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Folhcomurg issues feature:

Volume l0 Issue 119

Axis Close Support Aircraft
Sub$arinesof WolldWuI
Published by
Orbis Publishing Ltd
@Aerospace Publishing Ltd 1985
EditorialOffices f;:FsfucnsfirialeTesseb
War Machine
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Managing Editor: Stan Morse

Editorial : Trisha Palmer
Chris Bishop
Chris Chant
lan Drury

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Colour Origination : lmago Publishing Ltd,
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Typesetting: SX Composing Ltd

Film work: Preclse Lltho Ltd

Consultant Editor: Major General Sir
Artists: Jeremy Moore KCB OBE MC, Comman-
der ol British Land Forces during the
Falklands campaign.

Distribution and marketing oflices:

Orbis Publishing Ltd Picture acknowledgements
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Subscrigtion Manager: l-- s: re Allen Circulation Manager: Brian Anderson Nara. 2379: Royal Arr Force/Royal Narry,{JS Navy. 2380: US Navy,{JS Navy. (iii): R F./MARS, Lincs (iv}
:j::2666 Marketing Manager: )au. Sle b McDonnell Dougld CASA



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tlodern Under-
Sgstems One of the more novel types of ASW
Thebattle of the Atlantic inWorldWar Illedtoenofinous weapon fielded to date has been the
s u bm arine - Iaunched mis s ile.
advances in undewvater weapon systems and, their
SUBROC, launched from the torpedo
associated sensors; since then both submartnes and swface tubes of attack submarrnes, carries a
vessels have acquired incteasingly complex rocket and one-kiloton nuclear depth bomb as
payload, which has a lethal radius of
missile systems with substantially longer ranges, StoB km(3toSmiles).

lhere are two major types of antr-submarrne projectiles, the proximity homing torpedo, whrch wrth its great homing radius effectrvel_v :' . =:.
-iC the contact weapon. The former, typifred by the depth charge whtch the lethal distance ol a nuclear weapon but needs close proxi::- . :
r: Royal Navy first used rn combat in 1916 during World War I, must actual contact wrth the target to detonate, To bring such a weap:: -', -
:arry an explosive charge large enough to damage a submerged target the vicinity of a distant target very often requires a carrrer p-=,:::-
:. en at a considerable miss drstance. The greatest lethal radius of which may be gurded or ungnrided. Examples of these are resp. r--":
..'.'eapons the Australian lkara missile and the Soviet FRAS-],
of thrs type is achieved by the nuclear depth charge, agatnst
,-, lch there rs lrttle defence, and which can destroy or severely damage For the future, as sensor ranqtes increase guided weapons ,-;--- .: =
,:rgets within several thousand metres of its point of detonation Howev- developed with advanced-technology homrng torpedo or n::,::-
=r only the two qrreat superpowers, the USA and USSR, actually have payloads and ranges in excess of 50 km (31.I miles). The flrst ci ::,:.=
:-ich u,'eapons in large numbers whiie their allled nattons have them to a the ASW-SOW, is already in the flnal design stages for deploymer-: -:- .:.=
::ruch lesser extent late 1980s to replace the elderly UUM-44A SUBROC missrle a..-=:.
The second projectrle type generally rehes on much smaller warhead American SSNs.
sizes, but must either be specrfically gmrded onto its target or be used in
The main developmentinASW techniques inrecentyears has seen lie use c:
:;ch numbers that a hit is virtually gn-raranteed. The classic example of aguidedmissile to carry a torpedo or depth bomb towithin stiking distanc.
::ch a weapon is the World War II Hedgehog system, The intermediate of a target. The Australian-developed Ikara system, with its lightweight
:ase between the two is the hghtwerght ASW (anti-submarine warfare) torpedo payload, is typical ofthe types inuse today.


..=::-::"'' j_-i
=-*Lrifllb +

'lllime nof forecson ruhg'
eiectronicrevclutionthathassochangedthefaceofwarfare.Today'smine-bearsliltjeres=.:::-_-: _

hornecl monsfers so /eared by sailors in bygone wars but its purpase remaLns the same - tc ;
ireeuseoltheseas andtasinkhrssiupsr'fpossible"ltalsohastheadvantageof beingrelativeiyc:.e:; =.:; ..- =.-

-l-. .i -,=:-=:---'.- ::.i.rstood Sovie. access to

:rl:i s-=a: -s restricied by the existence cf
.'-r-:;: :::<e pcrnts, (or heavily delended :1
:.::r:-.'.' :inr.neis) flanked or controlied bv
1, countries The entrance to the
: -s a case in point: controllett by Denrnar<
. and S-weden, the Skagerrak coses I
:::, crcbiem to Soviet naval comn-ianC::s
j--. . .'e'.'ond rhar, access to Lhe N:r'h i.--.:.-.
. :- roLecl by rhe JK Srniiar Ir( (-:---: -
:,: S:viets exist in the Mediterranean ani :re
I:.: -1:r and in tliese areas mine wariare reali;,-
. . :: -:]tc -'s own
,:respective of warhead, mines come in four
:=-. . .. mcre correc'ly mine detonaL.on sys-
:...: .. lrr .]i 'oul:ypes. thorrgn certarn mjnes
.. .. .-.:'.-^ one two or even lhree detonaLrng
:":.::ns as -we shall see. Acoustic mlnes are
. -.---l by noise 1a combinat:on ol waler
-:: : :s laiiing off a passrng hull or, in the case of
.:-. .:.-.+;. u,raLer passing lhrough ano ovet
'- -. rr :asing7, propeller noise and enqine
.--. : --:e-support machinery noises. This noise is
-:' -*o by the mines hydrophones which head, In this way they can iqnore acccmpany- The BritishVersatile Minesy,sfem djsp/ajls many o!
....V 'cecome covereo with nrud and sea .Lnq lr-qates destroiers e c, ano Lake our an the characteristics of madern mine technology. Its
. : - .'':i ald so are designed to increase their airc'raiL-carr-er Aoa.n rhey have Lo o. rnd' small size means itcan be laid by asubmarine
- :.'.: '..t -ru.rh time, [venrually however a.l vidually located and Cestroyed, aithough a through its torpedo tubes, often n a ]ocation ta de
most darnage f o opposing subm arines.
:..-- -. - 7 goes ancLor the-r ba ter-es run tc-r;ed arra;r can have some success in expiod-
,: .'.:. ,iccuslic mines can be made to responc ing iren
shrp or submarrne no-se s.o:.; Press;re lriies are aciua:eC 1.,. cianges in anchored on or close to the bottom, contac.
- :-. -i.s a result, it is noi possrble to sweep al: :nia.:i piess'iJ-. causei ll'r, ;il€ passage cl a mrnes lurk ust be ow the sullr--e.
r, -,.:,,-- ninefleld simply by generatlng nolse rLedi.r:r rc larl:e-s.zei s.:r! ar s:i:Eanne, il Acoustic, magnetic and pressure n:.ines are
.. .:'.','ed array: every mine musi be ind:- thel,' *ere s,-: :: b.'. s::s-.-'.': .a a:';ii]il sr;al 'ar firore eJIec'rve than c tn-lJ- :rrnes lnosr.u Ii.
. .r., -: ;r-d and deslroved. ler :he i;ha'e p,rg;-a:.::- .-.:;-l::<:i ar e,,ren as a blo>t :rose Lo Lhe seo L.d lres only rn or.:
qrea.el'.^:f--'-: -.-.'. : j: .-.r.:-':...- -11 :.lh drr€cl-ofl (upwardsJ ano -h:s do+s more dar:.- explosions Vafl(iS S-.'.--t{ -l- =-t'.. ----: --'-- *::l- l+-
. . -
:.- '-*- :n-nes arc acr-r'ateo by a change rn 't^ e 'a
' mlsl oe ni I i-'--'.- -, -- - - : I '::: .'ri
= '..::.r s magnetic field caused by the prox- The partially-compleled USS OIiver Hazard Perry
..-.'. :- alargemetalconductornearby, e,g. an lr..l lc: -. r'-.: .i .-- :. :r- *..r.:
The undergoes the sfructurdl lesrs essential in making
. -. -.:..:, :irrp, They can be programmed to ex- beloved oi V'ulorrc ilial i. :r:'.re na-<ers any new design of warship resistant to damage.
-:= '.'-r:n differeni sized ships pass over- Whereas the r;re",icus :llre. :tipes are especially from mines.

.:.. ;tr::

,,,'''l€ p

*B:r::: ':
;r. !:,+wo

Modern Underwater Weapon Si's : e n-. s

age than a contact mine, whose blast is dissi- sul)mallne. would be damaged sufficie:.:-'.' ., :

pated spherrcally, The disadvantages of the Usually aircraft are preferred, particularly carrying out rts mrssion whrc:. ':.': .- -:
acoustic, magnetic and pressure mines are that when the mines are to be laid close into one's as lar away fiom Murmansk as c::s-.:
they have to be lard rn shailow water anci are own shoreline. However, there is one type of firing its nuclear mrssrles
subject to nervous breakCowns, Think about it mine that rs (or rather, wili be) sown by sub-
for a moment, The electrcnics used to actuate mariner the type of mine that lurks outside a Standard conversion
an acoustic, magnetic or pressure mine are harbour belonging to lhe other side'. lt has to It shouid not be thought that ai: :.:,-=.
1air1y complicated. In those instances where a be launched by submarine because obvrously purpose-burit for the job It rs of:e:. :--'
mine can be actuated by a combinatton of all the other side is not going to be thnlled by the lriggering device that is specificaiiy a:--;:.=:
three, or in the case of a mrne that has been prospect of enemy aircraft overflying their air- to work underwater and to respond :c :.:'
programmed to 'count' (t.e. ignore the first, space and dropprng mines where they can stimuli. Virtualiy any type of stanciard :::.:
second, third or whatever contact) so that blow the latest nuclear submarine to thousands can be converted to the mine role '.r":::. --.
escort vesselswill again escape unharmed, the of radloactive bils, It works thts way, A hunter/ hmitations that it can be deployed onl-v i:: s:.=.--
electronics have to be both complex and sensi- krller submanne (probably diesel-electric as it Iow waters and that the casing will in iime s.::
tive. Now the sea itself ls not a neutral, static runs more quietly than a nuclear boat, and rs to leak. One of the recent, classic, exampies :,
medium. Changes in water pressure occur thus less 1ike1y to be detected, and also less this has been the US DESTRUCIOF. :----:=
'with changes rn water temperatwe and salin- expensive if destroyed) sllps past the (say) which was deveioped as a dlrect resuli c: ::-:
ity, Background noise can be increased by Sovtet defences and reaches a poini about Vietnam War. It is essentrally a Mk 64 -Qi- -r:
something as mundane as a passing school of 30 km (18 6 miies) tuom Thekola Peninsula. it (2 000-]b) bomb, wlth magnelic and ac:rs -:
iclphlns, The Earth's magnetic field is in a state then iaunches a torpedo werghrnq 1069 ker sensors added to the fuse pockeL Dep--'. =* :
of flux. ln other words, as time goes on and the (2,356 1b) and measuring 533 mm (21 in) in dra- parachute ir is equally elfective by 1;r..- .::
nine qets tired (batteries run down), it is faced meter by 3,506 m (i 1 ft 6 in) in length, The sub- sea, meaning Lhar it can be plastered : . - - '
-,vrih making more and more decisions, assrmi- marine has in fact just launched lhe US Mk 67 mqor port, always assuming that ihe 1a-:-:..
:atrnq more and more data in order to functton mobiie mrne. which is a variable-influence arrcralr do not ger shot down rn rhe pro--::: -'
qrcperly. Either it sulks, and refuses to explode mine converted lrom a Mk 37 torpedo, As we was developed largely because ihe A:.=:-
:: ali, or allows itseif to be trlgqered by the have seen, tha' mine can be ser Lo respond to rcans had so many bombs srrrpius io rel-.:--
.na1lest stirnulus, acoustic magnetic or plessLlre detecrion of a ments during the Vietnam War (there rs a --:-.
possible tarqet, and can also be set to ignore to how many tlmes you can bLoin- up :he -.,::.:
Highcost everythrng except the one ship or submarine tree) and DESTRUCTOR fiqured qune h:= -. '
tven though the average mrne cosis only that has been targeted (unless another ship or in the minrng ol Haiphong harbour. Ii is =---
: :iween t3,000 and t6,000, rninelaying can submarine leaves port with ideniical acoustic very cost effectrve as one nee d employ cni-.-::,=
-:,,'rously be an expensive business. Moreov- srgnaiures 'ivhrch is unhkely), When and if the single assembly line for naval, mihtary --.:
-: lhere are a few other ships in the sea be- mrne (and by nc,n' it has sunk to the sea bed) economic largets. However, 1t rs not the r--
:-jes Soviet warshrps, and amongst others the cietects its target a rocket fires to propel the sophrsucated mine rn the world and shc u- j ..
=:r,i cperatorswould not take it kindly if one ol rnine upvu.ards to a poinl at which j.t can make fact could) only be used against mrlitar:-. ---
:.:-i ressels were blown out ol the North Sea. sa:islaciory contact with the target's bottom. At sophisucaled countries
.-s a result, mines are only sovm at the lasi this pcint 1t explodes and, especially if rt is a
-::1ent; and with this, a new type of mine nuclear mine, causes devastating damage.
. -.-.arcn has been developed: remote control, However, it is more likely to be a CAPTOR
-rCer the Geneva Conveniion (whlch
type mine wrth a 43.s-kg (961b) warhead (of
.'rne quotes when the other parly con- which more later), The only point at guestion
:: '.nes il), all minefreids must be charted, here is, assumrng it does make contact with one
The Earth has a large magnetic field, the force lnes
--..:: rather does away with the element of oi the giant Soviet double-hul]ed submarines, of which lie parallel to theEarth s surface jn mos:
-:.:e ln fac:, rhere is very htl-e reason to how much damage would it do? Well, unless Iocations. Like all magnetic fields, tfiepassage o,'
. -,-::inefields lar in advance because it is a there was a qreat deal of luck (or bad luck, metal through the fieldwill produce distortians ::.
, :-,r.arative1y easy task ihat can be under- depending on your sympathies) involved, the the lines of force, and these distortions tha:
.,.=:- by aircraft, helicopter, surlbce ship or submarine would be unlikely to sink, But it magnetic mines detect.

A m ag n e t i c ally - ac tiv ate d gr oun d A destroyer or similar-sized escort

mine can be programmed to react to may have one-twentieth of the l7j,ass
any large mass of metal, and can of a carrier, and so ias m ucfi ,less
discriminate between the magnetic magnetic effect.
dis tor tion created by diffe rent- sized

An aircraft carrier may be many

things, butit is mostcertainly an
extremely large piece of metal. The
distortion it produces in the Earth's
field is correspondingly large.
'Mine not to reason whY'
Now it is worth taking a look at mine war-
fare's 'state oithe art', The vartous 'choke' points
that restrict Soviet access to the world's oceans
are, in the first instance, guarded by a system of hstening devices called SOSUS
(SOund SUrveillance System). These are hyd-
rophones (anchored to the sea bottom) that can
release their data in short-burst transmissions,
Often they are backed up by cables coiled tn
the same area to monitor the change in the
Earth's magnetic field caused by a passtng
ship. However, these are only passive sensor
devices, and this causes a problem. SOSUS ts
capable of detecting a submarine at a distance
of iome I60 km (99 4 mries) However sound
'water traveis at only ]450m (4,757ft) per
second, so the sound irom a submarine de-
tectecl at a maxtmum range w111 take 110
seconds io reach SOSUS If the submarine is
iraveliinqt at 25 kts (46 3 kn'lh), the vessel will
have moved another 1.42 km (0, 88 miles) by the
irme its sound waves reach the SOSUS hyd-
rcphones, But although ri is always nice to know
.vnere somethurq was a lew minutes ago, tr
dces not heip very much if you are trylng to
lestroy rt, For thar, you have to know where it
'trll be iocaled tn a lew minutes from no''
Enter JEZEBEL, a far-from-passive listenllg
Cevice. ]EZEBEL will, when alerted, send cut sea bottom at some 40 kts it is too late to do The reduced size and hence air-portability of
any=nino aboul modern mines has given military planners many
its own sonar signals in an attempt io discover rt.
options when considering laying techniques. The
-hre submarine's course and speed. Assumtngt Ho."t ever, there is again the same obvious
problem'+,-tth the SOSUS4EZHBEUCAPTOR B-52s of theUSAF StrategicAir Command allow
rhat it is successful, JEZEBEL wtll ihen reiease worldwide mining operations at very short notice.
CAPTOR in its gnrise as a homing torpecc, !;r.e:,- -=.1:.-l deployment Whrie SOSUS or
Civen that the US Mk 46 torpedo has an 1l'km I-7:bl- .a:--.. r :hemseives harm anyone
th.,,' cut be ccrroCeC by sea water and fouled about the same happening to one of their sui:-
{5 84-mi1e) range and that CAPTOR need nct 'c-i'ii-at'::-e l':e Sc rhrie iniiial deploymeni is IT-AIINES
ce situated close to IEZEBEL but conneclei \Arhai this means is that CAPTOR should oni-,
';ia underwater cab1e, you have a pr€ttv fcr- compala:r'.'ei'., aneap, iile naintenance and re
midable underwater deteciion and attack sirs- p:ile:-eL- :-:l-j-::: :.: -'"- +:l:.+r: Si-: e::l be deployed on the seas in those very fe-,'..
lem. CAPTOR is essentially a mine, And becomes;i e-,:persl'.-e C,{PTOR is anolher days before hostrlitres are openly declarec
although CAPTOR is not adverse to being dell- problema,o;+lr+t I.:':.. :S -:1 j-,-:-s-:h: CAPTOR is part of the PRAM (Prope11e:
vered directly to the target by torpedo, that iaw for Soviei subnarlies ic pass iarcugh Rapid Ascent Mine) family, although purts-.
'choke pornrs tnlo the lce;:. i-:-i ' :-: i;rr r would argue that since CAPTOR ls deliverec
rnethod does have one built-in disadvantage: a torpei
submarine can pick up an approaching torpe- companles are hkely to be ';psei abcul one oi on rnstruclions from JEZTBEL il is more :

do cn its own detection equipment and either thetf ferries being blown out ci ihe Ncrih Sea, than mine, Another difference is that PRANI:
:ake evasive action or attempt to destroy it by one can imagine rn hat the Sovreis 'i'roujci say are, by and large, set to operate independenti-'
firing rts own anti-torpedo torpedoes, It ts far and conirol only a smal section of sea
Acoustic mines, as the name suggests. are
better that the submarine should pass over, or triggered by the noise created by passing ships or Threat to friendly craft
close to, the spot where CAPTOR has been su'blmarinei. They may have their own listening
siiently v,raitinei for it, so that when a panic- geir, or tney maibe iontrolled remotely by One of the maior problems that mines pose
stricken sonar ooerator realizes somethtng is underw ater s onar ar r ays, s uch as ffi e SOSUS fine in to their owners is Lhe threat they conslitute t-
risinq rapidly towards his submarine lrom the the GIIJK gap. lriendly forces, The thtngs to remember ar€
that aiter a time a mine is as likely to attaci:
irrendly ships and submartnes as enemy ves-
Every ship creates noise; the sels, and that mines have this annoyinQr habit o'
Acoustic mines are the Products of
combination of sounds from the nol always stayrng rn the place they were oriQ--
the latest computer technology, and
may be programmed to recognize engjnes, the hull in contact with the nally drdpped. Undoubtedly CAPTOR PRAI,'I
specific'signatures', allowing high- water and the rotating screws all andothers have been fitted with identificatiotl
value targets to be attacked with form a unique'signature'. devices and even seif-destruct devices, but nc
precision. one can guarantee that these will workl man
knows more about the surface of the moon tharr
aboul the sea bed and many strange things
happen down there
Nonetheless, mines still remain an extreme-
}y effective weapon, for one very good reason
ii is drfftcult to locate them, In times of war, any
ship or submarine commander must assume
thal ihere are mines out there waiting for htm,
and this qives him lar less flexibility of opera-
tion than he would hke. Mines may have come
a long way from the time that they could be
kickeh aw-ay (carefully avoiding the horns) by
whichever actor was playing the part of the
hero in all those post-World War 11 movies, bu:
the realtty is that they are just as terrifyrng a
prospect to satlors of whatever naw now as
ihey'were 40-odd years ago. They may have
got smarter, but they are still robots and one
6annot bluff (or even surrender to) a robot,

ffi iioiltr 375-mm ASW rocket-launcher systems
The initial four{ube Bofors 375-mm tili:=a::::i:l\lli!!ri::.:1it:::.-i1i!:.i-]..,.:. 4:sr,|li.,.."
(I4,76-in) ASW rocket-launcher sys-
tem was developed in the early 1950s,
and became operational on Swedish
navy destroyers in 1955-6. The ship's
sonar provrdes target data for calculat-
tng the launcher elevation and bearing
for fuing, Single or multt-round salvoes
can be fired, the ballrstic shape of the
rockets ensuring a predrctable and
accurate underwater trajectory, Once
empty the launcher is automatically re-
Ioaded in three minutes from the Above:Themissiles fired from theBofors 375-mmASW launcher system have threedifferenttypes of motor, giving
magazine located directly beneath it. avarietyof ranges. Missile trajectory isflat to produceashortflighttime, thus reducing theciances of succeisful-
Three types of rocket can be used, evasive action by the target submarine.
these differing in the types of motor
and fuse in order to give different ing the early l980s when hunting sus-
operational characteristics. The four- pected Sovlet submarine intruders in
tube launcher is no lonqer in produc- coastal waters.
tron, but is still used by the navies of
Colombia, Japan, Portugal, Sweden, Specification
Peru, Turkey and West Germany. fourtube launcher
Ftance uses a srx{ube variant built Calibre: 375 mm(14,76 in)
under licence by Creusot-Loire, Weight: 7417 kg (16,352 lb)
During 1969-72 a twin{ube variant, Elevation; + 15'to +90
the SR3?5, was developed. Thrs is still
in production, and is used by Brazil, two-tube launcher
Egypt, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Calibre:375 mm (14,76 rn)
Morocco, Nigeria and Spain. The total Weisht: 3861 ks(8,512 Ib)
number of rounds in the twintube Elevation:0'to +60"
launcher magTazine is 24, while for the
four-tube launcher it varies from 36 on Right: The magazine of the four-
most ships to a maximum of 49 on the tube launcher is located directly
two Peruvian destroyer classes bougtht underneath, and once av ailab le
from the Dutch nalry, The Swedish rounds have been expended the
navy used its sole remaining four-tube launcher is au tom a tically
system on the destroyer Halland dur- replenis he d from be low.
weight length }IE range
(time fuse/ charge
proximity fixe)
1W50 250 kg 2/2,05m 100 ks 355-850 m
(551lb) (6,56i6,73 f0 (z20tb) (1,165-2,790 ft)
Erika 250 kq 2/2.05m 107 kg 655-1635 m
(s51]b) (6.s6/6,73 ft) (236Ib) (2,150-5,365 ft)
Nelli 250 ks 42.05m 80 ks 1580-3625 m
(s51]b) (6.56/6 73 ft) (176 rb) (5,18s-r1,895 ft)

I The lW50 and Enka can use the Stidar time and impact fuse,
2 All three can use the Zambo proxrmity and impact fl.rse with an influence radius
of 15 m (49 ft),

Below:Thetwinlaunchervariant, Below:Thetwinlaunchercanfireits
desrgnaledSR3Ti, was developed mrssiJes eiffier separately or
between 1969 and 1972 andis stilIin simultaneously, and theballistic
production today.ltis fitted to the characteristics of the missile ensure
warships of eight navies including the maintenance of an accurate
thoseof Spainandlndia. trajectoryonceunderwater.
ro ifl# anti-submarine missile Ikarais aguided missile bearing a homing torpedo, theformer flying to the
-:-e initral design of the all-weather
ikara mrssile was undertaken by the apprcximate target areabeforereleasing the homing torpedo to beginits
Australian government, but when the search patten. Initially developed by Australia, Royal Navy interest led to a
Royal NarnT expressed an interest in version produced in a j oint Australian/ British programma :n
ihe system the programme became a
joint one with Britrsh Aerospace to pro-
duce the variant known as GWS Mk 40, :i:::..r1:j.=t
A further version, the Branik, was de-
veloped to meet the needs ofthe Brazi-
iian nauy, This last drffers from both the
Australian and Royal Narry systems in
employing a special-purpose missile
tracking and gnldance umt (fully inte-
girated into one of the launch platform's
two fire-control computers) and a new
Iightweight semi-automated missile-
randling system,
The Ikara is powered by a solid-fuel
ccmbined booster and sustainer rock-
et and in all forms is launched on a
cearing to brrng it to a torpedo
payload-droppinq position near to the
:.igiet. Data for the latter's position is
srpplied either by the launch plat-
s own sonar or by a remote data-
=nn source such as another ship or Left: Once Ikara is launched, its flight
-:ked path is controlled from the ship's
:elicopter The informatron received
'rsed for a continuous update of the computer, w hich calcu late s the
:piimum drop zone position on the optimum position for therelease of
s:rp s fire-control computer, which the torpedo. Once it is dropped the
-:en passes it (in the form of control torpedo discards its parachute on
::mmands by the ship's radio/radar reaching the sea, and dives to seek
g:;rdance system) to the missrle in out its target while the missile flies on
:lght Once the lkara arrives at the out of the target area.
:arget area the torpedo (a lightweiqht
I'k 44 or Mk 46, semr-enclosed in the Below: Ikarais launchedfrom the
::-ssi1e body) is command-ejected via Brazilian navy's Mk I 0 frigate BNS
::e communications link, The lkara Defensora. Bra zilian lkaras differ
.3dy then continues on, clearing the Irom the original system in
-ea and crashing, while the torpedo emp loying a spe cial- pur pose
descends by parachute to achieve the missile-tracking and guiding unit,
best orientation and entry into the wa- fully integrated into one of the two
:er and then to start its search pattem, fire control computers.
The ship classes fitted with the lkara
'.-ariants are the 'Niteroi' ASW frigate In contrast the Australians have now
'.-ersion of the Brazilian nalry (four units teamed up with the ltalians to produce
'.'.-rth a Modified Ikakra missile with folding
one launcher and IO mrssiles); the
Ferth' class destroyers (three units flns, a box launcher and the gnridance
each with two launchers and 24 mis- system of the Otomat SSM. The Mod-
sles) and'River' class frigates (sxumts ifled lkara can carry either of the two
each with one Iauncher and 24 mis- original torpedoes as its payload or
sles) of the Royai Australian Nalry; the the Swedish Type 42 senes, the Italian
s:ie T\7pe 82' destroyer HMS Brslol A244/S and AS29O, and the British
.','..rth one launcher and 20 missiles) Stingrray dependingr upon customer re-
the sx remaining 'l,eander Batch quirements,.
- class frrgate conversions (each with
::e launcher and L4 missiles) oi the Specification
P.:yal Narry; and the sinqle 'l,eander Ikara
3atch 1' class conversion HMNZS Dimensions: lengrth 3 42 m (11,22 ft);
Southland (ex-Djdo) of the Royal New wrngspan 1,52 m(4,99 ft); height
Zealand Navy, The Royal Nalry has 1,57 m (5,15 ft)
-iready put up for disposal another Weight: varies according to payload
- Payload: hghrweighr ASW homrng
eander Batch L' unit, HMS,A,'ax, and
'. beheved to be about to remove the
Ikara system from its inventory for Performande: maximum speed Mach
3Derattonal reasons. 0,8; range 24 km (15 miies)

lX ffi"fon anti-submarine missile

The Socr6te Industrielle d'Aviation
Lat6codre Malafon surface-to-
subsurface winged missile started de-
velopment in 1956, and by 1959 a total
of 2l test launches had been com-
pleted, The flrst sea launch and gnl-
dance test took place in 1962, with full
systems evaluation ofover 20 launches
taking place in 1964, The final oper-
ational trials took place in the following
year, Malafon is ramp-launched, propulsion flight control is effected via a command Malafon is a shipborne homing
The Malafon rs primarily an ASW for the initial seconds of its flight being radio link the missile being tracked acoustic torpedo delivered to the
weapon, but can also be used to attack provrded by two jettisonable so[d-fuel with the aid of flares attached to the target area by acommand-guided
swface targets if required. Detection boosters, Once these have been dis- wingtips. On reaching the drop-zone missile. Although primarily intended
and designation for subsurface targets carded the flight is unpowered, the area, at a distance of some 800 m (875 as an ASW weapon, it can be used to
rs provided by the ship's sonars, whiie gliding missile being stabilized by an yards) from the estimated target posi- eng age surface tar gets.
for surface targets it is by radar. The automatic pilot and radio altimeter, In- tion, a parachute rs deployed to slow

Malafon anti-submarine missile (continued) Modern Underwater Weapon Systems

ie Malafon. This causes the 533-mm (four units), the,Aconit and the La Galts- wingspan3,3 m(10,8 ft); diameter Malafon is carried by I I French
121-1n) L4 acoustic-homing torpedo sonnjere. In each case the fit compris- 0,65 m (2,13 ft) vessels, in each case the fit consisting
payload to be ejected rnto the water to es one launcher and 13 missiles in a Weight: 1500 kq (3,307 lb) of a single launcher and 13 missiles.
:omplete the attack, magazine Warhead: L4 acoustic-homing torpedo ?fi e DDG Duquesne carrjes fi er
Fittings of the Malafon system on Performance: maximum speed low Malafon launcher forward of the four
: rench nalry ships have been made to Specification subsonic; range 13 km (B I miles) MM.40 Exocet launchers and
re 'Tourville' class (three units), 'Suf- Malafon immediately abaft the funnel fmast.
:en' class (hvo units), 'D'Estree' class Dimensions: length 6, 15 m (20 2 ft);

>K inff. fO Limbo anti-submarine mortar

l:r'eloped by the Admiralty Under- disadvantage. The ship's own sonar uniselectors. The maxrmum enqtaqe- solid-state control systems ::l
;';arer Weapons Establishment durtnqt provides the target position data to a ment depth is 375 m (1 230 ft). Far East- qutres o'.'y hreo ct-w ns -: ,

re 1950s, the Mk I0 Limbo mortar en- predictor unit which computes the ern sources rndicate that there is also a seven normally used
.:red service with the Royal Navy in mortar barrel elevation inlormatton proximity influence fused bomb,
and lateral tilt, The three-barrel mortar whrch has vrrtually an unlimited max- Specification
-,: early 1960s. Still used by that ser- patten of imum depth. The mortar rs reloaded in Mk i0Limbo
. :e the Limbo is also in service with is then set and fued to give a
-:: navies of Australia, Canada, In- three bombs fused to give a three- lhe horrzonlal plane (by pneumatic Calibre:305 mm (12 1n)
::lesia, Indra, Iran, Malaysia and dimensional explosive burst around rammers) ffom a ready-use magaztne Number of barrels: three
l:arland. Although considered obso- the tarqet The bombs use etther a pre- located alongtside the weapon. The Bomb weight: 175 kg (385 lb)
-::3 the Limbo is in fact a very Potent programmed pressure fuse or a delay- Royal Australian Nalry's verston is of an Warhead: 92 kg \ 202.4 lo ' H t
:;:apon in shallow water where acous- actlon time fuse with the settinqs made improved local type which is quieter tn Performance: maxin um d-p-:
-: noming torpedoes are at a distinct by remote control through relays and operation uses modern electrtcal rl 230 It) range0 9 km t0 5Lr
Stabilized in pitch
androll by a
metadyne system
rcferenced to the
platform, Limbo
fires atriple patterr,
of mortar bombs
produce an
explosive pattern:1j.
the predicted patA
of the target
Maximum range is
900 m(980yards).

A.bove: Limbo has beeninservice with the RoyalNavy for over 20 years, andis
strlj rn use despi te being classified as obsolete. However, it remains.a useful
'neapon in shallowwaters that present difficulties for acoustichoming
torp-edoes. T he R oy al Aus tr alian N avy has at leas t u pd ated its Lim bo sy s tems'
E trurvr-++A stlgRoc submarine rocket
Development of the two-stage IIUM-
44A SIEROC submarine rocket besan
rn 1958, the complete technical evalua-
tion being fimshed by 1964, The first
production rounds were dehvered to
the US Navy in the following year, and
the averagTe SSN basic load s four to Developed in the early 1960s, SUBROC is carriedby the'Permit'and'Sturgeon'classesofatfacksubmarine.
sx rounds. The SUBROC formed part Launched through a torpedo tube, its rocket motor blasts it out of the water and powers it on a flight of up to 56 km
of an advanced ASW system for its (35 miles) beloreit drops a 1-kilotonyieldnuclear depthcharge.
Tarqet headinq and range data are the water. ln both submerged and air- some 4,8-6,4 krn (3-4 miles) from its de- Dimensions: lenqth 6,71 m (22 ft);
determined by the submanne's borne flight the SUBROC is steered by tonatlon point. diameter 0.533 m (21 in)
onboard sonar suite. The co-ordinate four jet deflectors. At the optimum Under current planninq the 'SSN594' Weisht: 1814 ks (4,000 Ib)
data are then fed into the analogme Mk payload-release point the S-kiloton and 'SSN637' classes will carry SUB- Warhead: 294. B-kg (650-lb) 5-kiloton
ll3 fire-control system, which proqt- yield W55 warhead is released by a ROC until they retire, while other clas- yield W55 fission weapon
rarnmes an optimum flight proflle into combination of explosive bolts and a ses will give it up because of its incom- Performance: maximum speed Mach
the missile's intertial gnridance unit in thrust reversal deceleration system, patlbility with their digital fue-control l.5; range 56 km (35 miles)
terms of its course, speed and war- and continues on a ballistic traiectory systems. The latter classes wrll instead
head separation point, The missile is to the target area, Any minor course ship the ASW-SOW missile, The SUB- SUBROC exits the water at the start of
then launched horizontaliy from the coffectron needed at thls staqe is per- ROC fusing system allows for the its flight, its rocket motor having
standard 533-mm (2l-rn) torpedo tube formed by vanes on the depth bomb weapon to be used aqainst surface ignited as soon as the missile was at a
by normal means, At a safe distance casing, which rs cushioned to protect ships with a shallow water burst, and safe distance from the launch
from the submadne (and with the rock- the arming and fusing mechamsms on also aqainst ships and land targets with submarine. Target data has been fed
et not necessarily in the direction ofthe impact with the water, The bomb then an airburst, into its inertial guidance system, the
target) the solid-fuel rocket motor sinks to a preset depth, where a press- nuclear w ar head allowing
rgmites and the weapon follows a short ure fuse detonates it, The warhead has Specification considerable leeway vvith its 6 .4-km
level path before pitchingi up and out of a lethal radrus against submarines of WM-44ASIJBROC (4-mile) leth al r adius.

E irun-sn ASRoc anti-submarine rocket

The all-weather day or night RUR-54
ASROC anti-submarrne rocket was the
result of combining the RAT-C rocket-
thrown torpedo weapon with the con-
cept of the rocket-thrown nuclear
depth charge. The combinatron sys-
tem called ASROC was to be a 9. l-km
(5.65-mile) rangre ballistic rocket fired
from a l2-round pepperbox launcher
that was to be paired with the similar- ship's own sonars, and are then used to variants, and the conventional weapon ASRQC can carry either a H oneryell
range SQS-23 sonar, With the failure of predict the elevation and bearing of is used also by Brazrl, Canada, Greece, Mk46 acoustichoming torpedoor a
the predecessor RAT-A the rocket had the launcher to ensure an optimum italy, Japan, Pakistan, South Korea, 1.5 kiloton yield W44 warhead on a
to be redesigmed with a grreater fin taunch position, The rocket follows a Spain, Taiwan, Turkey and West Ger- Mk 17 nuclear depth charge.Itis the
area and with launcher round capacity balhstrc trajectory, the solid-fuel rock- many, primary ASW system carried by US
reduced to eight. The system entered et motor being.jettisoned at a prede- For the i990s a longrer-range vertic- Navy destroyers, cruisers and frigates.
operatronal service in 1962, the Mk 44 termined point, The payload then con- al-launch variant known as
torpedo payload soon being upgrraded tinues towards the target position. If ASROC(VL) is being developed with Weight: Mk 44 payload 434 kq (957 1b);
to the more effective Mk 46 weapon, the payload is a homing torPedo the new payloads, Mk 46 payload 487 kg (1,073 lb)
The nuclear option is the l,S-kiloton weapon ls lowered into the water bY Warhead: 192.8 kg(425 lb)Mk44or
yield W44 warhead on a Mk 17 nuclear parachute, whrie the nuclear dePth Specification 230.4 kq (508 lb) Mk46 Mod I
depth charge, This option was tested charge is allowed to hit the water and RUR-SAASROC lightweight hominq torpedo, or
as a complete system on 11 May 1962 sink to a preset depth for detonation. Dimensions: lenqth Mk44 payload I i7,9 kq (260 ]b) Mk i7 ],S-kiloton
from the destroyer USS Agerholm The nuclear variant can also be used 4 57 m ( 15 ft) or Mk 46 payload 4,5 I m yield W44 fission weapon
(DDB26) during Operation'Swordfish', agrainst surface shtps and land targets (14.79 ft); winsspan 0,845 m (2,77 ft); Performance: maximum speed Mach
All target data are derived from the if required, The US NavY uses both diameter0.325 m (i 07 ft) 0.8; range L85-1 1, I km (1, 15-6.9 miles)

ASROC: Fleet Defender
For a quarter of a century, the primary
shipborneASW systemof theUS Fleet
has been theweapon-carrying rocket
knownasASROC. The initial thinking
that led to the system dates back even
further, to thelastyear of WorldWarll.

As early as 1945 the US Navy began thinking in

terms oi a weapon carrying a homing torpedo
and designed to engage submerged targets-al
stand-off-ranges in the order of 13 7 km (&5
miles), Although the sonar systems then avaii-
able could not possibly meet the target-
detection requirements, effort was put towards
developing the weapon, The lnitial version was
designated Kingrfisher E, and was a subsonic
mrssiie meant to carry a Mk 35 active/passive
homing torpedo. The name soon changed-to
the SUM-N-2 Grebe, and the weapon was de-
veloped in two distinct versions, one a rocket-
boosted short-range variant and the other a
longer-range version wlth an additional sus-
tainer motor. Both were to carry the Mk 41
ASW torpedo, However, the sonar problems
stiil remained and the Grebe was subsequently
canceiled in i950
The rdea soon re-emerged when in 1951 a
need was expressed for a weapon with a range
in the ordei of 2,7km (I.7 miles) that could
SQS-4 sonar system. By 1956 the RAT-B system /na sense, ASROCjs a successot to the wartime
supplement existlng mortar type _weapons. Hedgehog system. Naturally it has much increased
The result was the Rocket-Assisted Torpedo *ith rts Mk 110 launcher and I0 reload rounds capability, but the most common launching
(RAT) programme, whlch was initiated in 1951 was being promoted as the repiacement for apparatus is a simple eight-round box launcher.
intiriir-e RAT-A usrng the World War Ii Mk 24 the World War II Hedgehog asleen lrere on the'Knox' class frigate USS
torpedo, Successful tests in 1952-3 ied to the In the meantime a RAT-C version had begun Davidson (FF J045).
proposal that the follow-on RAT-B use the new development to carry the 30-kt Mk 44 homing
iWk-43 torpedo as the payload. The launcher torpedo to a range ofbetween 0 92 and f, i4 km
cou.ld be either mounted atop a standard twin (0 57 and 5.68 mlles) By 1955 this version had
While helicopters have become the ptimary
I27-mm (S-in) turret or as a simple twin-rail been combtned wrth a projected rocket- shipboard offensive anti'submarine weapon e',- e r.
system in place of a twin 76-mm (3-in) mount thrown nuclear depth charge and the new 9 14- Iarqe ASW vesseis such as the 'Spruance' class
The design range of the RAT-B was between km (5,68-mile) range SQS-23 sonar' The com- reiain ASROC to provide an integral ASW capa=::
1,4 and 4 6 km (0 85 and 2,84 mrles) to binaiion weapon was to be fired from a 12- within a radius of several kilometres around i.e
accommodate the search capabilitres of the round pepperbox launcher simrlar in size to a ship.
ASROC:Fleet Defender


It the ASROC missile is carrying a

homing torpedo, its entry into the
water is slowed by parachute
(although nuclear charges do not g'
require this).

(one launcher with 16 rounds) The numbers

(especially aboard the frigate classes) are now
suspect as the ASROC launchers have lost
severai of their tubes to fire other missrles such
as the Harpoon SSM. The combination SA\4/
ASROC launchers were introduced in two
series, the Mk I0 Mod 7/8 aboard the'Belknap'
The ASROC system with its launcher was and 'Truxiun' classes with 20 ASROC rounds
then fitted to US Navy ships from the early 1960s rnterspersed wrth Terrrer/Standard SAMs in
onwards, These were a mix of new-burld shlps, the reloading nngs, and the modular Mk 26
cruiser conversions and the modifled FRAM-l vertical missile stowage system for the newer
destroyers, The types fitted to date are the ships, In both cases the fitting of the launchers
'Albany' class (one launcher with no reloads), saved considerable space and top weight. The
the 'lrong Beach' class (one launcher with 20 Mk 16 pepperbox launcher has a crew of two
rounds), the'Mitscher' class (one launcher with and ls capable of firing up to three rounds per
16 rounds), the'Farragut'c1ass (one launcher minute, The launcher elevation limits are from
wrth no reloads), the 'l,eahy' and 'Bainbridge' - 3' to * 85', Even the ships without any reloads
classes (one launcher with no reloads), the rn the magazine carry a small box structure
'Belknap' and'Truxtun' classes (one combined close to the launcher with a disassembled load-
SAIWASROC launcher wrth 20 rounds), the er inside for underway replenishment pur-
'Cahforma' class (one launcher with 24 rounds),
standard 127-mm twln turret, the 'Virginia' class (one combrned SAM/ US Navy operational doctrine appears to be
In 1957 the RAT-B began operational evalua- ASROC launcher wrth 16 rounds), the con- to fire two torpedo-carrying ASROCs or one
tion aboard the destroyer USS Sarsfeld, and verted 'Forrest Sherman' classes (DDGs one nuclear-armed ASROC at a submerged target,
although it passed some of the design require- launcher with 16 rounds, and ASW ships one Under special circumstances the latter can also
ments it was found that the rocket accuracy at launcher with 20 rounds), the 'Charles F, be fired against surface ships and shore
long range was insu-fficient to place the torpedo Adams' class (one launcher wlth no reloads, targets.
within lethal homing drstance of the target, althouqh several units were later fitted wrth a Because of the raprd development of Soviet
Thus MT-B was abandoned in favour of the small four-round reload magazine), the submarine designs and the stand-off weapons
RAT-C whrch had by then been gtven the 'Sprtance' class (one launcher with 24 rounds), they carry, the ASROC has become outdated
designation RUR-SA Anti-Submarine Rocket the 'Kidd' class (one combined SAIWASROC as a result of its insufficient range capabilities,
(ASROC). This had to undergo some redesign, launcher wlth 20 rounds), the 'Ticonderoga' Thus by the early I9B0s the Americans had
the fin area being considerably increased and class (one combrned SAIWASROC launcher initiated a new vertical-launch version to be
the launcher changed to carry only eight with 20 rounds), FRAM-I destroyer conver- fired from the vertical missrle launchers being
rounds, At a later date the rocket weapon was sions (one launcher with 17 rounds), the 'Bron- produced for the new generation of surface
also upgraded ln capabilities by the adoption stein' class (one launcher wrth no reloads), ships and for retrofitting to the most capable of
of the Mk 46 torpedo as an alternative to the Mk some of the 'Garcia' and 'Brooke' classes (one the older ship classes, The payload remains a
44. launcher with 16 rounds), and the 'Knox' class homing torpedo of either the Mk 46 Mod 5

Modern Underrruater Weapon Systems

Once the targef's course, speed axd

range are known, ASROC is
launched at the angle and direction
rnost likely ta effecl a successfuJ

]. modern ASW vessel might detect a

submarine using passive soaar, and
sinar to bear to give target range
s.rdspeed.'r :: .

::iRTIP or the new Mk 50 Barracuda type.

:-: option of a nuclear depth charge will also
: -here if current or future American light-
=-;ht torpedo technology cannot match that
:e Soviet fourth- and hfth-generation deep- Above: In concept, ASROC is simply a ballistic Below: The power of an underwater nuclear blas:
,:,'-:E nuclear submarines. Even allowing for rocket designed to get a homing torpedo or a is stunning. It should be realized that the mounia::.
- : :he older ASROC will remain around for a nuclear depth charge into teasonable proximity of of water dwarfing the 3,500-ton destroyer USS
', -1 many years yet in the arsenals of NATO anunderwater target, fromwhere the torpedo's Agerholm rs actually several kilomelres beyond :-::
r r .Iher lriendly navies which have conven- homing mechanism or the sheer power of a vesse/. Iftrs lestinMay 1962 was the first live hr::.;
. -,.-- submarines as their primary opponents, nuclear blast can ensure a kill. ofnuclearASROC.

Anti-submarine warfare stand-off weapon (ASW-SOW)

Above: ASW-SOW is intended as thereplacementfor theobsoleteSUBROC carried byUSNavy attack submarines.

Planned to enter sewice sometime in the late 1980s, tfte ttrst vesse/s scheduled to receive it aie the'Los Angeles'

diameter 0,533 m (21 in) Above: An engineering model of Below: How Boeing envisage the
Weight: 1224.7 ks (2,7 00 Ib) ASW-SOW is successfully launched ASW - S OW beginnrhg its mr'ssion.
Warhead: 362,9-kq (800'lb) Mk 5O by B oeing in W ashington's Puget Atter the missile exits thewater, four
homing torpedo or nuclear depth Sound. The production missile will small wrap-around fins at the rcat of
charge carry either a Mk 50 Banacuda the rocket motor casing deploy
Specification Performance: maximum speed Mach Advanced LightweightTorpedo or a automatically to stabilize it. A
A5W-SOW 1.5+; ranse 101-166,5 km (62.8-103.5 nuclear depth charge. ASW - SOW separate version is being developed
Dimensions: lengrth 6,4 m (21 ft); miles) will have a speed of Mach I .5 plus. for use by surface yesse,ls.

€ tffr. oo CApToR mine
Modern Underwater Weapon Systems
The aluminium-case Mk 60 CAPTOR torpedo payload (which is built with enter the US Nalry's inventory by the
encapsulated torpedo mine is the US the latest Mod 5 NEARTIP improve- time production ends.
Navy's principal offensive anti- ments already implemented) rs deter-
submanne warfare barrier weapon for mined by a second (active) rangnng Specification
:se in the vicinity of deep-water routes set, CAPTOR
-rat enemy submannes are likely to CAPTORS may be lard by surface Dimensions: length airlswface-
lavel without escort. ship, submarine or aircraft, the first launched 3,68 m ( 12,08 ft) or
CAPTOR is fitted with a detection platform requiring only an over{he- submarinelaunched 3.5 I m ( I 1, 5 ft);
ard control unit (DCU) that is capable side boom or crane with a capacrty of diameter0,533 m (21 in)
:f detecting and classifying submarine ).247k9 (2,750 lb) to ensure corect Weight: arrlsurface{aunched i IB4 kg
:argets over an estrmated range of odentation of the mrne when it hits the (2, 6 10 lb) or submannelaunched
water. Any submarine with standard 1069 ks (2,356 ]b)
- hn (0,62 miles) but gated to ignore
s:rface traffic. There is, however, no 533-mm (21-in) torpedo tubes can lay a Payload:Mk 46 Mod4 hominqtorpedo
-jentfication friend or foe system, so CAPTOR, while aircraft deploy a para- Maximumdepth:915 m (3,000 ft)
units must be chute-equipped version, Likely war-
;arned any laying or spots where time airborne delivery platforms in- Right: CAPTOR mrnes can be
IAPTORs have already been de- clude SAC Boeing B-52Hs, US Narry deployed by an over-the-side boom
:lcyed. The current operational life of Lockheed P-3C Orions and PossiblY or crane to ensure the correct
-:e mrne rs believed to be sx months Lockheed C-130 Hercules transports, orientation of the mine when it lands
-:-derwater before self-neutralization After several years of problems the in thewater. Submarines can launch
:=vrces are activated, The initial CAPTOR became fully oPerational in CAPTOR through their torpedo
:arget detection is carried out by a 1979, an improvement programme tubes. Aircraft deploying these
;assive sonar, while the optimum re- being imtiated in the followrnq year. A mines will include Boeing B-52Hs and
-:ase time for the Mk 4 Mod 4 homing mrnimum of 2,500 CAPTORs are due to Lockheed P-3C Orions.

The active componen t of CAPTOR

consists of a Mk 46 Mod 4 lightweight
'torpedo, armed with a 43.5 - kg (9 6'
Ib) shaped charge warhead
designed to punch holes in pressure
hul&' The ALWT (Advanced
Lightw eigh t Tor pedo) curr enUY
vnder development may well be
::sed in modlle d form in the future.

E Mk 67 submarine-launched mobile mine (SLMM)

-:-e Mk 67 SLMM dual anti-ship anti-
.-imarine weapon is intended to pro-
;1e the US narry submarine force with
= :apabilrty for covert laying of grround
:lnence mines in heavily defended
--i,br relatively inaccessible shallow
ra:ers, The platform used to perform
-:-: operation is a modifled Mk 37 tor-
;+Co v,rth its warhead and homing sys-
=:s replaced by all the components
:-:eded to turn the weapon into a
;::cund mine, Single and multi-
*ence fusing systems have been
:=-,.eloped for this weapon and the
::,v mines of the Quickstrike Prog-
:-=:rne, At least 1,500 Mk 67s are re-
;-::ed to meet cunent US Navy re-
T-:rements, It is believed that a sub-
::-a:me will carry tvvo Mk 67s in place
:: each standard 533-mm (21-in) sized
ri.apon offloaded. At present al1 sub-
::-arme classes up to the 'lros Angeles'
:-ass are fitted for minelaying, but it
::-cu-ld be remembered that each sub-
:::arirre so loaded cannot carry many
:--:rer weapons, thLrs effectively limit-
:-g its operational flexibtlity,
Dimensions: lenqth 4.09 m ( 13,4 ft);
:-ameter 0.485 m (19 in)
Weisht 753 ks (1,660 lb)
Warhead: estimated I59-227 kg (350-
:i0 lb) HE
Performance:speed 18 kts; maximum
:epth 100 m (330 ft); range 16.5 lan
-0.3 miles)

'Los Angeles' class aflack

submaiines can carry two Mk 67
mines in place of one standard 533'
mm Q I -in) torPedo. The M k 67 mine
g:ives tJS submarines the ability to lay
ground-influence mines in heavilY
& ffi ffi iffiih charses and bombs

Cardoen's AS-228 depth charge is

one of the last of the general purpose
Depth charges of the classicWorld War II sort have largely gone out of depth charges in the old style to be
fashion, with the notable exception of those arming the ASW helicopters manufactured, and is Launchable
which are in the front line of modern ASW effort. Aircraft such as tie SH-3Sea from surface ships and from the air.
King of the US Navy are even capable of carrying nuclear weapons. Most navies now reserve the depth
charge as a helicopter weapon
Specification Warhead: 80 kg (176 lb) HE (except the very special case of the
US Mk 16 Mod 0 (hydrostatic) and Mk Maximumdepth:90 m (295 ft) nuclear charge).
16 Mod I (acoustic) depth charges
Weiqht: 197.3 kq (435 ]b) US B57 Mod I air-dropped nuclear The sectioned model of Britis h
Maximum depth: 762 m (2,500 ft); the depthbomb Aerospace's air-launched Mk I l
Mod t hasno limit Dimensions: length 3 0 m (9.8 ft); depth charge displays many of the
diameter 0.374 m (1 23 ft) features common to suchweapons.
British Mk 11 Mod 3 air-dropped depth Weight: 347 kq (765 lb) The tail fins break off on impactwith
charge Warhead: 5/10-kiloton yield W57 the water, allowing hydropneumatic
Dimensions: length 1.40 m (4 6 ft); flssron weapon arming. The Mk I I is designed
drameter 0,28 m (0.92 ft) Maximumdepth: about 1000 m specifically for deployment from
Weisht: 144.7 kq (3 l9 lb) (3 280 ft) helicopters and MR aircraft.

Since the early years of this century the submarinehas been one of the fewweapon
systems that could truly be called 'strategic'. Its ability to choke the seaborne
commerce of a nation, and more recently inflict nuclear destruction uponwhole
populations in a fashion undreamed-of qnly 30 years ago, has made the techniques
to seek it out and destroy it absolutelyvital.

lhe destruction of a submarine is the flnai act tn performance of later sonars, the hghtwerqht
a series of actions, Taken in logical sequence homing torpedo was developed, This has
iese are the detection, classificatlon and loca- generally replaced the mortar and depth
-zation of the target, and then its destruction, charge thrower in most navies, and in theory
-he first is usually achieved by some type of matches the area nuclear weapon in terms oiits
::oustic sensor (such as a sonar or sonobuoy), engagement envelope, but still needing either
:r by ESM or by radar depending on what direct contact or very close proximity to the
s_,.siems the hunter is carrying, Once a target is target for detonation purposes, The Soviet use
:etected it must first be confirmed as a genuine oi double-hull submarine desrgns has resulted
simarine contact (the classification phase) in the original blast type warheads of older
position accurately fixed by the torpedoes (such as the Mk 44 and the Mk 46)
=d then its
:-atform's sensors (the localization phase) tn being replaced on new weapons (such as the
::der for the attack to be carried out with a Stingray and Mk 50 Barracuda) by a shaped-
',';eapon approprrate for the environment. charge type which essentially punches a small
hole in the metal, At the depths at whtch most
Nuclearcharge nuclear submarines are found, water pressure
By far the easiest way to ensure the destruc- does the rest, To extend the engagement
::n of the target is to use a nuclear depth range of such torpedoes farther, it has proved
r:arge or bomb, However, although such a possible to add either a rocket motor or wing-
-,'.eapon has a wide lethal radrus, its use pre- ed missile casings. The US Navy led the way
-,-:nts further acoustic sensor operations over a with its ASROC and SUBROC systems for its
,';Ce area, This condition lasts lor a significant torpedoes and nuclear depth charges, while
;=riod as a result of the undei'water sound the Sovlets followed later with what were in-
:=-:erberations caused by the explosion, At the itially its own 'Sovietized' variants of the two
: -irer extreme is the use of patterns of ship- or (the FRAS-1 and the SS-N-15 probably based
=:-launched conventional depth charges or on stolen plans) and then with the SS-N-14 For the future, undoubtedly themosl adrance.'
::rilar weapons, These require precise plac- winged missile and the SS-N-16 iorpedo- anti-submarine system will be the American .F5\- '
:-g on and around the target in order for their carrying submarine-launched missile. SOW system, with signifi cant improvements ::
guidance and double the range of ASROC.
:'riact or proxrmlty fusing systems to be suc- In all cases the vehicles used to transport the
,:ssirlly trrggered, torpedo or depth charge to the vicrnity of the
The best hunter of submarines is oflen ancCie:
Nowadays such weapons also require sur- target uses a guidance system and some type subm arine, armed with a high- speed,
-=:e ships fitted wrth such systems to come to of weapon-release unit, Once in the water the heavy,weight torpedo. Here a M k 2 4'Tiger1s:
;. -:rin an unacceptably close distance of the torpedo carries out a preprogrammed search wire-guided torpedois being loaded into a
=:qet's own defensive weapons. In order to
pattern, while the depth charge simply slnks to 'Churchill' class nuclear fleet submartne of :e
:'.-=rcome these difficulties and to match the a predetermined depth before exploding. RoyalNavy.
To Kill a Sub

Only the nuclear depth charge is relatively

immune to target countermeasures, such as the
use of decoys or anechoic hul1 coatings to de-
grade sonar transmissrons, However, whatever
the weapon employed against it, the sub-
marlne has a period of grace called the 'blind
time', This is the period duringwhrch the ASW
projectrle is approaching the calculated posi-
tion of the target. How much safety this gives to
the submarine depends upon the nature of the
attack, how good the submarine detection sys-
tems are, how fast the submarine can run sub-
merged, its manoeuvrabllity, and the maximum
depth to which rt can dive, For instance a Soviet
navy 'Alpha' class nuclear attack submarine
can easily defeat all but a nuclear depth charge
attack, diving extremely deep below the oper-
atronal depth of most lighhveight torpedoes
and by performing evasive manoeuvres at
speeds above those possible by most Western
surface ships and submarines, This is not even
taking rnto consideration the use of mobile de-
coys or the submarine's anecholc coating. In posrtlon data for the torpedo controller, The combination of the lightweight, high-speed
the case of the Mk 46, the sonar acqursition For the future the possibility of putting a torpedo allied to the ASW-dedicated helicopter
range rs reduced by some 30 per cent against towed sonar array on a torpedo is being ex- (often with its own detection equipment) has
such a coating, although the latest Mod 5 plored. This will provide a more accurate loca- widened the area of actionof themodernwarship
to a tremendous extent. The ocean has not been
NEARTIP version is designed to overcome this lizatron system than currently provided aboard
conquered,however, andnature can often play
problem and restore the q-ridance system's most platforms, as well as making the weapon havocwith the most advanced of man's inventions.
original parameters, Obviously this is an ex- even more lndependent than before, The frnal
treme scenario as most submarines in the version could very well be an intelligent torpe-
Soviet navy are less capable than the 'Aiphas'. do fltted wlth lFF logic circuits, dormant actron tion of a target brings rt to life again, A hnear
For use against Soviet submarines, the prim- circuits and a linear array, The Americans sonar array could then be deployed as the
ary weapon of Western submarines ls the would appear to be some way along this road torpedo gets underway to home the weapon
healyweight torpedo, This uses wire-guided with their Mk 60 CAPTOR mine, which sits in into a position where an active ranging sonar
homing units to drrect the torpedo into the deep water waiting {br a target to come within can direct the terminal attack phase at high
viclnlty of the target, where its own active/ range of its sensors so that it can fire the
passive sonars take over for the terminal attack onboard Mk 64 Mod 4 torpedo, It may be possi-
phase, Once in contact or very close proximity ble even at some stage to modrfy the new Mk
to the targel a heavy blast-type warhead ex- 67 SLMM wlth new technology so that it can be The tinal line of defence against the submarine on
plodes to damage or destroy the hull, The rnr- fired at slow speed into the vicimty of a Soviet almost 250 major vessels of western navies is
tral wire gnridance relies on the use of the sub- submarine base, where it slnks to the boltom provided by ASROC, seen here launched from a
marine's own sonar systems to provide target and lies dormant until a passive sonar rndica- 'Brooke' class frigate of the US Navy.
il iUU anti-sulcmarine rocket-launchers
Over the years the USSR has de-
veloped a number of multi-barrel
rocket-launchers under the desig- 1illi\::,-::{i+ai:ii**E:l===:=:
ration Raketnaya Bombometnaya =ir|llillslf.iliirlli6ri€:::€=t+";;;S1..\r-\\\\\\\\
li:...:i:1i?l41$.t!11liii=,liEiii.=:.".{.1F L::,#3i:::}:-:.r.i.1_rqrp 1pLr;..;3135
Jstaovka (RBU), and these use the
ehead-firing'hedgehog' principle. The
:trckets are rmmune to torpedo coun-
::rmeasure's, and under cenain cir-
rxrlstances can actually be used as
l:rti-torpedo weapons if there is
::rough warning. All the rockets are
=..ed with either contact or magmetic The 250-mm calibre rocket used in the various Soviet multiple launcher systems has a warhead weighing up to
'luence fuses. The most lr,'rdely used 34 kg (75 lb). These are not wided systems, the rockets being fired in patterns to bracket a target.
;=rsion is the fully automatic 250-mm
:34-rn) R8U6000, whtch entered ser- barrel 250-mm RBUI200 with manual
r:e in 1962. The l2-barrel launcher is reloding, automatic elevation but
::alged in a horseshoe shape with manual training; and the 1960-vintage
=-::omatic fuse setting systems, and the sx-barrel manually reloaded RBU600,
:::kets are fired rn a paired sequence, Most systems have three to five com-
-:: HR projectrle weighs 70kg plete sets of reload rounds in the ship's
-:{ lb) overall, and }oading is accom- magazines, while the rocket types are
;'-.hed barrel by barrel with the laun- common to each cahbre except that
:::: :.n the veflical posltion. the RBU1200 fires an earlier type of
lre RBU6o0 is usually fitted ln con- rocket with a 34-kg (751b) HE war-
-:lion with the fu11y automatic sx- head,
:a:ei 300-mm (11,81-in) RBUI000 of Practically all the Warsaw Pact
-:-= same date, but which uses a larger navies use one or more RBU systems,
:::<et wlth a 55-kg (12]-lb) warhead. and Soviet client states also use them
systems of the RBU series widely, The People's Republic of Chi-
-:-:de the 1957-vintage automatic na has taken some of the earlier de-
-r--mm 16-barrel RBU2500 with manu- signs and produced its own variants,
=- ::loadrnq; the 1958-vintaqe five-

PBU series

reapon calibre range barrel weights

lenqth rocket warhead
:: _5000 250 mm 6kn 1,6 m 70 kg 2I ks
(9,84 in) (3,73 mrles) (5 25 ft) (r54 lb) (46.3 ]b)
a:12500 250 mm 2.5 km L6 m 70 kq 21, kg Above: A Soviet 'Petya' class patrol Below : Soviet' Krivak' class frigates
(9 84 in) (1.55 miles) (5 25 ft) (i54 Ib) (46,3 lb) vessel, on station in one of the Soviet have a considerable anti-submarine
250 mm 1,2 km 1.4 m 70 kq 34 kq navy's now regular forays into the potential. Among the w eapon
(9,84 in) (0.75 mrles) (4 6 ft) (r54 lb) (75 Ib) waters around the Philippines, systems carried are two of the
ra - 300 300 mm lkn 1,5 m 120 ks 55 kg displays her twin I 2-barrelled RBU ubiquitous 1 2-barrel RBU 600A A.Svll
(11,81 in) (0,62 miles) (5 ft) (265 ib) (i21 rb) 6000 rocket launchers, aswell as the rocket I auncher s, mou nted aheaa ot
300 mm 0.6 km 1.5 m 120 kq 55 ks desire ofSouiet sailors to getin as the main bridge structure.
(11,81 in) (0,37 miles) (s ft) (265 lb) (121 lb) muc h sunbathing as possr'b,le.


I nbw rising mines and CAPTOR type mines

fields with risinq mines, some of the Specification Unlike the US Navy, the SovietUnion
hominq torpedo payloads could be risingmine has a large force of conventionally
specificially tuned to attack the NATO Type: moored acoustic influence powered submarines. These boats,
deep-water mine-countermeasures Layingdepth: 600 m (1,970 ft) such as this 'Tango' seen off the
vessels tasked with sweeping them, Warhead:225 kq (496 lb) HE British Isles, would undoubtedly use
Primary delivery platforms for all three Weight: 1200 ks (2,646 Ib) their inherent quietness in laying
types are submarines, while barners mines at strategic points.
can be sown by surface shrps and air- CAPTORtlpemine
craft the iatter beinqr ideally surted for Type: moored acoustic torpedo Payload: 450-mm (17 7-in) acoustic-
renewrnq a fleld and as a last reaction caffleI homingrtorpedo
force, Layingdepth: 750 m (2,460 ft) Weisht: 1500 kg (3 307 ]b)

L Fins-l anti-submarine warfare rocket

-:,e FRAS-I (Free Rocket Anti- weapon kill zone is considerably re- ter cruisers and the four 'Kiev' class homingtorpedo
S^;:rarine) is an ungutded single- duced by the use of a l5-kiloton yteld aircraft-carriers. In each case the sys- Performance: maximum speed Mach
s:age solid-fuel ballistic weapon which pressure-fused nuclear depth charge tem comprises one SUW-N-I launcher 1 f ; range 30 km ( 18,6 miles)
;;.< Ceveloped from the Soviet army's as the payload. Recent inlormation -n- on the forward end of the ship with a
::.3G arlillery rocket senes, and en- dicates that there is now a vartant ofthe below-decks magazine of 20 rounds,
::ei service in 1967, Tarqet ranqe rocket fltted with a 450-mm (17,7-1n) The bowview of the'Kiev'class
::,d bearing data are obtained by the acoustic-hominq torpedo as the Specifi cation (provisional) carrierMinsk operating in theEast
-l'::-ch platform's own long-range low- payload for use in conventional con- FRAS-I ChinaSea displays both theRBU 6004
l:qJency sonar sets, These data are flrcts. The launcher is designated the Dimensions: Iength 6,2 m (20,3 ft); wing launchers and the twin launcher for
:---: used to calculate the tarQlet's pre- SUW-N-I by NATO, and is similar in span 1.3 m (4,3 ft); diameter 0.7 m the much larger FRAS- I rockets. T he
i::ed course so that the launcher can design to the surface{o-air launchers (2 29 ft) missiles are launched on ballistic
:: armed to give the optimum rocket of the SA-N-1/3 series with twin rarls. Weisht: 800 kq ( 1,764 lb) trajectories towards the target
-:_3ctory. The uncertainty of placinqr Only two classes are fitted with the Warhead: 5-kiloton yield fission
1 position (calculated from the target's
::-: rocket within a conventional system: the hvo 'Moskva' class heltcop- weapon or 450-mm (17.7-in) acoustic- course and speed).
FRAS- I anti-submarine warfare rocket (continued)

T he FRAS - 1 (Free Rocket Anti-

Submarine) is reputedly based upon
:he Soviet army's unguided FROG
::rjssrJe. The 30-kn (18.6-mile) range
and lack of guidance implies na
gireat accuracy, butwith a 15-kiloton
:.uclearwarhead accuracy is not
stictly essential.

E Hil-N-I4 anti-submarine missile

= SS-N-14 'Silex' conceptually re-
,-:-::les the Austraiian lkara and
::=:-:l Malaion in that a subsonic
---;:3 vehicle carryinq a homing tor-
-:: r cJurded to the promxrmity ol a
::*::ged target, whereupon the pa

. : -.: retarded payload is released

.'' :,:-.r,ater to make the final attack,
. :r-lliant piece of deceptron the
: ='- nanaged to make NATO be-
. - = ::: this missile was in fact a tac-
.- jSl',I As part of this plan the first
."---;: equipped with 'Silex' laun-
: -r.'.1':ri to sea rn 1968 althouqh the
' ..-= -.:eliwas not carried until 1974.
- - i j-l,-14 also has a secondary anti-
,: :- : Carned in quaciruple laun-
=:. -, .';o drstinct types, the 'Silex'
-,: ,--: :raLn ASW armament of the
:i: !-:=sta il' and 'Udaloy' ciass
:- -:-i ,-,- ships, and of the 'Krivak I'
., l-:,.:< II series missile patrol
-, :=:udedmissile crtiserKirov
. " .-.- ::, ,ts forecastle a twin laun-
: -,,::- is reloadable from a 16-
.. : :=;:azine below decks. The
: -: -:-j ,', '.-essels carry eigtht rounds and 'Kresta II' classes s effected by the Specification The quadruple SS-.N- j 4 --::-s:- :
; launchers on eilher sicie :: :.=
- -. :" :-:=i:
= larro1 boats only have four SA-N-3'Headllght flre-control radars ss-N-14
:arrred is beiieved to be while on the other platforms it is a dedi- Dimensions: length 7,6 m (24 9 ft); wing bridge of a'Kara' class c:::-sc: -: :i.
. ::. nF'l (l 1.1-rn) acousttc- cated 'Eye Bowi'radar drrector Up to span L l m (3 6 ft); diameter 0.55 m indication of the size olSc;:s :
'- - I -l: ,.;ith a 100 kq (220 lb) HE two missiles at a time can be giuided, (rBft) shipborne systems.
:. -::r -:- variant with a nucleat The minimum enqtagement rangte for Weisht: lO00 kq(2,20S lb)
:-: :-:-: s also likely, withayteld any target type is sard to be 7 4 km (4,6 Payload: 450-mm ( I 7. 7-rn) acoustic- Performance: ,-! :: I '.' . - :

- : .,:-- ::: Guidance on the 'Kara' miles) homing torpedo 55 km (34 2 m,les

Left: The plethora ofweapon and Below: A close-up o{ the s-=;= z:=
sensors/stem.s comman to all Soviet s tar bo ar d q u a drupre .:-:-.-.- :
warships is dominatedon this Iauncher of the,iarge a::-s'::.= =---:
'Krivak' class frigate (seen in the dedicate d d estro-ver UCi: r' :-. :
EnglishChannel) by the massive shows one o{the EJe Ec;t. -:e
quadruple bow Launcher for four SS- control radars assoc:a:e: ;l::: t::
N- l4 missiles.Theweapon is SS-N-J4system kisibie a:cp :.'=
believed to be similar to the Malafon bridge immediate 17 aba',' e :. =
and lkara systems. massjye missile c ontat e: s. .

f Ht-fv-I5 and SS-N-I6 anti-submarine missiles
-:-e SS-N- I5 submarine{aunched antr-
s:bmarine missrle entered operational
ser vrce in 1972, and rs believed to have
been developed from technology
fained by the GRU military intelli-
jence service during operations
agairct the American SUBROC sys-
:em. Fired from standard 533-mm (21-
r) torpedo tubes, the inertially gnrided
soiid-fuel rocket-powered SS-N- 15 fol-
,rc;vs a short underwater path before
-rcachinq the surface to fly an air-
b:rre tra.;ectory to the predicted
::r;e: zcre. On reaching this a nuclear
::r-: ccmb of l5-kilotorr yield is re-
.=..: i :: conttnue on a bal.listic course
r:-' -- enters the water, The bomb
-,-3:- s-iks to a preset depth, where its
!:=3J-le fuse detonates the warhead.
-:':;=: sribmarine types known to have
:e=:: lited v,rth the missile system are
-:: ::'.iclear-powered 'Victor I', 'Victor
IlI', 'Sierra', 'Alpha', 'Akula',
-l,'<e. Char[e I, 'Charlie II', 'Papa'and
ls::: clasqes, plus the conventionally
;,:-,.;ered'Tangto' class,
-:: :he mid-1970s a development of
:= SS N-15 appeared in the form of the
--;er-calrbre and longer-ranged in-
::--aiiy gurded solid-fuel rocket-
;:rered SS-N-16. which carries an
:::.:stic homlng ASW torpedo as its
!a-,-ioad rn lieu of a nuclear depth
:':ri. Fred like the SS-N-15, it differs
-:- -:at over the target area a parachute 'Mike' and'Akula' classes. Both mrssile Performance: maximum speed Mach Believed to havebeen builtfrom
--sed to lower the weapon to the types have secondary antr-ship roles 1.5; range 37 km (23 miles) plans stolenfrcm theUS Navy, the
'.';::er. where ils protective nose cap is SS-/V- J 5 r lirfed to Soviet nuclear
:e-:ased. Once it has sunk to a preset ss-N-r6 boats as well as diesel-powered
i:c:n the torpedo starts a proqram- Specification Dimensions: length 6,5 m (21,3 ft); 'Tango' class vesse,ls, seen ftere.
:-:i senes of search manoelrvres, a ss,N-15 diameter 0.618 m (24.3 in)
,:=:inal attack manoeuwe being used Dimensions: Iength 6.5 m (21.3 ft): Weisht: 2150 ks (4 740 ]b)
:: any target encountered.
=rgage fitted with thrs
diameter 0.533 m (21 in) Warhead: 450-mm ( 17,7-in) acoustic- The'Alpha' clast fftefa^stesf (and
Sinarures missile are Weight: 1900 kg (4, iB9 lb) homingtorpedo probably the most expensive) boats
:e reved to include the'Victor II', 'Vic- Warhead: l5-kiloton yield fission Performance: maximum speed Mach intheworld, are known to havebeen
::r IIL 'Sierra', 'Charlie II', 'Oscar', weapon 1,5; ranse 55 km (34,2 miles) fitted with ffi e SS-IV-JSSUAROC copy.

? 380
Armed Forces of the World

The Army
',:wamemberof NATO,Soa- s - -^:'-' --':es
' ronstitutional change afte: jl , =.-. a' ::-::^ai
. .'rrorship by General tra'-: --- --:-l:: -:.e
. roed a major shake-up o' .^: .--=: '.'.=;.
- -nistoculminate na"eo-gr- -:'-' ,'.-:- l'
.-. -egions and bythe end oi.l 33: - -: -'l'-zn
'- r -ction in the army manpov.'e-
-: =.: :- ' :5 lOO.-
3rmy is divided into two sec:.-s. .-: --ed
. rtervention Force (Fuerza Ce
- '::',:-a ln m-
' : r rtd, or Fll, organized fo'r tb - : ::'i. -' : a' r-
=': n Spa noritsoverseasooj:::: -- : j-i lne
-=--.crlal Defence Force (Fuerza ce l:'eis: Oper
., oel Terr.torio, or FDOT, 'o' :- -, :='='-= c'I'e
- .:ry regions rn which they are siei credi; and
---= is an aviation element.
--: compositlon of these format ons s as fol
MBT in recent years, and which has also designed Despite the pace of social change followtng :.e
-:rcrps headquarters, and built the current BLR and BMR series of death of General Franco, the S p anis h anr'ea,'. : lti
, - - :rmoured division (with two armoured brigades armoured vehicles. For the f uture there ls the Lince have remained loyal to KingJuan Carlos. ]i!cs:
MBT programme, which will be a locally-built ver- heavyweapons like this 105-mm howltzer a:?
.^C a further brigade in cadre), imported from the USA but soft vehicles i:ke :-:
: - = -nechanized dlvislon (with one mechanized and sion of a modern MBT for the late 'l 980s. Pegaso truck are locally produced.
, - e motorized briqade and a f urther motorlzed The basic weapon types used by the Spanrsh
- gade in cadre), army are listed below. launchers, 106-mm (4.11-in) M40 r::: =-= '-.
'= Totorized division (with two motorized and Milan, Cobra, TOW, Drago" :' : - -
a rmou r : AMX-30, M47 E, M 47 E1, M47 E2 and
: - gades and a further brigade in cadre. to be ATGWs;
,:graded to a mechanized division),
M4BA5E MBTs, M41 llqhttank, AML 60 and 90 smallarms:7.62-mm (0.3-in) CETI'i :- --- j - '- :
armoured cars, VEC armoured scout car, BMR- andT .62-mm42158 rrach ne{J-: = i' :
.- -:rmoured cavalry brigade (of three regiments),
600 lFV, BLRAPCand M113APC;
- :arachute brigade (ofthree battalions), aviation: Bell UH-'1 B/UH-1 H, 46ros:::= = -, --'- -
- : rportable brigade (of two infantry battalrons
artillery: (self propelled) 105-mm M108, 1 55-mm
(6 1-in) M'1 09rM109A1/1v110942, 155-mm M44,
lll,MBBBO105,Agusta-Bel Ai ":- -:- -.
BellAB.212, Bell OH-5BA and Bc = :' - . -
., .r a third in cadre), '175-mm (6 89- n) M 107 and 203-mm (B-ln) M1 10; =

^iantry brigade (reserve) CH-47D helicopters.

(towed) '1 05-mm Model 56 pack howitzer, 105-
^ eavy artillery brigade,
mm m'26 howitzer, 155-mm M1 14 howitzerand ln addition to the FDOT, tlere ;'= : : - ... : -'
- ultiple rocket-launcher regiment, 203-mm M1 15 howitzer; seascommandsfortheBalearicarc Cz-.-. . =- -.
, rdefence regiment, (M RLs) 1 40-mm (5.5-in) Teruel. 21 6-mm (8.5-in) plus the garrisons at Ceuta and l": -. -
, t Llery-locating regiment, L21 I E2lE3 and 300-mm ('l 1 .8-in) L-1 0/D3 ; Africa. The last has two regne-.= -':-::- "--- "
-,. - - - :_. '
=rgineer regiment, "s tr-ee -'
(coastal) BB-mm (3.46-in), 152-mm (6-in), 203-mm (North African) troops p
. gnals regiment, and (8-in), 305-mm (12-in)and 381-mm (15-in) guns; ments, while the fourth Tercio '.q - =-' : :: : - . -
',3C defence regiment.
:ll can also call upon the independent Royal (mortars) various Esperanza 60-, 81-and 1 20-mm in the Canaries wth lhree add t - - . -'-'-.- ::
(2.36-, 3.1 B- and 4.72-in) models, 81-mm ments and support troops. The 3z -,. - : --
':s Regiment.) =.' =
M 1 2541lM 1 2542 and 1 20-mm M 1 2541 self- threeinfantryregimentsw,t-s,:a -:.'- -t: :: -
:DOT propelled mortars; are nearer to Spain.
-ountain divisions (each with a mountain nti-ai r : 1 2.7 -mm (0.5-in) M 55, 20-m m Rh202, 20-
The arrival of many G erman gun des: ;:.=: : -': : :
- a
mm GAI-BO1, 35-mm (1 .37-in) GDF-002, 40-mm World War II gave a great boost to Spa-ls-: s::: : -
- Jade of three mountain infantry battalions and
* ountain engineer battalion and a second (1 57-ln) Bofors L/70and90-mm (3.54-in) M1 17 arms production. These CETME assa:,; r:'les ;"g"-:
-- , Jntain brigade in cadre; one motorized infantry guns, and Nike Hercules, lmproved HAWKand developed by the Mauser team anc',+'e:e ::: ::
, .::a ron; one artlllery rdgiment; one parachute AMX-30 Roland SAMs; the first rifles to be able to fire a fuli sc',+'=: ::'::.=
,- - cany; one engineer battalion and one aviation a nti-a rm ou r : BB.9-mm (3.5-in) M65 rocket- from an unlocked breech.

3n mountain (orAlpine) brigade;
- - - -'antry brigades (each with three infantry
:. -.a'ons, an artillerybattalion, a reconnalssance
: - cany, an engineer company and a signals
, - - oany; these brigades are being reorganized),
' ,' ::reign Legion {Tercio) regiments (each of two
: t --a OnS),
' : .'t;liery brigade (including SAM elements),
: -eavy anillery regirnents,
- :oastal artillery brigade (of two regiments),
- rdependent coastal artillery regiments,
-- .rti-tank infantry regirnent,
. - :rg neer regiment,
- way engineer regiments, and
-r : laals regiment.
--: nfantry equipment is on the whole designed
, : -:duced indigenously, while most of the heavy
. and armour are imported f rom the USA or
: ,-::. '::rsHowever, there is a growing heavy arms
elrl*-;;' ,.l!t:+ i'' :'r
- -..-. which has licence-built the French AMX-30
Armed Forces of the World
McDonnell Douglas F-4C Phantoms make up two
of the six interceptor squadrons assigned to Air
Combat Command (MACOM). A modernization
prograrnme k now under wayandSpain ft as
recently ordered 72 M$onnell Douglas F/A-[8A
Hornets from the USA.

The Navy
These foreign outposts are supported by a strong
navy of 57,000 men divided into nine commands
including a marine force and naval air arm. The
marines comprise 12,000 men divided into a marine
landing regiment (for intervention purposes) and
five garrison regiments located mainly in the islands.
The naval air arm provides all the aircraft for use
on the carrier and surface warshlps, plus some of
the airlift capability for the marines. ln a major up-
grading '1 2 McDonnell Douglas AV-88 Bravo V/
STOL fighters have been ordered, together with six
Sikorsky SH-60B Sea Hawk ASW helicopters for and Dassault-Breguet Mirage F.1CE fighters. For UH-1 H models.
delivery later in the decade. the army and maritime strike support the Tactical For the specialist transport, SAR and VIP roles
A continuing programme of licence-built surface Command (N/ATAC) has two wings: these com- air force HO(ACGA) has two SAR, two transport,
ship and submarine production is turning the Span- prise two ground-attack/tactical reconnaissance three support, one utility and one training squadrons
ish navy into a well-balanced force able to defend squadrons with locally-built Northrop F-SA and RF- that between them fly over 15 different types of
the Spanish coast, Spain's dependencies and va- 5A fighter-bombers, a reconnaissance squadron of aircraft and helicopters.
rious NATO sea routes. the indigenous Hispano NA-220 Saetta light strike There is a modernization programme to replace
The navy currently comprises the following units: aircraft, a maritime patrol/ASW squadron of Lock- the older combat aircraft types with an order recent-
one ASW carrier lDedalo to be replaced in 1986 by heed P-3B Orions and a light observation/liaison ly placed for 72 McDonnell Douglas F/A-1 8 A Hornet
Principe de Asturiasl, 11 destroyers (one 'de Lauria', flight with Cessna O-1 E Bird Dogs and Dornier Do multi-role fighters. The maritime patrol force is also
five ex-'Gearing' and five ex-'Fletcher'), 14 frigates 27s and Do 2Bs. to be upgraded by the acquisitron of two modern
(five 'Baleares', six'Descubierta' plus three 'FFG-7' The Canary lslands are covered by a separate air Lockheed P-3C Orions plus additional quantities of
building), 8 submarines (four 'Agosta' and four command which has a single air-defence/ground- the CASA C-212 SAR variant.
'Daphne'), four corvettes. 30 large patrol craft, 64 attack squadron of Mirage F.1 CEs, a SAR squadron The para-military and internal see urity role in Spain
coastal and inshore patrol craft, '12 coastal and with Fokker F.27 maritime MR aircraft and helicop- is undertaken by the 63,500 strong Civil Guard
ocean minesweepers, two attack transports, one ters, and a fixed-wing transport squadron. (Guardia Civil), which is divided into infantry regi-
LSD, three LSTs, seven LCTs. two LCUs and 20 To support the operational commands and the ments and specialist units. lt is equipped with BLR
LCMs. army in the field. there is the Transport Command lFVs and light helicopters of the BO 105 and MBB/
The naval air arm consists of one attack, one (MATRA) which has three wings of five squadrons Kawasaki BK '1 17 types. The Civil Guard is backed by
communications and five helicopter squadrons with flying the Lockheed C-130H Hercules. CASA C-2'1 2 the 47.000-man Armed Police (Policia Armada)
BAe AV-BA Matador V/STOL fighters, and Agusta- Aviocar, de Havilland Canada DHC-4 Caribou, Dor- which is divided into infantry battalions, cavalry
Bell 48.212, Hughes 369, Sikorsky SH-3D Sea King nier Do 27 and CASA 207 Azor fixed-wing trans- squadrons and troops, civil security groups and a
and Bell 47G helicopters, plus Piper Comanche and ports, together with six Lockheed KC-130H Her- special operations commando group. These act as
Cessna Citation fixed-wing transports. cules tanker aircraft for inf light+ef uelling. the government's riot police in urban disturbances.
All aircrew tralning is undertaken by the Training Coastal monitoring and customs work is performed
The Air Force Command (MAPER) which has two fast-jet oper- by the Maritime Surveillance Force with over 50
To provide air defence for the country and support ational conversion units with Northrop F-5A single- armed patrol boats.
for the army and navy, the Spanish air force has a seat and F-5 B two-seater f ig hters, 1 4 tralning sq uad-
number of commands. The main one is the Air Com- rons with single- and multi-engine primary and basic CASAis one of Europe's oldest aviation
bat Command (MACOM) which is tied in with the piston-engined trainers, plus a jet component of companr'es. Recently involved in collaborative
ventures like the A300 Airbus, it also produced
air-defence radar network and has three wings of Lockheed T-33A and CASA C-l01 basic and adv- Northrop F-is under licence for fie,Spanisfi arr
two squadrons each. The wings each fly a single anced trainers. The helicopter training syllabus is force. The C-101 Aviojets seen here in training
type of aircraft, namelythe McDonnell Douglas F-4C undertaken by two squadrons flying Agusta-Bell colours were produced with assistance from
and RF-4C Phantom, Dassault-Breguet Mirage lllEE AB.47, Agusta-Bell A8.205, Hughes 300C and Bell NorthropandMBB.