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What is Instrumentation?
• Instrumentation is the basis for a process

Introduction to Instrumentation
control in a given industry.
• It refers to a group of permanent systems which
and Measurements help us measure objects and maintain
retroactive control of a process.
Engr. Edelito A. Handig • It also refers to planning and providing
instruments and/or instrument systems for the
collection, storage, and analysis of data.


Instrument Electronic Instruments

• Instrument is a device for determining the value
or magnitude of a quantity or variable. It is a
device for measuring electrical quantities or the
performance of electronic equipment based on
the electrical and electronics principles.
• Functions:
• Electrical Instrument is a device for measuring an
electrical quantity (such as voltage, current, or Sensing, Indicating, Recording,
power). Communicating, and Controlling
• Electronic Instrument is an instrument whose • Types:
circuit uses active devices for increased Analog Instruments
sensitivity, better display, conversion of signals Digital Instruments
and for minimum loading of a device under test.


Electronic Instruments
Electronic Instrumentation
• In scientific and industrial measurements, the
observation, interpretation and control are
increasingly carried out by measurement chains
based on electronic technologies which refers to
Electronic Instrumentation.
• A simple classification of electronic
instrumentation includes:
– sensors associated with electronic conditioning.
– instruments configured around a microcontroller.
– programmable electronic instruments.


Measurement M-I-M Triangle

• Metrology is the science that defined the field of

knowledge concerned with measurement and it
evolved according to human needs.
• Measurement is the basis of scientific and
industrial research.
• It is a process of comparing an unknown
quantity with an accepted standard quantity.
• It is a set of operations having the objective of
determining the value of a quantity.
• Measurand is the variable under measurement.


Measurement Errors in Measurement

• All instruments are calibrated at the time of True value
manufacture against a measurement standards. • Ideal case ( impossible to measure)
• Measured by “Examplar” method (method
• Measurement standards are defined as: agreed by experts as being sufficiently accurate).
• Defined as average of infinite no. of measured
International Standard values when the average deviation due to
Primary Standard various factors tend to zero.
Secondary Standard • Take it as best measured quality.
Working Standard
Expected value is the quantitative measure of the
true value.


Error in Measurement Problem: Error in Measurement

• The degree to which a measurement conforms to • The expected value of the voltage across a
the expected value is expressed in terms of the resistor is 50 V; however, measurement yields a
error of the measurement. value of 49 V. Calculate the ff:
• Error is the deviation of a reading or set of a. Absolute error
readings from the expected value.
b. Relative error
• Error may be expressed as Absolute error (EA), c. Percent error
Relative error (ER), or as a Percent error (EP). Answers:
a. 1 V
• EA = Expected Value – Measured Value b. 0.02
• ER = EA/Expected Value c. 2 %
• EP = ER x 100%


Accuracy Precision
• Accuracy refers to the degree of closeness or • Precision is the measure of the consistency or
conformity to the true value (expected value) of repeatability of measurements. It deals with
the quantity under measurement. conformity and significant figures.

Where: Where:
• ∣ER∣ is the absolute value of relative error. • Xn = value of the nth measurement
• A is the relative accuracy • Xave = average of the set of K number
• A% is the percent accuracy measurement


Range of Error Problem: Accuracy and Precision

• Determine the accuracy, the precision of each
• Range of possible error in measurement is measured voltage value, and the range of the
defined by the largest deviation from the average error. If the expected value is 100 V.
value of the set of measurements. Measurement Measurement
no. Value
1 98
• Range = Xmax – Xave or
2 101

• Range = Xave – Xmin

3 100

4 97

5 103

6 102

7 99


Types of Errors Types of Errors

• Factors that affect measurements are related to • Gross errors
the ff: human error: incorrect reading, recording,
1. measuring instruments themselves and use of instruments.
2. environment • Systematic errors
3. person using the instruments Instrument error, Environmental error,
4. processes involved and the type of load Observational error.
• Random errors


Problem: Errors Answer: Errors

• A voltmeter having a sensitivity of 1000Ω/V, • Rap = V/I = 100 V / 5 mA = 20 KΩ
reads 100 V on its 150 V scale when connected
across an unknown resistor in series with a • Rvm = 1000 Ω/V (150 V) = 150 KΩ
milliammeter. When the milliammeter reads
5mA, calculate the apparent resistance of the • Rap = (Rx x Rvm) / (Rx + Rvm)
unknown resistor, actual resistance of the
• Rx = 23.08 KΩ
unknown resistor, and percent error due to
loading effect of the voltmeter.
• Ep = {(23.08 – 20)/ 23.08} x 100% = 13.34%


Limiting Errors Problem: Limiting Errors

• Most manufacturers of measuring instruments • Three measurements with values
state that an instrument is accurate within a 100 ± 5%
certain percentage of a full-scale reading. 110 ± 10%
105 ± 2%
• Limiting error is an specification that an
instrument is guaranteed to be within the limits Determine the sum of the measured values and its
of certain percentage of a perfectly accurate limiting error.
reading. (percent error; Ep)

• Example: ± 2% of full scale deflection of a meter.


Problem: Limiting Errors Problem: Limiting Errors

• A 300 V voltmeter is specified to be accurate • A voltmeter and an ammeter are to be used to
within ±2% at full scale. Calculate the limiting determine the power dissipated in a resistor.
error when the instrument is used to measure a Both instruments are guaranteed to be accurate
120 V source. within ±1% at full scale deflection. If the
voltmeter reads 80 V on its 150 V range and the
• Answer: ammeter reads 70 mA on its 100 mA range,
the magnitude of limiting error is 0.02(300) = 6 V determine the limiting error for the power
the limiting error at 120 V is calculation.
(6/120) x 100% = 5%


Answer: Limiting Errors Statistical Analysis of Error

• The magnitude of the limiting error • Mean (Average)
Voltmeter = 0.01 x 150 V = 1.5 V
Ammeter = 0.01 x 100 mA = 1 mA
• Deviation

• The limiting error for 80 V reading

= (1.5/80) x 100% = 1.88% • Average Deviation
• The limiting error for 70 mA reading
= (1/70) x 100% = 1.43%
• Standard Deviation
• The limiting error for power = 1.88% + 1.43%
= 3.31% • Probable error = 0.6745S