l4B lan (3,820 miles) O pey ation'V ittles' ( the US term ).

li

torrgrtas C-lzlGlobemaster II
=
Wrih well over 400 aircraft completed
during the late I940s and early 1950s,
ter I, the prototype YC-124 beinq stmp-
1y a conversion of the flfth productton
:he Douglas C-124 Globemaster II C-74, incorporating a much revised
served as the USAF's principal carqo fuselage wlth clamshell-type nose
r:craft until largely replaced by more doors to ease the loading of cargo. En-
r-oCern jet and turbine-powered gine installation initially remained un-
3qu-ipment during the latter half of the changed for the YC-124, although this
-35Cs, thereafter enjoying a new lease
::l:-:e wrth second{ne echelons of this Developed from the C-74
a:: arm, Indeed, lt was not until Globemaster I, theC-124 featured a
*ptember 1974 that the last examples deeper body and enormous
-r,ere finally stood down by the Air clamshell loading doors in the nose.
l.a:cnal Guard, after nearly a quafier With two decks installed, the
:: a centwy of serlrce, Globemaster could transport over
3:lloquialiy known as 'OId ShakY', 200 tully equipped troops. The C- 124
-:-e C- 124 was essentially a redesigmed remained in sewice for 20 years until
;:r:srcn of the earlier C-74 Globemas- replaced by the massive C-5 Galaxy.
Douglas C- 124 Globemaster II (continued)

arcraft was later fitted wrth 2834-kW 4101 kW (5,500 eshp), As well as the
(3 800-hp) R-4360-35A engines and re- revised engine installatron, this
designated as the YC-1244, Subse- machine also had enlarged vertical tati
quent production ofthe C-1244 variant surfaces and a modified tarlplane, and
mtnessed fitment of yet another ver- it spent most of its flying career with
sron of Pratt & Whitney's well-proven the Air Research and Development
and reliable radial engine, this being Command in furboprop evaluation,
the R-4360-20WA rated at 2610kW
(3 s00 hp) Specification
A total of 204 C-I?4As had been c-124C
completed when production switched Type: strategic transport aircraft
to the C-I24C variant which intro- Powerplant: four 2834-kW (3 800-hp)
duced a number of new features, in- Pratt & Whitney R-4360-63A air-cooied
cluding APS-42 weather search radar radialengines
il a bulbolrs nose radome as well as Performance: maxrmum speed
combustion heaters in wingrtip fairings, 489 lcr/h (304 mph) at 6340 m
increased fuel capacity and more (20,800 ft); cruising speed 438 km/tt
powerful R-4360-63A engnnes. Produc- (272 mph),servrce ceiling 5608 m
tion of the C-I24C derlative totalled (18,400 ft)i range with 2540 1-ks
243, and most of the older C-lz4As (56,000tb) payload 1983 lcn ( 1,232
were retrospectively fitted with radar miles)
and wingrtip heaters, makrng them vr- Weights: empty 45BBB kq (101, 165 lb);
tually indrstingnrishable from the final normal loaded 839 15 kq ( 185, 000 lb);
version of the Globemaster IL maximum take-off 88224 kg
In addition to the hvo major produc- (r94,500 ]b)
tion sub-types, one aucraft was com- Dimensions: span 53.07 m (I74 ft The Douglas C- I 24 Globemaster II gave the USAF badly-needed heavy airlift
pleted as the YC-1248, this featuring a I.5 in); lensth39.75 m (130 ft 5 in)t capacity in the J 950s. Seen ftere are C- I 24As hrought up to C- I 24C standard
quartet of Pratt & Whitney YT34-P-6 height 1472 m (48 ft 3.5 in); u,rngarea with an AN|APS-4Z weather radar in the nose and with combustion heaters at
turboprop engines, each rated at 232.81 mz (2,506 sq ft) the winglips for cabin heating as well as wing and tail de-icing.

€ 5ouqta. C-133 Cargomaster Pratt & Whitney T34-P-9W turboprops


Performance: maximum speed
578 kn/h (359 mph) at 2652 m (8,700 ft);
Desrgned to fulfil the strategdc trans- models, C-1334 production ended long-haul missions throughout the ranse with 35235-ks (77,680-1b)
port role with the USAF's Military Atr with the 35th aucraft, 15 examples of world. However, the type did suffer payload 2780 lcn (1,727 miles); range
Transport Service (MATS), the Doug- the rather more powerful C-1338 from a number of problems which re- with 23516-kg (51,845{b) payload
las C-133 Cargomaster was operated (Douglas Model 1430) following them sulted in it beinq Qrrounded on several 6,48G kn (4,030 miles)
in only modest guantities, just 50 exam- dorrm the assembly line and all featur- occasions following serious accidents, Weights: empty 54550 kg ( 120,263 lb);
ples being built before production ter- ing the clamshell tail loading doors most of which were attuibuted to fati- normal loaded 129727 kq (286,000 lb);
minated in the spring of 1961, which were introduced on the penultr- gue. It was probably with a sense of maximum take-off 136078 kg
Development of the Carqomaster mate C-133A anci which facilitated the relief that MAC eventually withdrew (300,000Ib)
began during the early 1950s, and it Ioading of Atlas and Titan ICBMs, and the 35 or so suwiving examples in Dimensions: span 54.76 m (I79 ft
was on 23 April 1956 that the first C- Thor and Jupiter IRBMs, Other cargro I97I-2, the lonq-haul hearry-lift mission 7,75 in); lenqth48.02 m(157 ft6.5 in);
133A made its marden flight, there could, of coulse, be carrred, the C- then being entrusted to the truly mas- height 1471 m (48 ft 3 in); wrngarea
being no prototype in the normally 1338 havrng a payload capabilrty in sive Lockheed C-SA Galaxy. Most of 248.32 mz (2,673 sq ft)
accepted sense ofthe word. T\uo basic excess of 45360 kg (100,000 Ib) while the remaining Cargomasters were
sub-types were produced, the first of as a troop carrier it could accommo- eventually scrapped, but a small num- The Douglas C - I 33 C argomas ter was
which was the Douglas Model 1333, In date some 200 soldrers and their per- ber found a new lease of lile wrth civrl an advanced transportwith multi-
USAF sewice thrs adopted the de- sonal kit, operators and one is believed still to wheel landing gearm sjde blisfers
signation C-I33A, initial production ex- In operational service the Cargo- be active in Alaska. and a ramp for the staight-in
amples being powered by the T34-P-3 master was employed by MATS (and Ioading of vehicles. Late examples of
engine which was rated ar 4474kW its successor Military Airlift Com- Specification the 50 built featured rear clamshell
(6,000 eshp), although this was sup- mand) for many years, equrpping e1e- c-1338 doors, but although a capable
planted by the 4847-kW (6,500-eshp) ments on both east and west coasts of Type: strategic heary-lift transport aircraft the desigm suffered from
T34-P-7 or T34-P-7WA on later C-133A the USA and generally undertaking Powerplant: four 5593-kW (7, 500-eshp) fatigae problems.
C-ll9in Action months of the war, on 20 October 1950. On that
De signe d at the e nd of W orld W ar I I the F airchild C - I 2 I I I I family of tactic al date a force of 71 C-119s teamed up with 40
transportswas atBerlinfor the airlift, received abaptism of fireinKorea,moved Douglas C-47s to deliver 2,860 troops and just
t goods all over the world, and eventually gave birth to an awesome combat aircraftin over 300 tons of equipment of the 187th Atr-
'Shadow'gunship in the night skies ofVietnam. borne Regimental Combat Team to a point'
theAC-l 19G
astride the major transportation network near
Sukchon and Sunchon, some 48 km (30 miles)
Although conceived as a pure tactical transport improved version known as the C-l19 Flyingt north of Pyongyang. Conducted ln conjunction
aircraft, intended for the movement of troops Boxcar had arrived on the scene and this was with tactical fighter and light bomber aircraft
and cargo, Fairchild's distinctive family of twin- extensively used in this long confllct, elements whrch worked over the drop zone just before
taiied freighters proved sufficiently versatlie of Tactical Air Command's airlift force such as the transports were due to arrive, this opera-
and (perhaps more importantly) durable to the 3l4th Troop Carrier Group being quickly tlon was spectacularly successful; most of the
undertake combat action in two very different committed to South East Asia, North Korean defensive forces abandoned
roles. Primarily employed as an arrlift aircraft, For the most part, the airlift units operated their dug-outs and fled to safety, leaving the US
the C-82 and the later and rather more capable from bases in Japan, betng employed mainly troops to face only modest reslstance and thus
C- l 19 performed with distlnction on numerous on the repetitive but nevertheless necessary permit them to secure their objectlves ln re-
occasions in times oipeace and war; while the job of hauhng cargo and personnel to United markably short order, Such operations were
heavily armed and armoured gnrnship deriva- Nations facilitles ln Korea, In addition, they also the exception rather than the rule, however,
tives of the latter type proved of great value frequently undertook the air-dropping of sup- and most of the time the iob of the transport
during the Vietnam War, permitting the Flying plies to isolated outposts by parachute, a task crews was one of grinding monotony.
Boxcar to enjoy a new lease of life tn the twilight which cailed for a high degree of skill slnce it The scope of combat-type C-i 19 operations
years of its front-line career. entarled accurate flying at low altitude rf cor- expanded still further shortly before the end of
rect delivery was to be gnraranteed. It also the Korean War and involved actlvity in an area
C-82 in the Cold War calied for a certain amount of courage, for tt not too far removed from Korea, namely
Although arriving on the scene roo late to see was by no means uncommon to run into accu-
C-82s of the 316th Troop Carrier Wing are seen at
action in World War II, the C-82 did play a rate and potentlally deadly small arms fire Eglin AF B in F lorida. I n S eptember I 9 48, when this
smail but nevertheless important part in the when engaged rn such mrssions, picture was taken, the production run of 220 C-82s
first of several major Cold War confrontations Potentially more hazardous tasks also came was coming to an end, making way for the greatly-
between the USA and the USSR, namely Op- their way on occasion, one particularly notable improved version of the design, the C- I I I Flying
eration'Plainfare', the codename given to the instance ofthe latter occurring during the early Boxcar.
Berlin Airllft of 1948-9. Despite the fact that only
a handful of C-82s was involved, these proved
to be of particular value in that the aft-loading
cargo doors permitted smooth and rapid
movement of vehicles into the beleaguered
city, these subsequentiy being used to transfer
food and other vital supplies within the en-
virons of Berlin,
By the time of the next clash of will between
the two Superpowers, the C-82 had been large-
ly relegated to second-line elements of the US
Air Force and, as a result, it played little or no
part in the Korean War, However, by then an

Below : While fighterc grabbed many of the


headlines in Korea, unjfs sucft as the 3 I 4th Troop
Canier Wing proved vital. Despite often appalling
weather, their C- 1 I 9 s llew resupply missions into
themost difficult of mountain terrain and, more
often than not, got through.
Otherusers of theC-l 19 include the
Indian Air Force, who at one time
equipped three squadronswith the
Boxcar. The 40 aircratt were notable
fo7 the installation of a single HAL-
built j et engine, installed in a pod
ffi
{
above the central section, for
assrslancernoperatingunder'hot ...

andhigh'conditions.

French Indo-China, and most partrcularly Vlet- than 19 aircraft recelved damage from the in- rmpressive record in combat, operating ma-:--,-
nam, where French colonial aspirations were tense and accurate 37-mm anti-aircraft artillery at night and playrng an important part rn pr:-
taking a bit of a battering at the hands of the which surrounded Dien Bien Phu during April, tecting outlying posts, which frequently ca::-=
Viet Minh. The initlal employment of the C-119 On 6 May, barely 24 hours before the garrrson under attack from Viet Conq gnrerrrllas a:-j
in this theatre occurred in May 1953, six aircraft fell, the legendary Crvil Air Transport contract North Vietnamese regular troops dunng -:e
being furnished by the Far East Air Force com- pilot James B, McGovern (perhaps better hours of darkness, Subsequentiy, most of .l:e
mand, although these were actually flown by known as 'Earthquake McGoon') died when the remaining examples were handed over :c
contract pilots from Clvil Air Transport in C-l19 he was flyrng took a drrect hit from 37- South Vietnam in the early 1970s as part oi:e
Taiwan. This organization was incidentally a mm flak. 'Vretnamizatlon'process but, in addition tc ae
well known front for clandestine activities con- gnrnships, the latter service aiso employed
ducted by the Central Intelligence Agency, On Endof conflict pure C-119 transports for a nurnber of years
this occasion, the Boxcars were employed to Victory at Dren Bien Phu drd not quite mark South East Asia was by no means the on-,-
airlift French tanks and other heavy equipment the end of the conflict, although it was clearly a part of the world where the C-l19 undertoc-<
into Laos, a task which kept them occupied significant turnlng point after which French re- combat operations, but rt was certainly Lne
untll late Juiy when they were withdrawn from solution qulckly crumbled. Nevertheless, they most well documented, Nevertheless, Fair-
this theatre, only to return at the beginning of fought on for a little while longer and the 'Swivel child's distinctive transport was also committeci
December when the French began to build up Chair' C-119s duly remained active in Indo- to battle in the Belgian Congo, alrcraft lrom the
their forces at the base at Dien Bren Phu. China until mid-Ju1y, when they began to return Force A6rienne Belge seerng quite a brt oi
to the USAF, a process which ended ln early action in the early 1960s when that countrr
Indo-China operations September with the arrival of the last aircraft at lought to retain its colonial ties, while it is highl-r.
Rather more aircraft took part this time, the Clark Air Base in the Philippines, likely that some of the Indian Air Force's once-
number present varying from about 12 lo 22 Flfteen years later, USAF Flyinq Boxcars Iarge fleet of C- I 19s played a part in the vatious
and the operation went by the codename were again in action in South Vietnam, albeit in conflicts with neighbouring Pakrstan.
'Swlvel Chair', Much the same arrangrement as a rather different capacity since these were
before was adopted as regrards crewing this gmnships. T\ruo basic models were employed,
alrcraft, although the contract pilots were namely the AC-ll9G 'Shadow' and the AC- A spectacular low-level resupply mission in the
Arctic demonstrates one of the advantages of the
joined by personnel ofthe French air force and ll9K 'Stinger', the latter berng rather more twin-boom configuration. Byflying slowly at low
the C-1i9s accordrngly adopted French heavily armed in that it also carried a brace of level, barrels of fuel can simply be rolled straight
national markings while most, if not all, seem to 20-mm cannon in addition to four 7,62-mm (0 3- out of the open rear of the aircraft to land safely in
have retained USAF unrt insignia, in) Minignrns, The two variants racked up an the cushioning snow.
The opening months of 1954 provided some
indications of what was to follow but, for the
most part, the C- I I9s went about their busrness
unhrndered. It was not until 10 March that the
srege of Dien Bren Phu began with shelhng of
the two airstrlps. Four days later the main strip
was ciosed and it was at this time that C-119
casualties began to mount, one machine being
destroyed on the ground along with a number
of other aircraft, Shortly afterwards accurate
anti-aircraft fire and continued shelling re-
sulted in the outpost being virtually cut off,
,eaving aerial resupply as the only means of
preventing the garrrson from being overnrn.
Thus began the siege which was to resuit in
-,rctory for the Viet Minh on 7 May,
ln the interval, the C- I I9s performed sterling
-,';crk in keeping the garrison supplied, operat-
:-g alongside French C-47s, although as the
s-::atron worsened it became necessary to
!::vide flghter escort, Grumman F6F Hellcats
--j Grumman F8F Bearcats and Douglas 8-26
:-'.-aders being employed in the flak suppres-
.-::- rOle,
:-.-en then, the Flyin9r Boxcars suffered their
:l.: share of casualties, For instance, no less

S'x:ansong for the Packetwas the


::i;'ersion ofsome C-l19s into
_:::snrps. Arm ed w ith 7. 6 2 -mm or
i - -:rm G atling gans, the AC- I I I
i:aacry sras used tointerdictviet
3::.g *pplytrails.
Fairchild C-82 and C- l 19

Fqirchild C-llg
Flging Boxcar

.A c-.1 J -ccof th e65 th TCS, 40 3rd TCG (ktown as the


P het"Ratdj as it appeared during the Korean War.
Ofen ,!fre 'DolJar-Ivinefeens', as tie C- I l9swere
scrlecrnnes callad, were the only method of supplying
mcmed-iir trcr.ps with fueI and provisions. M any of the
arrrra.ft rsna-rn d in Asia alter the war, being handed
o,rer to ti€ flren ch for their own protracted Indo-China
.artpabrr
Post-War Transport AircraJt

Fairchild C-82 Packet


and C-l19 Flying Boxcar
With its twin tail booms, high wing and while the tail section had also been number of variants which appearei a:
pod-type fwelaqe layout, the Fairchild redesigmed, In addition, the Pratt & a jater date, these inciudiag the AG
C-82 Packet and C-l19 Flying Boxcar Whitney R-2800 prston eng"ines of the 1l9G/K 'gunships', the C-ll9] ;;--::
family of tactical transports ranks high C-82 had been replaced by more clamshell-type rear loadilg doors a::
amongst the most distinctive desigms powerfui Pratt & \Alhitney R-4360 en- the JC-l19 for satellite capsule rem-,-
ever flown, and yet the basic idea was gines and, on production aircraft at ery tasks. Despite the fact that it is r:c;,;
clearly valid since both France and the least, the fuselage was slightly wider rather long in the tooth, some exa:::-
UK later 'borrowed' this concept irr which permitted a grreater payload, ples of the C:l 19 are still active rn L:-
the Nord Noratlas and Armstrong Followinq evaluation of a converted C- dia, while it is thought that Taiwari ais:
Whitworth Arqosy respectlvely. In 82 as the C-llgA in 1947-8, the new retains this type as part of its airl_
both of the latter cases, though, the version was ordered into prodution as inventory,
manufacfurers were unable to secure the C-ll9B although thrs very quickly
anyvvhere near the measure ofsuccess qave way to the C-llgC, close to 360 of Specification
in terms of numbers bullt as did Far- these two models being completed, c-llgc
child . Purther changes to the means of Type: tactical transport aircraft
Development ofthe C-82 Packet be- propulsion were introduced by the C- Poweiplant: rwo 3,400-hp (2535-kUD
gan dwing 1941 in response to a US 119F, which was powered by a pair of Wright R-3350-89W ar-cooled radrai
Army Air Porce request for a troop/ Wright R-3350 radial engines, 199 prston engines
cargo transport aircraft, The prototype being produced before the definitive Performance: maximum speed
XC-82 made its maiden flight in C- I I9G made its debut. This again was 476 lff/h (296 mph) at 5182 m
September 1944, and for a time it powered by Wright R-3350 engrines (17,000 ft); cruising speed 322 Urr1h,
looked as thouqh both Fairchild and and it eventually became the most (200 mph); range with standard fuel
North American would undertake numerous member of the Fairchild 3669 lcn (2,280 miles)
quantity productron. In the event, the iine, 480 C-119Gs having been com- Weishts:empty 18136 kq(39,982 lb)
latter company completed only three pleted by the time manufacture ter- maximum take-off 33747 kq (74, 40C -c
machines, a further 997 beinq cancel- minated towards the end of 1955. Dimensions: span 33,30 m (109 ft 3 r-l
led after VJ-Day. Fairchild, however, in addition to service with the USAF, length 26,37 m (86 ft 6 in); heiqht 8.C3 :.
did produce a total of 220 C-82A av- the Flying Boxcar proved popular wrth (26 ft4 in); wingarea I30,06 m2
craft, the last of which was handed overseas air arms, examples being de- (1,400 sq ft)
over in September 1948, but this type livered to friendly nations such as Bel-
was retired ftom the active inventory gium, Canada, Ethiopia, India, Italy,
during 1954. Morocco, Norway, Taiwan and South
Although it retained a strong lamily Vietnam. No less prolific were the
resemblance to the earlier C-82, the
C-I 19 was in fact avery dillerent beast,
For a start. the flight deck was reposi-
tioned lower and farther forward,

,,/.y'./,/,,.7
',-.,
E: USA

Fairchild C-123 Provider


-:--::rqh primarily employed as a tac- ing gear, rough-field tyres and tvro
::d narsport arrcra-ft, the Fairchild C- auxiliary JBS turbojet engines in under-
123 Provider was another type which wing pods. None of these three types
:-:11;r came rnto its own during the was committed to production, although
:g:se of the Vretnam War. A substan- some features of the YC-123H were
-= :umber of the twin-engine gener- later adopted by aircralt destrned for
='-c',:-:-pose frerghteritroop transports service in Vietnam.
irele rescued from service with Although only the basic C-1238
-+-:ond-iine elements of the USAF and attained guantity production, numer-
:-*<patched to South East Asia where ous variants did eventually appear,
--:ey sewed wrth grreat distinction, To- these all being converstons of the C-
:ay. howevet, only a handful remain 1238. Most notable was the C-123K
::l USAF charqe, these serving with which featured podded JB5-GE-17 jet
--:e Air Force Reserve, though others engines, larger wheels and an antt-
-e stili achve with the air arms of the skid braking system, At least 180 Pro-
P:-:lippines and Thailand, nders were updated to this standard,
3nsrnally conceived by the Chase but other variations on the theme in-
l:crafi Company as an outgrowth of cluded the C-123J with skis and jets for
-:,ar concem's involvement wtth assault service in support of DEW Line sta-
:a:go gliders, the initial proposal was tions rn Newfoundland and Alaska, the
l::cwn in company parlance as the UC-123K for 'Ranch Hand' defoliation
MSg Avitruc and this, as the XC-I23, and the 'Project Black Spot' NC-I23K The Fairchild C- I 23 was used for a multitude of tasks during the US
nade its maiden flight dudng October for night suwerllance. involvement inSoullr EastAsja. Here a C- I 23 is employed in spraying the
--149. In the event, it was not until 1952
Vietnamese jqngle with Agent Orange, a powerful defoliant, during
-:at USAF interest hardened into a Specification Operation'Ranch Hand', the systematic destruction of potentialVC cover.
Jintract for five test airframes, but the c-1238
larent company was destined never to Type: tactical transport arrcraft
llace the tlpe ln quantity production, Powerplant: two lB64-kW (2, 500-hp)
::re task fallinq to Fairchild which Pratt & Whihrey R-2800-99W Double
assumed responsibiltty for further de- Wasp radial piston engines
;elcpment and production of the atr- Performance: maximum speed
::a-ff towards the end of 1953. 394 kri/h (245 mph); cruising speed
Followilg some redesign, which tn- 330 l<r/h (205 mph); sewice ceiling
:i:.rded the addition of a prominent range 2366 km ( 1470
BB39 m (29,000 ft);
n:rsal fln, Fairchild's first C-1238 got miles)
a-:i:ome at the beednning of Septem- Weights: empty 13562 kq (29,900 1b);
cer 1954, this being the forerunner of maximum take-off 27216 kg (60,000 Ib)
:12 aircraft, most of which found their Dimensions: span 33.53 m ( I 10 ft 0 1n);
Tat rnto the Tactical Arr Command lenEh 23.24 m (76 ft 3 in)l herght
-:-ientory, although six went to Saudi 10,39 m (34 ft 1 in); wingarea 113.62 m'
-::abia and lB were delivered
_ _^-^-.^)^
to (1,223 sq ft)

ldy three other arrcraft were built


:s :ew, these all being one-off air-
:::::es for evaluation. The YC-123D The pres sure of the V ietn am W ar led
:=::.e first, this incorporating boundary tovast numbers of C-123s, hitherto
-:.-er control for enhanced STOL per- Ianguishing in resewe, being rushed
:::::::nce, and this was followed by the into front-Iine service. This formation
YGI23E, complete with 'Pantobase' of C- I 2 3s is at South Vietnam's Tan
:-*-rage undersides which permitted SonNhut air base prior to the
:;e:aton from water, Finally, there attempt to burn down the guerrilla
;n=s -:e YC- I23Hwrth wide-track land- sanctuary in BoiLoi forest.

€ i,ockheed C-69 and C-LZI Constellation


-rs i';^s -ie case with the Douglas C-54
*:k_r:::s:er, so did the lrockheed Con-
gellation find its way into military uni-
::::: as more or less an accident of
:=:r. arcrafi on the production line
r: tlme of the Pearl Harbor attack
=e
:e-:g impressed for service with the
,S irrny Air Force.
l:e maiden flight of Lockheed's
;::eli 'Connie' took place ln early
,---'::ry and 22 examples of the
1943,
CS;rere ultimately obtained for ser-
--::-: r;t
the Au Transport Command,
-::se . lessurlzed 64-seater aircraft
:e'- enployed mainly as troop trans-
9i
;,::-s a'.uuig the war years before
i€'-;i s:lC to commercial airlines rnrth
ni
v!
norno
Pvsvv,

!-:bsequently, rn 1948, 10 examples


---
--: -r-croved Ir-749 version were
a':::::sed by the USAF under the de-
Gi21 for use as VlP/person-
=t:.::::
m arr e d by the
Ic: grracrefti,l lines
addition oI prominent radar
irousrngrs, the Constellation was used
e*ensively as an airborneearly
watning platlorm over South East
Asia. where it monitored the
m oveme nts of N or th Vie tname se
mterc€pforc.
lockheed C-69 and C- 12l Constellation (continued) Post-War Transport Aircraft
:rel transports, one of these finding its
rray into servrce as a presidential air-
craft with the name Columbine IL
Cther pure kanspofi examples based
cn the commercial L-1049 followed in
1954, 33 C-lzlC aircraft being ordered
ior the Military Air Transport Service
whilst US Navy airlift capabilrty was
sigmificantly updated through the ac-
guisition of about 50 RZV-I (later C- Constellationswere used as troop transports inthelasttwoyears of WorldWar II beforebeing sold to commerciaJ
l2lJ) arcraft, 32 ofwhich were even- airlines. Both theUSNavy andAirForcepurchasedC-121s duringthe |g50s, butthelastConsleltatr'onsro jee acave
hrally transferred to MATS as C-l2lG sewice were those of th€ Indian Navy; these survived into the 1980s.
machines, In addition, four examples
of the YT-34 turboprop-powered RZV- proved to be the longest-lived exam- lime to time, most notably those of Powerplant: four 3,250-hp (2421-k-:;.
2 version were delivered to the US ples of the breed. Employed initially to No,rth Korea. Wrighi R-3350-91 trbo-Cbmpc j:-:
Navy, and two of these aiso saw ser- auqmenl ground-based radar cover- ln addition to the USA, examples of radialprstonengnnes
uce with the USAF under the designa- age of the continental USA, the type the Constellation also served with the Performance:maximumspeed
ton YC-12lF. was soon committed to action in South alr arns of India and Indonesia, the 592 kn/h (368 mph) at 6096 m
Although extensively used as a East Asia by the USAF which em- former'sNavalAirSeryrceemploying (20,000ft); cruisingspeed4l7knh
fransport atcraft, the Lockheed type ploygd it to detect MiG activity over a number of ex-Au India passenger (259mph)at3O48m(i0,000ft); ser,::=
was perhaps best known by the milit- North Vietnam and to exercise com- transports on maritime surveillance cei1ing6797m(22,300ft); ratge
ary as the Warning Star airborne early mand and control of friendly strike until qrils recently, these almost cer- 338okn(2,100miles)
warning platform, both the US NaW forces USNavyEC-12lswerealsoac- tainly being the last Super Constella- Weights:empty330iBkg(72,B15lbl
and US Air Force acquiring large num- tive in this part^of the world, although tlons to operate rn a mrlitary capacity maximumtalie-off 65771 kil
bers of the RC/EC-l2l models, Addr- they were confined mainiy to the ac- anywhere in the world, (145,000 lb)
'
[on of prominent dorsal and ventral quisltlon of electronic intelligence, a Dimensions:span37,49m(123ft0rr.
fauings housing misslon-related radar, ^
potentially dangerous mrssion and one Specification length 35.41 ni (l i6 ft 2 in); height
whilst unsightly, could not disgmise the which resulted in aircraft coming C-I2IG 7.52m(24ft1ui); wingareals-3.29r:
Constellation's classic lines, and these under attack from hostile fighters from Type: longr-range transport aircraft (l 650 sq ft) .

>K ttactuurn Beverley


Makrng its debut rn 1950, the Generd Able to operate from small desett afusl.rips, the Beverley was in g:reat demand during
Aircraft G.A.L. 60 was the largest B ritain's wi thdrawal from eas t of S uez. T his is a machine of N o. I 4 S quadron in the I 960s,
rransport of its hnd to be produced in based at Khormaksar in Aden.
the UK, and the mihtary freighter
which was based on thts after the mer-
ger with the Blackburn organization
became known as the Blackburn Be-
verley.
The prototype first flew three years
later, in mid-June, and a contract for 20
Beverley C.Mk I transports was
placed, the type duly becoming the
biggest arrcraft then to be flown by the
RAF. Delivery of production models air-cooled radral piston engnnes
began in 1955, Performance: maxLmum speed
A further claim to history by the type
was that it was specially designed not
383 I.ff/h (238 mph) at 1737 m (5,700 il
rare of clLmb 232m(760 ft) permrnu:e
cnly for dropping paratroops, but also service ceiling4BTT m (16,000 ft);
-cr delivery by the same means of ptng of a record load for the time, Museum was delivered under its own range 370 kn (230 miles) wrth a 2268C-
rotor vehrcles, These were supported namely one of 10886 kq (24,000 ]b) with power, kg (50,000-lb) load
:n special pallets and rolled out ofthe the aid of several ZO-m (66-ft) diameter Weights: empty 35938 kg (79,230 lb)
:ear of the main cargo hold, the exit parachutes. One ofthe Beverley's les- Specification maximum take-off 6 1235 kq
reated by removal of the clamshell ser records is.the fact that it was the BeverleyC.Mk I (13s,000 lb)
'cors for these missions, the caver- last powered arrcraft to land at RAF Type: medium-range transport for Dimensions: span 49,38 m (162 ft 0 nl
:-lus accommodation for such loads Hendon, north ofLondon, for the exam- freight, 94 troops or 70 paratroops lensth 30,30 m (99 ft 5 in); heisht
::Lng separate from the passenger ple of the type which now stands on Powerplant: four 2 I 25-kW (2, 850-hp) I I B1 m (38 ft 9 in); wingarea270.9l -.:
-<:ltlng in the boom above Maximum exhibition there beside the RAF Bristol Centaurus 173 or Centaurus'663 (2,916 sq ft)
;ayload was 25297 kg (55,7701b). It fol-
-: vs therefore that the Beverley was
..<c of use in such tasks as supporting
1:und forces and casualty evacuatron
1. litters and six attendants) roles
r:-ere its remarkably short take-off
--: iarding runs of 740 m (2,430 ft) and
::- m (1,050 ft) respectively proved of
_.:=lr value.

:t +l
).c. 47 Squadron was the first to be
=;-:pped wrth the Beverley, in March ii:,;,,;F':
;:i while based at Abingdon, and as
--:::er machines were taken on
:---::je some unique duties came its
;-; These included the delivery of
::--:::l Sycamore and Westland Whirl-
r': helicopters to Cyprus, while the
:j:i -i:ar of its use also saw the drop-

llese Beverleys belong to No. 47


i'7;adron, the tirst unit to receive the
i:raIt in M arch I 9 5 6. Beverleys
me:e desrgned to drop ve hicle s as
nr*-- asparacfiutists by the clumsy
*;lerdient of r emouing the cl amshell
:.':s a f fie rea r of the fuselage.
>K tristot Freishter
Making its debut as an entirely prlate tages for miiitary work, the low gnound
venhne, the Bristol Type I70 destgned clearance enabled freight to be
Ln 1944 was recogmized as a type which loaded wrth the aid of only a mod€rate
answered to the requlrements of ramp. A novel feature for a transport of
General Wrngate for the movement of the period was the large fjxed landing
vehicles and supp[es in the Burma gear, which not only eliminated the
campaign, Two prototypes were necessity for complex hydraulics and
ordered with enlarged fuselages cap- consequently eased maintenance in
able of acceptlng. army trucks, the field, but also permitted operation
although the prototype was too late to from rough terrain; the eiectro-
see war sewice, not flying untii De- hydraulics incorporated for flap and
cember 1945. door operation were comparatively
The Type 170 Mk 3lM was the mtlit- simple.
ary transport version ofthe production At one time or another Iraq and Bur-
Mk 31 fteighters and civtl Mk 3iE ma have also used the military freigh-
Wayfarers, and saw service tn the air ter, but unusual were some of the 12 in
forces of Canada, New Zealand, Au- use by the RNZAF. Not onlY did these
stralla and Pakistan. The last took 38 of maintarn a continuous presence in
this variant between December 1953 Singapore for 22 years, operated bY
and June 1955 and used them mainly ln No, 41 Squadron, but for a pertod some
mountainous areas for suPPlY- were lentto the domestic air[ne SAFE,
dropping, although five were fitted in
196] for antrlocust operattons with
spray-booms added. Military versions Specification
as a whole represented the largest Type l70Mk3IM
single contract for the type, Of these, Type: military transport (24,500 ft); range 676 lcn (420 miles) The BristolFreighter was unusual in
probably unique was the Pair Pre- Powerplant: hvo 149 l-kw (2,000-hp) Weights: empty 11452 ks (25,247 Ib); having large fixed landing gear,
pared specially for VIP use in Pakistan, Bristol Hercules 734 air-cooled radial maximum take-off 19958 kg (44,000 lb) which eliminated the need for
the twin rows of l0 double seats of the piston engrrnes Dimensions:span32,92 m (108 ft0 in); complex hydraulics and madefor
original desiqn being reduced to give Performance: maximum sPeed lensth 20,83 m (68 ft 4 in); heisht 6.60 m easy maintenance. Bristol Freighters
more space in the luxurious cabin. 311 kri/h (193 mph) at 3048 m (21ftBin); wrngarea l38. 14m'z were widely ex ported, serving with
While the large opening doors that ( 10,000 ft); rate of ciimb 42 t m ( 1,380 ft) (1,487 sq ft) the ar med force s of C anada, N ew
formed the nose had obvious advan- per minute; service ceiling 7468 m Zealand, Pakistan and Australia.

O Pilot Press Limited


>K ilandley Pase Hastinss
- re Avro York transports that had
::en standard long-range freighters
.:r the RAF were eventually replaced
:-,. a product from Handley Page, r"l
.',':lch had long been associated with
,lge aircraft. The new machrne flew t AIR FORCE TRANSPORT COI.4I4AND--

.. r the flrst time in its production ver-


.-x during the spring of 1947, almost uri I

=ractly a year after the maiden flight of


-:-e prototype, This was the Handley
Page Hastings C.Mk l, differinq from
-:-e Hastings C.Mk 2 in having a high-
:r-mounted, short-span tallplane and
::duced fuel capacrty; some ofthe flrst
production versions were retrospec- The standard model was used not Specification The Handley Page Hastings entereci
--rely modified to the Iater standard as only at home as a transport and for HastingsC.Mk2 service in the late I I 40 s. This
i{astings C.Mk lA aircraft, meteorologrcal reconnarssance, but Type: longr-rangTe transport HastingsC.Mk 2 wasflown by No.36
the earlier variant that in Octo- also in the Middle East and Far East, Powerplant: four 1249-kW ( 1, 675-hp) S quadron, RAF, which operate d the
':erit was
1.947 equipped the frrst Transport actrng as freighter on established Bristol Hercules 106 air-cooled radial type until I 967, when the H asting s
lommand squadron to have the type, trunk routes and as supply droppers, piston engines was replaced by Lockheed's C- I 30
lio, 47 at Dishforth, so that togrether or for the movement of 50 troops each, Performance: maxrmum speed Hercules.
,',1th No. 297 Sqn it was in time to see or the dropping of30 parachutists from 560 kr/h (348 mph) at 6767 m
service in Operation 'Plainfare' the a single arrcraft, Thus the Hastinqs (22,200 ft), rate of climb 271 m (890 ft)
3erlin Airlift, Hastings transports were qualified for participation in the per mlnute; sewice ceiling 8077 m Hastings from Nos 36 and I 14
:mployed on this supply run to the for- second largest air lift to take place af- (26, 500 ft); nnse 27Za km ( 1, 690 miles) Squadrons fly over the snows of
rer German capital until the end of the ter that to Berlin, that of 1958 which Weishts: empty 2 1966 kq (48,427 lb); Kilimanjaro. Probably dating from
::st week in October 1949. moved stores, men, vehicles and maximum take-off36287 kq (BO,00O lb) about 1960, thephotoshows both
A year later the modifled Hastinqs equipment from the UK to Cyprus, This Dimensions:span34.44 m (113 ft 0 in); C.Mk 1 and C.Mk 2 Hastings, the
I Mk 2 was rnlroduced, rhrs version was in July after King Hussein s public igls"t! 2q 20 m (82 lt B rn);-height 6 86 m nearer aircraft being the Mk 2 (the
:emaining in production for the next invrtation to lnteryene in the cnsis that (22 ft 6 in): wing area 130.8 m difference in tailplane positions
:no years, and srmultaneously four of followed the revolution in lraq, when (1,408 sq ft) being mos t noticeable).
.re Hastings C,Mk 4 VIP variant were that kingdom broke with Jordan after
iehvered. the dissolution of the Arab Federation
in the previous February.

5T Wing attachlng fuse age 79 Tailcone


matn irames B0 Rear navioation lioht
52 Fuselageframeand 81 Elevator s,"pnnq ta-b
strinaer construction 82 Trimtab
53 Star6oard escape hatches, 83 Balancetab
three per s de 84 Elevatorconstruction
54 Cablntflmpanels 85 Poft tailplane constructlon
55 Hydrau ic f uid reseruorr 86 Betractabletallwheel
56 Airbotte 87 Tallplane eading-edge fluid
57 Floorbeamconstructlon deicrng
58 Underfloorfreighthold 88 Elevatorhinge control
Handley Page Hastings C.Mk 2 59
60
Rearcargofloor 89 Tailwheelbay
Portescapehatches 90 Rudderhingecontrol
cutawaydrawing key 61 Cabinsoundproofing
linings
91 Tailplane
attachment
maln spar

20 Radiooperator's console 36 Controlcableruns 62 Starboard paratroopdoor 92 Taiwheelretractlon


21 Tralling aerialwinch 37 Folding paratroop seats, 30 63 Paratroopstatic line mechanlsm
22 Ventral crew-entry hatch paratroops attachments 93 Tailplane control runs
23 Tralllng aerial mast 38 Cabin wlndows 64 Overhead cargo iash no rail 94 Passengertoilet
24 Radioandelectronlcs racks 39 DF loop aerial 65 Fuselaqe sl.in platinq compartment
25 Flightengineer'sconso e 40 Starboardwingfue tanks, 66 Airambulanceversion 95 Rearcabin heaterduct
26 Astrodome obseruation maximum internalfuel stretcher caffier, total of 32 96 Doublefreightdoors
hatch capacity3.172 lmpgal stretchers 97 Port paratroop/passenger
27 Starboardouterengine (14420 litres) 67 Whipaerial door
nacelle 41 Retractable landlng lamp 68 Fin roofii let 98 N,4ain cabln heaterducts
28 Whlp aerial 42 Auxiliarylong-rangefuel 69 Cabin rearbulkhead 99 Wing trailing edge root
29 Crewtoileton starboard tank 70 Flnsparattachments fillet
side 43 Retractabletaxilng lamp 71 Starboardtailplane 100 lnboardslottedfap
30 Boarding ladder. stowed 44 Starboard navigation llghl 72 Fin leading-edge fluid de- 101 Dlnqhybavs
31 Air Ouanermaster's 45 ReaMardldentificatlon rctng 1 02 Trailing edge f lap shroud
station lights 73 Aerialcables ribs
32 Wash basin 46 Starboardaileron 74 Fin constructlon 103 Portouters ottedflap
33 Cabinbulkhead 47 Aileron trim tab 75 Budderhingepost 104 Poftaileron
34 Plymax cabin flooring 48 Springtab 76 Rudderconstruction 105 Aileronspringtab
pa nels 49 Aileron hingecontrols 77 Trimtab 106 Trlmtab
35 Carqotie-down points 50 Starboard outerslottedflaD 7B Rudderspringtab 107 Reawardidentlfication

)!i
The Baftle of Dien Bien Phu
In 1953 G6n6ralHenriNavarre elected to fight a set-piece battlewith the elusiveViet gn:ns, and the weight of fire coming into the
Minh guerrillas who were winning the bloody war of attrition in Indo-China. camp increased ominously as the weeks pas-
Confidentof the ability of theairforce to supply anisolated post, the eliteof the sed, as did its accuracy, As every tree, shrub or
F r ench army p ar achu ted in to a r emote valley in N oilh Vie tn am for wh at w as to even bush was stripped from the valley floor to
prove the decisive battle of thewar. provide either fuel or cover for the defence, the
entire lay-out oi the garrison was revealed to
The decision to take the viilage of Dien Bien enemy off at least the lower foothills around, observers on the surrounding hills, and the
Phu on the Vietnam/Laos border and to occupy and link up with other French forces across the observers had been there since the flrst day.
ii as an 'air-head' was taken by G6n6ra1 Henri border in Laos. Even more ominously, by February anti-
Navarre, commander-in-chief of French forces But if half de Castries' strength was to be aircraft gmns had arrived in the foothills, and
Ln Indo-China since May 1953 against the employed outside the perimeter, who wouid very shortly afterwards both C-47 and C-ll9
strong advice of the man he appointed to con- tum the temporary field defences into fortfied pilots were told that they must drop thetr car-
trol the operation, G6n6ral de Division Ren6 strongpoints? Especially as the 80 C-47s avail- goes from 2000m (6,560f1) instead of 600m
Cogny. Cogny was swe that the location could able could fly in only 150 tons of supplies per (i,970 ft). Eleven Grumman Bearcat fighters
form only a 'mooring-point' for large-scale pat- day, and their first priority was food and wereflown into give themsome formof protec-
roliing throughout the area, rather in the man- ammunition, while the engineers' requirement tion when they arrived over the dropping
ner of the Chindit strongholds of 1944 in Burma, to turn the place into a fortress was 30,000 tons zones,
and the dlsaster which followed was due to a of concrete, steel sheets, generators etc,, of But Giap was already assembling a striking
gEeat extent to this fundamental divergence of which 3,000 tons was for barbed wire alone, force against the French in Dien Bien Phu, far
vrew, It was compounded by a qross underesti- Even the welcome addition to the transport more numerous and far better armed and sup-
mate of the capability of the enemy comman- fleet of some Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcars plied than the French command had ever
der, General Vo Ngmyen Giap, to concentrate flown by civilian piiots and crewed by Amer- dreamed possible, By the beginning of March
Viet Minh lbrces in the area at speed, and to ican volunteers did not help the sappers much, three Viet Minh infantry divisions comprising
keep them suppiied with heavy weapons and for the transports were used mostly for flying in 28 battalions were in position with their sup-
their ammunition. heavy artillery and shells, together with some porting arms, and also the 35lst Heavy Divlsion
Two of Cogny's parachute battalions were M24 Chaffee light tanks, the teams and equip- with 48 105-mm howitzers, 48 75-mm (2.95-in)
dropped into the valley from Douglas C-47s on ment for two surgical units and a pair of fie1d gn:ns, and the same number of l20-mm (4.72-rn)
the morning of 20 November 1953, and after a brothels. mortars and 75-mm recoilless rrfles. Anti-
brisk battle there with the surprised Viet Minh aircraft weapons of every calibre were arriv-
troops, occupied the village durinet that after- Large defence force ing with each day that passed, and by mid-
noon, Three more parachute battalions and a But there was to be no shortage of men to April the C-119 civllian pilots were refusing to
command headquarters were dropped in defend Dien Bien Phu, however flimsy might fly over what had become known as 'the cham-
within lbw days, and the tasks of lengthening be their shelters. During the weeks that fol- ber-pot'.
anci reinforcing the existing airstrip and dig- lowed de Castries' strength increased to 10,814 The first, stunning blow fell on the French
qnng field defences was going well, In those men, the combat battalions consisting of two during the evening and night of 13 March 1954.
early days it looked as though Operation 'Cas- native T'ai battalions, three of Algerian firarT- Heavy and accurate flre deluged the entire
tor' could be successfi.tl. leurs and one of Moroccan, and fow Foreign area, biowing in sheiters, smashing trenches
But by the beginning of December the basic Legion battaiions. If the native battalions were and gn:n positions, setting alight every arrcraft
dlvergence of view at command ievel was not of the highest military competence, the except three fortunate Bearcats which scram-
already indicating problems ahead. A new Algerians and Moroccans were to prove them- bled during the first minute of the attack and
gtarrison commander, the eiegant cavalry selves of superb quality, while a high percen- were then forced by the almost total destruc-
officer Colonel Christian de la Croix de Cas- tage of the Foreigrn Legronnaires had learned tion of the arrstrip to fly back to Hanoi, And on
lries, was dropped in with orders both to turn their soldiering with the Afrika Korps. The vast the heels of the bombardment came a 'human
Dien Bien Phu into a fortress to be held kithout majori8 of the officers were, of course, French. wave'infantry assault delivered with supreme
But diready the garrison was suffering disregard for casualties, in which the barbed
casualties. To the astonishrnent of both Navarre wire defences were blown apart by explosrve
and de Castries, the landing-strip came quick- charges attached to the bodies of the soldiers
Iy under fire from Viet Minh l05-mm (4. I3-in) who flung themselves into them,
By momrrg the entire garrison had gained a
firm indication of the type of battle which faced

Struck by a shell from a concealed Viet Minh


grun, a C- l 1 9 explodes on ffie airstrip, The
French planned to deal with enemy artillery
',,, ly qoynte. rlbattery fire from the camp, but
* :: this irdvedrlnpossj,ble an d in despair
i1;11:,:;;P ao th, the aililfiir.y c. om fi and er, kille d
:i. ihimself with agrenade;..
Post-War Transport Aircraft

/,

Canton

Hong
Above: Unimpressed by the leadership of their
ammander, de Casfries, the battle-hardened
paratroop colonels seized command of the
doomed fortress and prepared for the inevitable
last stand.

Right: The choice of location for the camp rs


testimony to the over-contidence of the senior
French commanders in Hanoi.The isolated post
was overlooked by high ground on all sides, and
w as hope less ly overex tended.

them, and one ol their:qutposts (Beatrice) had separate and individuai reduction of each out- fence entirely upon the individual outpost gar-
fallen Thef€ ven more of post was Giap's first objective. As they were risons, varying between 500 and 2,000 meq
these outposts ,, Claudine, Iocated beyond the range of any support ex- each of which.would face attacks by whole
Frangoise, Hugnrette, An ndGabriel- cept from the central position, and as the heavy brigades.
le, all it was said named .es'mls- artiliery there had already been pounded Gabrielle was the next to go, despite the
ffesses) and it soon that the almost int4l annihilation, this threw their de- almost fanatical defence by the 5/7th Algeriaa
s Tiraillews, despite also the solid corstruclion
r:'':. .

olthe outpost (considered the strongest ofall)


,g and the constant circling-above it during the
.s
.-q
In addition to iE own gans, the camp was
supposed to defenditseltwithanumber of FBF
Bearcat fighters but most of these were destroyd
hy Viet Minh shelltire. Once the airstrip lrltas clcserj
supplies could still he dropped, but the woundd
could not be evacttated. V astly outnumbred and
gut-gunned, the beldagruered garrison prepard
llofightto the last.

_-*
"'"-oF
::. dlt
:1-.:j-:r::::i1::::.:::=.::::

,\ '{:=:
---=,
' -.,;;:.;frru

#nb .l" - i:. .',.Xry


The Battle of Dien Bien Phu

rught by a 'flare ship', a Dakota dropprng maq-


nesium flares, By noon on 15 March Gabrielle
was firmly in Viet Minh hands and Colonel
Piroth, the artillery commander who had
assured both the garrison at Dien Bien Phu and
the command at Hanoi and Saigon that his guns
would hold the enemy at bay with lrttle difficul-
ty, committed suicide in despair.
But despite Giap's anti-aircraft gmns, on the
following day C-47s arrived overhead and the
6th Colonial Parachute Battalion dropped in, as
it happened just in time to take the places of the
men of the 3rd T'ai battalion, who had decided
to soldier no more and slipped off into the
foothills; it was not their sort of battle, and cer-
tainly not therr war,
During the next weeks the Viet Minh grip on
Dien Blen Phu tightened implacably. Classic But even this rneasure could not prevail Concealed inthe jungle and supplied by
siege tactics were followed by Giap's men; agalnst the unyieldinQl pressure of Giap's innumerable peasant labourers, the Viet Minh
trench lines were dug, forward saps run out forces and the tactical disadvantages of Dien artillery proved devastatingly effective, and
immune to French countermeasures.
ever closer to the next objective (on occasion Bien Phu, and by early May it was obvious to all
underground to take mines), then one late that the days of French defiance were almost
evening a shatterinq bombardment would be over. An attempt by forces in Laos to drive to 'Death March'. None of the wounded who had
followed by overwhelming infantry attack by their relief was stopped dead, Domrnique, suffered head, chest or stomach wounds ever
waves of screaming and cheering riflemen, Hugmette and Eliane were yet further reduced, came back, and not a very high proportlon of
Dominique and Eliane were both partly over- and the onset of the monsoon spelt even further even the unwounded, But most of the casualties
rlm by the end of March, Hugnrette was taken erosion ofstrength through illness and attenua- of the battle lie still where they fell, As Bernard
but then retaken in a counterattack, and tion of communicatron and supply, Despite this Fal| one of the best historians of the episode,
lsabelle was completely isolated from central latter, however, C-47s and a couple of brand has written:
command. , new Nord Noratlases arrlved overhead on 3 'Most of the French dead are, iike royalty,
And the area under French control shrank all May, though all that they managed to drop was swathed in silk shrouds. Parachute nylon, like
the time, On I April another company of colo- one company of another Colonlal parachute couraqe, was one of the commonest items at
nial paratroops was dropped in together with battalion, Dien Bien Phu, and on both sides,
some specialists, but the i05-mm shells and a
lot of the mortar bombs fell into the apprecia- VietMinhbombardment
tive hands of the Viet Minh gnrnners, By mid- The end came on 7 May, Giap had brought
Aprll the garrison consisted of flve parachute up some Sovret-made Katyusha rocket-
battalions, four of them well understrength, two jaunchers, and these added devastating
weak Legion battalions and what was left of the weight to the bombardment which crashed
Algerlan and Moroccan battalions grouped down on the evening of 6 May, continued
iogether, The main perimeter was still some through the night and by morning had reduced
96 kn miies) long, but it contained a hospitai
(6 the French position to a few hundred square
;astly overcrowded, nearly 2,000 prisoners, metres around the southern end of the airstrip,
aad about the same number of T'ai soldiers At noon, de Castries (still nominal commander)
who were virtually deserters, as they refused spoke to Cogny by radio and informed him that
:o bear arms though they expected to be fed, there were now barely 1,000 men strll on their
The garrison was also under new command feet; and that afternoon Giap was informed that
as ihe 'parachute Mafia' of battallon comman- French firlng would cease at I7,30,
ders had decided between them that de Cas- So ended the battle of Dien Bien Phu. Glap
:ies was not the man for the job, and had allowed 900 of the worst wounded to be flown
remselves taken over in a polite, bloodless but out, but the rest made up part of the 9,000 men
-:ncompromising coup, who started out on what became known as the

Above: The end for many of the heroic defenders


of Dien Bien Phu came on the 'Death March' to
POW campshundreds of miles away.Nine
hundred wounded were flown out after the
surrender, but the rest of the survivors were
herded through the jungle, deprived of food and
medicalcare.

Left: Dien Bien Phu was occupied by the French on


20November 1953, thehills inthe background
dominating the position chosen for the camp.
Patrols leaving the camp soon encountered stiff
resis tance from the Vie t M inh.
NfZ
Z'ITS Hawker Siddeley (Armstrong Whitworth) Argosy
-:- military specification dating from
- 155 was used as the basis for the de-
:-gn of the large-capacity A.W.650
::mmercial freighter, and it was from
::ls that the Armstrong Whitworth
.4"W.660 Argosy C.Mk I service trans-
;'lrt was evolved, the prototype mak-
:-g its maiden flight on 6 March 1961,
-:-l rnitial order for the type numbering
:3 ior use by RAF Transport Command
-r,'as placed soon afterwards, it being
:-rnounced that the first squadron to
:eceive the type would be No. il4 at
iSnson. Above: Developed from the
Ihe new transport was in fact to Arms trong W hitwor th 6 50
lear a close resemblance to the civil commerci al freighter, the Argosy
::achine srnce it incorporated 70 per sewice transport incorporated a
:ent of that aircraft's structure, good proportion of the civil aircraft's
=-lihough a major difference was in the structure. Making its maiden flight in
-lng of clamshell rearJoading doors I 9 6 l, the Argosy was used by the
:: the end of the central pod, the de- RAF inboththeMiddle andFar East.
:-gn being a four-motor, twin-boom
::gh-wing type, Right: The Argosy could carry 54
The loads which the Argosy could paratroops or 69 fully-equipped
I were impressive, and rncluded a infantry; alternatively it could act as
piece of light artillery, its trailer, and a an inflight- refuelling tanker. I n spite
--tonne truck, Other combinations
-:;ere 69 fully-equipped troops or 48
of its many capabilities, however, the
Argosy fell victim to the spate of
sretcher cases with nurslng orderlies. defence cuts ofthe late 1960s, and
-r addtion the Argosy was adaptable the aircraftwas retired in the mid-
- an inflight-refuelling tanker with a
l',fk 2I hose and drognre unit. It was thus
1970s.

small wonder that in 1959 the Argosy


;as being descrrbed as one of the Argosy at Benson before beinq posted
:rost sigrnificant British aeroplanes to Changi, Singapore,
produced in recent years,
After the first aircraft had been re- Specification
:eived for conversion training it be- ArgosyC.Mk I
:ame a common sight both at home Type: military transport for troops,
abroad, the type serving in MEAF paratroops, motor transport or frelght
=d
-rd FEAF with Nos 70, 105, 114, 115, Powerplant: four 1998-kW (2, 680-hp)
2i3 and 267 Squadrons as a transport Rolls-Royce Dart 101 turboprops
--.d a paratroop aircraft, being cap- Performance: maximum speed
of taking 54 men in the latter role. 463 krn/h (2BB mph) at 3048 m
-ieArgosres were not withdrawn until (10,000 ft); rate of climb 290 m (950 ft)
::e mid-1970s, although a few re- per minute; service ceiling 640I m
::ained for lnstrument calibratron (21,000 ft); ranse 3521 km (2, lBB miles)
;.-crk, Before this they had seen action Weights: empty 25401 kg (56,000 lb);
-i the Malayan emerqency when maximum take- ofl 46720 kg
pressed into service wrth Blackburn (103,000 1b)
3everleys to supply British, Gurkha Dimensions: span 35,05 m (1 15 ft 0 in);
:rd Malaysian troops, work in which length26,85 m(BB ft I in); heislt8,23 m
\o. 215 Squadron fignled prominently (2710 in); winqarea 135,45 m2
ler it had been re-formed wrth the (1,458 sq ft)

>K $non Betfast


-:e first Short Belfast, with the sewice duction of the first five to sewice, so with only a single squadron, and the (230,000Ib)
.eral XR362 in place of its original civil that Belfast operations by No, 53 Belfast's replacement rn 1976 marked Dimensions: span 48,40 m (158 i
::Eistration G-ASKE, made its maiden Squadron were forced to take place the passinq of the first Britrsh aircraft 9 5 in): lensrth 41.58 m (136 fi 5 n
'';ht on 5 January 1964, flyinq from wrth partly modrfied machines rn 1967; designed from the outset for long- height 1433 m (47 ft 0 in); wug a:==-
J.-:enham to Aldergrove with a re- the fully-modified variants were not range military transport, its grreat size 229.09 mz (2,466 sq ft)
:::i take-off run of only some 914 m available until May of the followrng calling for a crew offour in addition to
- l'-10 yards), It thus proved itself an year;wrth retrospective change to al1 an air quartermaster, The ShortBelfastwas the most
-:eai foeighter for operations where l0 scheduled for completion rn 1969, capable heavy ttansport ever
-::lsh army commitments, often call- Production costs had been kept Specification operated by the RAF, and the
'-; for the movements of troops from down by adhering to stringer and BelfastC.Mk I decision to retire it in the mid-197As
'-:repared ground. stressed-skin construction and its well- Tlpe: strategrc milrtary transport
were being con- was shown to be shortsighted when
:::ed in areas that were widely sepa- establFhed prrnciples as far as possi- Powerplant: four 4273-kW (5, 730-hp) the need for heavy lift became ritai b.
:r:ed. In May of the same year a ble, and by usrng rnuch of the Bristol Rolls-Royce Tyne RTy, 12 Mk 101 theFalklands.
::--::rd arcraft flew, and at much the Britannia's wing and tail unit. (Shorts turboprops
..:::e time it was announced that had been responsible for as much as Performance: maximum speed
-:::rs had been placed for i0 Belfast 40 per cent ofthis earlier aircraft's con- 544 kr/h (338 mph) at 8534 m
3]ft 1 aircraft. It was ehvlsaged that struction, ) An interesting fact about the (28,000 ft); rate ofclimb 323 m (1,060 ft)
;--:- -s carrying capacity of some 200 design's rather widely-spaced en- per minute; service ceilinq 9144 m
r::r3j men or perhaps three Saladin gines was that this layout was adopted (30,000 ft); ranse 6413 kn (3,985 miles)
:--:-red cars, up to a maximum in order that more powerful engnnes Weights: empty 57606 kg (127,000 lb);
/*
'r--t::-: of 34927k9 (77,000 lb), fewer with larger-diameter propellers could maximum take-off 104326 kq
l'::::i vrould have to be committed to be substrtuted at a later date.,
L:": :,:-,r Cyprustype operation, The whole production run served
-:= -al machrne of this batch was
::-'i::.C at the end of 1966 at a time
tn::: irag-reducing measures were
:: e--; :-plemented on the design, In-
l*r -. -r;3s these that delayed intro-
Antonov An-8 and An-10/I2
-
Designed in the winter of 1952-3 as a
transport capable of operating foom
sion with a maximum capacity of 130
passengers by virtue of its fi:selage
Or1y, Paris, in mid-1960 when one
brought the Soviet delegahon's cars to
T'yper military freiqht and paratroop
transport
short airstrips in the Far East and length being increased by 2m (6ft a conference, while examination re- Powerplant: fow 4, 000-ehp (2983-kW)
Siberia, the prototype fuitonov An-8, 7 in), and structurally significant in hav- vealed such refinements as a built-in ivchenko AI-20K turboprops
or 'Camp' as it was known to NATO, ing a prominent ventral fin and two rear gantry and facilities for dispatch- Performance: maximum speed
leceived its first public showing at auxiliary surfaces on the tailplane, and ing a load of iOO paratroops in less than 777 krnlh (482 mph) at 6000 m
T\:shino in June 1956. However, no- in this version, the An- 10A followed the one minute, Total production has been (19,685 ft); climb rate 600 m (1,970 ft)
thing further was heard of it in the An-10 into service vr'tth Aeroflot. in excess of 1,000 machines since the per minute; sewice ceillnq 10200 m
West, and reports were in circulation Meanwhile, a military cargo vartant type has been used not only by the (33,465 ft); ranqe 3600 hn (2,237 miies)
that the An-8 had failed its evaluation was developed under the desigmation countries of the Warsaw Pact, but also Weishts: empty 28000 kg (6 1,728 1b);
tests. in fact about 100 aircraft were An-12, its absence of additional fin by Alereria, Bangladesh, Egrypt, India, maxmum take-off 6 1000 kg
delivered, though the Kuznetsov NK-6 area beinq of note, together with a Indonesra, Iraq and Poland, some of (134,480 lb)
powerplant was immature. completely redesigmed rear fuselage these being distinguished by a falring Dimensions:span38.00 m (124 ft B in);
Obviously based on the earlier type which, inclined sharply upwards, ter- under the nose to house weather and 1919t!3Q.85 m(121 ft3.tn) he,ieht9.B m
but now with four motors, the An-10 minated in a tail gmnne/s position and mapping radar. Maximum payload is (32 ft 3 in); winqarea 119.5 m"
'Cat'made lts debut as a civtl transport incorporated a ramp to facilitate load- 20 tonnes, (1,286,3 sq ft)
at Vnukovo Airport, Moscow, ln Juiy ing. The type was soon dubbed'Cub' Armament: power-operated tatl
1957. Shortly afterwards the An-I0A by NATO, The West's first sight of the Specification position with two 23-mm NR-23 cannon
made its appearance, this being a ver- military version of the An-12 was at An-12

n iinrshin tt-tzand 11-14


Known to NATO as 'Coach', the
Ilyr:shin Il-12 was the USSR's first post-
war production transport, the Pro-
totype malang its maiden fllght in 1945,
The I1-12's development, the II-14
'Crate', did not make its first appear-
ance until 1953, and both types were
conceived as medium-range transport
aircraft.
ffi]
!r--.li
With a crew of three, the 11-12 was
capable of taking a maximum of 32
men, and like the later model could be
easily converted to carry either freight
or a maximum of 32 paratrooPs, the
11-14 havrng space for 40 ofthese and
an additional crew member. Some Powerplant: (II-12) two 1,850-hp (1380- climb to 5000 m (16,404 ft) in 9 minutes An I I- I 2 in Aeroflot colours. As with
3,000 examples of the 11-12 were built kW) Shvetsov ASh-B2FNV radial 30seconds; servrce ceiling7400 m allSoviet civil aircraft, itwould have
icr service not only with the Soviet piston engrnes, or (il-14) two 1,900-hp (24,27e n, typical range 1500 krn (932 been subordinate to any Soviet
forces but also with those of Czecho- ( 14 I 7-kW) Shvetsov ASh-B2T radial miles) mth 26 passengers military requirement.
slovaka, China and Poland, oiston enoines Weisrhts: (ll-12) empty I1045 kg
The later machine was an aerodYna- berformairce: (ll- I2) maxrnum speed (24,350 lb); maximumtake-olf 17250 kg
mically refined version of the earher 407 knr/h (253 mph) at 2500 m (8,200 ft)l (38 029 rb) B,OZ m (26 ft 6 in); wing area ]O3.OO m2
type, incorporating a completely new climb to 5000 m(16,404 ft) in i5 Weights: (11-14) empty 12080 kg (I,109 sq ft)
wing desigm, and a fin and rudder that minutes; seiwice ceiiing 6500 m (26,63I 1b); maxtmumtake-off 17250 kg Dimensions: (ll-i4) span 31,70 m (104 ft
now boasted a flatter top line, although (2I,325 ft); range 1500 lcn (932 miles) (38,029 rb) 0 in); length 21.3I m (69 ft I I in); height
t-ire tncycle landrng gear was similar Performance: (ll-14) maximum speed Dimensions: (ll-12) span 31,70 m (I04 ft 7,90 m(25 ft I I in); wingarea I0O,O m'
on both. 430 kn/h (267 mph) at 2400 m (7,875 ft)l 0 in); length 21,3i m (69 ft I I in); height (1,076 sq ft)
Origrinally seen as a replacement for
the Soviet versions of the Douglas DC-
3. the zuccess of both these Ilyushins
may be judged from the fact that, dls-
counting the versions in use by Aero-
trot, no less than 6,500 examples of both
rypes were produced, including about
3.000 of the earher variant. In addition
tc those in use by the country of origrin,
Il-l4s were also flolvn in the colours of
C,h:na, Czechoslovakia, East Germany,
Egrypt, the United fuab Republic, the
Congo India, lndonesia, Poland and
Yugoslavta, while at the same time the
Georgii Dimitrov works at Letnany in
Czechoslovakia was twning out its own
-iersion known as the Avia-14-324.
East Germany also manulachned ab-
cut 100 in addition to those supplied by
the USSR,

Specification
n-wv
Type: medrum-range miiitary
:a:rsport with accommodation for
or freight
=oops
EvoW from the I l- I 2, the I l- I 4 can
be re€rarded as an aerodynanzically
improv ed ver sion of the older
akqalt. The new tail is most
noticeable, but less obvious is the
impr ovd wing. I ntended as a
replaement for the ubiquitous DC - 3
6uilt in the USSR as the Li-Z), the
/ifuslr:n dest'Sms were built in some
num-bers,