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Forthcoming issrres featue: f;

Torpedo and Fast Attack Cnft of World Wu II
Modern Underwater Weapon Sy$ems
World Wu 1l
Volume l0 Issue 116
Axis Aircraft
Published by
Orbis Publishino Ltd
@ Aerospace P-ublrs-|nn Ltd 1 985
Editorial Offices
War Machine
Aerospace Publishing Ltd
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Managing Editor: Stan Morse

Editorial : Trisha Palmer
Chris Bishop
Chris Chanr
lan Drury

Design: Rod Teasdale

ColourOrigination: rrnago Publishing I td,
Thame Oxon
iypesetting: SX Composing Ltd
Film work: Precise Litho Ltd
Consultant Editor: Maior General Sir
Artists: Jeremy Moore KCB OBE MC, Comman-
Ray Hutchins
Art Workshop
der of British Land Forces during the
Keith Woodcock Falklands campaign.

218511 Distribution and marketing offices:

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The wideqtread introduction of the swface-to-afu missile Tlpical of the light AA armament in
use today, the EMERLEC-31 is
seemed for many years to signal the end of the anti-aircraft designedto copewith air and
gutr, both on land and, at se a. Mode tn w ar has shown th1s to be surface targets, andpossesses a
Iimited anti-missile capability. The
a short-sighted attitude, the experience of large-scale ait twin 30-mm Oerlikon cannonwith
associa f ed be/ ow- d ec k m ag a zine
attack in the FalirJands prouing the value of the g:ttn, are typical, but Jess so js lfte enclosed
especially in abalanced gutrl missile defence. operator's cabin.

It was not too long ago that the Royal Navy's experts on air defence were high rate olflre required, The larger calibres are also represented, brit
blithely stating that were no longer needed aboard shrp, except for
gnrns for anti-missile work require sophistrcated electronics coupled with the
use in the Junk-bashing' role, if at all. However, lucklly for the Royal Navy use of reliable proximity-fused fragmentation ammunition to ensure a
and before rt faced a real exponent on the use of anti-shtpplng air power, ki]1
the Falklands war of 1982 against Argentina proved the folly of those It is rnteresting to note that the Soviets predated the Americans into
sentiments once and for all. The anti-aircraft gn-rn of whatever calibre thrs field with a CIWS (Close-ln Weapon System) against missiles be-
proved to be a major component of the air defences used. Such gmns cause of their experience of such weapons, The Western European
could be relied upon to put up a fairly heavy barrage, and even if it was at navies, such as those of France and the UK, lnitially farled to show
trmes relatively inaccurate, this barrage was sufficient to discourage a interest, preferrlng instead to concentrate on their misslle systems,
fair number of Argentine pilots on bombing and rocket runs, whiie the However, the latter country (together with several other NATO nations
hits the guns recorded resulted in two absolutely conflrmed kllls plus an such as the Netherlands and Sparn) have now adopted the CIWS as part
'unknown number of damaged aircralt that hmped home to bases on the of their naval armament, Surprlsrngly, relatively few other countries are
rnainland, following suit desprte the combat experrence to prove how useful such
For defence against the antrshrp missile, the Falklands war proved systems are,
jlat the rdeal situation is in fact a combination of fully automatic gnrns with
short-range point-defence missiles, the combination effectively creating Fitted with two Breda Compact Twin Naval Mount Type 70s, the peruvian
-cund the ship a 'no-gro area' for fast-approaching attackers. The 'Lup9'class frigafe Meliton Carvajalcanutilize them in an integratedDARDO
:. ibres in this fleld usually vary from 20 mm up to 30 mm because of the CIWS (CloseJnWeapon System) for use againsl anti-shrp mislr/es.
I iii"a" Twin 3o-mm Naval Mount
Designed for the export market, the rnade out of depleted uranium. A pro-
Breda Twin 30-mm Naval Mount uses duction line has been set up tn anti-
tlvo Mauser MK cannon set in a hvin cipation of orders.
cradle within a turret, Some of the adv-
anced featwes of the twin 40-mm U70 Specification
mount described separately have Breda30-mm
been incorporated into the design to Calibre:30 mm
reduce reaction time to a mintmum, Numberof barrels:two
The mount is completely automated, Elevation: - 13'to +85"
with sufficient ammunition reserves Muzzle velocity: 1040 m (3,412 ft) per
(2,000 belted ready-use rounds per second
mount) to meet both saturation and Effestive range:3000 m (3,280 yards)
successive wave attacks wrthout the Rate of fire: 1,600 rounds per minute
need for human intervention to replen- Weight:varies according to the ship
ish stocks, Four versions are available type fitted
to meet slting afiangements in various Number ofrounds carried on mount:
classes of warships. In each case the 2,000
dimensrons and weights have been re-
duced to the mrnimum to save top- The Breda Compact Twin 30-mm Right : The B red a C ompact Twin 30 -
weight, The ammunition is the same as Naval Mount is now in production: mm is fully automatic and is based on
that developed for the American GAU- first exantples are for missile patrol the advanced designfeatures ofthe
B tank-buster cannon, and comprises craftof anunspecified customer. In larger twin 40 - mm sys tem, bu t with
two basic types: an HE-incendiary the background is a'Lupo' class the smaller 30-mm shell a greater
round with an impact fuse and an AP- frigate with twin 40-mm turret number of ready -use rounds js
incendrary round with the penetrator uisible. available.

The general layout of the grunhouse

and below- decks m agazine for 2,000
ready-use rounds is seen rn ffie
cutaway drawings below. Already
the Breda company has designed a
single 30-mm naval mount along the
same lines and firing the same GAU-
8/A ammunition types.

-/- '':- --r

.36#.: \.
€. 1 \
lf 2,9-;.

2 Mantlet plate
3 Leftfeedbelt
4 Rightfeed belt
5 Mauserelevating mass'1 ,,
6 Accessdoor
7 Training power drive
8 Spent case and link
deflector chutes
I Elevationtoothed sector
10 Firing mechanism
1 1 Booster

12 Guide
13 Firing limiting device 1g
1 4 Elevation power drive

15 Spentcaseandlink
evacuation tubes
'16 Training lock
17 Elevation iock
18 Auxiliary junction box
19 Magazine

il fi-** L/TOBreda Compact Twin Naval Mount Type 70
The 40-mm U70 Breda Compact Twin
Naval Mount Type 70 is a joint venture
by Breda Meccanica Bresciana and
Bofors to produce a system intended
for point-defence use against aircraft
and anti-ship missiles, The mount is
fuily automatic in operation, and fea-
tures a high rate offlre with a consider-
able ready-use ammunition supply to
the two gnrns, which are laid by re-
mote-control high-performance servo-
units, The mount is available in two 1':-'."1.i'ta
versrons, the Type A and Type B,
which differ only in weights and the
amount of ammunition carried in the
turret's magazine (736 rounds tn the
Type A and 444 in the Type B), In each
variant the magazine itself rs divided tn
to two halves, each with horst servingr
one barrel, Three types of ammunition
are fired: 40-mm AP tracer, 40-mm HE
direct actron (with impact fuse) and
40-mm HE proxrmity-fused, Both tur-
rets are in production and service with
a number of navies worldwide, espe-
cially as secondary armament on mis-
srle craft. When the mount is coupled
to a Selenia RTN-2OX VJ-band fire-
control radar with a direct electronlc Specification T he O mani navy mlssj/e boa f Al Mansur moun fs a 40 - m m L I 7 0 B r e d a C o m p a c:
link to the ship's main surveillance UTOBredaCompact TWinNavalMountTypeT0'B'forward, carrying atotal of 444rounds in iG
radar and flre-control system, the Calibre:40 mm magazine below decks. The weapon can be used in both the air defence ane
weapon then forms part of the Dardo Number of barrels: two surface attack roles, a flexibility important in smaller navies.
close-rn weapon system designed Elevation: - 13" to +85"
specifrcally to counter high-speed Muzzlevelocity: 1000 m (3,281 ft) per
late-detection attacks by antr-ship mis- second
siles;.It does this by utilizing the turret's Effective range: 3500-4000 m (3,830-
rapid-response characteristics and 4,375 yards) dependingr upon tarqet
high rate of flre (togrether with proxrm- type
ity{used ammunitron) in order to en- Rate offire: 600 rounds per minute
sure a kill, The Dardo CIWS is widely Weight: (with ammunition) Type A
fitted in friqate-sized and larger ves- 7300 kq (16,093 lb), and Type B
sels of the ltalian nalry, and has also 6300 kg ( 13,BB9 lb)
been exported to several countries Number ofrounds carried on mount:
who have bought Italian friqates and see main text
missile corvettes.

Left: The heavier twin 40-mm Breda Above : The Ecuadorean cowe i i e
Type A variant of the L/ 70 Type 70 Esmereldars lyp ical of the genera:-
mounting is used on larger warships, purpose vesse,ls in service with r'a:-;
as ithas amorecapacious magazine navies. I t is armed with Exoc et S S I.i :
with 736 ready-use rounds below and an OTO-M elar a 7 6 -mm d u ai-
decksandjssome 1000 kg(2,200 lb) purpose ganin addition to the Fj.
heavier. More than 20 navies have armament of A/bafros missiles a-ig
adopted theTypeT0. the40-mm L/70 TTpe70 f,vin gr:t.


-,,,J 20-mm Meroka Close-In Weapon System

-:'.-eloped by CETME, the 20-mm although only 720 rounds are actually due to be four on the carner Principe Specification
l'leroka CIWS consists of a turret v,nth carried on the mount itsell An addt- de A-sturias, one for each of the sx Meroka
r,': rcws each of sx 20-mm automatic tional 240 rounds apiece are carried in 'Descubierta' class frigTates and one for Calibre: 20 mm
l:llLkon cannon, a PDS-10 control each of three externally fitted boxes. each of the flve new 'FFG-7' class mis- Numberofbarrels: 12
-^-:-.ole which incorporates a digital The normal mode of action is by radar sile frigates, The remaining five are to Elevation: not knoum
:::-:ontrol computer, a RAN-12/L control, but the camera can be used for be introduced on the flve 'Baleares' Muzzlevelocity: 1200 m (3 331 .. ;=:
.=::::l and target-designation radar, manualstandby operations vla a moni- class ASW frigates from 1985 onwards second
j al on-mount PVS-2 monopulse tor umt and controls on the below- as they undergo thetr midlife refits, Effective range: 2000 m (2'. :.:';' -: :-,
--- -;;rer Vj-band tracking radar with decks console, Tlventy systems have The Meroka will be fltted on the stern, Rate offire: 9,000 rounos p=:::. - .'=
,, ::--;ht thermal-rmaging TV camera, been ordered by the Spanish nalry in No export sales are expected. Weight:4500 ks (9,921 lb)
,:,: ::mbrned rate of flre of the bar- place of more expensive foretgn CIWS Number of rounds carried on mc'.r.i
::j -: scme 9,000 lounds per minute, such as the Phalarx, The allocatron is 1.440
Fire Control Sgslems
The problem with defending surface ships from aerial attack
is that an aircraft provides a small target moving fastand
unpredictably. The advent of sea-skimming missiles has
compounded the problem, necessitating maximum efficiency
in anti-aircraft systems.
The key to defending a surface combatant in modern navalwarfare is the use o{
computerized command and control actron-information systems located in a
central operations room below decks. Here are co-ordinated all the data from the
vessel's various sensors, inter-ship data-links, and weapon-controi systems to
build up an accurate set of plots of the tactical air, surface and sub-surface
activity within a given volume round the platform. Once a potential threat is
detected and determined to be hostile, then the appropnate weapon-control
system is assigned to deal with it. ln the case of a medium- to high-level aircraft
or missile threat, lnrtial detection may well be by the ship's long-range air-search
radar, which uses a broad beam that scans through 360" every minute or so to
indicate the presence but not the precise location of a possible target. The raw
data from the search radar is then used by the relevant operations room
personnel to key in a narrower-beam fire-control radarto the specified target in
order to f ix its flight direction and exact location. The informatton or target track
thus gained is then fed into the computerlzed control system of a missile- The lraqis haveproduced their own anti-aircraftgunsystem based on four
launcher or anti-aircraft gun mount in order to direct the weapon in elevation and Yugoslavian 20-mm guns (derived from the 20-mm Oerlikon). Fire control is
bearing so as to engage the incomlng target. The computer then calculates the the simplest available, comprising the human eye and a simple sighting
optimum engagement distance and for a gun the number and duration of burst. system with manual bearing and elevation controls.
Such systems were in the majority amongst the Royal Navy shrps in the
Falklands. and could not cope very well wlth the Argentine low-level attacks Although the level of sophistlcation of fire-control systems s increasing
coming out of the surrounding terrain when they operated close to shore. rapidly, the 1982 Falklands war also demonstrated the fact that although such
To deal with this type of attack by low{lying aircraft, and with targets such as systems can be present aboard ship, there is still a need for as much firepower
sea-skimming anti-ship missiles like the Exocet and the Soviet'pop-up' SS-N-7, as can safely be carried by the ship to be brought to bear on the incoming
the conventional long-range and fire-control radars have to be replaced by a target(s). Whether or not this weight of f ire hits the target aircraft is not entirely
combined search and target-tracking set mounted on a completely automatic relevant, as by its mere presence in the area of the target during the attack it can
defence system with extremely rapid response times. There are a number of cause the pilot to lose his nerve and break off or delay weapons release
these 'last-ditch' close-in weapon systems now available, such as the 2O-mm sufficien-tly for them to miss. lf the target is a missile, then the greater the
Phalanx, the 25-mm Skyguard and the 30-mm Goalkeeper. All are characterized weight of metal thrown at lt the better the chance of hitting it hard enough to
by fully automatic operation from target detection to destruction, and once destroy it.
activated they will endeavour to shoot down all rapidly-closing targets in order of Where the f ire-control system comes in, whatever its level of sophistication,
priority unless overridden by the operatrons room. is that it should ensure the guns be pointed in the correct direction at the right
For those ships without the sophisticated electronics-equipped operations time and at roughly the correct elevation before the engagement begins. The
room and f ire-control systems, rellance is placed back on optical detection and Royal Nar,y learnt to its cost that it is no good having on paper some of the
tracking devices. The oldest of which is the 'Mk 1 Eyeball' coupled with a simple world's best available air-defence systems if the associated electronics are not
ring and bead sight on the gun itself . The best example of this is the Royal Navy's capable of engaging manoeuvring targets but only those which appear like
elderly 20-mm Oerlikon cannon as currently used on most of its surface com- target drones, flying a straight and level course. These inadequacies should have
batants. Further up the scale rs the gyro-stabilized optical sight, while the by now been rectified in order for the Royal Navy to be capable of meeting a far
ultimate is the fitting of low-light television or inf ra-red camera units which can more sophisticated threat in the form of the Warsaw Pact.
be used in poor visibility and at night, a capability which was hitherto unavailable
to air-defence guns unless they were directed by radar. This 'Osa' class missile boat of the Eryptian navy is not typical in that its fire
For the future, laser desrgnators are already being tested both as a means to contol system and associated 'Drum Tilt' radar (visible on the platform aft)
guide laser-homing shells and to give contrnuous and reliable ranging for close-in controlonly the 30-mm guns. ComparableWestern systems controlguns,
targets. torpedoes and missiles, in addition to providing search and track facilities.
Modern Naval Anti-Aircraft Weapons

Above : O ne of the two maj or Above:The other mainelement is the

elements in any fire control system is computerized control centre in the
the radar. The I talian DARDO system ship. Typically. as in fhe Selenja
employs the OrionRTN-ZOX radar, example above, itwill consistof an
dereloped spe cifically for use with operator's console for theweapon
c lose - in wea pon sfslems. system and a tactical data display.

Above:TheMk92 FCS developedfor the US Navy's pHM hydro{oit

p1ogramme was designed for air and surface actions using guns and mlss::'ss
The system includessearci radars, trackingradar, IFF and navigation rac.r
as wel/as standard target illumination radar, and is integrated iito a
computerized command and control system.
Left: The price of failure
- the charred hulk of HMS Sheffield afterbernErsa*:-<
by anExocetmissile. Ships'fire control systemsmuslreacf rn secondi to slo":
down sea- skimmrngrmissi,les f o avoid a similar fate.
Below: The Mk 86 gan fire control system fitted to the most recent IJS surf ace
combatants can operate rh several operational modes, including radar-
directed surface fire, air action, anti-ship missile defence, visual surtace
and indirect short bombardment.
I 5ii-** anti-aircraft sruns
Tre f,rst Soviet 30-mm mount was the mounted in pairs with a'Bass Trlt'flre-
A-K-230 60-calibre system which en- control radar, the pounl is in servtce
iered sewice in 1960 to replace the on the 'Kiev', 'Kdra', 'Udaloy', Sov-
elderly 25-mm 60-calibre twin anti- remenny','Slava' and'Kresta II' classes,
atcra-ft gnrn on new-build major and and has been retrofitted to several old-
r::nor warship classes. The small en- er ships, On smaller warshtps it is
:rcsed h-rrret is usually known by the usually found as a single mount
:::ckrame Dalek because of its phystc- together with a larger-caltbre gmn and
a1 appearance. The two 30-mm cannon a fire-control radar, Each mount also
=:ted are fully automatic in operation, has a remote fire-control optical direc-
are water-cooled, The tor.
=C the barrels
--:eoretrcal maximum rate of fire for the
;:rs rs 1,050 rounds per minute, but
-:e maximum realistrc rate to prevent
jaroage rs actually in the region of 200- Calibre:30 mm
2{i rounds per minute, The guns are Numberof barrels:two
".raly used in conjunction with a Elevation:0" to +85"
l:.:m Tilt' fire-control radar or a re- Muzzlevelocity: 1000 m (3,281 ft) per
:::o:e optical director, On the smaller second
s::-ps fitted with the AK-230 an anti- Effective range: 2500 m (2,735 yards)
s,:jace role is also assiqned to the Rate of fire: 1,050 rounds per minute
:.!e. the maximum effective range
re-ng 2500m (2,735 yards), A shell Specification
-rerghing 0.54 kq (1.2]b) is used. The AK-630
s_.-srem has been widely exported to Calibre:30 mm
S:-,-,et-supplied states as the Enrn forms Number ofbarrels: sx
-,:e mairi armament of the 'Osa' class Elevation:0'to i85'
:::ssle craft, Muzzle velocity: 1000 m (3,28I ft) per
counter the threat of missile second
:::ack ihe Soviets developed the 30- Effective range: 3000 m (3,280 yards)
-,';eapon further to produce a 'Gatl- Rate offire: 3,000 rounds per minute
=i:r jun verslon with sx 30-mm barrels
:,s-de a largrer barrelJrke cylinder in a Right: Soviet dktribution of CIWS is
s-:::ar shaped mount known by the liberal, with ves se/s sucft as tft e
::,.-giiaton AK-630, This is designed nuclear-powered'Kirov' class being
:r -e at a fast rate as large a number of equipped with up to eight 30-mm
:: - o4-kg (1,21b) shells as possrble,
-r--:- :igh-dersity metal penetrators to
Gatling types, the four-stern turrets
being shown here. The Soviets may Below: The 30-mm turretfor twin automatic cannon is standard fit aboard
::s::_v cruse missile stzed targets at have developed a high-density Soviet lightforce unjtsandr'ssfiown on the bowof aSovietnavy'Osa /'class
::l::.vely close range. Usually penetrator round for the system. missile boat. The turret has also been exportedwidely toSovietclient states.

I HT-** anti-aircraft gruns

--:= lldest of the Soviet nar,ry's 57-mm been fltted with a proximity fuse to 70-calibre gun,
anti-aircraft gn:ns is a single-barrel 70- increase its lethalrty against missile-
::J:e mountlng which can still be type targets, The weapons can also be Specification
-:'..:i cn some 'Skory (Mod)' des- flred in the antr-surface targtet role, in 5?-mml,/70
Calibre: 57 mm
::,,-els. This versron was followed in whrch the maxrmum effectrve range ts
:-= la:e 1950s by a tvuin-barrel version B ha (5 miles), Number of barrels: one, two or four
ri:tr: Ls fould on a number of the In the early 1960s a new twtn 57-mm Elevation: 0'to +90"
warship classes such as the B0-calibre water-cooled dual-purpose Muzzlevelocity: 1000 m (3,281 ft) per
l-:: patrol vessels and radar mount was tntroduced tnto service. second
;-i<3:s. The flnal version of the This is fully automatic in operation from Effective range: 4500 m (4,920 yards)
r:atrcn to appear was a quadruPle the below-decks ammunition handling Rate of fire: 120, 240 or 480 rounds per
the barrels arranged in two room to the gn-rn mount itsell Classes minute
s;er:rnposed pairs. All three systems fitted with the gnrn include the 'Mosk-
:::- be controlled locally, the twin and va', 'Kresta I', 'Kresta II', 'Poti', 'Grisha
:-::j 3rrs Lrsing either 'Hawk Screech' VIVIII','Nanuchka','Thrya','Ropucha', 'Kanin' class units of the Soviet navy
:: hi':ff Cob' fire-control radars to 'Ugrra' and 'Berezina', The fire-control have two 57-mm quadruple
:b::jl target data for below-decks radars used are the 'Mu-ff Cob' or 'Bass mountings located forward and have
The gnrns fire a 2.8-kq (6.2- Tilt' systems, while the ammunition been suppliedwith new proximity:
-:' s.::ell which
=.:::cnics, has in recent years fired is of the same type as used by the fused ammunition.

57-mm anti-aircraft gnrns (continued) Modern Naval Anti-Aircraft Weapons
Ca.libre:57 mm
Numberof barrels: two
Elevation; 0" to +85"
Muzzlevelocity: 1000 m (3,281 ft) per
Effective range: 6000 m (6,560 yards)
Rate offire: 240 rounds per minute

The twin 57-mm turretmounted aft

on the Soviet'Grisha III' class
corvette was firstintroduced in the
I960s. Water-cooled, it is a fully
autom atic we apon with increased
m aximum r ange from that of its

il6:'h* I/60 and, L/70 Bofors automatic snrns

The orignnal 40-mm U60 Bofors auto-
matrc anti-arcraft qnrn was introduced
into use during the period of World
War II, and today is still in sewice wtth
a number of navies. It may also be
fitted to some new-build warships in a
reconditioned form as rt is no longer in
production. Present-day construction
rs now devoted to the higher perform-
ance 40-mm U70 Bofors gnrn vartant,
which is operational worldwide with
more than 30 nanes. Three basic types
of single barrel mountings for the U70
are offered, these differing in the
amount of automation provided, Gun
control can be either local or remote,
the latter using erther a below-decks
f,re-control system or an above-decks
optlcal director,
To increase the lethallty of the older
U60, two new types of ammunition
have been developed by the Swedes,
a prefragimented HE (PFHE) round tionally forms part of the ltalian Breda 1200 and 2500 kq (2,646 and 5,5 I 1 lb) The original40-mm L/60 Boforswas
with a proximity fuse and an armour- 40-mm sinqle- and twrn-barrel qnrn Number of rounds carried on mount: one of the principal air defence
piercrnq hrgh-capacity tracer (APHC- mounts, whrch are currently used by varies according to mount type weapons of the US Fleetin the Pacific
T) round. The U70 has its own family of more than 20 navies, wan It servedwell into the 1970s anc
ammunrtion which includes PFHE, Specification was last mounted on sucft vessels a.-
HCHE, HE{racer (HE-T) and practice Specification UTOBofors the attac k tr ansport USS Sandova l,
types, The pulse-Doppler radar pro- U60 Bofors Number ofbarrels: one whjcfi isseen sftadowed by a'T- 143'
xrmity fuses f,tted to the two PFHE Calibre: 40 mm Elevation: - 10'to +90" c/ass minesweeper of the S oviet
round types allows missile tarqets to Numberofbarrels: one Muzzle velocity: 1005- 1030 m (3,297 - navy.
be engagred, the V60 version having Elevation: - 10'to +80" 3,379 ft) per second according to
al effective detonation distance ofbe- Mrzzlevelocity:830 m (2,723 ft) per roundtype 70-315 1700 kq(3,748 lb)artdSlj=--
:rveen 4.5 and 6,5 m (14.76 and 21,33 ft) second Effective range: 4000 m (4,375 yards) 70-520 3790 ks (8,355 lb)
arid the V7O round of behveen I and Effective range: 3000 m (3,280 yards) Rate of fire: 300 rounds per minute Number of rounds carried on mour:t
I m (3.28 and 22,97 ft) dependtng upon Rate offire: 120 rounds per minute Weight: (without ammunition) SAK sAK40r,/70-350 96, SAK 40L ?a-: _: :a
.arget size and type, The V70 addr Weight: varies, but typically between 40V70-350 2890 kq (6,371 lb), SAK 40U and SAK 40U70 -524 1.44

l-:e BredalBofors 40-mm L/70 naval mountwith a Breda 144 round automatic Among the most popular of Bofors mounts are those provided byBreda. the
:*C device allows the number of men requiredon-mountto bereduced to L/ 7 0 being u s ed in bo th s ingle and twin form s. T he comp ac t twin tun e t is
:prt. -arith a third on standby to reload the feed mechanism during lulls in firing. currently in service or on order for more than 20 navies worldwide.
€ UdH#'boan<eeper Close-In weapon System
The 30-mm Goalkeeper CIWS naval
au-defence system ls an autonomous
radar-directed short-rangTe weapon
Left: Goalkeeper is able to engage
multiple targets, the system having
demonstrated kills of simulated
designed for fully automatic defence supersonic anti-sft ip cruise rnrssi/es
against high-speed missile and air- at ranges of 500 m and 400 m
craft, Burlt as a joint venture by the respectively within about one
American company General Electrrc second of switching targe t.
and the Dutch company Hollandse Sig-
naalapparaten BV, the Goalkeeper has
all tts eiements integrated on a single
mount like the Phalanx system, The
Goalkeeper consists of an I-band
track-while-scan search-and-
acquisition surveillance radar, a dual-
frequency VK-band tracking radar,
fire-control electronics and a cannon
mth high rate of fire, namely the 30-
mm seven-barrel GAU-B/A Sea Vulcan
version ofthe aircraft Gatling gmn, Sys-
tem operation is completely automatic
from target detection, through target
destruction and termination of the en-
gaqment, to detection of the next
target, Missiles flytng as low as 5 m
(16.4ft) have been successfully des- Number of barrels: seven
troyed, and the trackrng radar can also Elevation: -25"to +85"
be used against high-elevation drving Muzzlevelocity: 1021 m (3,350 ft) per
targets, For multiple attacks there is an second
automatrc krll-assessment subsystem Effective range: 3000 m (3,280 yards)
to assigm target pdorities. The Ap ds- Rate of fire: 4, 200 rounds per mrnute
carding-sabot round has, instead ofthe Weight: (wrthammunition) 6730 kg
original depleted-uranium penetrator, (14,837lb)
one made of a high-density tunqsten Number of rounds carried on mount:
alloy, For softer tarqets an HE- 1,190
tncendiary round is employed, A total
of 1, I90 rounds is carried in a linkless- Left:AGoalkeeper CIWS is seenona
feed/drum-storage system. To replen- test rig during the trials stage. At
ish this storage/feed arrangement a pres ent the Roy al N etherla n ds navy
bulk loadlng system is used, but in an has ordered one prototype, two pte-
emergency manual reloading can be production and I0 production
performed, The Goalkeeper system systems for fitting to its warships,
has been chosen by the Royal Nether- and the Royal Navy has ordered a
lands navy for its 'Kortenaer', lacob number for its lalesf warsftip c/asses.
van Heemskerck' and future 'M' class
frigates, The Royal Navy has also
ordered a number for fittinq to its four
'T\pe 22 Batch 3' class frigaies and the
new'Type 23' or'Duke' class medium-
szed frigates, Right: The 30-mm Goalkeeper CIWS
uses amodifiedversion of theseven-
Specification barrel GAU-9|A aircraft Gatling gun,
Goalkeeper with integrated fire control and
Calibre:30 mm search radars on the same mount.


30-mm TCM-30 Twin Naval Gun

Built by a subsidiary of Israel Aircraft The TCM-30 twin 30-mm naval air
Industries, the 30-mm TCM-30 Twin detence weapon is now in service
Naval Gun consrsts of a pair of 30-mm with the Israelinavy aboard several
automatic cannon and their feed sys- of the missile boats of the SAAR 4.5
tems mounted in a stabilized electri- desigm.Thegrun acts as aCIWS and
cally-actuated turret capable of hrgh shares this dutywith 14 20-mm
anqular accelerations. The cannon are Phalanx systems boughtfrom theUS
30-mm Oerlikon models, and are car- Navy.
red on a barrel-support system which
reduces longer-range shot dispersion
:o a minrmum, The turret's positioning
a:ld traverse velocity can be control-
led from the ship's flre-control system,
Five different types of ammunttion can
oe used in the hvo 125-round linked-
ammunition boxes that are located on
tre gun cradle, T\ro reserve maqa-
zuies provide a further 40 rounds for
ne system, The TCM-30 is Crradually Specification
:eplacrng the older single-barrel TCM-30
Bofors 40-mm mounts fltted to the Calibre:30 mm
Israeli nalry's missile craft after the pro- Numberof barrels:two
:ctype was tested aboard the 'Ahyah' Elevation: -20"to +85"
ciass Geoula. The same gnrn has also Muzzlevelocity: 1080 m (3,543 ft) per
been adapted for land use on a towed second
:arriage and armoured fighting vehr- Effective range: 3000 m (3,280 yards)
:les, as well as being employed in the Rate of fire: 1,300 rounds per minute
Spider tr au-defence artillery system, Weight: (with ammunition) not krown
Under Israeli government regnrlations Number ofrounds carried on mount:
:: s also being offered for export, 290
The Guns of San Carlos
The conflict in the F alklands was the first to see maj or surface units of a The 40-mm L/60 or L/70 Bofors is useci c:r -::
technologically advancedWestern navy fighting off large-scale air attack from a two-man single-barrel Mk 7 and Mk g mc'-:-:-
determined and resourceful enemy. Among the many lessons learned, the value rngs, At one time both these (and a twin sys:e:::
of were the standard AA weapons of the flee: i:::
conventional gun defence was not the least important.
by the Falklands war they had been relega:ed
to lorm the secondary armament of se-,'er.-
The Royal Navy has been a major advocate of service during the war in the shore bombard- missile-equipped classes such as the 'T\pe 22
SAM systems for the last 20 years, but the 1982 ment role, although during the 21 May landings Batch Is' and'Leanders'. The mourrtings a:e
Falklands war re-emphasized the need for a at San Carlos it was used in the air-defence role open to the elements and powered to +;=
balancedmix of air defence systems, Operating as well, Beiore she was sunk on that day the raprd training and followinq, Fire-conirol 's
in the confines of San Carlos Water and its Type 2l HMS Ardenf alone used some I90 either by the Type 1006 high-defrnitron naviga
surrounds, the much-vdunted missile systems rounds of I l4-mm ammumtion, five Sea Cat tion and helicopter-control radar, or more cc::-
were hard pressed to keep at bay the lowlevel missiles and several hundred 20-mm rounds monly by the qyro-stabrlized sights with spee c
attacks made by the Argentine air force and against the initial air raids by Grupo 3 FMA rings on the mount. The HE ammunition'.lsei
naval air arm, largely because of the masking Pucaras and Grupo 6 IAi Daggers without any weighs some 2.4 kq (5.3 lb) and is proximriy- 3r
ol the search and fire-control radars by the success, while on 30 May the 'Type 2l' frigate contact-fused; rts lethality is nowhere near:ia:
terrain and the ground returns that this caused HMS Arzenger actually engaged and des- of the new ammunltron ranges produced by tne
on the screens, Thus, until the Rapier battery troyed an AM,39 Exocet (aimed at the carrier Swedes to upgrade the weapons to coun:e:
was established ashore the day after the land- group) with her Mk 8 gmns at a range of 12.8 km anti-ship missile targets, Depending upon :ne
rng, the main air defence olthe fleet was left to (8 miles), length of the gmn the effectrve range is eiihe:
the i14-mm (4S-in) Mk 6 and Mk 8 medium 3000 m (3,280 yards) or 4000 m (4 375 yarcjs.
gn:ns, the 40-mm Bofors and 20-mm Oerlikons HMSP/ymoufh attack which was of signiflcant benefit in San Car-:s
of the secondary armament, and the obsolete The semi-automatic or manual twin Mk 6, Water, On 27 May Bofors fire from HMS Fe*-'
optrcally-guided Sea Cat SAM, Wherever with an earlier version of the 1 14-mm gmn, has a /ess or Intrepid, the two British assault ships
possible these were supplemented by hastily lower performance using a 25-kg (55-1b) shell caused damage to the only arrcraft which ca:-
contrived mountings for 7,62-mm (0 3-in) out to some 19km (ll8 miles). Again marnly categorically be stated to have been shot do',',:-
machine-guns, and the shoulder-launched used for shore bombardment, in one air- by AA gunfire alone. The Argentine air force
Blonprpe SAM, surface action carried out on the 'Rothesay' McDonnell Douglas A-4B Skyhawk from Grup -
The fu]]y automatrc srngle-barrel I l4-mm Mk ciass frrqate HMS Plymouth on 8 June, the Mk 6 5, piloted by Lieutenant Veiasco, suffered suc:
8 gun has an effective range of 22 km (13 67 mounting could not be brought to bear on a line severe damage while overflying San Car-:s
miles) and can be fired at a maximum rate of 25 astern attack by flve Grupo 6 Daggers which Water on the way to attack a target at Ala,x Ba=.
rounds per minute, Fitted with a Thorn EMI could only be met by firing 20-mm Oerlikons, that Velasco turned back and eventua---;
N97 multi-role fuse, the 2 1-kg (46 3-1b) shel1 can small arms and several Sea Cat SAMs, none of elected from his aircraft while over Wesr Fa-.-
be armed for contact, delayed action or pro- which brought down the aircraft, The ship for- land.
ximity detonation, the last berng ideal for anti- tunately suffered only damage from four bombs
aircraft flre as the 25-kg (5 S-lb) HE bursttng which hit the superstructure but failed to deton-
Such was the shortage of close-range automatic
charge in the shell produces over 3,000 metal- ate, The Mk 8 normally uses the WSA Mk 4 weaponry during the Falklands conflict that the
lic fragments when it explodes, A specialist fire-control system wrth control effected from Iight machine-guns of the infantry were pressed
chaff round can also be flred to confuse the the below-decks operation room by loystrck into service as an ad hoc defence. The loaded LCU
search radars of attacking aircraft and radar- and the appropriate Action Information system, leaving the docking well of HMS lntrepid fias a GP!'IG
enlded anti-ship missiles, The Mk 8 saw most while the Mk 6 uses the elderly MRS3 system, pintle-mounted at the stern.

The Guns of SanCarlos

The courage ofthe pilots Argentinathrew agains:

the defences of the Royal Navy task force was
evident from the start, and in the enclosed waters
of S an C arlos the sft rps in the landing force we re
subjected to repeated attack.

Officer John Leake (an ex-army man give:. ,

naval rank for the duration of hostihtres) ma:--

aged to direct a burst from his LMG into i:=
wrng of the second Skyhawk (prloted c-.'
Lieutenant Jose Arca) puncturing its fuel tanks
Following a subsequent air battle wtth BAe Sea
Harners, rn which his two companions wer.-
shot down and his aircraft suffered further dam
age in the vicinrty of its landing gear, Arca
decided to attempt an emerqency landing a:
Port Stanley as the amount of fue] remaintng
was insu,fficient to regain either the matnland or
a Lockheed KC-130H tanker atrcrait, Once
over the field Arca found that his landinq qear
would not lower because of the damage
caused by the Sea Harriers'cannon fire, so he
ejected, the aircrait crashlng soon after into the
sea just offshore,

The marn close-range gun was the ubr- The final weapon in the atr-defence artillery Overestimated kills
quitous 20-mm Oerhkon which originated from role on a number of shtps was the 7.62-mm When Argentine losses are analysed against
a Swiss design and had actually been declared machine-sun in its L7A2 belt-fed GPMG and off,cial British claims of 43 kills to missile and
obsolete in 1945, However, because of its light magazine-fed L4A4 LMG verstons. With an AA gmnfire, serious doubts creep in, All avarl-
werght and robustness it stayed on with the effective range of between BOO and 1000 m (875 able published evrdence indicates that thts
fleet for use in the local surface defence and and 1,095 yards) and firing mlxed loads of trac-
AA roles, In fact on a number of classes (such as er and AP rounds, these weapons proved use- The only aircraft indubitably shot down by gunfire
the 'Type 2 1', 'Type 42' and 'County') it provtded ful deterrent weapons, In fact during the final was a McDonnell Douglas A-48 Skyhawk from
the only other gmn armament apart from the attack on Ihe Ardent, by three A 4Q Skyhawks Grupo 5 of the Argentine air force. Piloted by
I l4-mm weapon, With a crew of one or two lor of the 3rd Naval Frghter and Attack Squadron, LieutenantVelasco, itwas hit by40-mm shells from
one of the British assaulf sftrps and eventually
an open pedestal mount, the gun is under local the shrp's civihan canteen manager Petty crashed onWest Falkland after LieutenantValasco
operator control with only a ring and bead ejected.
sight, The shell werghs 0 4 kq (0 88 lb) and 1s
effective out to a rnaximum range of 1500 m
(1,640 yards). However, its effectiveness
against high-performance attacking aircraft in
other than a scare role with tracer rounds is
suspect because of the local fire control, This
was proved on more than one occasion during
the Falklands war,


The Argentine air force (right) and i.
navy (above) both operated
M cDonnell D ouglas S kyhawks
during the conflict. Had the aircraft-
carrjer 25 de Mayo not been kept in
port by the thrcat of British nuclear
submarines, theTask Force could
well have experienced attacks from
unexpected directions. As it was,
the navyA-4swere hamperedin the
same way as those of their air force
colleagues, fighting at the limit of
their range-

Britrsh clarm is a gross overestimate. The guns after the war were fitted with extra AA firepow. ing several special positions prepared icr
may possibly have had a part with other er. In the case of the 'Type 42' air-defence machine-gmns,
weapons in some four other kills. These were vessels the ships' boats were sacrificed to flt For the future the Royal Navy is to instal a
an A-4B Skyhawk of Grupo 5 on 23 May, an two twin 30-mm GCM-AO3-2 mounts and two number of CIWS on its sdips The types chosen
A-4C Skyhawk of Grupo 4 on 24 May, and two slngie 2O-mm guns to supplement the two Oer- appear to be the 30-mm Goalkeeper and the
more A-4C Skyhawks from the same grupo on likons amrdships. The carrier HMS llluslnous Phalanx, The lnrtral fit of the former wrll be to
the following day. sprouted two 20-mm Phalanx CIWS before her the 'Type 22BaIch 3s' and the new'Type 23'or
Whatever the actual losses, the war proved departure, Subsequently most of the other 'Duke' class frigates.
that the local air defence of British warships warships had their close-in gun armament
was woefully inadequate for modern naval strengthened wrth either the 'Type 42' fit or the Argentine low-level attacks on the British fleet
warfare against jet aircraft and missiles, As a addrtion of extra 2O-mm quns of one type or resulted in the loss of four ships; things might have
direct result ships hurriedly commlssioned (af- another, Practrcally all ships today have had been different had the RoyalNavy attached
ter building or refits) to go to the South Atlantic the improvements made, most ships also hav- greater importance to the gun as part of air
defence. Their appreciation has risen greaily as a
result of the conflict, with gun amamentnow seen
to complementmissile systems rather than being
added as an aftetthought.
The Guns of San Carlos

Left: An Argentine Dagger comes Above: HMS Antelope il/asnolso

under firefrom a'Rothesay'class lucky, however.Attacked on 23May,
frigateinSanCarlosWater. HMS she blewup on thefollowing day
Plymouth of the class was hit by four while attempts were being made to
bombson9June,havingonlyiwo defusean unexplodedbomb.The
20-mms astern able to bear on the broken-backed wreck lay in San
attack. Fortunately the bombs did CarlosWater as mute testimony to
not explode. the ferocity of the batUe.

Below: The lessons of the Falklands were soon learned. HMSIllustrious,l?lfing

out during the conflict, entered sewice with the Phalanx 20-mm CIWS and
improved electronic and communication systems. One Phalanx can be seen
forward by the twinSeaDartlauncher, andanother on thesten.


20-mm Naval Gun Type GAM-BOI and 25-mm Naval Gun Type GBM-Aoi
The single-barrel 20-mm GAM-BOI is Although a relatively simple weapon, Below: Similar to the 20-mm wearyr
a simple unpowered locally-operated the 20-mm Oerlikon Type GAM-BO I the 25-mm GBM-AOI fires a heaier
mount that uses the Oerlikon-Birhrie ias been cfi osen by a number of shell.lts lowweight makes it simple
KAA automatic cannon, It rs capable of navies for its lightweight and to instal aboard yesse/s dorzn to tne
engaging surface targets out to 2000 m robuslness. The Royal N avy uses jf tn smallest of fast patrol craft, and no
(2 1BS yards) and aircraft-sized targets c onj u nction w i th tw in 30 - mm mounts electrical power is required {or
out to 1500m (1640 yards). A night to boost close-range AA defences. operation.
srght can be fitted rfrequrred Several
navies use this weapon, includinq the Bottom: The widely-used 20-mm
Spanish nalry's 'Lazarga' and 'Barcelo' Oerlikon mounting of the World W t
class fast attack missile craft The II manual type is still in productia:t
and service worldwide. A more
modern cannon and ring sighting
Royal Nalrys 'lnvincible class carriers;
P sfstem ftasbeen fitted, as on tlus q:;:
in service with the Angolan nary- -
'County', 'Type 42 and 'Type 82' des- aboard an ex-Portugruese 'Bellav:x
troyers; and 'Type 22 Batch 1/2'frigates class patrol vessel.
each have two; and non-converted
'Leander Batch 3' class frigates (one
aprece). The adoption of the gn-rn by the
Royal Nalry was as a result ofits experi-
ences during the Falklands war.
For increased firepower there is the
larger-caiibre 25-mm GBM-AOI,
which is similar in characteristics to
:he GAM-BOI system but mounts the
25-mm KBA-CO2 cannon with a double
belt feed, The engagement ranges are
-he same as those ofthe 20-nrn cannon
but the shell is heavier Several un-
-dentrfied navies have adopted thrs

Calihls;NQ n'tn-I
I'lumber of barrels: one
Elevation:: l5'to +60"
Muzzle velocity: 1050 m (3,444 ft) per
Effective range: see text
?ate offire: 600 rounds per mrnure
iTeight: (withammumtton) 500 kg
, _12 rb)
li'.:mber of rounds on mount: 200

lr::nber of barrels: one
l-1'::z1e velocity: I 100 rn (3,609 ft) per
.; : -:--i
-i:ctive range: see text
i-a:e cf fue: 570 rounds per minute
rxi:::iht: (with ammunitron) 600 kq
:-: ,:)
I n::::er ofrounds on mount: 200


30-mm Twin Anti-Aircraft Gun Type GCM-A

30-mm Twin Anti-Aircraft Gun Type GCM-A (continued)

single-barrel LS30B systems, As a

dtect result of the lack of close-range
ar-defence guns duringr the Falklands
war, to augtment secondary armament
the Royal Navy purchased a number of
Ilcence-built GCM-AO3-2 mounts from
the Britlsh company BMARC for fitting
to its sole 'TYpe 82' destroyer and the
12 'T!pe 42' destroyers remalmnq after
HMS S,heffieid and Corentry had been
surk. Unfortunately in the case of the
'Type 42s' the ships' boats have had to
be removed in order to incorporate
the two mountingts requrred and pre-
vent top-heavrness. A number ofother
navies are in the process of evaluatingr
the mounts and are expected to place

TypeGCM-A Afterits experience during the
Calibre:30 mm F alklands w ar, the Royal N avy
Numberof barrels:two bought a number of twin 30-mm
Elevation: - 10" to + 75' G C M - A mounts fi tted with F enanti
Muzzle velocity: 1080 m (3,543 ft) per Weight: (with ammunition) GCM-AO3- Number ofrounds carried on mount: gyroscopic lead angle computing
second I 2910 ks (6,415 lb), GCM-AO3-2 CCM-AO3-1/2 500, and GCM-AO3-3 sights from BMARC Ltd to
Effective range: 3000 m (3,280 yards) 2515 kq (5,545 lb) and GCM-AO3-3 640 supplement its close-range anti-
Rate of fire: 1,300 rounds per minute 2560 kg (5,644 Ib) aircraft armament.

35-mm Twin Anti-Aircraft Gun Type GDM-A

Strnilar in concept and design to the warships, namely Ecuador, Greece,
highly successful Oerlikon twrn 35-mm iran, Libya and Turkey.
Type GDF land-based anti-aircraft
euns, the naval35-mm Type GDM-A is Specification
ntended primarily for use against air TypeGDM-A
attacks, but if required can also be Calibre:35 mm
used to engage swface targets at sea Number of barrels: two
and on land. The stabilzed mount is an Elevation: - 15'to +85"
all-weather system with its electronic Muzzlevelocity: t 175 m (3,855 ft) per
control units located below decks, The second
cannon fltted are of the KDC model, Effective range: 3500 m (3,830 yards)
-which are fully automatic in operation. Rate offire: 1, 100 rounds per minute
The hnret has three possible modes of Weight: (withammunition) 6520 kg
'.:ser fu1ly automatic with control exer- (14,374 lb)
cised from either a below-decks flre- Number of rounds on mount: 336
control system or an upper-deck optic-
a1 aiming unit fitted with an auxiliary
computer; local operator control with Below: Produced as a private venture
'Jre gmnner using a joystick and qyro- by OTO-Melara, the twin 35-mm OE/
stabilized gunsight; and emerqency OTO mount uses the Oerlikon KDA
manual control using tvuo hand wheels 35-mm gun,whichis similar to the
and the qunsight when power to the KDC gun employedin the Swiss
nount rs cut. Each of the cannon has 56 company's Tlpe GDM-A system. At Above: The original Oerlikons were largely used as naval weapons, but the
ready-use rounds, with anolher 224 presentonly the Libyan navy has 35-mm KDC cannon used in the GDM-A is derived trom a towed weapon
:ounds in total reseffe. At least f,ve bought the mount for its'Assad' c,lass developed in the la te I 9 5 0 s. The I talia n model, known to O erlikon as the
:cuntnes use ihis turret on their missile corvettes. GDM-C, uses a slightly heavier variant.

il EI ffi zsil'ffil"sruard Close-in Weapon System
The 25-mm Seaquard CIWS naval air- ( 1,640 yards) down to l0O m ( 109 yards) Specification Rate of fire: 3,400 rounds per rl:-:::
Cefence system is an intemational pro- agaLnst mssiles and out to a maximum Seagnrard Weight: (withammuriition) 570C k;
lect between countries from Italy, of 3500 m (3,830 yards) aqainst aircraft, Calibre:25 mm (12,566Ib)
Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Arnrnunition types fired include an HE- Numberofbarrels: four Number of rounds carried on mourt:
It consrsts of an above-decks tracker incendiary round and a new Antr- Elevation: -20" to +127" 1,660
module, an independent search radar, Missile Discarding-Sabot (AMDS) Muzzle velocity: 1355 m (4,446 ft) per
a GMB-B]Z Sea Zenith mount with four rould, If requfed the mount can be second The obvious difference
KBB-R04/404 cannon, and a below- elevated to +127'to cover steep- Effective range: 100-3500 m ( 109-3,830 between Seagruard and mos :
Cecks,ammunition feed and operator's dling targets, Three Seagmard CIWS yards) other close-inweapon
console with associated electronics, systenrs are betng fltted to each ofthe sysfems ts lft ep rovision of
The sensor unit is fitted with a K-band fow 'MEKO 200'frigates being built at

fou r b a r rels ind e pe n d en tJy
radar, a forward-looking infra-red present for the Twlesh navy, fed w ith ammu nitio n, ins te a c
|FLIR) system and a laser sensor for of a single rotary cannon. Ti::
ihe acquisitron of missile-sized targets. Below: The first navy to adopt the allows for redundancy in the
Each of the cannon is independently 25-mm Seaguard CIWS is that of feed system.
ied from the below-decks ready-usi: Turkey, which has ordered sufficient
supply, where sufficient rounds are to arm four frigates currently under
available to enqage 18-20 different construction. Enough ammunition is
rargets without reloadinq, Typical en- provided on-mount to engage I 4
qraqement ranges are from 1500m targe ts without r e Io ading.



20-mm Mk 15/16 Phalanx CIose-In Weapon System

accelerated to equip HMS 1llustrjous,
At present lhe Invincible and 11/usl-
rious carry two, whrle the newly com-
pleted Lrk .Roya1 has three, In live
flring trials undertaken by the US Navy
and the Royal Narry the Phalanx has
proved capable of detectinq and des-
troying MM.3B Exocet anti-ship mis-
siles that may threaten Royal Navy
ships in any future conflrct rn the South

PhalanxMk 15/16
Calibre:20 mm
Number of barrels: sx
Elevation: -25" to +80'
Muzzle velocity: 1097 m (3,600 ft) per
Effective range: 500-1500 m (545-1,640

Rateoffire: 3,000 rounds per minute

Weight: (withammunition) 6092 kq
(13,430 ]b)
Number of rounds on mount: 1,000
(latest Block I version is belleved to
have 1,400-1,600)

The General Dynamics Phalanx uses

a 20-mm six-barrel Gatling Wn with
magazine and integrated fire control
radars on the same mount to
pr oduce a s ingle modu lar we ap on
system is fully automatic
in operation, but manual override is
Fhml€n$rx flm Aeffon
impartant weaponslsfems ffi sewice in the West employ s a gun
J :, e af the most
:rtginally,Jeveloped in the late /950sfor use in theLockheedF-l04Starfighter
a-rcraft. Fhalanx is a cornplele, self-containedand-missiletaircraftsysterncapable
ef clcteatinE and destraying incarning mr'ss#es, eyen f&e sea -skimming Exocet.

-.- :e 1960s the US Navy sought to find a sim- flat trajectory) allows for a simple fire-control
--=r Close-ln Weapon System (CIWS) than the solution,
!::. Sparrorv SAM, The basic requirement of This rs based on the ctosed-loop spotting
. :- r sysrem rs rhal it should desrroy a tlackrng lrre.:ontrol concepl developeo Oy loronai
, . ::-*-r and antr-ship missiles thal have ieaked and whrch a a single slroke considerably im-
' -*qi\ :he ileets
outer deiences of fighter proves system accuracy and minimizes reac-
.-::rait ancl medium- and long-ranQle area- tjon ume reouired ior largeL engagemenL, The
,r:3ltce SAivls, The reponse to this request two inblilr J-band pulse Doppler VPS 2 raoar
'-: rhe P}ralanx gun system, which was the anLennae lolocate the search and track func-
,:' : ci cl a ieasibility study av,rarded io General tions on a shared rransmrtrer in he long"qui1
-.;,:.:.s Pomona Divisicn rn 1969. lt then rook
- '..ars drical dome mounted atop the 'Gatlinq in
-- for operatronal weapons to be fitted to the closed-loop situation the radari iimul-
. ,^
: : !ulllUdLdllL> taneously.rack bolh the outgo-ncr b.-rsts ol hrc
-.-= requircmenl Lhe US Navy placed on and the incoming target, the angular error be-
. : ::ea was lor a il1qh individual ]ethalrty and tween the lwo being calculated on the diqital
-,: . rery fast reaction tirne, with coincident compuler and ihe result used lo correcr rhe
....:r probabrlity of hrttrng the target. To ojr-ec:ion of lhe :ext burst. Thus Lhe accuracv
r-'i-,.re the high rate oi frre needed, Pomona increases as the target approaches, the maxl
r:e a modrfied version of the proven 20-mm
-. rmum lethality berng achieved at a range of
,..-:re M6l six-barrel 'Gatling' gun used on somc 457m 1500 yards\ The maxrmum ellec. Above: Phalanx fires a high kinetic energy
. :.--:a-i The hrgh round-lethality was more dif- lr'/e ra:Tg^ rs somtr 'hree lrmes -hrs drstance penetratar made out of high-densifymefaJs suclr
as uraniurn (in the case o{ the United States Navy)
-- --. 3s from the outset a new round (using Automatic operation and tungsten (for {oreign navies). I'his ensures
.. to deslroy or lo cause pre-
! .:-+':c enerqy pfematute exp]osian of any incoming warhead hit.
.. ... Je;ona'ion of Lhe rncom^ng warhead) The entrre Phaiar-x assembiy, which rs some
- : e developed Kncwn as lhe Mk I49, rhis 457m (l5ft) hrsh and 6092kq (t3430]n) rn
Right: British experience in ffteFajk/andsias
-.:-j has a depleted uranium penetrator weighl. movcs as a srngle unrt and is capable oi shown that incaminEmtss.iles can often be
.,:-'.-aciured from the waste products of nuc- defearrng oorh diving and sea-skimming anl,- decoyed, butenaugh mightget through to make a
:- : r-r f;rels. The penelialor .s 2.5 times shrp mrss,les. Under normal cordiLions rt oper. cJose-jn defence necessary. HMSInvincible ls filfed
: r -:r than a comparable steel one, and has a ates automatically to deteci and engage incom- with Phalanx next to theSeaDartlauncher {orward
,:...-.:::r of oniy 12.7 mm (0,5 in), it isflred rn a ing high-speed targets unless an override bul- and on the flight deckaft.
,,:-- :abct with an aluminirm pusher that im- pressed Ilrequired the Phalanx can also
.on is
Below: The most powerfully-armed ancl armoured
-.-'- spin io the projectrle, Both the sabot and accep' larger desionatron data lrom exrerna- surf,ace vesseJ rn the world. the'New Jersey' class
. ..-- iieak away afier hring rhe sources or, under the control of a flre-control is invulner ab le to conven tion a/ missi/es. tVuclear-
,: .i 1i,crwith almost all the initial muzzle syslem, engage small surface craii. Wrth a trpped missi/es are a real threat, hawever, which
:.. ..-.',,.laround i097 m (3,600 ft) per second. 1,000-round magazine capacity on the early makes the faur Phalanx systems so far fitted of real
. :-,-:h speed (and ihe round's subsequent production systems, up to five separale targets importance.
Modern Naval Anti-Aircraft Weapo :, s

g;- Y

a'*€ea #* e€€geii * :'i:1,';,i.:

Phalarx in Action

. :::;;;q+:':i::
...-:ii#+-:..:t:r. .

. , :@-ial;!:-

:t -i

:q: :. : r:: F: :t : tl

---, be engaged and destroyed. The actual 1981 onwards, Additional sales have since The range otweaponry aboard therejuvenated
-::: befw-een identiiyingr the threat and open- been made to the navies of Australia, Canada, battleships, lrom nuclear- tipped Tomahawk
:.:: rre averages two seconds, For loreign Israel, Saudi Arabia and the UK, In the case of crure milsi/es to the IaSt line ofdefence tfia{rs
.'...-::ary sales the depleted uranlum penetrator the last, the acquisitioh was partly the result of Phalanx, give the class.a fighting capacity
:=:- be replaced by a tungsten type. the experience gained ln ihe 1982 Falklands undreamed of when they were launcbed in the
- :,e history olthe development of the gun is a war. Both Israel and Saudia Arabra have uSed
. - : -ranpLe of the US procuremenl system in their Phalanxes to provide the main anti-
: -aJ :o satrsfy a sceptical Congress defence aircraft and missile defences for missile-armed hanced, while the inean time-between-failure
::,:.r:iee as to its avarlability and operational patrol boats and corveltes. For Israel this in- will be increased to improve system rehability
. -:--..-e> fhe closed-loop spotling concepr
'.: -:,:.lalilr demonstrated in 1970 at lhe White
cludes defence aqainsi both Soviet SS-N-ZA and availability. It is also possrble that a switch
and SS-N-28 'Styx' and Western Otomal and to a 30-mm calibre cannon will be made for
j.s l;tssiie Range, toqether with the lethalrty Exocet anLr-ship missiles. greater lethality,
- :-: iepleted uranium round, Fu11.sca1e en- To improve the Phalanx further, an updated
- ,-: = r:irg development subsequently started version with more ready-use rounds and the
Mounted amidships on the cruiser USS
:. :: j: iildt year, and a prototype unlt success- choice of two firirq rates entered service in Ticonderog4 the Phalanx CIWS provides the lasf
- . ::s:royed simulated threat missiles in the 1983. The older guns will be upgraded to this ditch barrier in the carrier batUe group's
,'-.:l? r'ear, The first seaborne unit went to standard as they go in for overhaul For the concentric. serie s af defences against Saviet anti-
j'-.l,ng 1973-4 aboard the frigate USSKing future it is planned that the search-area and shipmrssr?es. Ticonderogais a high.value target,
:, ,: .a 1Ul
. . , :, iurther
ttler unit
utll was installed duudru
vvdS ltlStdiluLl aboard the
tllc target-detection performance will be en- being the heart of the AEG I S 3ystem.
--: . r: :ie destrcyer Cun ntngham andwarshot
.:-:: ',\'?r€ lired againsl rr every weapon
-,'.:-:g a Walleye glide bomli, was des'
-.:i ai a distance Sufficient to ensure the
.--. :- - s:rvival In the foltowing year the USS

:-: :-:::on mcdel which over the next two

--:: -crc red its capability to operate success-
-- -" :- :ie presence of rntense jamming, and to
-'... .:;rsir rnissile-size target$ from th-e back-
-:: , -:- j :lutter of nearby islands.
iil service use
.:.= Phalar,r was finally approved for flill
:-:-'-l= use in 1977, the iirst production units
. =.-.r .:rsialled three years later aboard the
'.. :-:arriers USS Amenca and Enterpnse.
-' : - =: , ;
S Navy plans for Phalanx deployment
r-- :-:. :ach carrier will have three, each ma-
: =:-:rlbious warJare vessel, missile cruiser
.-'. -::-;e Cestroyer two, and every frigate one,
. ::r-i-:::n ihe iarger naval auxiliaries such as
.--' -..-r: las. combat supporl shrps reple-
: - ..:.,, crlers and ammunition shins will also
- .: : -.',-. Phalan-res aprece and' the lowa
-, ,=shios wr-l eacir have iour
HnnenlEc-go rwin 3o-mm Mountins
The oper ator's cabin of the EM ERLEC Access to ffte operator's ca.bin is
k environmentally controlled, with between the cannon ctadle
windscreen demisting and the assembly.
option of local or remote control. The
sighting station visible within the
cabin k fitted with a reflex optical
Iens and a gyro-stabilizer together
with the usual gan controls, and can
be fitted with night sights and
The 30-mm Oerlikon automatic variable fire rate selection.
cannon fitted to the EMERLEC are of
theKCB Upe, and are similarto those
frtted to Oerlikon's own systems.

TheKCB cannon
canfire arcngeo{
including the usuaJ
tracer rounds. Itis
alsocapa.ble of
firing a shell
rejoicingunder the
titleof APICT-

The mount is cap able of a comp le te

360"turn, clockwise or anti- The weapon moutf ard
clockwise, with elevation ranging training gear are all
between - 18'and +84".Traverse fittedintothe mount
rate is 80'per second, as is elevation abovedeck.Below
rate. deck theammunition
storage is arrangd
around a2.75-mmwide
fittedwithmostof the
Ihe training drive is located in a system's electronis.
spnson above deck level, with
access fft rougrl s ponson hatche s.
Eevating drives are in the main
ttacture of the mount, inboard of the
antnon cr adle assembfi es.
1,970 rounds ofready
.r-ccess to tft e a mmunition store is magazine,with9SS
' ::vu gh below- deck pane ls. rounds per giun. All
ifuding can be carried out by a roundsof readyammo
sgle man, although a two-man canbefiredevenil
Joadmg team is recommended for ship's power is lost"
r,arirnunt efficiency. andif the batteries are
damaged there are
lhe electronics below decks mechanisms for fully-
manual operation.
-srs slstemt grun control r e laY s
mc ?eratese,lection systems, as
qel as connecfions to the outside fot
tgtrlrl:e ar director control.
EMERTEC-30 Twin 30-mm Mountins (continued)

Desiqned and built by the Emerson been to missile attack craft or large Originally developed for US Navy
Electric Company, the EMERLEC-30 patrol boats, The mountingris also cap- coastal patrol and interdiction craft
Twin 30-mm Mounting was originally able of being used in the surface{o- under the designation EX-74 Mod O,
developed as the EX-74 Mod O for the surface role. the EM ERLEC - 30 mounting w as
US NaW to use aboard coastal patrol taken up for export by the Emerson
and interdiction craft. Based on two Specification ElectricCompany and has beensold
Oerlikon KCB cannon it has an en- EMERI,EC-30 to a number of countries.
nronmentally controlled cabin for the Calibre:30 m
eunner, day and,/or niqht sights, and an Number ofbarrels: hvo
rntegiral below-decks maqazine, The Elevation: - 15" to +80"
mount can also be operated by remote Muzzle velocity: 1080 m (3,543 ft) per
control using a standard shipboard second
f,re-control system, In emergency an Effective range: 3000 m (3,280 yards)
on-mount battery can provide all the Rate of fire: 1,200 rounds per minute
power required to operate the gmns Weight: (without ammunition) 1905 kg
and fire the full complement of ready- (4,200lb)
use ammunition carried. Manual grun Number ofrounds on mount: 1,970
controls are also fltted to provide furth-
er back-up if the battery fails, The Below: Desigmed for anti-missile,
mount has been in series production anti-aircraft and surface fire, the a
srnce 1976 and is known to be in ser- EM ER LEC - 3 0 com prises two t
vrce with the navies of Colombia, O erlikon 30 - mm cannon with
Ecuador, Ethiopia, Greece, Malaysia, assocr'a led srgft ts, below- decks
Nigeria, the Philippines, South Korea ready-use magazine and an
and Taiwan. In most cases the fit has enclosed oper ator's c abin.

X UO-** LS30R (Rarden) Naval Gun Mounting

The British firm Laurence Scott (De-
:ence Systems) has developed a light-
,veiqht naval mounting for the RARDE-
iesigned 30-mm Rarden automatic
carnon. The gnrn is both power-driven
and line-of-sight stabilized for use on
srnall naval vessels as well as on larqe
riqate or destroyer designs, An exten-
slve series oftests were carried out by
re Royal Nalry both at sea (aboard the Specification
:cnverted tnals frigate HMS london- LS30R
der4z) and on land (at the Fraser Gun- Calibre: 30 mm
:ery Range at Portsmouth) to conflrm Number ofbarrels: one
':e high accuracy of the weapon, Elevation: -20" to +70"
',',hich hit a 2-mz (21s-sqft) targer Muzzle velocity: 1080- 1200 m (3,543-
scme B0 per cent of the finnq time at 3.937 ft) per second depending upon
ranges between 1000 and 1300 m roundtype
l- 095 and 1,420 yards) in good to poor Effective range:4000 m (4,375 yards)
-.:silrility. II required the mount can be Rate of fire: 90 rounds per minute
=:ied with a predictor, image inten- Weight: (withammunition) 800 kg
s'ier. IR camera and/or low-light TV (1,764 lb) 1

:ernera for remote firing. The ammuni- Number ofrounds on mount: 6-22
:cn types used include HE, APSE and
IPDS rounds, The LS30R has been TheLS30R 30-mm (Rarden) naval
:icpted for use by the Royal Narry, and gun mount has been chosen by the
',',-l1l RoyalNavy toreplace allits 20-mm
be used to replace the oider 20-
::-n Oerlikons and 40-mm Bofors from and 40-mm gun mounts, which have
-336 onwards. The first fit will be to the their origins in World W ar I I. I ts
Tshore Patrol Vessels. The basic accuracy is sufficient to allow single
::::unting can also be used with other shots at a target.
:_,pes of 30-mm cannon such as the
3erlikon KCB and the Mauser Model .-::: I i I
: ur which case the designations be-
::ne respectively LS30B and LS30F,