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Forthcoming issues featue:

Volume l0 Issue 109 Modern Heavy Vehicles
Convoy Escorts of World Wu II
Published by
Orbis Publishlng Ltd Modern Battlefield Rocket Systems
@Aerospace Publishing Ltd 1985 Special Purpose Vehicles of
Editorial Offices Field Guns of
War Machine
Aerospace Publishing Ltd
179 Dalling Road
London W6 OES

Managing Editor: Stan Morse

Editorial : Trisha Palmer
Chris Bishop
Chris Chant
lan Drury
Design: Rod Teasdale
Colour Origination: lmago Publishing Ltd,
Thame, Oxon
Typesetting: SX Composing Ltd
Film work: Precise Litho Ltd

Artists: Gonsultant Editor: Major General Sir

Tony Gibbons Jeremy Moore KCB OBE MC, Gomman-
John Ridyard der ol British Land Forces during the
Falklands campaign.

3851 0
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Thtoughout the 20th century seunines have been of great importance innaval
warfare, Without adequate mine countetzneaswes, ports can be blockaded' sea
Ianes disntpted and pticeless warships destroyed at little cost to the enemy' The 'Circ6' class minehunters of the French navy use
a remote control submarine to detect enemy mines
Today it is a disfrubing truth that most Western powers do not d,evote enough and lay a demolition charge nearby. The submarine
resources to mine countermeasures' while the Soviet Union has steadily is thenrecalled andthecharge detonated by an
increased its c ap acitY. ultrasonic signal, destroying the mine.

Since World War iI the leading Western nations (inctuding the UK and Iet alone the naval bases and submartne transit routes as well Similarly,
USA) have tended somewhat to downgrade the lmportance ol mine the US neglect of its MCM fleet over the years and the pitifully small
*"rfure and the mine countermeasures (MCM) techniques needed to number oi new vessels ordered, would make it impossible for the US
counter it, Unlortunately their opinion is that a large fleet of small MCM Navy to keep open the ports from which the resupply convoys would
vessels is labour-intensive, and in times of cash limitatrons the navies sail, and all the home and foreign naval bases needed to sustain a
generally maintain what they consider to be their most rmportant combat maritlme conflict.
issets, nimely carriers, submarines and the larger surface combatants, In complete contr"ast the USSR has not only maintarned its offensive
under most circumstances this would be acceptable, but in this instance capabilities but also its defenslve forces, by continuously upgrading its
the principal mining threat to Europe and the North American continents MCM fleet wrth new designs at regular intervals Although possibly
comes lrom the USSR, a nation which has a total seamine inventory of these are not as good in quality as Western vessels, the large unit
considerably more than 400 0oo weapons layable in all depths of water numbers more than make up for thls,
accordrng to the rntended target,
If one clnsrders just the Royal Navy, then its projected fleet of some 40 The Tripartite minehunters are an unusual exercise in collaboration: Belgium
to 50 'Hunt' class MCMVs, 'River' class fleet minesweepers and a new provides most of the electronics, France the minehunting equipment, and the
type of srngie-role minehunter would be hard pressed to keep open the Netherlands the propulsion sysfems. Iftrs l's Eri daJ,]u the first Tripartite to enter
required number of ports needed just to reinforce and resupply Europe, servicewith the French navy.
'Lindau' or (Type 320) class of
3zo) ctass
-'*rsreepers were the fust Federal
G:=a:i navy vessels to be built in
3e:::a:y after World War IL Basically
to a NATO standard de-
s; nth modrfications for West Ger-
service, they have a wooden hull
=-j a superstructure of non-magnetic
In 1968-9 theFulda (Ml0B6)
:r= rcnverted to a'Type 33lA' class
:-:ehunter with the Flensburg
l,l-lB4) followins in 1970-1. This
:::;ed so successfr-r-l that in 1976-9 a
::-:er 10 vessels were modified to a
standard but without the re-
:a:able Scholtel propeller system for
::-r-speed manoeuwinq, These units
are the Lindau (M1072), Tiibingen
.lt{i374), Minden (M1085), Koblenz
.ltll07l), G)ttingen (M1070), Cux-
iaven (M1O7B), Weilheim (M1077),
Marburg (M1080), V6lklingen
$'087) and Wetzlar (M1075), and are
:iassed as'T1rye 33IB' class minehun-
:ers. None of the two sub-classes has
a:y mechanical sweep gear aboard, F-I Tloika magnetic/acoustic/mecha- (9.8 ft) A TYpe 351 Troika control ship is
b:l instead carries sx dtvers, a hyd- nical minesweeper drones as well as Propulsion: two diesels deliverrng seenwith her tfue charges in front.
:au-lic crane and two French remote- carrying and usinq an SGD-21 2983 kW (4,000 hp) to two shafts For passage to a swep area, the
-ntrolled submersibles to work with
Oropesa mechanical sweep and an Speed: 17 kts drones carry a crew of three which is
minehunting sonar. A more adv- acoustic generator system. The drones Armament:one 40-mm Bofors AAgnrn taken off for operations. The
a:ced submersrble for mine-drsposal (numbered Seehund l-18) are in a pool Electronics: one TSR/N or Kelvrn unmanned yesse,ls are then used
-rork rs berng tested by the West Ger- from whrch craft are drawn as re- Hughes I4l9 navigation radar, one mainly for magnetic minesweeping.
I:arl navy under the name Penguin, quired. A11 18 unts of the 'l,indau' sub- rype L93M ('TVpe 33 1A') or DSQS-I I
From 1979 to I 983 the remaimng sx classes are based with the West Ger- ('Type 3318') minehurtrng sonar, and (e.2 fD
;essels of the 'Lindau' class, the mans' North Sea MCM squadron. two PAP 104 mine-disposal systems Propulsion: two diesels delivering
Schleswig (M1073), Paderborn Complement:46 2983 kW (4,000 hp) to two shafts
:M1076), Driren (M1079), Konstanz Specification Speed: 16,5 kts
.\{iO8l), Wolfsburs (M1082) and U/m "Ilpe 33lAlB'class 'Type 351'class Armament:one 40-mm Bofors AA gmn
:hlla83) were converted to the 'Type Displacement: 3BB tons standard and Displacement: 3BB tons standard and Electronics: one TSF/N navigatron
35I' class drone minesweeper control 463 tons full load 4BB tons tu1lload radar, one drone-control radio system,
;essel configuration. Each of these Dimensions: length 47. I m (154.5 ft); Dimensions: length 47. I m (154,5 ft); and one DSQS-11 minehunting sonar
;:r"els is able to control up to three beamB.3 m(27,2ft), draught3,O m beamB,3 m(27.2ft); drauqht2.B m Complement:43

The' Lind au' class mrhesweeper Hndau w a s t h e fir s t

B e low :
Eonstanz is seen after her conversion G erm an-built ves sel to j oin
to a Tlp 3 5 I Troika control ship. As the German navy after World
sucfi slre caa gruide up to three of the Warll.Toreduce
trJnesweeping drones, as well as vulnerability to metal-
retaining hermoored and acoustic sensifive mrheg the hull is
sreepmg syst em s for more made of wood laminated with
@wentio n al min e c ou nte rm e a su r e s plastic glue, and the engines A-bove: The TYpe 331A 'Lindau' class
ror&. are of non-m agnetic m ateri al. minehunter W etzlar was originally a
coas tal minesweeper. C onverted to
her new role in I 978, she carries a
P les sey Tlpe I I 3M minehunting
sonar and two PAP I 04 remote-
contr o I mine disposa,l sfups.
Modern Mine Warfare Vessels
'Circ6' class
The first of the 'Circ6' class minehun- sonar and operations control room, from the bridge or a soundproofed Propulsion: one diesel delivering
ters were ordered in 1968, the five un- which is located in the superstructure controi room located above the main i342 kW ( 1,800 hp) to one shaft, and an
its were the Cfbele (M712), Calliope forward of the bridge. To reduce the deck. arxiliary 'active rudde/ system for
(M713), Cfio (M714), Circ6 (M715) and magnetic and acoustic srgnatures of minehunting
Ceres (M716) these being commis- the vessels their hulls were con- Specification Speed: 15 }ts
sioned rnto service during 1972-3. structed in a sandwich of wood and 'Circ6'class Armament:one 20-mm AA gun
They are designed solely for the hunt- foam, the outer shn beingT covered by Displacement: 460 tons standard and Electronics: one Decca 1229
ing and destruction of ground and a thrn fllm of GRP. The deckhead and 5 I 0 tons firll load navigation radar, one DUBM 20A
moored mines laid to depths of about superstructure are a composite of Dimensions: length 50.9 m (167.0 ft); minehunting sonar, and ftvo PAP i04
60m (197ft). To locate the mines a wood and glassfibre resin, All the beam 8,9 m (29,2 ft); draught 3,4 m mine-disposal systems
DUBM 20 minehunting sonar is car- propulsion systems can be operated (i 1,2 f0 Complement:48
ried. Once located the mines are
either destroyed by the six-strong de- Circ6 was huilt in the early I 970s and
tachment of divers (together with is one of a class otfivevessels that
Gemini dinghies) or one of the two re- were constructed solely for the
mote-controlled 6-kt PAP 104 sub- minehuntingrole. As such, they carry
mersibles, These weigh 700 kq no normal minesweeping equipment
(1,543 lb) are 2.7 m (8.9 ft) lons and sucfi assureeps.
1, I m (3.6 ft) in diameter, Following the
initial detection, they are lowered over
the side aft by a iarge hydraulic winch
mounted on the centreline, The PAP is
then gmided towards the contact via a
500-m (1640-ft) cable. Once in the
mine's vicinity the TV camera in the
nose is used for positive identification
of the target as a mine and a 100-kg
(220-lb) HE disposal charge is re-
leased next to it, The PAP is then
gurded back to the mother ship, reco-
vered'aboard and the charge deton-
ated by an ultra-sonic signal. To aid in
the plotting and classification proces-
ses involved during a hunt, an EVEC
automatic plotting table is fitted in the

The'Circ6' class are built with

deckhead and superstructurc ot
wood and glass fibre resins, and the
hull is constructed as a sandwich of
wood and foam to make magmetic
and acoustic detection difficult

A collaborative venture behveen the

Tripartite minehunter
sign has the hull, decks and partitions three classes also carry one ligrht 14 17 kW ( 1,900 hp) to one shaft, and an
French, Belgian and Netherlands made out of some IB0 tons of a glass mechanical drag sweep to deal with auxiliary 'active rudder' system for
navres, the Tripartite minehunter de- weave/polyester resin (GRP) com- conventional moored mines. minehunting
sign is gradually replacing the old pound, and the propulsion system is Speed: 15 kts
ocean and coastal minesweepers built essentially the same as that fltted to the Specification Armament: one 20-mm AA, and two
dunng the l95Os, Belgium is scheduled French 'Circ6' class of minehunters. A 'Eridan'class I2. 7-mm (0. S-in) machine-guns
to get 10 uruts of the 'Aster' class, of DUBM 21A minehunting sonar (smal- Displacement: 5l0 tons standard and Electronics: one Decca 1229
which the first flve have already been ler and more advanced than the DUBM 544 tons full load navigation radar, one Toran radio
laid down or launched. There is the 2OA fitted to the 'Circ6s') rs carried as a Dimensions: length 5 1,6 m ( 169.3 ft); navigation system, one Syledis radio
possibillty of a follow-on order for retractable hull system, The DUBM beam 8,9 m (29,2 ft); draught 2,5 m navigation system, one Decca Hi-fix
another flve later, France aiready has 21A can detect and classify eround (82ft) navigation system, one DUBM 21A
five units of the corresponding'Eridar' and moored mines down to a depth of Propulsion: delivering minehunting sonar, one DUBM 4 lB
class in service, with the remarning B0 m (262 ft). The French'Eridans'also minehunting sonar (to be fitted), and
flve building, The third partner, the have a position for a second sonar con- two PAP 104 mine-disposal systems
Netherlands, has eight of its lS-ship trol centre on the upper deck aft to Complement:29 to 48 dependingon
'Allsnaar'class in service, with the re- provide facilities for the DUBM 4l assigned task
mainder under construction, The de- towed side-scan sonar system. .A11
The Tripartite minehunters carry
DUBM 2lAminehunting sonar, an
improved version of the DUBM 204
carried by the French'Circ6' class.
This can detect and identify mines
downtoadepthof 80 m(262 ft).
The Trrpcrfu lvlinehiinbr each have a second position foi a sonar control
d the N e ther land s h av e combine d to p r oduce a minehunter'
F r an ce, B e lgium an centre on the upper deck aft This is to be used
desi€m to replace the old U S.built minesweepers suppiied during the I I 5A s, AII ior the Thomson-CSF DUBM 418 hiqh-
threenavies have now taken delivery of their respectivesub-classes, and ffteFrench resolution side-looking towed sonar system,
navy has used two, Eridan a-nd Gassiop6e, in action during the international - TWo streamlined bodies are stieamed astern
operation to clear the Red Sea o{ mines laid by a Libyan freighter in 1984. to the left and right of the ship's track. Contain-
ing sonars whrch operate on frequencies
I a relatively unusual show of European co1- The motors drive two special'active'rudder 50 kl{z apart, these sca n the area of the seabed
.aboration, 'the French, Belgtan and Nether- arranqements each wtth a'small ,screw- between the tvrro bodles. A typical scanned
.ands navies have ioined together to design propeller mounted at its base to give a max- area amounts to a total width of some 200 m
and build a minehunter to replace the ex-US imum huntrng speed of 7 kts. To increase the (656 ft) The DUBM 4lB can be used in water
rcean and coastal ririnesweeper vessels that vessel's manoeuvrability further a pair of bow depihs of 100 m (328 ft)'cr more, the ic-u.;:i
were supplied to them in the 1950s as part ol a thruster units is fitted, A fowth Astazou alterna- sensor following the contours of the bo:t--:- l. :
NATO MCM proqramme, Although initial con- tor supplies the ship with power,a! cruising hergh: of - 5-7 5 m ( I8-25 ft) at speeds ce--', :::.
struction was delayed somewhat by problems speeds or al anchor, 2 and 6 kis To destroy the mines o::: :-;-'
associated'with the origrnal consortium, a1l The main minehuntinq system carried is the have been detected the vessei.ha.-q ; r b : a;e i
three navies have now taken delivery oi ves- Thomson-CSF DUBM 2lA sonar, This is re- diving re:rn of srx (Ior the hand-placrng ci 5:
sels comprislng their indivldual subclasses. Sacted inio a vrell in the hull for,cruisinet, and is charges frcn Gemiru dinghies) or rwo PA-p -.-
Under the,lerms of ihe manufaciuring agree- -:ed -:. :cn;':nctron wrth precision navigatron rernotely ccntrolled mine-disposal vehicles.
ment each country bullds rts own series ci GF,F :-.-s.==i :: ,'anous rypes during a hunt. It rs these carned on the stern fanrail work-
hulls tq a standard design. The French are rhel ::-c:i -= : - 1e:ectrng moored and ground ing area. For ihear a total of 27 l00-kg (220-1b)
responsible ior the ships' minehuntlng ar:d -:-:---:-.-i= :i':cls at distances up to 600 m HE charges are carried rn the shlp's magazine,
mine disposal grear together wtih the eiec:r:- r- l::::. a:i:n water depths doi'm to 80m A light mechanical sweep wire is also carried
nics, ',he Dutch for the main pr:p;s.::- i,:- :2i2 -. l--s-:caiicn oi the object as a mine for rnoored contaci mrnes, A llmiied self-
tems; and the Belgrans ior the auxihart i:'r:= r r-. i i ir- 3 :: : ,- s .:dyrng the shape of ns echo defence armamen. of a single 20-mm AA gmn is
hunling propulsion units and ihe elec:n:a- ::.j :::'-.:.-: slaic-'.'.j lrom distances up to carried.
generating plant. --^-:, ::- -. l:,- sr:ps of the French class
The hu]] is moulded in a steel she.. ::.:
together with the decks and internal par:::.-:-s
is formed from a single thickness of GRP ce-
trrveen 20 and 40mm (0,79 and l,57in) -&ic<
Stiffening is provided by trapezoidal-sec:rc::
iormers which are connected to the h,:ll c.;
reinfurcing fibreglass pins. The lwo inoepen-
dent propulsion'systems fltted are similar :c
those used in the French 'Crrce' class m,neh;.-
ters: the auxiliary system is used during h-i;:- $

ing operations, while the main propulsion plarr: ,=*€€ffiffiSryr

s used for normal running. The latter has a *
single main shafl which turn$ a five-b1ade con-
.*-la+ ' ".''.tg-,",:iJ ",#.t-
I *. i;j ,,.dry.".i
iroilable-pitch propeller that can be 'feathered' I .-, " -. d. _Dr.-.
when the auxiliary plant is ln operation, The
main system is controlled so1ely from the i,{ il ,'n' !
bridge, while the auxiliary system can be con-
troiled from either the bridqe or the central
operations room depending upon circumst-
ances. The electric motors for the secondary
propulslon plant are driven by three Astazou
IVB 200:shp (149-kW) gas-turbine alternators.

-ei::7:e lrench c]ass,have a second positionfor a

s::z: ctn:rol centre on the upper deckaft,which
:s :: :e ::sed fo r the Thomson-CSF DUBM 418 high-
:ss::u i;o;r sjde -looklng towed sonar system. This
: a:. s can a width of sea bed up to 2AA m Q I I


+*i t

Modern Mine Warfare Vessels
As a result oi dissolutlon of the original Po- (MB6l) Zienksee (M862) Vlaadinsen (M663) crease the suitabilrty of the class fbr patrol
lyship consortrum, the Belgian navy had to and Wjllemstad (iv1864) and these have been duties in wartime, Depending on ihe main and
reorder its 10 vessels from the B6liard Ship- commissioned at regular intervals, replacinq secondary roles assigned to the shrps, the com'
yard at Ostend, which builds and launches the older vessels paid off for scrap, plement can be varied be$reen 29 and 48,
' ti me desig:r
vessels, the fitting out belng performed by All three ciasses also have the capabiliLy to proves satisf ac'ory. rhen furrher
B6liard Mercantile at Rupelmonde, Antwerp. carry on the deck aft a 5{on container, This can ships may well be builr rn all three counrries -o
The first unit, , sfe-r (M915), was laid down in be used to permit addttional tasks (such as an improveci specification Lo replace Lhe 196Cs-
February 1983 and launched in J.984, The other MCIA/ HQ ship research, coastal patrol, ex- generation MCM vessels still in servlce.
nine building are the SeJls (M916), Crocus tended diving support, pollution control or
(M917), Dianthus (MglB), Fuchsia (M919) 1ns dlreclion ol unmanned minesweeper drones)
(M920) Lobelia (M921), Myosotis (M922), Nar- Alkmaar r's lhe tl'rs t of I 5 D utch navy T r i p ar t ite
as weli as to increase the lype's flexibilrty. To
minehunters. By mid- I I B 5 eightiad been
crs (M923) and Primula (M924) An option on a improve the close-range atr defence of the commr'ssioned, with a ninth due by the end of ttte
further five has been taken for confirmation as Dutch 'Alkmaars', consideration is being given year" Dutch units differ from the other nawes'sh.ips
an order when funding permirs to the fitting oi a short-range point-defence in being able to be configuredfor offter fasks as
in the French navy the Tripartite design has SAM missrle-launcher system, which would in- well.
been assigned the name 'Eridan' class. The first
five are lhe Eidan (M641) Cassiopee (M642)
Andromede (M643), Pegase (M644) and an un- .'".
named vessel, all in service or launched.
Another five are on order with deliveries due at
regn:lar intervals over the next year or two.
Followinq a request from the Eeryptian govern-
ment, two units, the Endan and Cassropee,
were used by the French navy in conjunction
with the minehunters Cantho and Dompaire
and the support ships Liseron andLorie during
the late-1984 international hunt for the Libyan-
lard Soviet ground mines in the Red Sea.
The corresponding Dutch class rs the 15-ship
Alkmaar'class whrch is being burlt by Van der
Giessen-de Noord Alblasserdam in a specrally
constructed 'shrp factory', The first unit,
Alkmaar (M850) was laid down rn 1979. laun-
ched in an essentiallv complete condition in
i982 and commissroned into service in 1983,
The remaining 14 uniis are the Delfzyl (M851),
Dordrecht (M852), Haarlem (M853), Harlingen
(M854), Scheveningen (M855) Maassluis
(M856), Makkum (M857), Middleburs (M858),
Hellevoetshuis (ll859), Schiedam (M860), Urk

Tripartite minehunter cuta\^tay drawing key

Ladder 15 Engineroom 24Glass-reinforcedplastic 3Ssonarroom
Winch 16 Werkspoor 2.280-hp n - l9 ?0 rnm o,,n
Crane 700-kW) diesel enqine
{T lb C",L\ lu Lreu
Twin manoeuvring props 17 Twlnauxiliary motor room 26 Oflicers'mess 41 Ammunilion ho st
(actrv-o rudder) {222 hpl166 kW) 27 Radioroom 42 Auxiliary machif e room
5 Sinqle shafi 1 8 Whip aerlal 28 Centralcontrol 43 Maqazine
6 Screw 1 9 Funnelmsinq 29 Engineroomcontrol 4d Sonari rbe
7 Support 20 Ventilators 30 Engineers'mess 45 SonarDUBl"421A
3 Dinghvcrane 21 Wir-^lessaerial 31 Fuel 46 Activetank slabrllzer
3 Remote-controlled PAP- 22 Lifesavinqequipment 32 Crew's mess 47 Bo*/lhrusiers
104 mine locator 23 Exhaustlumesuptake 33 i a.icier 48 Vtaterllne
C N/inehunlinqstore 34 Foremasl 49 Deckwinchianch!r
1 Dlvers'equipment 35 Navigation radar housing
2 Containerstore 36 Main navlgatlon liqhl 50 nflatabledlnghy
3 Stores 37 Bridge
- Keel
The Tripartite idinehunter


3{i$.-{l!:::: . : ;r,',.,r+' 1= 1g'1.

dbove:FlTli cf f&e Sufrft lAJ&rnaer' cJass is l&e

Haarlingen. ,41/ the Tripavtite ciass are fitted with
French DUBM-E ] A minehun".iRg sonar and. twa
PAP - I 04 r e ma t e cr,ntrcl Ie d m ine drspcsal ueft jcles
:a'ft.r"c& carry ir.r'gr& expJosire c&arEles.

€r'g&t; fiie Alkmaal and one sf,hersislersfiips a.l'e I

-ceen on an erererie" ?'fie iaffe;"1'sJoweringroneBf
jter F,{,P-]04 nzine d:sposal uefucies errer{}eside &
by uJic crame; guided i:y * cable ,trnfr fo l"he
susFecf ru jne, jf can deposrl tlle exilj$sii"e c.itdrgre
.beneafft jts beJlyas drrectedb { its aperatar.

Ssjcra/:ffte Erida& ivifn a mar"i:h*.m speedof

J 5 kfs,eouid Cake days ts rearrr an aper*fion*J
area. ffi.lsrs one of f*he.penaj#es dftaf rd?cdern mme
ccufif€ffneasnres vesse.{s&aye topuf ilp firifA,
Seeause Jar.Ee,pro$ujsl"on ]pJenfs for &igft speeds
e*sse e*cessjve rna6rneffes;imafur*s"


@ 'ffilHot II'ctass
Classified as high-seas minesweepers sewe as the hydrogrraphrc survey ship Specification
Modern Mine Warfare Vessels
2983 kW (4,000 hp) to two shafts
by the East German navy, the'Kondor Karl Friedrich Gauss (D24), and the 'Kondor II'class Speed:21 lcts
II'class units were burlt betvueen i971 last unit was modifled after launchingr Displacement: 3l0 tons standard and Armament:two or three twin 25-mm
and I97B at the Peenewerft shipyard, with an enlarged superstructure to act 400 tons full load AAgmns
Wolgast to replace the obsolete as the state yacht Osfsee/and J (HO4). Dimensions:lenqth 55,0 m (180,4 ft); Electronics: one TSR33 nangation
'Habicht' and 'Krake' classes of mines- Nineteen olthe earlier'Kondor I' class beam 7,0 m (23.0 ft); drauqht 2,0 m radar, and several precrsion radio and
weeperVminelayers, Twenty-four un- vessels, whrch were classed as coastal (6.6 ft) sonar systems
its (pennant numbers 3 I I -3 I 6, 32I-326, minesweepers, have been transferred Propulsion: two diesels delivering Complement:40
331-336 and 341-346) currently sewe in to the Grenze Brigade Kuste (GBK, or
the minesweeping role, and several coastal border gmard) as patrol boats,
are now fitted with a large deckhouse However, they have retained their
abaft the main towed sweep reel for sweeping gear and would revert to the
what may be a minehuntrng operattons minesweeper role on the outbreak of Twenty-four'Kondor I I' vessels serve
centre, A further three (pennant num- hostilities, It seems that the 'Kondor ll' in the minesweeping role in the East
bers S32l-323) are in use as training class is equipped for moored, acoustic German navy, while three serve as
ships with the Walter Steffens Naval and magnetic minesweeping I training ships and another three are
School, whilst another three (pennant used to evaluate new mine
numbers V3B1-383) serve as trials counteme asure te chnique s and
ships to test new minesweeping tech- equipment.
niques and equipment, A further unit
was extensively modified in 1978 to

t i%nu" I' and'Vanya II' classes

In series production foom 1961 to 1973, two boats for divers on the quarter- over the stern, For transit purposes Armament:one twin 30-mmAA gnrn,
the wooden-hulled'Vanya I' class was deck, they carry a crew of 10. Each 'Vanya II' and between erght and 16 mines
designated a bazory tralschchik (BT, T\lro others have since been built to can control up to three 'il]'ushas'during dependingontype
or base minesweeper) design which the 'Vanya II' class design with an a sweep operation, Elestronics: one 'Don 2' navrgation
could also double as a minehunter. A additional }-m (3.3-ft) hull extension, a radar, one 'Dead Duck'IFF, one 'High
total of 69 'Vanya I units remain in ser- more extensive fantail work area and Pole-B' IFF, and one minehunting
vice with the Soviet navy, while four heavier davits aft, a 'Don Kay' naviga- Specification sonar
others were trarsferred to the Bulga- tion radar in place of the 'Don 2' sys- 'Vanya'classes Complement:30
rian navy and two to the Sydan navy in tem, and a larqer diesel generator ex- Displacement: 200 tons standard and
the early I970s, One other unit was haust pipe amidships. This subvariant 245 tons ('Vanya I') or 260 tons ('Vanya Designated aBazory Tralshchik (base
converted in 1974 to a pure minehunter is used as the gnldance ships for the II') tullload minesweeper) by the Soviets, the
configruratron for research and de- unmanned 'Ilyusha' class of radro- Dimensions:length 40.0 m (131.2 ft) ior 'Vanya' class was in serjes
velopment pwposes, wrth its super- controlled inshore mrnesweeper 'Vanya I'or 41.0 m (134,5 ft) for'Vanya construction from the early 1960s to
structure extended forward, a twin 25- drones, The 'llyushas' displace some II'; beam7,3 m(24,0 ft); draught LB m the early )970s. Itis currently the
mm AA gnrn added in place ofthe nor- 85 tons tull load and are 26,4 m (86.6 ft) (s.9 ft) most numerous of the coastal
mal 30-mm mount, together with a lat- long. They are believed to carry both Propulsion: two diesels dehvering minesweeper forces, with 69'Vanya'
tice mast with 'Don Kay' navrgation normal sweep gear and a linear explo- 164l kW (2,200 hp) to two shafts and three'VanyaMods'in service in
radar at the amidships break point and sive mine-disposal system for laying Speed: 16 kts mid-1985.
The S ov iet U nion built 50'Yur ka'
c/ass sea-groing minesweeper s
between 1 962 and I 972 . Their hulls
are constructed from aluminium
alloy and their equipment is similar
to that fi tted in W esf ern vessels.

Built from 1963 to 1972, the aluminium chers with reloads, The class also con-
alloy hull'Yurka' class was the smaller tinues the Soviet tradrtion of fitting its
predecessor to the Natya design but MCM units with mine rails for defen-
wrthout the latter's ASW weapons and sive purposes rn coastal and deep-sea
stern ramp. Similarly designated anchorages, The minehunting sonar is
morskoy tralschchik (MT, or seagoing a variant of the swface ship and sub-
minesweeper), the 'Yurkas' are fitted marine'Tamir' high-frequency active
to sweep acoustic and magnetic mines set, modified to allow short-range clas-
only, with grear srmilar to that used by sification of mine-like objects,
the West, A total of 50 umts was com-
pleted, of which 45 standard units still Specification
serve in the Sovret navy, one other ex- 'Yurka'class
Soviet unit being transferred to the Displacement: 460 tons standard and
Vietnamese narry in 1979. The remain- 540 tons full load
rng four were constructed to a more Dimensions: lenqrth 52,0 m (170,6 ft);
austere export confignrration in the late beam B,B m (28.9 ft); draught 2,6 m
i960s for the Egyptian narry: they have (85ft)
no fire-control radar, and additional Propulsion: two diesels delivering
ship's side scuttles are provided for 4,000 hp (2983 kW) to tlvo shafts
better air flow beneath decks for ser- Speed: 19 kts
vrce in hot climates, Armament: two hvrn 30-mm AAgmns,
The broad funnel indicates that the and between l0 and 20 mines Above: The aluminium alloy-hulled Below : The'Yurka' classes'' Drum
diesel engnnes are in a side-by-side dependinqontype 'Yurka' class of sea-going Tilt' fire control radar is carried at
afiangement below decks, and aids Electronics: one 'Don 2' navigation minesweepers is fitted for magmetic the top of the mainmast above the I FF
the drstingrurshability from the 'Natyas', radar, one'Drum Trlt' AA flre-control and acoustic sweeping operations. systems and the'Don 2' navigation
Several units have now been retrofit- radar, trrvo'Square Head'IFF, one To improve their self-defence radar. Surprisingly for ocean-going
ted with the standard light forces AA 'High Pole-B' IFF, and one 'Tamir' capabilities the class is currently minesweepers, fft rs c,lass does nof
armament update packaqe of two minehuntrng sonar being refitted with SA-N-i Grail SAM have any ASW systemt which are
quadruple SA-N-S 'Grail' SAM laun- Complement:45-50 launchers. fitted to earlier and later classes.

il 'iTatya I' and'Natya II' classes
Modern Mine Warfare Vessels
Frst reported in 197I, the aluminium-
hulled 'Natya I' class is desienated a
morskoy talshchik (MT, or seagoing
minesweeper) by the Soviets and is
the follow-on to the 'Yurka' design. The
earhest umts of the 34 Soviet navy
'Natya Is' built at lzhora and Khabar-
ovsk rn the period 1969-80 were fitted
with two rigid davits aft, an arrange-
ment changted in the iater craft to ar-
tlculated hydraulcally operated davits
to handle the sweep gear and towed
MCM bodies over the stern ramp. The
'Natya Is' are also equipped with two
five-barrel RBU1200 ASW rocket-
launchers to faciiitate the use of the
a class members as coastal ASW
escorts, In additlon most units have
I now been fitted with two quadruPle
SA-N-S 'Grail' SAM systems just abaft
the lattice mast, while others have had
a second navrgation radar added atop
the pilothouse,
In l9B0 a single 'Natya II' class
variant was completed wrth a leng-
thened superstructure and the trans-
om cut away amidships to take a 1,5-m ket in a slightly less well equipped beam 10.0 m (32.8 ft); drauqht 3.5 m 'Natya I' class seagoing
(S-ft) sheath. Thrs is believed to be a version. Some 12 have been built to (1 1,s ft) minesureepers occasionally double
research and development mtnehunt- date for India (sx between 1978-80) Propulsion: two diesels delivering as intelligence gatherers ifno
ing vessel. and Libya (sx between l98i-4), urth 3729 kW (5,000 hp) to two shafts specifically dedicated ve s sels are
The 'Natya I' is still being produced possibly more to come for India, The Speed: lB kts available. Here a 'Natya I' monitors
in small quantities for the expod mar- Sovrets operate their units mainly in Armament: ('Natya I') ln most units tvuo the operations of the'Leander' clas s
home waters, but the vessels have also quadruple SA-N-S'Grail' SAM fzirateIIMS Naiad.
The 'Natya I' usually operates in been seen in the Medrterranean dnd launcherswith l6 missrles, two twin
home waters, but on occasions Indian Ocean, and off West Africa, 30-mm AA and two twrn 25-mm AA missiles, and two twrn 30-mm AA gnrns
rresse/s of liis fyp e have been gnrns, two 250-mm (9,84-in)
five-barrel Electronics: one or two 'Don 2'
deployed to the Mediterranean, Specification RBU1200 ASW rocket-launchers with nangation radars, one 'Drum Tilt' AA
I ndian O cean and West Africa, wher e 'Natya'classes 50 rockets, and behveen 10 and 20 fire-control radar, hvo'Square Head'
in wartime their ASW armament of Displacement: 650 tons standard and mines depending on type IFF, one'High Pole-B' IFF, andone
rocket launchers could come in 765 tons fuli load Armament: ('Natya II') two quadruple 'Tamir' minehunting sonar
handy for limited escort duties. Dimensions: length 6 1,0 m (200. I ft); SA-N-5'Grail' SAM launchers with 16 Complement: 60

'Ncrtgcl Class Secgoing lvlinesweep{

Buill asa successor to the 'Yurka' class the 'Natyal'desrgrn of Morskoy

Tralshchik (sea going minesweeper) is still in slow series production for
export. Latest intelligence reports estimate that the Souiets have 34'Natya I'
and one 'Natya II' in service, whilst the Indian, Lip yanand Syrian navies have
seven (plus five building), seven and one respectively.
Below: The Soviet Union constructed 34'Natya I' class minesweepers between
1969 and 1980, and although their minesweeping equipment might not be as
effective as that of Western equivalents the sheer number of these ships will
makeup for any suchdeficiency.They aremore heavily armedthanmany
Western mine warfare vessels, mounting two quadruple SA-N-I SAM
launchers, two five-barrel RBU 1200 ASW rocket launchers, and 25-mm and

t fil*u"'ctass
Built since 1972 and still in slow series
production at the rate ofsome three or
four per year, the'Sonya'class is de-
signated a bazory trurlscficllk (BT, or
base minesweeper) by the Soviets and
is used in coastal areas and the
approaches to the major naval and civil
ports, much like the Royal Navy's 'Hunt'
class MCMVs. Some 50 are in service
with the Sovret navy at present, with
three further units transferred to Bul-
garia (one) and Cuba (two) in the early
The hull is of wood, but is sheathed
u,'rth flbreglass to prevent attack by
marine organisms, This hull arrange-
ment was adopted after a three-ship
prototype design, the'Zhenya' class,
was tried with an all-GRP hull in the
late 1960s, The experiment obviously
did not work, possibly as a result of
problems in working with such a large
structure in GRP.
Several of the 'Sonyas' have now re-
ceived a single quadruple SA-N-S Still in series production at three or Specification
'Grail' SAM launcher abaft the ship's four units per year, the 'Sonya' class i 'Sonya'class
boat on the starboard side, The sweep ofbase minesweeper has also been j' tr Displacement: 380 tons standard and
qear appears to be of the standard exported toBulgaria andCubarn -lE 450 tons ful]]oad
type for mechanical, acoustic and small numbers. There have been no ,,'i'A Dimensions: lenqth 48.O m (157.5 ft);
magmetic mine operations, and n lifted conversions as yet to minesweepihg.l beam B,B rh (28,9 ft); drausht 2.0 m
in and out of the water by a hydrauli- R&D vessels, as rn otft erclasses.' ..' (66ft)
cally operated articulated dant on the Propulsion: two diesels delivering
stern, The elderly 25-mm gun mount 1790 kW (2,400 hp) to two shafts
aft is carried by the class for des- Speed: 15 kts
lroying swept floating mines as it is Armament: one quadruple SA-N-5
easier to use and more accurate for this 'Grail' SAM launcher with eight
work than the 30-mm turret forward. missiles, and one twin 3O-mm AA and
one twln 25-mm AA gn-ms
'Sonya'class minesweepers are the . Elec'tronics: one 'Spin T?ougth'search
broad equivalent of the Royal Navy's and navigation radar, wo 'Square
'H unt' clas s, being intended for Hmd IFF one 'Hrsh Pole-B' IFF, and
operations in coastal areas and the one niineihunting sonar
approache s to maj or por ts. T hey. Complemdntr43-. -
have a wooden hull sheathed-wilh

il lHlesha'class
Designated zagn-a ditel' minnyy (ZM, or The number of mines carried varies up structor and the AMD-500 and AMD- beam 13,5 m(44,3 ft); draughtS.4 m
minelayer) by the Soviets, the'Alesha to a maxrmum of 300 according to type, 1000 ground influence mrnes. The (i7,7 ft)
class (a NATO reporting name) can but it is known that apart from the con- main minelayinq effort of the Soviet Propulsion: four dresels delivering
serve as minelayers, defensive net- ventional moored buoyant types such nauy is concentrated rnto its bomber 5966 kW (8,000 hp) to two shafts
layers, MCMV tenders and mine war- as the MOB contact and the KRAB influ- and mantime patrol arcraft, surface Speed: 17 kts
fare command and control centres, ence mines the 'Aleshas' can also lay ships and conventional submarine Armament: one quadruple 57-mm AA
The four sets of mine rarl tracks fitted the MZ26 moored contact sweep ob- fleet, gnrn, and up to 300 mrnes
run from the amidships superstructwe Electronics: one 'Don 2' navigation
aJt to a stern ramp arrangement that r Specification radar, one'Strut Curve' air-search
can also be used to haul larqe objects 'Alesha'class radar, one'Muff-Cob' 57-mm fire-
aboard, TWo cranes are fitted forward, Displacement: 2,900 tons standard and control radar,and one 'High Pole-B' IFF
wrth another hro amidships, On the 3,500 tons fuI] load system
second and thrrd units of the class the Dimensions:length 98.0 m (321.5 ft); Complement: 190
forward cranes are replaced by hvo
hngiposts and booms. The only names NATO has allotted the repoiling
so far known for the vessels ofthis class name'Alesha' to this class of
are lhe Pripyat and Surjcot, AIl three minelayers, built in the late 1960s in
units were completed betvueen 1967-9 the B/ackSea. T hey are able to carry
at an unnamed Black Sea shipyard, up to 300 mines, rangingfrom
moored toground influence types.
Soviet I'linelagers
in Action
If the united Kingdomshould ever find itself at war with the Soviet Union the
routes continually monitored c,,- ::--::e:.:r:ers
and swept by minesweepers a:-i
marines themselves accomparoei
MCMV unrts as they travellecl -nr::gr :he
highest-risk areas. The size of these a:eas

submarine bases on the river Clyde would be a prime target for the enemy would be greatly increased rf ary ci lle !re-
minelayers. Dropped from aircraft or released by submarines and even innocent- viously mentioned merchant ship ilpes had
looking merchantmen, S oviet mines could pose a serious threat to NATO passed through the Clyde immediately bercre
submarines;the alreadyunder-strength British minehunter forcewould have to war broke out, because they woulci
deal with the mines, but in doing so would become a target itself . almost certainly laid a small number of grror:nd
mines at random along their route with delay-
In any future war involving NATO and the War- around Malins Head and the Clyde estuary on a activation timers, together with a larger num-
saw Pact the major British and US nuclear sub- submerged reconnaissance run. This was ber of decoys to confuse the minehunters,
marine bases on the River Clyde will be a almost certainly not the first time that the
prime target for covert Soviet minelaying acti- Soviets had attempted such a mission, and the
Bombers as minelayers
vities, The obvious platforms lirr the laying of rnformation gained during these occasions is Further to hlnder the MCMVs in their work,
these fields will be conventional submarlnes, clearly invaluable in planning covert penetra- the Soviet navy would employ part of its bom-
and in the immediate pre-war period 'innocent' tions into the Clyde to iay ground mines, ber fleet in the minelaying role. Naval Aviatton
Soviet and Eastern European merchant ships, To carry out a task of this nature the most would use Tupolev Tu-16 'Badger' and Tu-26
fuh factory vessels and trawlers which regnrlar- likely submarine would be a'Foxtrot'. Roughly 'Backfire' aircraft as part of a normal noctwnal
]y visit Scotland's western regions. Where the the equivalent of a Royal Nary 'Oberon' class raid on the mrlitary and lndustrial targets in the
mines will be laid will be governed by the conventional submarine, the 'Foxtrot' would be area, and then send mine-laden aircrait off to
actual shrpping routes in the Clyde and what used in prelerence to the bigger nuclear types lay their cargoes in the Clyde under cover of
iniormation has been gleaned by the Soviets because it is very much quieter and more man- the rard and darkness to 'freshen up' the origin-
from the years they have spent in using an AGI oeuvrable in shallow coastal waters, The typic- al fields or to create new ones at iikely boi-
submarine trafflc in and out of the ai weapens load for this mission would be four tlenecks, Such aircraft would probably carry
;?#o"t,ot 533:mm (21-1n) torpedoes in the stern tubes either six to eight of the large AMD-1000
and a tu]] load of 40 AMD-1000 1000-ks (2 205- ground mines or 12 to I6 of the smalier 500-kq
Minethreat lb) influence ground mines lor the bow tubes, (1,102-1b) AMD-500 type, The mines could be
Although nothing official has ever been said Laid in clusters of four or five all around the delivered to the target areas by parachute, or
oy the Ministry of Defence, the threat of mining mouth and at strateedc points within the river more probably as free-fall weapons with
rs real, On one occasion at least in the past few itsell the mines would cause immeasurable breakaway nose cone and fin assemblies, The
years the masts of a Soviet 'Victor' class nuclear trouble to the defendlng MCM forces, Thus to latter method is extremeiy useful as it gtves iess
submarine have been photographed by a BAe ensure the safety ofany transittinq SSN or SSBN chance of the mine being spotted by alert
Nimrod maritime patrol aircraft as the sub- trying to get home or to start a war patrol, the coastwatchers during the dehvery phase,
marine penetrated into the sensitive area local naval commanderwould have to have the
Below: The Soviet roll-on/roll-oft merchant ship
Akademic Kuprevich could;h times of tension be
easily converted to carry three or four hundred
ground mines for covert laying around NATO
coastlines prior to actualwar being declared. Her
other wartime role would be that of an auxiliary
amphibiou s w artare ship.

One of the Soviet navy's eight'VyfegraJes'ciass support ships fitted with a helicopter platform aft and
carrying a Kamov Ka-25 'Hormone-C' helicopter on it. Fitted with minelaying equipment the vessel could
cteiteismuchchaosas didtheLibyanroll-onlroLL-off ferryGhat jn theRedSeaduring 1984.
Soviet Minelayers in Action

As the water gets deeper outside the mouth

of the Clyde the more dlfficult it becomes to
locate and sweep ground mines, For the AMD-
500 the water depth iimits are in the order of 4
to 20 m (13 to 66 ft) whlle for the larger AMD-
1000 type the limits are 4 to 55 m (13 to 180 ft).
Once past these depths the Soviets could
switch to more ASW-orientated mines as the
submerged submarine would now be their
primary target, Exclusively laid by Soviet nuc-
lear and conventional submarines on the deep-
er parts of the continental shelf and rise, the
bottom-moored rising mine and underwater
electrical potential or sectionalized mine are
designed at least to disable if not destroy a
submarine. With HE charges in the order of
225 kg (496 1b), both types may come rn several
variants. At least two verslons of the rising mine
have been identified, the 'Cluster Bay' for use
on the shelf itself and the 'Cluster Gulf for use
on the deeper ledge and rise regions, Both are
torpedo-shaped devices fitted with a rocket
propulsion system and a dual active/passive
target detection and verification sonar set. The
maximum mooring depth of the two models is
said to be about 600 m (l 969 ft). themselves could conveniently manoeuvre Although obsolete even by Soviet standards, the
The underwater electrical potential mine safely. It is also possible that a Soviet sub- few 'Zulu IV' class conventional submarines left in
apparently uses the target's own electrical field marine would lay several of these mines in an sewice cancarry 36 AMD-1000 ground mines and
for detectlon and trrgger purposes, and can be obvious place in order to entrce the fleet tour torpedoes as a warload. Such submarines will
form the main covert laying platform for offensive
laid in waters as deep as 500 m (1,640 ft) minesweepers out as potential torpedo targets, minewarfare operations, bothprior to and during
It is the threat posed by these three mines Such a trap would be worthwhile to the Soviets any futute conflict.
that has resulted in the Royal NalnT introducing as the numbers of these mtnesweepers are
the deep-sweeping fleet minesweeper into its relatively small; any losses would be of con- Thus the Royai Navy's problem in protecting
MCMV force. The llkely pattern for laying siderable embarrassment to future sweeping a highly sensitive area such as the Clyde from
these mines would be along known or sus- operations, even if additional commercral Soviet minelaying operations in wartime rs not
pected transit routes for submarines entering trawlers were commandeered for the same easy; it could really be accomplished only by
or leaving the Clyde, where the Soviet vessels mission, Monitoring the movements of these accepting an unavoidably hi9rh number of los-
specialized deep-sweep units would also give ses amongst the MCM force, which even in
In a future navalwar the Soviets can be expected valuabie indicatrons to just where NATO sub- peacetime is under strength. When taking into
to make full use of their roll-on/ro11-off merchant marines were travelling, increasing target in- the picture the other tasks around the country
vessels to lay mines, probably before hostilities formation for future minelaying patrols. that woulci be assigned to it, especially when
have actually begun.

Modern Mine Warfare Vessels

r3nsidering the need to keep open the ports coupled with an increase of MCM force levels
-:r the American sea lines of communtcations to meet all the requrrements generated. A fal-
.SLOC) across the North Atlantic and for resup- lure to do this as a consequence ol poiltical
plyrng Europe, and to safegn:ard other naval monetary restraints in peacetime would create
and submarine bases, the immensity of the task in wartime unacceptable situatlons, as can be
-nvolved becomes readily apparent, No help seen from the above, The second would in-
could be sought from the Americans as they volve probably more money in the short term,
,,nrould be in worse straits than the British, whiie but actually create more options in the long
',he remaining European nations simply do not term. This alternative would involve resurrect-
have enough vessels both to aid the UK and to ing the concept of submarine depot ships and
achieve their own coastal protection pians, diitributing them around the UK coast before
the outbreak of war to take charge of as many
Defenceof theClyde submarrnes as possible that could be depioyed
This raises the salient question of the feasl- from thelr home bases, With suitable protec-'.'
bility of an MCMV defence of the Clyde against tion and camouflage techniques, an SSBN ten-
a determined Soviet mining campaign under der would in one stroke reduce the Soviet
'rhe circumstances outlined above, If a defence strateglc mining campaign of the Clyde area to
rs not feasible, then what would happen to the the status of just a shipping blockade, and also
bases and submarines trapped in them, espe- reduce the strain that would be placed on the
cially as the SSBNs constitute the major part of existing MCM force,
:he UK's nuclear deterrent force? There
appear to be two viable alternatives to alleviate
']re difficulties, The first would involve a realis-
iic appraisal by the Ministry of Defence and
Royal Navy of the situations likely to occur in
and around the Clyde under such a scenarto,

t'linekryrng the Clgde

Ifthe Soviets can drop enough mines into the Clyde then the British and
funerican submarines there would be bottled up until a channel could be
swept. When the Royal Navy minehunters appear in-order to deal with the
minbs, they will be 6ttackeit by Soviet submarines' A single well-placed mine
can sink the most expensive nuclear submarine tn seconds.


-....:' F*'
E*,-- -"*-Fx.-'


*eJ:- -':: =.-.=.

ffi hunt'class
At the same time that the first GRP- ified CAAIS action rnformation data
built mrnehunter, HMS I.4/ilton (Ml i 16), system in the operatrons room. using
was being built on the lines of the 'Ton' high-precision navrgation aids, Both
class, work began on the new genera- the Erecon and the Ledbury were used
tion of mine-countermeasures vessels successfully after the 1982 Falklands
capable of undertaking both mine- war to sweep Argrentrne mrnefields
sweeping and minehunting opera- that had been laid off Port Stanley,
tions, The result was the 'Hunt' class, They were used in coniunctron with a
named after various hunt meetrngs number of specially chartered com-
around the UK. They are the largest mercial trawlers converted to the
and most expensive GRP-hulled ships minesweeping role for the war,
in the world, every effort having been
made to minimize the ships'magnetic Specification
signatures and to cut radiated noise 'Hunt'class
levels underwater. while maintaining a Displacement: 6 15 tons standard and
capability for deep-sea passages to 725 tons fullload
any part of the world. Eight are now in Dimensions: lenqth 60.0 m ( 197. 0 ft);
service with the Royal Nauy, namely beam lO,0 m (32,8 ft); draught 3,4 m
HMS Brecon (M29), Zedbury (M30), (l12ft)
Cattistock (M31), Coltesmore (M32), Propulsion: two diesels delivering
Brocklesbury (M33), Middleton 2834 kW (3,800 hp) to two shafts
(M34), Dulverfon (M35) and Cfijd- Speed: 17 kts
dingfold (M37), Another three are Armament:one 40-mm Bofors AAgun
building as HMS Atfterstone (M36), Elestronics: one Type 1006 navigation
Bicester (M37) and Hutworth (M39). radar, one CAAIS action inf:rmation The'Hunt'class mine
Several more are believed to be plan- system, one Type 2093 minehunting c ounter m e a s ures vesse/ Ledbury,
ned although the unit cost is now well sonar, one Decca Mk 21 Hr-ix constructed from glass reintorced
in excess of f3O million. navigation system, and tvro PAP 104 plastic (GRP), can dispose ofmrhes rn
For minehunting the ships each car- mrne-disposal systems three ways : by conventional
ry a team of divers and two French- Complement:45 sweeping with cvtter; by acoustic or
burlt PAP-104 unmanned submersible magnetic sweeps; and by hunting
mrne-disposal systems to go with a The 'Hunt' class are the largest and with a sonar and then using
Type 2093 minehunting sonar system, most expensive GRP-hulled ships in clearance divers or mine disposal
For conventional sweeping they have the world, and have minimal acoustic vehicles.
a Sperry Osborn TAO acoustic system, and magnetic signa tures. IJedbury
an MM Mk I I magnetic loop system and Brecon swep t up Argentine
jand the M Mk 3 Mod 2 Oropesa wue mine s off P ort S tanley in the
'sweep. All the hunting and sweeping Falklands.
manoeuvres are controlled by a mod-

ffi ifi,iu"r'ctass
Based on a North Sea oilrig supply shlp
design, the 'River' class of fleet mine-
sweeper is gradually replacinq the
worn-out 'Ton' class coastal mine-
sweepers assigned to the Royal Navy
Reserve, The flrst four are HMS
Waveney (M2003), Carron (M2004),
Dovey (M2005) and Heltord (M2006)
and these entered service in 1984, The
remaining eight are due at regmlar in-
tewals: these ships are HMS lfumber
(M2007), Blackwater (M2008), /tcften
(M2009), Helmsdale (M2010), Orwell
(M2011), Ribble (M2012), Spey
(M2013) and Arun (M2014).
All carry the BAJ-Vickers Mk 9 Ex-
tra-Deep Armed Team Sweep
(EDATS) gear, with which two vessels
work together, towng a sweep wire
with special depth-keeping grear be-
tvueen them, that allows the cutting
equipment to follow the contours of the
sea-bed closely at very gneat depths.
Explosive charqes are attached at
91,4-m (300-ft) intervals to assist the use against transitting dived nuclear fully the idea and develop it into the Lead ship of the 'River' class
mechanical cutters lo break mooring submarrnes, The deep-sweep con- EDATS system. The two vessels were minesweepers js lfi e Waveney. Stee/-
chains, cept was origmally tested in 1977-8, commrssioned into the Royal Navy Re- hulled, she is fitted with the EDATS
The need for such a system has when the Royal Navy briefly chafiered serve as HMS Tenturer (M0B) and Sl sweepfor thedeep team sweeping
been generated by the Soviets' ac- six commercial trawlers for the series David (M07), role against Soviet deep water mines
qursition of rising mine and underwa- of 'Highland Fling' minesweeping ex- laid to catch British and American
ter electrical potentral mine types, ercises off Scotland. TWo more traw- submarine traffic off the Scottish
whtch can be laid in deep water on the lers were then chartered for sx years coasts.
continental shelf and rise regions for apiece late in 1978 to explore more

'River' class (continued)

Specification Tlre Dovey r,vas third of the 'River'

'River'class class to be commrsrbned. /n
Dimensions: lenqth 47,5 m (156,0 ft); peacetime the class are allocated to
beam 10,5 m(34.5 ft); draught3, I m the various RNR divkions, except for
(10 3 ft) one which may be used for trial
Propulsion: two diesels delivering purposes lo festnew deep sweePing
2267 kW (3,040 hp) to two shafts technologty.
Speed: 14 kts
Armament: tvvo 7.62-mm (0.3-in)
maclune-guns, and for but not with one navigation system, one Decca Mk 6
4O-mm Bofors AA gn:n Hi-fix navigation system, one satellite
Electronics: two Decca RM1226 navigatron system, and sonar
navigation radars, one Decca QMI4 Complemenl:30

IE :lYT-
'Fd.lster' class
Denmark has long been in a position
to control access to the Baltic Sea,
and the 'Fdlster' class of minelayers
stands ready to block the channels
connecting theJVorfiSea and tfte
Baltic. The lvloenr's filfed as a taining
slip and ffi e Sjaelland as a depof
vessel, but both can quickly revert to
their designed role.

Because of the strategic natuJe of Den- laying tracks are run to lay the mines. minelaying role with only minimal rn- Propulsion: two diesels dellering
mark's position across the entratce There is also a near sistership, the ternai changes. When the Maen is un- 3579 kW (4,800 hp) to two shafts
and exit to the Baltic Sea, the Danish iVusref (Nl10) Iaunched in Denmark in available for training duties the Fyen is Speed: 16.5 kts
nalry has invested part of its defensive 1964, sewing wrth the Turkish naw as used instead. The class can lay both Armament: two twin 76-mm (3-h) Mk
capabilrties in minelayers. The largest a minelayer, In peacetime the class ts moored and ground mrne types. 33 DP gnrns, and up to 400 mrnes
of the three types currently il use is the generally used on other duties, with Electronics: one NWS2 nangation
NATO-designed 'Fdlste/ class of four lhe Moen converted to a midshipman Specification radar, one MWS1 tactical radar, one
shLrps, Named after Damsh islands, the training ship with specialist ECN gear 'Fdlste/ class WM-46 fire-control system, one CWS2
FdJster (N80), Fyen (NB1) Msen (N82) aboard, and the Sjaelland converted in Displacement: l,800 tons standard and air- and surface-search radar, two 57-
arid Slae/Jand (N83) were ordered in 1976 to act as a depot ship for Den- l,9OO tons ful]load mm multi-barrel chaff-rocket
1960-1 and launched rn 1962-3. They mark's small fleet of conventional sub- Dimensions: lengrth 77,0 m (252.6 ft); Iaunchers, and (M a en only) one ECM
have a flushdecked steel hu-ll wtth a marines and torpedo/missile boats, In beam l2,B m (42,0 ft); draught 3.6 m
rakrng stern through which four mtne- wartrme both units would revert to the (11,8 ft) Complement: I19

ro ffibny class
The 'MHCAT' class of hshore mtne- speeds, and a significant reductton in nangation system and the mine dis- Dimensions: lenqth 3 1,0 m ( 101,7 ft);
hunter is the first desiern ofa totally new the magnetic/acoustrc signatures by posal weapon-control unit. The last beam9.0 m (29.5 ft); draught2.0 m
concept in mine countermeasures, placing the heavier machinery above directs either of the two French-made (6.6 ft)
The first huo units, HMAS Rusicufler the waterline hiqh up in the vessel. PAP I04 unmanned wire-gnrided sub- Propulsion: two diesels delivering
and Shoalwater, are being built as Each hull has a single propeller, and mersible vehicles carried on the aft 485 kW (650 hp) to hvo shafts
prototypes to a catamaran hull form the victuallinq consists of pre- worlong deck, The Royal Australian Speed: 10 lts
wrth foam sandwich-filled fibreglass prepared foodstu.ffs. The sweep gear Navy plans to order a further four, Armament: two 7. 62-mm (0. 3-in)

hulls that are 3m (9.8ft) rn the beam is fr:1ly containerized to allow for rapid machine-gpns
and some 3 m (9,8 ft) apart. This removal or replacement. Four subsys- Specification Electronics: one navigation radar, one
airangement provides grreater stabil- tems are located in the container aft of 'MHCAT'class DSQS- I IH minehuntingsonar, and twc
ity, a largter deck workhg area, EEea- the bridge: the sonar, the tactical data Displacement: 100 tons standard and PAP 104 mine-disposal systems
ter manoeuvrability at sweeping information system, the precision i 170 tons full load Complement: 13

The Royal Australian navy is

ex per imenting with a r adically
different minehunter design on a
catamaran huLL. This provides great
stability, a large working area and
much reduced magnetic and
acoustic signatures.
lYlinesweeping Technigues by the use of a minehunter equipped with high+esolution sonar and then
N aval mines became increasingly sophisticated during World destroying it with an HE charge laid either by a diver or, preferably, by a remotely
War II, Germany in particular developing pre-set controlled submersible. Such vessels tend to be rather expensive, however, and
neutralization devices to defeat Allied minesweeping this role is usually combined with that of conventional minesweeping in a single
techniques. Today, there is an undeclared war between the mine countermeasures vessel (MCMV) to save money.
ln order for the hunting to be successful, very accurate mapping of all the
users of theworld'ssea /anesand thosewhowould seekto objects that resemble a mine on the sea f loor around a port must be undertaken
close them in time of conflict. and the maps kept up to date, otherwise in wartime a hunt could very well be
made against a piece of rubbish rather than an actual mine casing. One way to
The mine warfare forces of the Western nations have to face a number of Soviet defeat this method of sweeping is either to ensure that the mine is buried in silt
mine types which can be laid in water depths of a few metres to some 600 m or to camouflage it with an anechoic coating to absorb active sonar transmis-
(1,970 ft). ln order to defeat these weapons a variety of sweeping techniques sions, as the Soviets do on their submarines. This forces the minehunter to
has been adopted, ranging from those used in World War ll to new ones investigate more closely (with divers or submersibles) each contact where such
developed where needed. The commonest type is the wire sweep, which is mines are believed to have been laid. This leaves the vessel and its equipment
used against moored floating contact (and sometimes influence) mines. ln open to a special category of multi-influence ground mine which the Soviets
NATO this is known as the Oropesa, and consists of a single wire which usually have developed to destroy or damage NATO MCM vessels. Also, acoustic and
has a steel torpedo-shaped float attached to its outer end. ln order to make the magnetic sweeps can be defeated by fitting the mines with pre-set neutraliza-
sweep travel at the required depth right along its length, an 'Otter' board is tion devices to keep them inert until a certain time has passed (the Germans
connected to the end beneath the float and, after all the wire has been run out, a used delays of up to 200 days on some of their mines in World War ll, so the
'Kite' board beneath the end under the sweeper. A minesweeper can operate Soviets must have systems at least as long as this) while ship-counter or
either a single Oropesa to one side and astern of the ship, or a double set to firing-pulse delay mechanisms can also be used to delay the mine detonation
cover each Side. Once a channel has been swept of mines it is marked as saf e by until a set number of actuations has been received. There is also the possibility in
dan-buoys. multi-influence mines of using the different influence-actuation systems set to
ln sweeping or hunting operations, precise navigation is critical because of the different times so that, for example, a quick one-second magnetic pulse could
need to record any minefield found and to ensure a safe passage is marked for be used to arm the mine while the detonation would require an acoustic build up
future traffic. over some 10 seconds to ensure that it was a ship and not a sweep that was
To defeat the normal sweep gear enemies would use mine destructor de- causing the activation. Each combination of the influences would require a
vices designed to wreck the cutting gear, and delayed-action buoyant mines suitable response from the MCM force in orderto sweep allthe mines laid in, for
which would sit on the bottom with their mooring anchor and chain until a example, a ground mine field. This would take a considerable time and achieve
specified time had passed before being released to act as standard moored the result required of a minefield, which is to disrupt and deny sea room to an
mrnes. enemy's maritime operations.
A modified version of the towed sweep has been developed by the Royal The Americans, Soviets, Japanese and Swedes have also introduced mine-
Nalry for use against Soviet deep-water mine types. Using the same cutter/ sweeping helicopters into their armed forces. Although offering greater flexibil-
explosive charge technique as the Oropesa for cutting a mooring chain, the ity than surface ships under some circumstances, in terms of speed and
BAJ-Vickers Mk 9 Extra-Deep Armed Team Sweep requires two 'River' class shallow-water operations, the helicopter cannot be used against deep-water
iieet minesweepers to work it. mines, whereas the surface ship can. The Americans are probably the leading
For the more complex magnetic mine types, the technique used is to tow two exponents of this technique with their Sikorsky RH-53D Sea Stallion and MH-
iong buoyant electric cables of unequal length connected to a large generator 53E Super Stallion helicopters. The former has seen actual operations ln clearing
aboard the sweeping vessel, which has a non-magnetic hull and fittings. By the waters of North Vietnam after the Vietnam War, the Suez Canal Zone and
c.rlsing the electric power to the cables on and off at varying intervals, a recently the Red Sea. The sweeps used are mainly similar to the shipborne
.ragnetic field is created that slmulates a steel-hulled ship passing through the types but mounted on hydrofoil sleds for fast towing.
-arth's magnetic field. Depending upon the strength and pattern of the pulses, The other major area in MCM work which shows promise is the use of
a^y magnetic mine designed to attack the type of ship being simulated will be air-cushion vehicles both forsweeping and huntlng. In trials bythe Royal Navy
:'ggered if it lies within the sweep's sphere of influence. such vessels have proved almost invulnerable to underwater mlne explosions
Similarly, the sweeping of acoustic mines requires an acoustic generator and superbly successf ul in these roles, but as with other developments that the
::',.,'ed behind the vessel on a long cable with a second shorter cable connected Royal Navy investigates there is a letharglc and apathetic response in applying
:: an acoustic monitor in front of it. This listens to the noise produced by the such innovations to fleet use. This is not so in the Soviet navy, which ls believed
gelerator and regulates it to maintain a constant output so as to simulate a to have investigated the same ACV roles and produced systems for use by its
s rgle class of ship. large force of ACV types.
ror the multi-influence mine that uses both acoustic and magnetic triggering
-'rences, the sweeper must use both sweeps together to defeat the mine. The 'Catherine' class fleet sweeper Foam opera tes an 'A' type towed wire
>roblems really arise, however, when a pressure-actuated firing mechanism sweep with the'Algerine' class fleet sweeperBramble r'n,lale J 945. The'A'
s considered. The only sure way to defeat this type (as itself or combined with sweep w as us ed e x tensively in World W ar I but seldom in W orld W ar I I, as it
::rer or both the other two influence triggers) is by detecting it on the sea bed limited the sweeper's manoeuvrability.
'Lerici' class
The first fow units of the'Lerici' class of lhe Mahamiru (Ml1), /eraj (M12),
mine countermeasures vessels Ledang (Ml3) and &nabula (M14) to
iMCMVs) were ordered in January replace old Britrsh 'Ton' class vessels,
:9?B under the Legge Navale plan while the Nigerian navy has ordered
Intermarine at Sarzona, Delayed one with a second on option to estab-
ror a while because of a brrdge they llsh an MCMV force. The Malaysian
cou-ld not pass beneath untrl it was re- craft are fltted wrth French ibrs mine-
built, they are constructed of heavy hunting sonars and two improved PAP
GRP shock-resistant matedals, and are I04 mrne disposal systems, while the
equrpped to carry a locally designed Nigerian unit(s) wrll be of the standard
ard builtMIN-79 minehunting sub- type except for carrying the smaller
mersible as well as sx dlers with Pluto remote controlled submersible
CAM mine destructor charges, The so- system, All units also carry an Oropesa
rar used is a licence-built version of wrre sweep for dealing wrth moored
:he US 'Squeaky Fourteen' (SQQ-14) mlnes.
system, modified into a variable-depth
set which is lowered lrom the keel for- Specification
,r,'ard of the 'Lerici'class
The S-kt MIN system consists of a Displacement: 470 tons standard and
-300-ks (2,866-lb) GRP vehicle fitted
502 tons full load
a sonar and an underwater TV Dimensions:lenqrth 50.0 m (164,0 ft);
3amera, For destruction of ground beam9.6 m (31.5 ft); draught 2.6 m
rrures an Bs-kg (187-1b) HE charge is (B 5 ft)
:arried, while moored mines are Propulsion: one diesel delivering
nade buoyant, by the cutting of their 1372 kW (1,840 hp) to one shaft Lerici rs seen rn service with the
nooring chains with a small HE Speed: 15 kts Italian navy. Builtin the early 1980s,
::rarge, for destruction by gmnfire, Op- Armament: one 20-mm AA gun the GRP-hulled ship is the first of a
erations with the MIN are possible up Electronics: one SSTT/DG navigation probable I 2 for the ltalians, with
:: 250 m (820 ft) away from the mother radar,variousradionavigation i anotherfour being builtfor the
scip at depths down to 150 m (492 ft), systems, one SQQ- 14 minehunting Malaysian navy and one for Nigeria.
.lthough 200 m (656 ft) is possible sonar, and one MIN-79 mfne-disposal
-:rder certain circumstances, system The 'Lerici' class mine
The four vessels so far in service are Complement;40 counterme asures vesse/s are
-:e Lerici (M5550), Sapri (M5551), e quipped to carry the I talian M I N -7 I
Milazzo (M5552) and h'este (M5553), minehunting submersible and six
-L i,rther six to a slightly improved de- divers, who will use CAM mine
sgn (the Gaetta, Crotone, Termoli, destructor charges.
Viarqgio, Alghero andNumana) are
:: be ordered as funding permits. The
lrialaysian navy has taken delivery of
::'-r vessels of the origrinal desrgn as

E iiu"r,g,"r,class
i: :eplace the ageing 'Aggressive' System (MNS) to sweep gnound mines The 'Avenger' class will be com- 1,240 tons tull load
Acme' class ocean minesweep- and deep-moored mines down to a plemented in senrrce by the'Cardinal' Dimensions: length 68.3 m (224.0 ft);
=j Lre
:= desigrn of a new type of MCMV depth of lB3 m (600 ft), Later the class class of minehunters, of which 17 are beam li,9 m (39.0 ft); draught3.S m
.r- begmn in 1970. This eventually will be retrofittedwiththe new SQQ-32 planned. Equrpped with the SQQ-30 (1r.4 ft)
into the 'Avenger' class, of variable-depth minehunting sonar as tt minehunting sonar, these wrll have a Propulsion: four diesels delivering
;r1ch 21 were orrginally planned to be becomes available, For conventronal GRP hull wrth mechanical, magnetic 1790 kW (2,400 hp) to hrro shafts
bi: cver the next 10-15 years, How- minesweeping tasks A Mk 4 and A Mk and acoustic sweeps plus an MNS sys- Speed: 14 kts
cutbacks and what can only be 6 acoustic sweeps, M Mk 5, M Mk 6 tem. Armament: two 12. 7-mm (0. S-in)
:=s:rrbed as a complete lack of and M Mk 7 magnetic sweeps and an machine-gnrns
i:-ierstandinq of mine warfare in Oropesa No. I wire sweep are ship- Specification Electronics: one SPS-55 surface-
US naval and polittcai circles ped. The single MNS vehicle is con- 'Avenger'class searchradar, one SPS-56 navigation
'=: :educed the total to 14 with the trolled from an automated combat in- Displacement: I ,040 tons standard and radar, one OE-82 satellite navigation
r- -SS Avenger (MCMI), commrc- formation centre which plots mine system, one SQQ-30 minehunting
-::-:g Ln early 1986, The second unit locations with the assistance of the sonar, and one MNS mine-disposal
=::ed De{ender
(MCM2) with the SSN-2 precision navigration system, A system
Chatnpion (MCM3) The huil is satellite communications set is also Complement:72
of iaminated oak, flr and carrred,
:e::l :';:cds to take advantage of the The US Navy's lack of
::r:=:-a-is low magnetrc signatures, appreciation of the importance of
*'r:-: -:-e sxperstructure is basically minewarfare has become
ri'r:':,tr a GRP coveing to protect it
-'= elements.
obvious, as only I 4' Avenger'
-::- class minesweepers have been
-1---eir:atiag sonar rs fitted for use ordered. This is utterly
- :::;::c--on with a Hone)'well re- inadequate to dealwith the Soviet
:::-:::::cl1ed Mine Neutralization minelaying forces.

Armed Forces of the World

Part 3

The Navy
-he Federal German navy has. as part of NATO's
:narltime forces, the responsibility for the majority
cf operations in the Baltic and North Sea, and also
'or the defence of its own frontiers. ln wartime its
crimary role would switch to defending the ent-
:ances to these areas in co-operation with other
NATO naval. ground and air forces against the
strong Warsaw Pact forces. To carry out its
asslgned missions the Federal German navy has a
strength of 31,800 officers and men, and has
evolved a mostly indigenous fleet of destroyers,
'rigates, submarines and light forces designed to
operate speciflcally in these regions. For the more
open North Sea the main units used are the guided
missile destroyers of the 'Ltitjens' and 'Hamburg'
classes, backed up by the 'Bremen' class of missile
frigates plus the remaining three 'Koln' class unlts.
The roles for these vessels include the escort of
convoys against submarine and air attacks, defence
against surface craft m issile attack and, for the older
'Koln' and 'Hamburg' classes, offensive and defen-
srve minelaying. For the Baltic the emphasis switch- FG,S Rheins flr e name-ship of the Type 40 I -2-3 206' units will be modernized in the perlod 193--:-
es to the smaller light forces, which comprise a ciass depof slrjp s and serves with the 3rd Fast to form the 'Type 2064' class. The 'Lutjer:s : '=.
mixture of fast attack craft equipped with MM.38 Patrol Boat squadron. Displacing 2,940 tons atfull destroyers are ln the process of havingthetrr :- ==
load, she is armed with two 100-mm (3.9-in) and modernrzatron refits that include installatior :' :-=
Exocet anti-ship missiles and fast minehunters and four 40-mm (l .57-in) guns, and carries a crew ol
minesweepers. The MCM vessels can also double Harpoon anti-ship missile system and replacs-:---
t 53.
as coastal patrol craft and mrnelayers if required. of the original Tartar SAM by the much :rnc':.::
There is also a small number of corvettes for the while the ships operate in a manner similar to that Standard SM1-MR missile. The older'l-ia-:--l
coastal ASW role. employed by Soviet AGI trawlers. class is due to be retained in service into the 93::
To aid both groups of surface ships rn their oper- To back the combat units there is a considerable and will be litted with a new corrputer ac'.'-' -'
ational zones the Federal German navy has also infrastruclure of support vessels available. Fore- formation systern and the RAM point-defence S:"'
developed a force of coastal submarines based on most among these are the 10 'Rhein' class armed system. A further two 'Bremen' class irigaies
technology that has its roots in the vast Kriegs- tenders, which allow the various submarines and be ordered in the late '1 9B0s for deploymer: ^ --:
marine submarine programme of WorldWar ll. Built light force squadrons to operate away from their early 1990s. The remaining'Koln' class frrgaies :-:
n two classes, the 'Type 205'and 'Type 206', these home bases in wartime. Resupply of weapons, shortly to be relegated to econom.c lol-e cr:': :
vessels carry eight bow torpedo tubes of the 533- stores and spares is perf ormed by a series of replen- having their two gas turbine engines deact va:-r: -
mm (2i-in) 'swim-out' type for wire-guided ASW ishment ship types based on a single hull design. the process. The similar-vintage 'Thetis' class ,i:<,',
and anti-ship torpedoes. ln place of the eight torpe- Fuel and water replenishment is undertaken by a corvettes are already to be replaced by three -:",
Coes 16 ground influence mines can be carrted in number of mostly ex-merchant tankers that have 'fype 423'class corvettes during 1990-3
lhe tubes, although the'Type 206s'have the addi- been refitted for underuray resupply operations. Seen here prior to her modernization, Schleswig-
rional facility of being fitted with a GRP container For the future the Federal German navy already Holsteinis one of theGerman navy's four
secured to the hull on each side. These containers has a number of new ship designs ready to enhance 'Hamburg' class destroyers. The X turret has no'*'
rold 12 mines apiece and can be carried as an exter- its overall capabilities. The older 'Type 205' and been replaced by four MM.38 Exocel mrssrTes. tle
ral 'mine-belt' in addition to the standard torpedo 'Type 206' submarines are to be replaced by the 40-mm Botors guns replaced by Bredas and two
cad, such a combination being ideally suited for larger'Type 2'1 1' design, while the remaining 'Type more anti-submarine torpedo tubes fitted.
:cerations in the Baltic.
The Federal German navy also has a naval air arm
:= 6,700 officers and men, and this is primarily
-asked for the anti-shipping role wrth ASW as its
.econdary mission. For the latter there is a fleet of
lassault-Breguet Atlantic maritime patrol aircraft
M k 44 and M k
=quipped with air-dropped American
r5 ASW torpedoes, and with conventional depth
::mbs. These are now being aided by a force of
,',estland Lynx HAS.Mk BB helicopters fitted with
: :ping sonars aboard the'Bremen'class frigates. A
', -g (MFG 2) of Lockheed F-104G Starfighters is
=-:loyed forthe primary role, and serves alongside
:: s ster unit (MFG ), which has just converted to

-: tranavia Tornado. The former unit is scheduled

-, --equip with the Tornado in 1986-7. Both wings
-:- 'on bombs, unguided rockets and the MBB
, --.ran air-to-su rface missile in their anti-shipping
:-- , :s. To locate the targets a specialist reconnaiss-
;-,=.;nit flies a number of Lockheed RF-104G
l'=- :rters fitted with camera pods and other sen-
' ,'. =.r the more covert electronic lntelligence
'- :: :^ :nere are several converted Atlantics, plus
' :--.,erted naval and ex-commercial surface
:= : 1e aircraft regularly fly over the Baltic to
- -' -e various Warsaw Pact naval exercises,
t ) pnas
Armed Forces of the World
There is no need for any of the missile boats to be
replaced at present since the most elderly ls only 13
years old. However, the larger units are to undergo
modernization to the same standard with new elec-
tronics and weapon systems as required.
ln contrast the large number of MCM vessels do
need replacement within the next decade or so. The
'Frauenlob' and 'Ariadne' classes of inshore mine-
sweepers are to be replaced by a single 2O-ship
'Type 332' design, while the replacement of the
'Lindau' and 'Schutze' classes will begin with the
first of a dozen 'Type 343' dual-role minehunter-
minelayervessels in 1987. Anewclass of 12 mines-
weepers, the 'Type 355', is also projected to begin
construction in the late 1980s or early 1990s; its role
is to dispose of the'unsweepable'pressure-
actuated ground mine, of which the Soviets are
known to have many thousands. There is currently
no new vessels planned for the support services.
The naval air arrr's malor re eqripment program-
me is the introduction of the Tornado strike alrcraft.
However. to enhance further operational capabili-
ties in the Baltic and North Sea. the force of West-
land Sea King Mk 41 search and rescue helicopters
flown by MFG 5 is to be refitted for missile attack
and guidance duties. This is particularly useful for
any operations that might involve the Harpoon-
equipped surface ships. Apart from new ship clas-
ses there is a continuing programme of developing
new torpedo and mine weapons that can operate in FGS Braunschweig is being transferred to the Marinef liegergeschwader 2: 43 Lockheed F-1 O4G
the particular marine environments that are encoun- Turkish navy, following her sisters Emden and Starf ighters and 1 0 TF-1 04G Starf ighters for anti-
tered. Karlsruhe, as ffr e 'Koln' class is replaced by the new shipping strike and training duties respectively
'Bremens'. Ordered in 1957, the 2,700-ton 'Ki5Lns' Marinef liegergeschwader 3: 1 9 DassaultBreguet
Federal German navy order of battle formed the 2nd Frigate squadron.
Atlantics (14 forASW and five for Elint)
submarines: six 'Type 205' and 'l B 'Type 206', plus Marinef liegergeschwader 5: 22 Westland Sea King
12'fype211 'to be delivered in 1991-7 'Schutze' class coastal minesweepers, plus'10 Mk 41 s for search and rescue
missile destroyers: three 'Type 103/103A' or 'Type 394'or'Frauenlob' class and eight'Type one squadron of 26 Lockheed RF-1 04G Starfighters
'Lutjens'class and four'Type '1 01' or'Hamburg' 393' or 'Ariadne' class inshore minesweepers; for maritime reconnaissance
class new MCM classes are planned forthe late '1980s one squadron of 14 Westland Lynx HAS. Mk BBs for
missile f rigates: six 'Type 1 22' or 'Bremen' class, and early 1990s ASW and missile-targeting
plus two more units planned amphibious warfare vessels: 22 'Type 520' class one squadron of 20 Dornier Do2BD-2liaison, one
frigates: three'Type l 20' or'Koln' class LCUs and 22'Type 521'class LCMs Hansa H FB32 ECM, four lAl Westwind target
corvettes: f ive'Type 420'or'Thetis' class. to be auxiliaries: 1 0armed tenders. 14 replenishment tugs and several Piaggio P. 1 49D trainer aircraft
replaced in 1 990-3 by three 'Type 423' class ships, two repair ships, nine replenishment
missilecraft: 10'Type 143' class, 10'Type 143A' tankers, four intelligence ships and more than 160
class and 20 'Type 148'class other craft
The 450-ton diesel-electric 'Type 206' submarines
MCM vessels: two'Type381A' and 10'Type331 B' carry eight 533-mm (2 l -in) torpedo lubes. Crewed
or'Lindau' class coastal minehunters, six'Type Federal German NavalAir Arm order of by four officers and 18 men, they have the uniquely
551' or'Lindau' class drone-control battle German feature of a hull built of high-tensile non-
minesweepers each with three HL351 Troika Marinef liegergeschwader 1 . 48 Panavia Tornados magnetic steel. \J -29 was commissioned in I 974
drones, eight 'Type 340' and l3 'Type 34'1 ' or foranti-ship strike and can make 1 0 kts surfaced and I I under water.