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Life Cycle Influences on Supportability

Thanh Pham

CS - 672

Colorado Technical University


Life Cycle Influences on Supportability

Chapter 14

Question 1

According to the International Ergonomics Association in August 2000: Human factors

are the scientific disciplines related to the study of interactions between humans and other system

elements, and the occupation that applies principles, and these methods to design in order to

optimize human well-being and overall performance of a system.

Human factors are important things in system design because it makes system ease to

use, reduces the possibility of human errors, improving the work environment and labor

productivity, increase human safety, reducing acute risks or chronic illness in human, injury or

disability, reducing these requirements of training (Fabrycky, 2011, p.468).

Human factors might be considered within and throughout the systems engineering

process. It starts with the conceptual design phase. These requirements of qualitative and

quantitative might be identified through the development of system operational requirements and

concept of maintenance (Fabrycky, 2011, p.482).

Question 2

Human requirement is a part of a system design. It derived from the definition of

operational requirements of system, the concept of maintenance, and the results of a functional

analysis at top level. A mission description needs to be performed early in the requirements

definition process.

Base on the mission description, an analysis of function is completed where operational

and maintenance functions are identified indicating the “whats”. What the system have to do.

Through the synthesis, analysis, and evaluation process, a specific design approach may be

chosen for indicating the “hows”. The manner by which the functions will be accomplished. This

leads to the identification of human requirements for the system (Fabrycky, 2011, p.469).

Question 3

Anthropometric factors are related to the physical dimensions of the human body. When

designing control panels, accesses for maintenance purposes, the physical dimensions (weight,

height, arm reach, size of hand, and so on) are very important. Body dimensions will be different

from a static position to a dynamic condition. These measurements of static relate to the human

subject in a rigid standardized. The measurements of dynamic are made with the human in

different working positions and through continuous movement. The measurements of body will

be changed when the movement happens. The measurements of anthropometric are often showed

in percentiles, ranges, and medians.

Human sensory capacities are these factors that related to hearing, vision, sense of smell,

feeling, and balance. The vision factors include field of view, color vision, and level of

illumination. The hearings factors related to the effect of noise on the work performance. When

the noise increases, a human being begins to discomfort and productivity will decrease. Sense of

smell related to the effect of smell on work performance. If work environment has a very

unpleasant odor, the human nausea will be come and productivity will decrease. So, the sense of

smell becomes an important problem. The sense of feeling related to design of workstation and

shape of controls. The sense of balance related to the position of the body and its related motion.

Physiological factors talk about the effects of environmental stresses on the human body

when they do these system tasks. Stress means any external activity aspect or the environment

effects on the person who is doing system tasks. There are some causes of stress like temperature

extremes, humidity, vibration, noise, radiation, gas or toxic substances.

Psychological factors related to human mind and emotions. When a person lacks

motivation, self-confidence, skills and so on, the productivity can be low. In general,

psychological factors are dependent on the needs and expectations of the individual.

Question 9

Operator task analysis (OTA) is a systematic study of the human behavior characteristics

associated with the completion of system tasks. There are six steps that are applied in OTA

(Fabrycky, 2011, p.486).

1. Identify system operator functions and establish a hierarchy of these functions in

terms of job operations, duties, tasks, subtasks, and task elements.

2. Determine the specific information necessary for operator personnel decisions for

each function that related to human element.

3. Determine the adequacy of the information fed back to the human as a result of

control activations, operational sequences.

4. Determine the time requirements, frequency of occurrence, and the criticality of each


5. Determine the impact of the environmental and personnel factors and constraints on

the human activities identified.

6. Determine the human skill-level requirements for all operator personnel actions.

Operational Sequence Diagram (OSD) is used to give in evaluating the flow of

information from the point when the operator first becomes related to the system to the

completion of mission. The flow of information related to operator decisions, operator

control activities, and transmission of data. Consequences from the generation of OSD

can give in the development of personnel training requirements (Fabrycky, 2011, p.489).

Error Analysis

An error happens when an individual exceeds some limit of acceptability, where the

limits of acceptable performance have been defined. The error analysis can accomplish

analytically in conjunction with the OTA, MTA, during the development of OSD, and

physically as part of the system test and evaluation (Fabrycky, 2011, p.489).

Safety/Hazard Analysis

The safety analysis serves as an support in initially establishing design criteria and as an

evaluation tool for the subsequent assessment of design for safety. It includes some basic

information: description of hazard, cause of hazard, identification of hazard effects,

hazard classification, anticipated probability of hazard occurrence, corrective action or

preventive measures (Fabrycky, 2011, p.491).

Question 12

Maintenance task analysis and operation task analysis relate to each other and decide the

quality of the product. These operations decide the cost for maintenance. The cost for

maintenance is not over the budget cost.

The OTA is closely same to what is accomplished for the assignment and grouping of

maintenance tasks analyzed through the maintenance task analysis (MTA). In certain cases, it

may be appropriate the OTA and MTA jointly on an integrated basis, particularly when dealing

with the determination of personnel quantities and skill levels.

Question 13

The safety/hazard analysis is similar with the FMECA. Safety related to both personnel

and the other elements of the system with personnel being emphasized herein. It contains the

basic information: hazard description, hazard cause, hazard effect identification, classification of

hazard, hazard occurrence probability, and preventive measures (Fabrycky, 2011, p.491). .

FMECA is a design technique that can be applied to identify and investigate potential

system weaknesses. It includes the necessary steps for examining all ways in which a system

failure can occur, the potential effects of failure on system performance and safety, and the

seriousness of these effects. The FMECA can be used initially during the conceptual and

preliminary design and development (Fabrycky, 2011, p.385).

Chapter 17

Question 1

Life cycle cost is all costs related to the system as applied to the defined life cycle. In

general, life cycle cost includes the following.

The cost of development and research

The cost of construction and production

The cost of support and operation

The cost of deposal and retirement


Life cycle cost is determined by identifying the applicable functions in each phase of the

life cycle, costing these functions, applying the appropriate costs by function on a year to year

schedule, and then accumulating the costs for the entire life cycle (Fabrycky, 2011, p.569). .

Question 2

DTC stands for design to cost - a cost target can be initially specified for the system that

allocated to a function at lower level or system element. It measured for the system evaluation

purpose as the life cycle unfolds.

Quantitative cost should be established early of conceptual design as these requirements

which system is to be designed, tested, produced, operated, supported, and phase out. A design to

cost TPM should be established as requirement of system design along with performance,

maintainability, and supportability, so on.

DTC could be specified in terms of life cycle cost at high level. But, its requirements

sometime established at lower levels to improve cost and control throughout the life cycle.

Question 3

Life cycle costing is important because some benefits below (Essay, 2013).

Option Evaluation: LCC techniques allow evaluation of competing proposals on the basis

of through life costs. LCC analysis is relevant to most service contracts and equipment

purchasing decisions.

Improved Awareness: Application of LCC techniques provides management with an

improved awareness of the factors that drive cost and the resources required by the purchase. It is

important that the cost drivers are identified so that most management effort is applied to the

most cost effective areas of the purchase.

Improved Forecasting: The application of LCC techniques allows the full cost associated

with a procurement to be estimated more accurately. It leads to improved decision making at all

levels, for example major investment decisions, or the establishment of cost effective support

policies. Additionally, LCC analysis allows more accurate forecasting of future expenditure to be

applied to long-term costing assessments.

Performance Trade-off against Cost: In purchasing decisions cost is not the only factor to

be considered when assessing the options. There are other factors such as the overall fit against

the requirement and the quality of the goods and the levels of service to be provided.

Question 5

The steps involved in the life cycle cost analysis are presented below.

Developing the cost breakdown structure

Research and development cost

Production and constructions cost

Operation and support cost


International Ergonomics Association. (2000, 8). Definition and Domains of Ergonomics

Fabrycky, B. S. (2011). Systems Engineering and Analysis. Prentice Hall.

Essays, UK. (November 2013). The Importance Of Life Cycle Costing Information Technology

Essay. Retrieved from