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Forthcoming issues featurer
Volume ll Issue 122 Modern NavalArtillery
1950s Aircraft-Caniers
Published by Modern Pistols
Orbis Publishing Ltd
@ Aerospace Publishing Ltd 1 985 Submuines of World Wu I
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oI WbrldWbrlf
Seaplanes s ewed, in a wide variety of roles ii
all major
theafues of war, A fapanese floatplane laa nched from a
The Heinkel He 59
first saw service in
panish Civil War, operated by
the LegionCondor. By the beginning
*bmarine drcpped the only bombs to hit the Ameican of World War II most had been
mainlud; more significantly, seaplanes reconnoitred for relegated to training duties, but
many Gernran cotimetce taidersn includingrBismarck and somewere employed for
reconnaissance, minelaying and air-
Atlantis, an d directed their long-range naval gttnfire, sea rescrre-

Regarded with hrndsight as somethtng of an anachronism, the float bridge the Atlantic with flyrng-boats and long-range land-based aucr- .
seaplane was flown with varyrng success by all the major powers during to counter the depredations of enemy surface raiders and submarmes
World War II, performing all manner of tasks from active combat to the Pacific's vast expanse encouraged widespread use of floatplaies
clandestine roles such as delivering agents to hostile coasthnes, Of all particularly by the Japanese; indeed the only bombs dropped by aer:-
the major warring nations, however, the UK employed thrs type of planes on the USA during the war were two light bombs from a yokosi:-<a
aircraft least and was the first to discard it, most of its usual duties being E l4Y I carrred by a Japanese submarine to within range of the Ameic--
more conveniently performed by carrierborne aircraft, flying-boats or malnland,
even long-range land-based aircraft, Indeed in the Royal Navy the The US Navy was equipped with a variety of floatplanes, including ::
Swordfish and Fairey Seafox seaplanes survived in service only in the Curtiss SOC Seaqrull and Grumman J2F Duck biplanes and the Cuf*ss
traditional role of gunnery spotting with crulsers and caprtal shrps until SO3C SC-1 Seahawk and Vought OS2U Kinqrfisher monoplares. Of .l-
susperseded lor ever by the advent of radar relatively early in the war, It these the venerable Seagull probably enjoyed the most illustrious ser-
was perhaps lronic that four other seaplanes, the German Hernkel He vice career, being present in the actlons at Guadalcanal, Wake. Grlber:
I 15, the French Lat6coere 298, and the American Vought Kingfisher and and Marshall Islands, and also sewing aboard American warships ir jte
Northrop N-3PB Nomad gave more extensive service with the British Atiantic and Mediterranean until 1944,
forces lhan dld the indigenous types. The great maritime powers, the
UK, the USA and Japan, all employed floatplanes aboard their capital
ships, as did Germany and Itaty, thelr use being marnly conflned to A Heinkel He 1 15 taxis to take-off position, displaying the distinctive planlorm
limited sea patrolling and ship-to-shore commitnciations.
of the wings derived from the eaitier He z0 fait niaitirane. The He I I'swi thi
Luftwaffels most successful floafp,lane,.so successfu/ that production, enaea i"
However, whereas all-out efforts were made by the UK and the USA to 1941 on the completion of orders, was re-opened in 1g43.-
f€ tiL"oore
l.lcst widely used of a dozen French
- : itplane types lhat were in service in
-:39, the Lat6codre 298 saw consider-
:ble actron during the Battle of France
:e followingr year. Of all-metal con-
s--ructlon this robust twin-float aircraft
';as intended for service with the sea-
plane carrier Commandant Teste and
rade its maiden flight on B May 1936,
ld by the beginning of World War II a
:rtal of8l aircraft had been ordered, of
',-.hich 53 had been delivered, Most
a:craft (Lat6 298A machines with fixed
','ings) were servinq with Escadrilles
l L at Berre and T2 at Cherbourg while
about 17 Lat6 2988 and Lat6 298D air-
:raft wrth folding wlngs and flxed
-.';Lngs respectively were with Escad-
r-lles HB I and HB 2 aboard the Com
::andant Teste. Another 65 Lat6 29Bs
;ere ordered on 22 November a
-rther escadrfle, T3, havinq been
-:rmed on 15 September; T4 was to be
-:rmed on 15 January. France with 500-kg (1,102-lb) bombs, escadrilles flew alongside the RAF in A Latecodre 298 of the Vichy French
When the German attack in the losrng four aircraft to enemy fire, Los- the Mediterranean until 1944 when air force passes a G erm an D ornier
',Vest French forces once more regained
opened on 1O May 1940 the ses began to mount so that by 3 June Do 24 on the Aegean coast. The most
:rench narry possessed some 60 Lat6 the number of serviceable Lat6 29Bs their autonomous identities. widely-used French floatplane in
23Bs in front-line service, all were now stood at 27, and it was deemed prudent 1940, Lat6 29Bs were also flown by
srore-based as the Commandant to confinethet attacks to night sorties Specification fwo escadrilies of the Free French.
- esle had been releqated to other aithough a daylight attack was carried Latecoere 298D
::rties, roughly half the force beingr out by Lat6 29Bs of T2 against enemy Type: two/three-seat torpedo-bomber maximum take-off4BO0 kq (10 582 ]b)
:ased on the Channel Coast and the coiumns near Abbevrlle on 6 June and bomber floatplane Dimensions: span 15.50 m (50 ft
r:mainder in the Mediterranean. In Seven other aircraft were lost before Powerplant: one 656-kW (BBO-hp) 10,2 in); length 12.56 m(41 ft2.5 in);
.le early stages of the Battle of France the armistice but about 30 aircraft (in- Hispano-Suiza 12Ycrs- L inhne piston heiqht 5,23 m (17 ft 1.9 tn); wing area
.ie Lat6 29Bs were flown as cover for cludinq the survivors of T2) made their englne 31.6 m'z(340, 15 sq ft)
:e Alhed occupation of Walcheren, way'o Lac d'Oubeira in Alqerua, Performance: maximum speed Armament: two fixed forward-firlng
a.rt were forced to evacuate Bouiogne Production was reinstated in 1942 by 290 km/h (180 mph) at 2000 m (6,560 ft); 7.5-mm (0,295-rn) machine-qnrns in the
:r 21 May, thereafter engagrnq in drve the Vichy government, some 30 lrat6 climb to 1500 m (4,920 ft) in 5 minutes wings and one 7 S-mm (0 295-in)
:ld level bombing attacks on the 29BF aircraft (similar to the Late 29BD) 42 seconds; service ceihnq 6500 m trainable machine-gnrn in the rear
=tvancinq German columnsl on 23 being built, Units of the Vtchy air force (2 1, 325 ft); range with maximum cockpit plus 500 kg (t, 102 lb) of
l.iay lB of the seaplanes dive-bombed in North Africa continued to fly the Lat6 warload 800 km (497 miles) bombs or one 670-kq (1 4771b)
: rumber of key bridges in northern 29Bs throuqhout 1942-3, and at least hvo Weights: empty 3071 kq (6,770 1b); torpedo, or depth charge


Cant 2.5068 Airone

but sheered away when faced by Fleet the Luftwaffe, After the ltalian surren- ( I,243 miles)
Air Arm Fairey Fulmar fiqhters. There- der 23 2.5068 and five 2.5065 aircralt Weights: empty 8750 kg (19,290 1b);
after the Airone was almost entirely were flown to Allied ports and subse- maximum take-off 12705 kg (28,010 Ib)
withdrawn from use as a bomber and quently flew with the Co-Belliqerent Dimensions:span 26.50 m (BO ft
torpedo attack aircraft, the ltalian nalry Air Force's Ragrgruppamento ldro, 11,3 in); lensth 19.24 m(63 ft 1,5 in);
calling for its greater use in maritime performing transport and other heiqht 7.45 m (24 ft 5,3 in); wrngarea
teconnaissance, air-sea rescue, con- secondline tasks. 86.26 m'z (928.53 sq ft)
voy escort and anti-submarrne patrol Armament: one 12. 7-mm (0, 5-in)
roles: such had been the shlft tn naval Specification trainable machine-gun in the dorsal
superiority rn the Mediterranean fol- Cant 2.5068 Serie XII position, and three 7.7-mm (0.303-in)
lowing the debacle at Taranto and the Tlpe: five-seat bomber and torpedo- trainable machrne-gnrns in the two
Battle of Cape Matapan. bomber floatplane beam and one ventral positions, plus a
Development and production of the Powerplant: three 559-kW (750-hp) bombioad of 1200 kq (2 646 Ib) or one
Airone continued, with small modifica- Alfa-Romeo I 26RC, 34 radial piston 800-kq ( 1,764-lb) torpedo
tions beinq introduced with each new engdnes
production batch (serie), of which Performance: maximum speed The largest operational floatplane of
Serie XIi was the most important, A 350 km/h (217 mph) at 4000 m the war was the C ant 2.506, an
special air-sea rescue converston was (13,125 ft); climb to 4000 m (13,125 ft) in ex ample of which was forced down
the 2.5065 (Soccorso), thts verston 20 minutes 6 secondsl sewice ceilinqt at Mondello beach, S icily, in
berng also used in small numbers bY 7000 m (22,965 ft); ranqe 2000 km November,1943.


"-*!Y: '* :
nE Fokker T.VIII-W
Designed rn 1937 to replace ageing
reconnaissance/torpedo-bomber bi-
planes in service with the Dutch
Marine Luchtvaardienst (MLD), the
twin-engine twrn-float Fokker T.VIII-
W seaplane was of mtxed wood and
metal construction and accommo-
dated a three-man crew, The aircraft
inltially powered by Wriqht Whirl- A reconnaissance seapJane rn
wind radials, was considered to be service with the Royal N etheil an d s
very underpowered, but plans to intro- navy, the Fokker T.VIII could do li::.e
duce Brrslol Mercury englnes to stem the German invasion in I 341.
effectively overtaken by the German Eight T.VIIIs reached England and
rnvasion of the Netherlands The formed the nucleus of No. 320
T.VIII-W entered service with the (Dutch) Sqn, which operated over
MLD in 1939 and by the time of the the Western Approaches.
German attack the following May 11
aircraft had been deiivered (includrng on22May, the MLD orderedallsuwiv- ducing a larqer version of the arrcraft,
one lhat had been shot down m error ing Dutch aircrews to fly their aircraft the T.VI[-WiC, for Fin]and; powered
by the Luftwaffe), Quickly realizing the to the UK a total of eight T,VIII-Ws by Bristol Mercury XI radials, this arr-
tutility of flying the seaplanes in the eventually assemblingT at Pembroke craft possessed a top speed some
presence of the Luftwaffe's fighters, Dock in South Wales where, on l June, 72kT't/h (45 mph) faster than the MLD
the MLD ordered the nine sewiceable these crews formed the nucleus of No. version In all the Germans took over
aircraft to be flown to French bases on 320 (Dutch) Squadron of the RAF, For 20 partrally-completed T.VIII-Ws and
the Channel coast, one aircraft berng two months the Fokkers (carryinq the five T.VIII-WCs, these aircraft subse-
used to fly two members of the Dutch British serials AV958-AV965) flew anti- quently being completed by Fokker
government ro lhe UK. Arriving rn shipping patrols over the Western and enterinq service with the LuJtwaf-
France on 12 May, the T, VIII-Ws flew a Approaches until an increasing lack of fe on anti-shipprng and air-sea rescue
number of patrols over the Channel spares forced the withdrawal of the duties over the North Sea
during the following 10 days, but such Dutch seaplanes in favour of Avro
operations iacked cohesion and pur- Ansons and Lockheed Hudsons, which Specification
pose as there remained little unified were flown from Carew Cheriton. FokkerT.VIII-W
command in the rapidly dwindling air In the meantrme Fokker had, at the Type: three-seat reconnaissance and
forces in northern France Therefore, time of the German invasion, been pro- torpedo-bomber floatplane

ffi iairey Seafox

Designed to a 1932 specrflcation the When the German pocket battleship to seffe at sea until 1943, two aircraft
Fairey Seafox prototype was flrst flown Admiral Graf Spee was being hunted being lost when the Ajax -class cruiser
on 27 May 1936; its operational pur- in the South Atlantic during November HMS Orion was severely damaged by
pose was to equip Royal Navy trade- 1939 Seafoxes were in constant Lrse by German air attack dulng the evacua,
protection light cruisers which, rn time the British cruisers, and dunngthe Bat- tion of Crete on 28 April 1941
of war, would patrol the world's oceans tle of the River Plate the light cruiser
on the lookout for enemy surface ratd- HMS A,rax launched one of her two Specification
ers and blockade runners. Equipped aircraft for qnrnnery spotting, although FaireySeafox
wrth cross-braced twin-float alighting difficulty was experrenced with the Type: two-seat light fleet
gear, the Seafox was unable to carry a air-to-ship radio contact. Later the Sea- reconnarssance fl oatplane
torpedo (being some 40 per cent light- fox crew kept a watch on Montevideo Powerplant: one 295-kW (395-hp)
er than the Swordfish) and its role was harbour while the Graf Speewas seek- Napier Raprer VI inline prsron engine
entirely passive; its value was, howev- ing shelter from British warships be- Performance: maxrmum speed
er accepted as lying in its ability to fore her scuttling. Seafoxes continued 20Akrnlh(124 mph) at 17BS m (5,860 ft);
spot for the cruiser's gnrns if brougrht to
action by enemy warships. The Seafox
was of all-metal structure with mono-
coque fuselaqe and fabric-covered
wings and tail; it was fuliy stressed for
catapulting and the pilot was
accommodated in an open cockpit, his
observer beinq enclosed beneath a
glazed canopy.
A total of 64 production Seafoxes
'*as built (K8569-K8617 and L4519-
,4533), the f,rst bernq delivered to the
Royal Narry on 23 April 1937; they sub-
sequently served wrth Nos 702 713 ll

,14 716 and 718 Catapult Flights, as

,'.'ell as Nos 753 and 754 Trarning
Squadrons. The Catapult Flights
::rbarked srnqle or pairs ofaircraft rn
:::ps of the 3rd Cruiser Squadron rn
: Medrterranean, the 9th Cruiser
S;:adron and South Amerjcan Djvj-
. :: cf the South Atlantic command, At
.,: lutbreak of war 32 Seafoxes were
- ::a wrth the Royal Nar,ry as well as
--=::: cruisers of the Royal Australian
I ..'.; and the New Zealand Drvision of
':= L:-lal NaW,

as#@*F E?


Swordfish Afloat
TheSwordfish is famous as the aircraftthat shattered the ltalianfleet atTarantoand
scored more torpedo hits than any other carrierborne aircraft. The fame of the
Swordfish as a torpedo bomber has tended to obscure the fact that it also achieved
considerablesuccess a.s a seaplane, the flight aboard the battleship HMS Warspite
sewing with distinction from Norway to the Mediterranean.

The explorts and achievements of the Fairey and hoist them inboard, When lhe Warspite HMS Malaya hoists one of her Swordfish
Swordflsh during World War II have passed recommissioned in
1937 her company in- floatplanes aboard after a reconnaissance [Iight.
cluded about a dozen airmen and maintenance Before radar-directed gunnery had been
into aviation history as epics of tremendous perfected, battleship floatplanes were also used to
gallantry by the crews of this old biplane, and crew from the Fleet Atr Arm, spot the fall of shot of the big guns , greaUy
the 'stringbag' represented what was perhaps Her first appointment after refit was as extending their effective range.
the most extraordinary anachronism of the air Admiral Sir Dudley Pound's flagship tn the
war, yet lt is a statistical fact that Swordfish Mediterranean during 1938, a period divided
biptanes scored more torpedo hits on naval between 'showing the flag'at foreign ports and As the Warspstte sailed past the rsland ol
targets during World War II than any other working up her efficiency at sea, In August that Baroy at 12,30 on 13 April she iaunched one of
carrierborne aircraft of any navy, Far less year the Warspite carried out main armament her Swordflsh, crewed by Lieutenant Com-
chronicled were the activities of the Swordfish firings at a rangre of 24 km (15 mrles) against mander W,M,L, Brown (captain and observer),
seaplanes which the Royal Navy embarked rn towed targets whrch, thanks to excellent spot- Petty Oificer Airman R.C, Rice (pilot) and Tele-
ting by Lieutenant Commander W,l,,M, Brown graphrst M,G, Pacey, and armed with srx I 13-
some of its capital ships, of which the aircraft of
the batiieship HMS IzVarspjle must reign sup- in one of the Swordfish, were reduced to kg (2501b) bombs to scout ahead, Almost im-
reme, matchwood by some 40 salvoes from the bat- mediately Brown spotted the destroyers Erich
Warspite was laid down on 3l October 1912 tleshrp's elght 38l-mm (15-in) guns, Koellner and Eich Giese in Ofotfi ord, and then
and joined Admiral Jellicoe's Grand Fleet on 13 A-fter the outbreak of war the Warspite re- flew into Herjangsiord where the U-boat U-64
Aprit 1915, being present with the Sth Battle turned to home waters and by March 1940 was was sighted and attacked with bombs at Blerk-
Squadron dunng the great Battle of lutland on with the Home Fleet at Scapa Flow, When Ger- vik; the submarine was sunk, although the air-
31 May i9t6 and receiving a number of heavy many attacked Norway she had just set sail for craft suffered slight damage from return
the Mediterranean but was recalled to join qunflre. On returning to Ofotflord Brown disco-
hits, Between the worjd wars the battleship
'rnderwent several refits, that of 1926 involving Admiral Sir Charles Forbes who sailed for Nar- vered that the Erich Koellner was manoeuvrinq
:he removal ol her aircraft catapult. In 1934 vik on 7 April. Apart from an unsuccessful to bring her torpedo tubes to bear on the L/ars-
:here started a major modernization program- attack by German dtve-bombers on I0 April pife, and so commenced dtrecting the bat-
ne lor British battleships, of whtch lhe Wars- Ihe Warspile was not involved rn the lst Battle tleship's flre against thrs target. Soon after 13,20
oile was the first io refit at a cost of t2,360,000, of Narvrk, but two days later Admlral Forbes the German ship was overwhelmed and sunk,
including the return of an aircraft catapult; a decided to send her into Narvik Fjord with nine The Swordfish then flew back towards Nar-
ianQlar was constructed on the upper deck destroyers under the command of Vtce Admir- vik, directing the Warspite's gnrns against the
anait the funnel to accommodate a pair of a1 Sir Wllliam Whitworth in an attempt to flnish Ench Giese and Diether von Roder off Narvik
Swordflsh seaplanes, and two electric cranes olf the eight modern 127-mm (S-in) qnrn Ger- itself, and Ihe Hermann Kfinne rn Herjangsf
,rere added to recover the aircraft from the sea man destroyers believed to be in the vicinity. ;ord. By 15, 15, after the Swordfish had been
airborne for nearly three hours, the Warspite
and eiqht destroyers (HMS Cossack had gone
aqround an hour earlier) arrived at the entr-
ance to Rombaksfiord where the last four Ger
man destroyers, Georg Thiele, Wolfgang
Zenker, Bemd von Arnim and Hans Lildemann
were brought to action and destroyed; one of
them (it is not known which) was attacked and
frnrshed off with the Swordflsh's iast two bombs.
In his subsequent despatches Admiral Whit-
worth wrote 'The reports made by Warspite's
aircraft were invaluable, I doubt if ever a ship-
borne aircraft has been used to such good
purpose as it was on this occasion,'
The battleshtp had suffered little damage
durins the 2nd Battle of Narvik, most of it
caused by blast from her oum great Sluns; one
of the Swordflsh seaplanes was replaced when
|,bove: A Fairey Swordfishfloatplane taxis past the Below:TheFairey Swordfish could carry asingle Warspite returned to Scapa Flow, but the air-
::: - {a ted battlecrur'serHMS Hood and sever al' E' 457-mm ( I8-in) torpedo or up to 680 kg ( I '500 lb) crew that had perlormed so well off Narvik
r,ass desfroyers. HM'S Warspite carried a pair of of bombs or depth-charges. Swordfish biplanes remained aboard when the shrp sailed for Gib-
S.,+'ordfish floatplanes in a hangar mounted abaft scored more torpedo hits on naval targets than any raltar at the end of April, She was present at the funnel, plus two eiectric hoists to retrieve them' other carrierborne aircraft of WorldWar II. naval actlon off the Calabrian coast on 9 Jul-v
]940 when Admiral Cunntnsham with three
'.'*'_r, : lelr,:11,,:::r3lll:du j:ll':rrel1{:rtil,rl:
:i9rr,r:,,1Prr,:r1,,{.ilsrrljlll iilrri!r,:r,,.1:i1:
. ,'".'. ... -'". battleships, an aircraft carrier (HMS Eaglle)
a!r::arillll::ilr,idll:ilf r::nri;ierl:il;i1y1: four crulsers and three flotrllas of destroyers
engaged two Italian battleships, 16 cruisers
-'"'";-- '-, and 32 destroyers, Once again the Warsptte
'-:\'"3\ launched a Swordfish wrth Brown aboard, the
crew sighting the Italian fleet and so accuratel-;
spotting for the Brrtish gmns that the battlesht;
was able to obtarn a direct htt amidships from.
range oi 23775m (26000 yards) on the ba--
tleship Giulio Cesare, causing considerab-:
damage, putting four boilers out oi action, i:--
flictrng 115 casualties and reducrng the ship .
speed At once the ltalians made smoke -:
A Swordfish Mk I is launched from the shore; the
apparatus under the fuselage is the rackfor the
torpedo. The failure of the Swordfish attack on
German heavy units involved in 'the Channel Dash'
led to the aircraft's redeployment to anti-
subm arine w artar e dutie s.
cover the withdrawal of their battleshrps and IO
of the cruisers, leaving the remaining shrps to
engage the British fleet. When ltalian alrcraft
appeared on the scene the majorrty of their
torpedoes were directed at their own ships.
Once again a British admiral recorded un-
stinted praise for the actlons of the Zl/arsprle's
The Warspite and her Swordfish continued
to be heavily committed in the Mediterranean, captarned by Lieutenant Commander A, S, Bolt, htmself had been totally unaware that Crr::- J-
as when the battleship bombarded the for- that was catapulted off at I 7, 45 and whose crew ham's battle squadron was even at sea ie: ^' ::-:
tifications at Bardia on 1 7 Augmst, and again on 2 spotted the Italian fleet and passed its composi- in pursuit of his own ships.
January 1941, At the Battle of Cape Matapan the tlon and movement to the British admiral, the Shorlly afterwards Warsptte was se-;e::-.
Warspite was Admiral Cunningham's flagship flrst such truly accurate reports he received, damaged off Crete and had to be wlthdra-,';: :: I
as she sailed northward towards Crete on 28 As night approached both seaplanes returned lengthy repairs, By the ttme she reiurnej .-
March of that year. Knowing that heavy Italian lo Warspite and were horsted inboard, thelr active duty carrierborne forces had beel :::-
naval forces were at sea, Cunningham had task completed, Subsequently, referring to the siderably increased and much-impr:',::
launched one of the Swordfish, with Brown's work of Bolt, the ltalian commander-in-chief radar introduced into the fleet, so tha: se-i-:-
crew, for gmnnery spotting in the event oia fleet Admiral Iachino expressed his envy and was so much reliance placed on the use : .:-:
action, However, it was her other Swordfish, admiration of the British airman's reports, for he ancrent Swordflsh seaplanes,

Left: A Fairey Swordfish of the

Catapult Flight, HMS Mday+ in I 341
The'Queen Elizabeth' class
baftleships Malaya and Warspire
both carried Swordfish until I 9 4 3.
when the installation of effective
-.. radar rendered them superfluous.
.. Warspite's Swordfish destroyed the
firstU-boat to be credited to theFlee:
Below: ASwordfish floatplane of the FleetAir Am
comes a.sftore after a training flight. By 1939 Fleet
Air Arm torpedo bomber squadrons were
exclusively equipped with the Swordfish and njne
Swordfish squadrons were still operationa! in
Arado Ar 196
-:-:r.rough the attractive Arado Ar 196 with Luftwaffe coastal units throughout
..', -n-float seaplane was frequently en- northern Europe, and an aircraft of
llrntered by Allied aircraft around Kustenfliegergrmppe 706 attacked and
::e of EuroPe during World damaged ihe submarrne HMS.SeaJ in
II, it had originallY been de- the Kattegat, leadtng to the boat s cap-
-,-:loped to replace the Heinkel He 60 ture by the Germans, Although several
:cat biplane aboard Germany's larger Ar 196s were shot down bY the RAF
',';rrshjps whose construcllon was during the Battle of Britain, most losses
advancinq apace during the late 1930s were attributable to storms at their
3i all-metal structure with metal and anchotaqes. In 1941-2, flown from
-abnc covering, the Ar 196 was by all French bases, they were used to inter-
accounts an extremely pleasant aero- ceot RAF Coasral Command anti '
plane to fly, the crew being afforded submarine patrols over the Bay of Brs
exceilent fields of view, After first cav, their pilots clarmrng more than a
:lights by the four prototypes in i93B (of dozen viCtorjes. Total produclion
-,vhich one leatured a sinqtle central amounted to 593 aircraft
-loat and small underwing oulrigger
loats), the flrst service deliveries ofthe Specification
A-r t96A-1 were made in JulY 1939, in AradoAr 196A-3
:rme to embark examples in the pocket Type: two-seat shipborne and coastal
battleships Deutschland and Admiral patrol floatplane
-lraf Spee belore they sailed for theit Fowerplant: one 723-kW (970-hP)
',','ar stallons in August. During the {ol- BMW I 32K radral piston enq ine
lowing six weeks lB Ar l96s were Performance: maxrmum sPeed
embarked rn the battlecruisers Sc,har- 310 km/h ( 193 mph) at 4000 m
r-horsl and Gnetsetau, the pocket bat- (I3, 125 ft) climbto 3000 m(9 845 ft )lnB
:leship Admrral Scheer, the heavY mrnutes 42 seconds servLce ceiling
:rurselAdmrial Hipper al Kiel and the 7O2O m (23,030 ft); range 1070 km (665
liqiht crulsers Emden, Koln, Konigs miies)
Designed to replace the Heinkel He 60 floatplane aboard German warships,
berg, Leipzig and Ntrnberg aI weiqhts:emotv 2335 kq t5, 148 lb):
the irado Ar 196 was pressed into service with Luftwaffe coastal units in 1940 '
Wilhelmshaven, maxinum tateloil3303 ks (7.282 Ib)
The Deufsc,hland made constant use Dimensions: spanl2.40 m (40 ft B 2 in); Flying from French bases during 1941 and 1942, they intercepted ASW patrols
ci her aircraft during her early foray length 11.00 m (36 ft I I rn); height mouiteanynAf CoastalCommand and claimed over a dozenvictories'
rnto the Atlantic (which resulted in the 4. 4i m (14 ft 7, 2'in); winq atea 28 3 mz

sinking of nine merchantmen), as did (304,62 sq ft)

'.ne Schamhorsl and Gneisenau during Armament: two frxed forward-f, ring Arado Ar 196A-3 cutaway drawing key
.reir sortie northwards late in Novem- 2O-mm cannon and one fixed forward-
firing 7. 92-mm (0, 3 I -in) machine-gmn, 1 Splnner 48 Supportframe
ber, but the GrafSpee dld not attempt 2 Propel erhub 49 Canopyaftsection
c launch her aircraft during the Battle and two 7.92-mm (0 3l-in) trainable 3 Sta.board fuse dgefi'ed 50 Aftcanopv ock/re ease
:i the River Plate because of the dif- machine-qn-rns in the rear cockpit, pll's 7.9 mm MG 17 gun port 51 Flrst-ald klt
rculty ol its recovery duringt the chase provision ior two 50-kg ( I l0lb) bombs 4 Schwarzadjustable Pitch 52 Observer/gunner's sl ding
three blade propeLler seat
c'y the Britrsh cruiserst in any case her under the wingrs 5 Cowling ring 53 Entryfootstep
6 54 F are carlrldge stowage
Juns were apparently adequately Arado Ar I 9 6 s were embarked on 7
Cyllnder head falrlngs
sen'ed by radar, During the pursuit of aircooled radia engine
.ae battleshrp Bjsmarck in May 194i, several of G ermany's mai or 8 Cowllng panelf rame
';hich led uttimately to her destruction, warships, including the 9 Oulckieleasecatch
:r least two Ar i96s were launched in 'Scharnhorst',' Deutschland' and 10 Cowingflaps
'Hipper' classes. This examPle is T T Engine lower bearers
a:tempts to prevent RAF Consolidated 12 Handholds
latalinas from shadowinq the warshtp embarked on the heavy cruiser 13 Englneaccessories
ln 1940 the Ar 196A entered service AdmiralHipper. T4 Alr ouvre
15 Firewall bulkhead f rame
16 Oi tank
T7 StarboardMGTtrough
18 Fuselageframe/eng ne
support attachment
Tg Enqineupperbearers
20 FoMard f uselage decking
21 Starboard wing sklnnlng =
22 Leadrno-edoe flb stations
23 StarboSrd o"uter rlb
24 Starboard navlgatlon lght
25 Starboard wlngtlP
26 Starbord ai eron
2 / ALleron masS 0a ance
28 UndeMingacaesspanel
29 Alleron control linkage
30 Windscreen
31 lnstrumentPanel
32 Foruardfuse age uPPer
fram e
33 Sea rudder lever
34 Handho d

35 Sea equipment ocker(ina,

drao-Jrne and anchor/
hea"ving Line)
36 Rudderpeda assemby
37 Seatsuppodframe
38 Entryfootstep
39 Seatadjustment
40 Armrestand seatharness
4T ControlcoLumn
42 Pilot's seat
43 Slidingcanopy
44 Rear-vlew mirror
45 Aerlalmast
46 (Starboard) wing fold
47 Pllot's headrest
Seaplanes of World War II
Left:AnAradoAr 196A-3 of 1.
Bordfliegergruppe -l96, based on Ae
Lototen I slands in February I 944 . F-
pleasantmachine tofly, ttreAr Jgf
afforded excellent fields of visior
and ac hieve d considera-ble success"
One aircraft of Kiis tenfliegrergn tpp
706 crippled the submarine HMS
SeaI, /eadrhlr lo the boat's capture bI


Right: Aradoswere exported to two
of Germany's Balkan allies;this
aircr aft belongs to Rom anian
Escadrilla I 02, operating from the
Black Sea port oI Odessa in I 943.
O ther s s erved wi th the Roy al
Bulgarian air force's I 6 I st Coastal
Squadron, based at Varna.

55 Charttable 58 Wlngrootfillet 64 Ring sight 72 Elevatorcontro aable 98 Tle-down luo

56 Radioequipment 59 Obsever's s idlng seat pon 65 Twin7.9 mm MG81Z in kage
I 99 Catapult attichment
57 Fuse ageframe/aftspar runner f exib e machine-guns 73 Ruddercontrols 100 Control eads
attachment 60 Ammunition box 66 Flare bomb stowage 74 Tailf in/f uselaqe support/ 101 MG B1 Z counterbalance attachme^:
6'l Dorsalgun swivel 61 Gun support bracket attachment bracket 142 Wing attachment 130 Fuel I nes '... .- . --- _
mountrng Fuselage aft{rame 75 Tailfin rootfillet strengthening p ate 13T Floatcross-:-::
62 Wind def lector p ate 69 Master compass access 76 Starboardtailpianesectlon 103 Wngfoldline 132 Strutcrcss-:-a:
63 Ammunition feed 10 Fuselage skinn ng 77 Elevatormassbaance 1 04 Gun charging cylinder 133 Smokeca^ s::'
/1 Strlngers 78 Starboard elevatorsectlon starboarc i:a::

79 Tailfin eading-edge
B0 Rudderinternalmass
81 Ruddertablinkage
82 Tailfin structure
83 Aerlai
84 Aerlai stubattachment

irlli:ir.,."." -

98 .r,t

105 Ammunltion drum {60

B5 Rudderupperhrnge rou nds)
86 Rudderframp 1 06 Portwing f ixed
20-mm MG
87 Rudderpost FF cannon
88 Ruddertab '107 Cannon aftmountlng
89 E evatortab bracket
90 Tabhinge 108 Carlrldge collectorbox
9'1 Elevatorframe 109 Cannon barrel suppor-t
92 Elevatormassbalance sleeve
93 Tailp ane structure 1 10 Watertlght muzz e cap
94 Elevatorattachment 1 1 1 Foryardsparattachment
95 Ruddercontrol lrnLaoe 112 FloatfoMardstrut/
9b I ar plane
attachment fuse age attachment
97 Elevatorcable/rod ink 1 T3 Tubu arstrutfairing
I l4 nnerVee-strut
1 1 5 Cross brace struts
T 16 Entrysteps
117 Exhustoutlet
118 Oilcoolerintake
1 'l 9 Strut/float attachment
120 Starboardfue cell(66 mp
qa /300 lltre capacltV)
121 Starboard float
122 Upperstrake
1 23 Handholds
124 Pafttloat
125 Sldestrake
126 Poft fuelcel (66 lmpgl/300
litre capacltv)

@ Pilot Press Limited

Heinkel He 59
The Germans' use of float seaplanes to
deliver combat troops rnto action is be-
lieved to have been unique during
World War II, and principally involved
the large Heinkel He 59 two-float twin-
engine biplane, an aircraft desigmed
back in 1930 as a reconnaissance bom-
ber landplane during the clandestine This HeinkelHe 59 D sewedwith
activitres which eventually resulted in Seenotzentrale AgAisches Meer in
the creation of the LuJhvaffe, The first the Aegean Sea during I 94 I.
floatplane example made its maiden Although the 'D' modelwas
flight rn January 1932 and the first major ostensibly a trainer, itwas used on
production version, the He 598-2, saw air-sea rescue duties in the south
operational service in Spain with the well into 1943, Iong after the type's
Legnon Condor as a night bomber and presumed obso/escence.
for coastal patrol.
By the outbreak ofwar about 70 He were extremely active all round the gean until mid- 1943. At least one Slaffel seconds; service ceiling 3475 m
coasts of the UK, ostensibly on the served on the Black Sea. ( I 1,400 ft); range 1750 kn (1,087 miles)
59Bs had been completed and served
v,rth the third Staffein of Kiistenflieger- Iookout for downed German aircrew. Weights: empty 5000 kg (l1,023 1b);
gnuppen 106, 406, 506 and 706 for coas- but when it became apparent that de- Specification maximum take-off 9 100 kg (20, 062 lb)
tal reconnaissance, anti-shipping pat- spite displaying prominent Red Cros- Heinkel He 598-2 Dimensions: span 23.70 m (77 ft 9 in);
rols and mrnelayinq (being capable of ses the aircraft were being used to Tlpe: four-seat mantime lengrth 17.40 m (57 ft I in); heig^hl 7. 10 m
carryinq two 500-kg/1, 102-1b magnetlc shadow and report British convoYs, reconnaissance and air-sea rescue (23 fl 3.5 in), wtnsarea l52 Bm'
mines). They also equipped the orders were given to RAF Pilots to floatplane (i,644.78 sq ft)
Seenoldienslslaffeln and the Staffel shoot down enemy seaplanes; no few- Powerplant: two 492-kW (660-hp) Amament: three 7,92-m (0.3 t-in)
Schwilben for air-sea rescue duties er than 31 He 59s (11 of them from BMW Vl6.OlU V- l2 piston engines trainable machine-qnrns (one each in
over the North Sea and Baltic, Later Seenotflugkommando 3, based at Performance: maximum speed the bow, dorsal and ventral positions),
they joined KGrzbV I0B for specialist Boulogne) were lost during the Battle 220 krn/h (137 mph) at sea level; climb plus a load ofup to 1000 kg (2,205 lb) of
coastal assault troop-carrying duties, of Britain, with seven others badly to 1000 m (3,280 ft) in 4 minutes 48 bombs and,/or mines or one torpedo
and I Gruppe ol KC 200 for air-sea damaged. Set against this more than
rescue work, During the invasion of 400 German airmen were recovered
Norway most of these units were from the sea round the UK.
pressed into use for coastal patrol and Specialist versions included the He
au-sea rescue, and during the initial 59C-2 air-sea rescue aircraft, the He
assault phase were occasionally em- 59D-I and He 59N series trainers, the
ployed to deliver assault parties rnto He 59E-1 torpedo trainer and He 59E-2
ihe fiords. During the German assault long-range reconnaissance aircraft,
Ln the West on 10 May 1940 12 He 59Bs Air-sea rescue He 59s continued to
of the Staffel Schwilben transpofied serve in the Mediterranean and Ae-
120 troops to the banks of the River
Maas to capture the key bridge at Rot- Although an old, outdated design,
ierdam losing four aircraft to the Dutch the He 59 was pressed into a number
defences of duties: as a trainer, minelayer,
Durinq the Battle of Britain the He assault transport, air-sea rescue and
59s of the Seenotdienstkommando coas t al r econ na is s ance air cr aft.

g Heinkel He I 15
Flown largely by Kriegsmarine pilots
iuring much of the war, the Heinkel He
115 twin-engine two-float seaplane
-,",'as almost certainly the best such aLr-
craft to serve with any air force in
iVorld War 11, DesiQned in competition
-,'ith the Blohm und Voss Ha l4O, the He
-13 was first flown in 1936 and two
;ears later established eight world
--peed records for ils class tn various
pavload and ranqe categiories. Tech-
:-:aliy in advance of anY British, The Heinkel 1 1 5 sewed the Luftwaffe
: lench or American maritime aircraft in awidevariety of theatres, trom the
:: srmilar concept, the type was Mediterranean to the North Cape.
This particular aircraft was operated
::jered into production, the He I l5A-
1 ;ersron joining the Luftwaffe in l93B by I.lKuFIGr406 outof northern
'::rrq foliowed by the He IISA-2, of Norway in 1942.
,';:-ch srx were exported to NorwaY
lO to Sweden in 1939). Before the end ofthe Battle of Britatn suppression during torpedo attacks. Performance: maximum speed
=i; September 1939 about 60 He I 15A the first exampies ofthe He I ISC series At the end of the Norwegian cam- 300 kr/h (186 mph) at l00O m (3,280 ft);
He IISB aircraft (the latter with were in sewice wrth increased defen- paigm three of that country's He 115A- climb to 1000 m (3,280 ft) in 5 minutes 6
--j fuel capacrty) were servinq sle armament while the He Il5C-2, 2s and a captured He i15B-l were seconds; range 2800 km (1,740 miles)
-r;-j: -re Kilstenfliegergruppen. Apart introduced in 1941, featured streng- flown to the UK, where they were ev- Weights: empty 6870 kq (15, 146 lb);
l::: scme reconnaissance work over thened floats to allow operation from aluated by the RAF before being com' maximum take-off 10680 kq (23,545 lb)
':.: 3-:lac du-rtng the Polrsh campatgn. snow and ice surfaces, The He I I5C-3 mitted to clandestine operations be- Dimensions: span22.29m('13 ft 1.2 in);
::::rst rmportant task involved sea- and He I I5C-4 were respectively spe- tween the UK and Norway and in the Ienqth 17.30 m (56 ft9. I rn): hetght
-j:egaps rn the mrneflelds along cialist minelayers and torpedo bom- Mediterranean for carryinq agents 6.59 m t2 I ft 7.5 rn): wing a rea 86 7 m'
,:-: ::si coast of the Bdtish Isles, the bers, the latter being flown against the into enemy-occupied territory in North (933,26 sq ft)
Africa, Total productlon was about 500 Armarnent: one 7, 92-mm (0. 3 I-in)
-- s::h mtssion being flown bY 3./
l- ':3: 306 on 20/21 November 1939.
North Cape convoys. Production was
halted rn 1941 when operations in the aircraft, trainable machine-gnrnandone 1S-mn:
--:,::: actrvtties continued for more USSR made more pressing demands fixed cannon in the nose, one 7.92-mm
for other aircraft, In 1943 production Specification (0,3 f -in) fixed rearward-firing
::--:- -3 months (and sporadically
:,=:==er for two years), the mlning was resumed and 141 He 1l5E multi- HeinkelHe Il5C-l machine-gnrn in each engdne naceile,
Tlpe: three-seat mrnelaying, torpedo- and one 7,92-mm (0,31-in) trainable
-:-= ,:slg 33 arcraft destroyed and purpose arrcraft were delivered to the
--r :::a-ij severely damaged during Luftwaffe in the followingi year; some bombing and reconnaissance machine-gnrn in the rear cockpit, plus a
loadof ]250 kq (2,756 lb) of bombs
:= :e:-: of the Battle of Britain; most He 115Cs and He 115Es were armed floatplane
r=-:::s were suffered from British with single forward-firing MG 151 20- Powerplant: two 716-kW (960-hp) BME and/or mines, or one 500-kq (1,102-lbl
{. mm cannon under the nose for flak- 132K radial piston enqiines torpedo

HeinkelHell5in Acfion
One of the mosl successfu I of all the
large floatplanes operated during
World War II, the Heinkel He I I 5 was
originally conceived as ageneral-
purpose floatplane with emphasis on
torpedo-attack capabihty, but found
itself much more widely employed.
Although seemingly somethrng of a paradox lirr
a contlnental nation with a relatively short
coastline (which of course underwent con-
siderable lengthening), Germany's use of the
excellent Helnkel He II5 twin-engine twin-
float seaplane was both extensive and long-
lived. Its three spheres of operation in which
greatest lnterest must lie were its minelaylng
activitles, its use as a torpedo-carrying attack
aircraft and, surprisingly, operation by the
Allies for clandestine work against enemy-
occupled shores.
Although much experimental work had Nevertheless the Kiistenfllegergruppen A'Weser' Flugzeugbau-built He,l JSB-J rsseen
been carried out by British scientists on stepped up their mlning activlty in lg40 and by during pre-delivery trials in the spring of I 940.
magnetic sea mines before World War II, the the time of Germany's invasion of Norway more This isprobably oneof the lastbatchof I8 He
1 I 58- 1 s fitted with strengthened floats in
use of such mines by the Germans in 1939 came than 50 He IlSs were available whenever
as an unpleasant surprise, particularly as the weather conditions permrtted operations, By anticipation of the invasion of Norway, where
operations from ice and snow could be expected.
war was scarcely I0 weeks old when German July sevenSlaffeJn (L and 3,KuFlGr 106 at Nor-
seaplanes started laying the weapons at night derney and Schellingwoude, L, 2, and 3./
in the approaches to Bntish ports on the east KuFlGr 506 at Tromso, Bodo and Stavanger, period when two aircraft of 3.iKuFlGr 506
coast, operations whrch the RAF was power- and L and 3,/KuFIGr 906 at Ijmuiden and else- crashed on Jan Meyen rsland almost 480 kn
less to prevent as it was very poorly equipped where) were deployed for operations against (300 miles) north of lceland, both crews being
with night-fighters, Such airborne radar that the UK; air mimng had already started rn the rescued unhurt.
existed was utterly useless below about 2440 m Western Approaches. The first He 115 known The loss of 33 alrcraft during the summer ol
(8,000 ft). to have been shot down in the Battle of Britain 1940 was certainly heavy, having regard to the
Almost from the beginning of the war Ger- period was an aircraft of 3,/KiiFlGr 906 flylng number of aircraft in service, 3 /KuFlGr 506
man destroyers approached close to the Nor- from Ijmuiden, brought down by guns at night losing seven aircraft, and 3,/KuFlGr 106 and
folk and Suffolk coast to lay mines, and on the in the Thames estuary in mid-July, rts naval prlot l,/KirilGr 506 slx each, The majority of Staffel
night of 2012i November 1939 their work was (Oberleutnant-zur-See Hildebrant) and the two pilots and some navigators were officers of the
complemented by the He I I5B- Is of 3. Staffel of other crew members belngr killed, On 16 Kriegsmarine, but as casualties mounted their
Kiistenfliegergruppe 906, flyinq from North September a Heinkel He I 15C of 3./KuFiGr 506 places were olten taken by Luftwaffe aircrew.
German bases and dropping srx magnetic. from Stavanger suffered total engine failure off At least one such Luftwaffe He 115 piloi, Ober-
mines in the Thames estuary and off Harwich, the British coast near Berwick, the pilot (Haput- leutnant Karl Barth, was awarded the Knight's
Tbro mghts later 3,/KiiFlGr 906 was joined by mann Hans Kriependor| putting the aircraft Cross for hts combat record during the Battle of
3./KuFlGr 106, and it was one of the latter unit's down on the sea. Despite capsizing, the aircraft Britain, Such was the importance attached to
Heinkels that dropped a mine off Shoebury- was towed lnto Eyemouth harbour and later sea mining by the Germans that the task a_tso
ness which lay exposed on a mudbank when repaired for use by the RAF; in this aircraft came to be undertaken by Luftwaffe bomber
he tide receded the following day, The were the two most senior officers of 3.iKiiFlGr units, particularly when mines were to be sown
,reapon was defused by Lieutenant Comman- 506. The following niqht l./KiiFIGr 106 also lost rnside Brrtish harbours.
rer J, G. D, Ouvry from HMSVemon, who disco- its S/alfelkapjtiin, as did 3./KirFlGr 106 two
;ered that the German mine was detonated by nights later, Kiistenfliegergruppe 506's Grup- This He 1 15 displays the ladder stretching from the
change of magnetism in the vertical field
='::mpared penkommandeur, Major Wilhelm Rentsch, rear of the float to the rear cockpit. This was
wlth Brltish weapons which re- was killed in an accident involving a 1./KiiFlGr necessary because ffie fuse/age was at leastman-
r_::ed a change in the horizontal field), This 506 He I l5 on 25 September, One unexplarned high from the surface, with the cockpit
::-irmation proved vital, as hitherto the Ger- accident occurred durinq the Battle of Britaln over 3 m (9.8 ft) above thewater.
mines had seemed unsweepable and, by
--=:me of Ouvry's discovery, 27 ships (totalling
-:;, 358 tons) had already been sunk by mines
-,:':g November,
Grn defences alefied
-:;ari from measures put in hand to render
J-,:i shipping immune to the German mines
:1 "=gaussing the ships), British coastal gnrn
:!:ll=r:es were alerted to the danger of the
:i=:-<:s and all coastal liqhts (kept burning to
amsl tsntish ships) were henceforth exting-
irsri:Fn The tasks facing the minelaying Kris-
w-:=gergruppen quickly became more drf-
fl:; =- ijc-"',n
hazardous, although the first He I 15 to
re :::: did not fall until early 1940 be-
.ll=.-,:: ::::rght down by Bofors guns in one of
tr. :-:-- -:: the Thames estuary. There were
aui: :s:=:-3es of mines, whlch were dropped
i!:r ::- .:-r, as 20 m (60 ft) withr:ut parachutes,
an;r':-:-3 ::: contact with the water or a sand-
n'Fi-r;-:-t iesroying the aircraft (German mine
jiam;s mr::: io less unreliable than the Kriegs-
rrlrFr*r:E: ::1cedo pistols in use at that early
-ffift1= - -'= ,';ar).
HeinkelHe llSinAction
Heinkel Hell5
This Heinkel He I 158-1 was in sewicewifft ffie frsf Staffel of
Kiistenfliegergruppe 406 ( I./ KUFIG r 40 6), based at Sorreisa near Tromsi in
northern Norway. Along with the aircraft of KnFlGr 906 the Stalfel took part in
the attacks on the ill-fated convoy PQ 17 (indeed, it was the Heinkels of KitFIGr
406 which made the first attack on the convoy, losing lfie Staffelkapitan's
aircr af t in the process ). By late I 9 42, 1 / K uF lG r 40 6 w as the only rem aining H e

1 15 unit in the Arctic, remaining on torpedo-attack duties until at least May

1944. By the end ot thatyear, the He I I5 was no longer in the Luftwaffe's
first-line inventory.
Heinkel He I 15 in Action
For all the weaknesses inherent in early Ger-
man sea mine design, production of the
magnetic mine reached enormous propor-
tions. The Heinkel He II5 was an extremely
popular aircraft among rts crews who were
later called on to perform mlning operations off
Soviet ports in the far north, in the Baltic and the rfj
't .t
Black Sea; they were also very active in the
Medlterranean for more than two years,
Bearing in mind the mountainous nature of
the terrain ln the extreme north oi Norway, the
austere environment and the sparsity of oper-
ational airflelds, it was not surprlsing that the
greater share of flying operatlons undertaken
by the Luftwaffe in the Arctic was with sea-
planes and flylng-boats, limited though these
responsibilitres were; that is until Hitler attack- The Heinkel He llSs remained at Sorreisa This late-productionHe I 11C-i of 1./KuFlGr 906 is
ed the USSR in 1941 and the British started for several more months and took part in a seen in Norway in the spring of I 942 . Note the
sailing their North Cape convoys from Scotland number of attacks on Allied shippinq in the far additionof afixed l5-mmMG 151 cannontothe
and Iceland to Murmansk and Archangelsk. By north, particularly ships returnrng empty from underside ofthe port fuselage, later to be
upgrunned to 20-mm.
that time, however, production of the He 115 the Soviet ports, The Sfaffel claimed the sinking
had been termlnated (it was to be restarted of about eight shlps, usually sailing wlth no Given RAF markrngs and the serial numbers
laier), and KuFlGr 106 and 506 (as KGr 106 and more than token escort, Their principal job, BV184-BV187, the four surviving He l15s were
KGr 506) had been fu1ly integrated into the however, was to mlne the approaches of the taken over by the Marine Aircraft Establish-
Lu-ftwaffe wlth Junkers Ju 88 bombers; KriFlGr ports; the appearance of escort carriers with ment (MAEE) at Helensburqh on the Clyde,
9OO had re-equipped with Blohm und Voss Bv the North Cape convoys rendered attacks by being joined by another He 115 captured dw-
138 flying-boats, the relatively slow floatplanes too danQrerous, ing the Battle of Britain (this was eventually
the main attacks now being undertaken by He cannibalized and is believed not to have car-
Little action i]]s, Ju 88s and Ju 87s, rled a British serial number). Durtng the course
For many months the British convoys sarled One of the pre-war purchasers of the He I 15 of fairly exhaustive trials with the MAEE two of
with little interference, enemy air action being from Germany was Norway, whose naval air the aircraft were lost in accidents, but the other
confined to shadowing by Focke-Wulf Fw 200 sewrce (Marinens Flyvevaesen) received six two were specially prepared for clandestine
Condors and the flying-boats, as well as spor- He l15A-2s during 1939, When German forces operations. One aircraft was flown from
adic U-boat attacks, Meanwhile a new unit, opened their invasion of the country in Aprrl Woodhaven, near Dundee, by Lieutenant
i.iKiiFlGr 406, had undergone training with the the followrng year three of the Heinkels were Skavhauqen, a Norwegian pilot on secret op-
He 1l5C-4 in the torpedo attack role and in sewing with the air service's No. 2 Squadron in eratlons to his native land, delivering agents
1942 was based under the command of Haupt- the south and the other with No. 3 Squadron in and returning with escapees from the German
nann Eberhard Peukert at Sorreisa, near the north, As the situation rapidly deteriorated occupation, However, in due course it was de-
Ttomso, about I 15 km (70 miles) north of Nar- in the south one of No, 2 Squadron's aircraft was cided that using a captured 'enemy' alrcraft
,nk. At the same time the Hernkel He II]H-6 flown to the UK, another flew north to join No, 3 posed too many risks and the operations were
:orpedo bombers of VKG 26 under Hauptmann Squadron and the other was captured in Hafrsf- abandoned, the aircraft bleng moored in the
Gernot Eicke were located on the airfields at jord by ihe Germans when they occupied Sta- Tay until scrapped ln 1943.
Bardufoss and Banak, These torpedo aircraft vanqer. Meanwhile the Norwegians them- The other aircraft, provided with an addr
-.\rere ready for combat when air reconnaiss- selves had captured a pair of German He I I5B- tional armament ol eight machine-gnrns in the
ance reports were received ofthe approach of 1s at Brannoysund and Ornes complete with wings (four of them firing aft), was flown by
convoy PQ 17 On 2 July eight torpedo- bombload and the new Goertz bombsight. another Norwegian, I:ieutnant Offerdahl, to
equipped He l15C-4s took off and, led by Thereafter the four He I15A-2s and two He Malta where it was used to deliver agents and
I{auptman Herbert Vater, attacked the convoy, 115B-1s made a number of rards on German saboteurs to the enemy-occupied North Afrt-
Cespite very healry flak from the escorting ves- positions in Norway during the final month's can mainland, occasronally being painted in
sels, The leader's arrcraft was hit and forced fighting. By the time of the ceasefire one of the Luftwaffe insignia. It was eventually destroyed
Cown but before it sank in the rcy seas another German aircraft had been cannibalized for by a German bomb which struck its hangtar on
He I15, flown by Oberleutnant Burmester, spares, the other He I I5B-1 andthree He l15A- Malta,
alighted alongside and took off again with the 2s were flown to the UK and the remaining He
stricken crew, At dawn two days later 1./ 115A-2 flew to Finland, where it was interned. Seen in October 1 942, this He I I 5A-2 was the last
KilFlGr 406's Sla.ffelkapilain himself spotted the However, one of the He 1l5A-2s making for survivor of three Norwegian aircraftwhich had
convoy and put a torpedo into the American Scotland ran out of fuel just before reaching its flown to Shetland in June I 940. Itwas modified for
freighter Chistopher Newport. destination and was sunk by its crew, clande s tine oper ations.


i t,d .e -

::::g:rerar,:ildlr',,al l;

-l Aichi EI3A ,tr-

l.rmerically the most important of all
float seaplanes during World
II, the Aichi El3A monoplane (of
,';ir-rch i 418 were produced) orrgin-
ared in a naval staffspecification rssued
:: Aichi, Kawanishi and Nakajima in
.137 for a three-seat leconnaissance
seaplane to replace the sx-year-old An Aichi E I 3A'J ake' of the I mperiai
Xawanishi E7K2 float brplane, A pro- J apanese Navyls seen rn the i:arly
.ctype was completed late in 1938 and wartime colour scheme thatwould
after competitle trials with the Kawa- have beenworn at sea aboard the
:rshi E13K in December 1940 was fJeef 's crursers and battlesh ip s.
:rdered rnto production as the Navy
Type 0 Reconnaissance Seaplane
Model L Early aircraft were
:mbarked in Japanese cruisers and
::aplane tenders the followrng year
a singrle 250-kq (55llb)
=d, carrying
::mb apiece, flew a series of raids on Japanese carriers, As it was, when the
::e Hankow-Canton railway. Soon Americans launched their flrst strtke,
=::erwards EI3AI floatplanes accom- the pilots found the decks of the car-
laded the Japanese Bth Cruiser Drvi- riers Akakgi, Kaga, Soryu and Htryu
s-:n ior reconnaissance patrols durinQl clogged with aircraft which should
-:e stdke agTainst Pearl Harbor in De- have been attackinq the Amertcan
::mber 1941. fleet,
Thereafter, as production switched In all, it is estimated that by mid- 1943
.: Kyrlshu Hikoki KK at Zasshonokuma more than 250 El3Als were at sea
--C accelerated, the seaplanes (code- aboard Japanese ships, thouqh their
:--rned 'Jake' by the Allies) were use was severely curtailed whenever
=:,lcarked in the battleships and cruis- American fiqhters were in evidence,
=:s of the Kanlais (fleets), including the Nevertheless they continued to sewe
:a:tleship Haruna and crrrisers Ciiku- rrght up to the end of the war, many of
-:: and Tone of Vice Admiral Nagnr- them being ultimately used in suicide
:,: s Carrier Striklng Force at the Bat- attacks on the huge Amertcan invaston
-= cf Midway. Because of mechanical fleets closinq on the Japanese home-
;::b1ems with the ships' catapults land,
,:-:re were delays rn launching one ol
:= rcw El3Als to search for the Amer- Specification
,:= carriers at dawn on the crucial 4 AichiEI3Ala
--.e 1942, depriving the Japanese of Type: three-seat reconnarssance
:-: vital initiative during the early floatplane
---;es of the assault on Midway. Furth- Powerplant: one 790-kW (1,060-hp)
:r:-ore lhe Chikuma's E13A1 was Mitsubishi Krnsei 43 radial piston
,::ed to return early when it suffered
=:;:,:re trouble, further reducinq the Performance: maxrmum speed
."-inportant search area, One of the 377 krn/h(234 mph) at 2180 m (7, 155 ft); lengrth 1 1,30 m (37 ft 0.9 in); heiqht At a J apanese seaplane base
":.-: Jake pilols. Irom Lhe cruiser climb to 3000 m (9,845 ft) in 6 minutes 5 7.40m(24 ft3.3 in); wingarea36.0 m2 somewhere inthe Pacific the crew of
, :-::. eventually sighted the American seconds; service ceilingB730 m (387.5 sq ft) an E I 3A leave their cockpits. W ith a
'=:: but at flrst failed to repofi the (28,640 ft); range 2089 km (1,298 miles) Armament: one 7.7-mm (0,303-rn) range of nearly 2 I 00 l<n ( 1,300
; r:sence of carriers, causing a further Weights: empty 2642 kg (5,825 lb); trainable machrne-gnrn in the rear miles), sorties could, and often did.
:--inute delay in arminq the strike maxlmum take-off 4000 kg (8, B tB lb) cockpit plus250 kg(551 ]b)ofbombs mean up to 15 hours at a time in the
=-::laft awaiting orders to launch from Dimensions:span 14.50 m (47 ft 6.9 in); and./or depth charges cockpitfor the three-man crew.

a Kawanishi NIK Kyofu

r:-::rpation of a need for stnqle-seat went on to trials with the navy, whose the 'Rufes' of the Otsu Kokutai from
i-= -equipped interceptor seaplanes pilots were enthusrastic about the per- Lake Biwa in defence of central Hon-
: :. :pred he Japanese naly to initiale [ormance, although expressrng mis- shu aqalnst the increasing American
, ::.;elopment programme for such givings over the tncky take-off charac- raids on Japan. It was lronic that so
=:::rrr in 1940, the Nakajima A6M2-N teristics. ln the air, with its combat promising was the NlKl that the
- - -:plane adaptation of the famous flaps, the Kyofu handled beautifully Japanese had reversed the process o{
- i=-jrrshi A6M2 Zero beinq intended and possessed excellent manoeuvra- adaptation, and with it produced the
- : s.opgap until a purpose-desiqned brhty, At a trme (the end of 1942) when N1KZ-J'George' Iandplane frghter,
.-::::-;t could be rntroduced. This was the Zero navai frqhter had effectively cerrarnly one ol the best Japanese air-
:: the highly-imaerinative and won air supertorili for the Japanese in craft to see combat durinq the war.
='.:=ctive Kawanishi NIK Kyofu the Paciflc, the NlKi was ordered into
-.;:.iy wind), whose destgn was productlon but the delivery rate was Specification
.--.:C in September of that year. slow to accelerate and fortunes KawanishiNIKI
i - ,--r-ng a central float and twtn wing- changed rapidly during 1943. Thus in Tlpe: singile-seat rnterceptor frqhter
::,, -:-:ed stabilizing floats, the new December of that year, with only 15 floatplane
:r:::iype retained the same gun aircraft beinq completed each month Powerplant: one 089-kW ( 1, 460-hp)
1 Designed as a fighter to supporr
-:-=:rent as the AOM2 but was po- and Japanese ollensrve tnittative Mitsubishi MK4C Kasei 13 radial piston offensive operations far from ]ati-
i:=13i ly a 1089-kW (1,460-hp) Kasei dwindling, it was decided to end pro- engine based air cover, the Kyofu t+'x a =':e
,- ::Cial engine driving two-blade ductron of the aircraft, and in March Performance: maxrmum speed machine overtaken by even3 h ie
,---liprops in an attempt to counter 1944 the last of89 Kyofus was delivered 4Bg km/h (304 mph) at 5700 m Pacificwhich saw its plannedrcte
.-,: ::que induced swinq on take-off to the servrce. (18,700 ft); climb to 5000 m (16,405 ft) in made superfluous.
' . ,', floats were otigt- Codenamed'Rex' by the Allies, the
:-. : -ntended to be retractable but NlKl was first deployed for the de-
-=. ; problems led to these being fence of Balikpapan rn Borneo, whose
'-=: before the aircraft's first flight, recovery by the Allies was regarded
:=:::.ent trouble with the contraprop as no longter pressing as American
;-':::x resulted in a change to the forces surgred closer to the Japanese
, ..-- r3 engine driving a single three- homeland, whrle the Japanese then
:,.r: propeller from the second pro- lacked the carriers with which to pro-
--,t: cnwards. tect their isolated garrisons, In the flnal
::: iown on 6 May 1942, the NIKI weeks of the war NlKls flewalonqside
trl rvrits,,lishi FIM
Roughly equivalent to the American
Curtiss SOC Seagmll observation float
biplane, the smaller Mitsubishi FIM
was of more compact and neater de-
srgn, its development startinq about
two years later rn 1934. First flowt in
June 1936, the FIMI embodied all the
efforts of its desiqners to achieve an
exceptlonally clean aerodynamic
shape, includinq low-drag float mount-
ings, srngle interplane struts and all-
metal construction, only the control
surfaces being fabric-covered, The
early aircraft displayed poor water
handling and a lack of in-flight direc-
tional stability, however, but after fairly
extensive alterations the production
FIM2 emerged as a thoroughly
effrcient aircraft, acceptable in all re-
Initral production by Mitsubishi,
which got under way in 1938,
amounted to 524 aircraft before it was
transferred to the 2lst Naval Air Arsen-
al (Dar-Nijuichi Kaignrn Kokusho) at tles, but none was used in earnest; tn- type was committed to the unequal Unlike the reconnarsance lypes
Sasebo, where a fwther 590 were built, stead the Musashi succumbed to task of defending the Japanese home- carrie d by m aj or J ap anes e surf ace
In due course the F1M2 equipped al1 American bombs and torpedoes in the land from the devastatlng American units, the Mitsubishi F I M'Pete' was
but one ofthe K-Maru (6,900{on) and Sibuyan Sea; the Yanata, bent on a raids, serving alongside 'Rex' and an obsewation aircraft, designed for
S-Maru (7,200/8,300-ton) classes of suicide mission to Okinawa, followed 'Rufe' seaplane fighters with the Otsu sucft fasks as grunfire direction, but
converted merchant seaplane ten- her to the bottom on 7 April 1945. Kokutai in 1945. was rarely used for that putpose.
ders, as well as numerous battleships Nevertheless'Pete' seaplanes were
ald cruisers of the Imperial Japanese wrdely used throughout the Pacific Specification Weights: empty 1928 kq (4,251 lb);
Nalry, Codenamed'Pete' by the Allies, war, accompanyrng every seaborne MitsubishiFIM2 maximum take-off 2550 kq (5, 622 lb)
FlM2s were present at the Battle of landing by Japanese forces, providingr Type: two-seat observation floatplane Dimensions:span 11.00 m (36 ft t. t in)t
Midway, tlvo aircraft beinq launched gunnery spotting duringr preliminary Powerplant: one 61 1-kW (820-hp) Iength9,50 m (3'L fr 2 rn): herght 4.00 m
-rom the battleship Kirishima (bul bombardment by supportinq warships Mitsubishi Hikari I radial piston (13 ft 1.5 rn;, wingarea29.54 mz
ceinq lost when the Japanese scuttled and subsequently serving as covering engme (317,97 sq ft)
-jre sorely-crippled ship at the end of flghters (and even dive-bombers) Performance: maximum speed Armament: two flxed forward-fl ring
--i-re Battle of the Solomons). The giant once the assault forces were ashore It 370 krn/h (230 mph) at 3440 m 7. 7-mm (0. 303-in) machrne-gmns and
srperbattleshrps Musashi and Yamato was also flown on convoy escort duties (11,28S ft); climb to 5000 m (16,405 ft) in one 7 7 mm (0.303-in) uainable
each carried several 'Petes' to spot for with the many supply convoys sailed 9 minutes 36 seconds; service ceilinQt machine-qun in the rear cockpit, plus
,neir 460-mm (18, f -in) main gn-m arma- by the Japanese during the mid-war 9440 m (30,970 ft); ranse 740 km (460 two 6O-kq ( 132-lb) bombs under the
:nent at the time of the Marianas bat- period, In the last stages of the war, the miles) wmgs


J.-l Nakajima AOM2-N

_iapan was the only nation to produce attacked Pearl Harbor. 10000 m (32,810 ft); ranse 1781 km firing 7.7-mm (0 303-in) machine-gnrns
ard dehver into service float- Entering production as the Naka- (1, 107 miles) plus provrsion for two 60-kq ( 1321b)
single-seat interceptor jima AGM2-N and codenamed 'Rufe' Weights:empty 1912 kg (4,215 lb); bombs under the wings
iqhter seaplanes (the British Sprtfire by the Allies, the new fighter sttll dis- maximum take-off288O kg (6,349 Ib)
:--oat adaptatron drd not progress played a creditable performance Dimensions: span 12,00 m (39 ft 4.6 in);
i-'eyond the experimental stage). being first issued to the Yokohama length i0,10 m (33 ft 1,6 1n); heisht U n til the purpose-desr'gned iVJK
r,\hen rn i94O the Kokutai and deployed to Tulagi tn the 4,30 m(14 ft 1,3 1n); wingarea22.44m2 could be produced, theJapanese
Japanese narry initi-
ated the design of a new interceptor Solomons where the Japanese had first (241.54 sq ft) navy acquired a stopgap floatplane
seaplane (the Kawanishi NlKl Kyofu, landed durinq the Battle of the Coral Armament: two flxed forward-flring fighter in the Nakajima adaptation of
:r 'Rex'), the need was also expressed Sea. However, almost all the 'Rufes' 20-mm cannon and two fixed forward- Mitsubishi's famed A6M'Zero'.
::r a stopgap aircraft and the Nakajima were destroyed in a strike on the sea-
3ompany was instructed in February plane base by 15 Grumman F4Fs from
l34l to develop a float-egurpped ver- USS I4lasp on 7 August 1942. Better
sron of the excellent Mltsubishi AOM2 success attended the 'Rufes' which
Zero naval interceptor. As evidence of fought in the later Aleutian campargn.
Japan's long-standing plans for territo- but losses soared as soon as American
ra1 expansion through the Pacrfic, it figrhter strengrth could be burlt up. Dur-
:ad been recognized that in the inevit- ing the final year of the war, when
able'rsland-hopping' war there would American healry bombers and naval
be few ready-made air bases from aircraft opened their great attacks on
-reich to provide ar cover during the the Japanese homeland, 'Ru-fes' of the
lccupation of the smaller islands, and Otsu Kokutar, based on Lake Biwa,
-:at the construction of runways would were thrown into the ballle as inter-
i:e impractical, Although equipped ceptors in defence of Central Honshu
n:h almost a dozen aircraft-carriers, but suffered very healry losses. Total
re Japa:rese would be unable to use production of 'Rufe' amounted to 327
:em in support of every single rsland before being halted in September
:ias10n, 1943,
A-fter removing the wheel landing
;ear aad fairing over the wheel wells Specification
:i a standard AOM2, Nakajima NakajimaA6M2-N
ncunted a large float under the fusel- Type: single-seat interceptor flghter
age by means of a forward-raked cen- floatplane
la-l pylon and a pair of V-struts below Powerplant: one 7OB-kW (950-hp)
:e cockpit; two cantilever stabrlizing Nakajima NK1C Sakae 12 radial piston
-ats were also mounted under the
r,.:igs, The standard Zero gnrn arma- Performance: maximum speed
:-ent was retained, and the flrst pro- 435 kr/h (270 mph) at 5000 m
:::;,pe was flown on 7 December 1941, (16,405 ft); climb to 3000 m (9,845 ft) in 3
:: day on which the Japanese navy minute 54 seconds; service cei[ng

Fws&#&e Semp&mnes
s upporfin grJan d-based av i a t ian mean f th at all mai or ressels
:ad to/:ave sorneJrindof aerialreconnaissanee cap acity' In
: ddjCion, the plan tar I apanesa expansioR foresaw an em-p-ire
::mcngr f&e r'siands, Jrince fhe Jargre-sca tre intraductian of the
:iaa tplane in ffie years befo re I I 4 L

' *rrepar ng for the war rn the Pacific for which, like all aggressor.nations' she
-:lci ihe tune' with regard to military equipment, Japan envisaged wide-
. use Of floatequipped seaplanes to support her numerous territorlal
.--:1rons: such aircraft were deemed essential in view of prolonged fleet
-.--paigns and ihe general scarcity of land air bases avallable throughout the
::r eipanse of oc6an. Accordtngly considerable use was made not only of
.- '',,eniional arrcraft-carrlers but 6f'seaplane tenders, vessels that in other
:. :s \,iere employed as mobile but non-operatronal depot ships; by contrast
. : ,3 possesseil a iotal of about elght such tenders, wlth a total complement,of
. --,rd 100 seaplanes, which could accompany assault tasl forces durlng the
:. l\\o Vears of the war.
-,.,.ng'said thrs, however, the seaplanes themseives were at the time of
: -.- fla'rbor generally of obsoiescent design and were not lntended to engage
. ' :ombat,"lt being'left to the excellent carrierborne fighters and bombers to
-:-..e air supremacir, Nevertheless great reliance was placed on such aircraft
,:-:Ka,,r,anishlEil:Kz'Ali' turinfloaibiplanesintheearlymonthsof thewar,
. . 1.c aboard the tenders Chlrose and Chiyoda, the f ormer being present at the
-:.:"ons campaign. Boih these '1 'l
,190-ton ships were subsequently con- AVougfuASZU Kingfisher taxis onto the recovery sled of the heavT'cr:::::
-' :C :nic escort Earriers jn 1943, and both were sunk byAmerlcan aircraft in U.SS Quincey. This technique allawed the recovery of spotter seapjaies :'".::. =
under way,-an important-consideration in a combat zone.
'-:l: 17K2 was obsolescent when the Pacif ic war started, but already a much
' ..:i floa.l monoplane, the Aichl E134.l , was enterrng servlce, and this 'Jake' accommodating aircraft in submarines was by no means the sc i l-:' ..: -
'l:f.1, operatlng'f ronr tenders and cruisers, had i owi bombing attacks ox the the Japanese. although the Japanese were alone in en p:\ rr ' -

.-.:n-H'ankow"railway shorily before being larnched from the cruisers Chiku- operationally, relatively successfully and over a prolonged per oi. 'i:'= .' i
. ',inugasa and,'one'dui"tng ihe operat ons agarnst Peari Harbor'
This relative- 36 such arrcraft-carrying submarines served or were burlt bv;al.- :---:
, -al; tiree-crew floatplan6 cculd, li requrred, remain alofi for as long as 5
war. lndeed the '1935-vintage fleet subrnanne l-7 12,525 tonsr ar ^.:--t . -
',i An even better Aichi seaplane was tne E1641 'Pau1" but this entered suka E14Y1 seaplane to carry out a damaqe-assessmeni reca'^::::-',':
lj -e at a time uovhen the lnitiative had alreadlr passed to the Americans, and so Pearl Harbor just 10 days after the crippling attac[. thdt brougn::r:, :-
''=;ed heavr/ Iosses rn the Philipo nes dur ng 1944; lrke so many 'Jap,anese war. Some 125 of these small floatplanes were produced. and r:. - -
:tt, whose intended purpose had been deteated by overwhelming Allled air
-='icrty, nrany of the survvlng El6A1s were simply thrown away in the The myriadof is/ands rn tfteEasl/ndiesmade the seap.lane an t,ro:s-ce:: = :.;
..-:rate surcid6 attacks of the war's last year. taolafthe|apanese conquerors. After theend of thewar, theSe/efar i. t-;.
tervice rend'ered bv-.Japanese floatplaneswas base on,9inErapore island was found to be an important seaplane b as e' : :
', icnlunction uritli submarines of the lmperral Navy The concept o{ Aichi E 1 3s and Mitsubishi F lMs being present in some numbers.
tl I i.t
.a :r1-:i:-t :' Lr' l

lone's El3Awas on the delayed

:orthern leg of its search pattern
',.'hen it first sighted the American
ships. By good fortune, itwas to the
eas t of the ships and so in the eye of
'-h.e newly-risen sun to any obsetvers.
,':',vas thus able to keep contact for
:,are than an hour. ':l -'
-, ,

:1e aircraft:cairyiiig rf leet.submarines,of up td aro-und 3;000 tons. lt .was such a

srbmarjne, the 125, that later lau{rch€d an E14Y1;flown by Wairant OJficef
::irta, to drop four {168.ib} ph'osphqrus bcjmbs on the Oregon.coaSt, the
:riy bombs.dropped from. an aerppl,ane.oa the Ameiican mainland. Thege two
srlaied attacks were, like Doolirttle's atteck ort the.Jaoanese mainland tn 1942
:rcugh on a'far s_mdller scale) rntended for no more than propaoanda purposes.
ior more tha'n two vears.the Japanese lonq-iange rl-7' class, 'l-gl 6i6ss :r1-r 5'
:'ass and 1l-40l,class subraarines roamed the Pacific and lndian Oceans. their:
i:;!c-rTlon E14-Yl.seaplanes almost exclusively to reconnoitre Mainstay of the'sceuling squadrons af.theJmperialJapa:nese N avy, the Aichi
-i1,ed ports in Auslralia;.Nev/,z€aland and the Aleutians, as wellas in Cevion, the E ] 3A was shipped aboard heevy crujsorsandtea'p/aie carriers.'
Seychelles,. Medagascar and the east ioast of mainland Af rica. Nine of these 22
s-lrnarines were,lost,during'th.e period,. usually when .ehgaged in commerde I
-a:ding, and asAllied'strength in the air grew rapidli the whole use of,subrmarine-
:crne aircraft:imposed'uhaccdptabJe. risks and severely restricied.the mobilitv of
.-, s-bmar.nes themselves.
A far sUbrmar:ine-boine seapldneS was ioncelved in
.3212 when therJapane,se_naw initjated the deSign.of a,.f.asland poweriuLaltack
::mber, the Aichi M6Al, capable oi 850-kg (1,,S7a-lblbomb over a
': r,ge of 1 1 30 km,1700 miles).,.l ntended ds'a"bnerrvay''altaek{ 1the twin
' cais were to be jettisonqd € take-offl the MbAl was powered by a 1 ,400'hp
'144-kW) Atsuta'.3z inline engine. Unfqltunatelv for'thdi Japanelse,. deVetop.
-ert of the aircraft Was slow, and jt,was-:]944 befoie'the huge.1l.4-00' class
: 22O-ton) and smallei:il-13,1, class,13.600-ton) submAri'iesweie Commissroned:
r 1945 plans:were.afoot.Jor the Japariese 1st Submaiine:F]otilia'to attackthe
:.<s on the vital Panama Cand',,\\-e,l-4A0and L401 eaeh car.rying three M6A1s
:r:i the l-13 and l-1,4'lwo.apjece.:Realizing that ihe mosl worthwhlle targets
.'.:re already massed in the Pacific,,however,.theJapaneseswitched the flotiila
.::iirst the huge US Navy.alrchorage at Ulirhia aroll, 480 krn.(300'm,iles) sou,th
,',:si of the MariariaS. The:Jlotilla sea when the aiomid bctmbs on
- :osnirna and Nagasaki.brought. the war !o an end.
=tcat seaplanes were also canied by the. lwq aircraft-carryinq battlaships
-,. iga and lse, each capable 0J accommodating 22 Aichr fJ 6A1,s: These,Very
:-:,'.'e dul warships were r:egarded by, representing a signi-
' ::r: threat during the Jast \1ear of the war,'and deStruction wasthe:US.3fd
' :ei's rnain priority,during the.fnonihs preceding the..assault On lwo Jima. The
: ships .avoid:,sea. action, and. wer'e...eientua.ili des.troyed in.
: --:r:can naval ait attacks on the pon ofl'Kure at the end ol July'.1945. . .

l,rreugh it can be seen thai nq singie Japatese riavai action w6s influenced.
: . :: e use of seaplanes'in: the Pacific war, thre,provision of such aircrdft and th.eir
.' ::spread deployment r:epresented an ingenrou.s el'ement oi naval..powet i.n i;
"' :ss,r,e strategic.plan of aggr€ssior.i that{enddd to occupy no. more than,
.'. : Their use also seried to emphasize the.relative absenie oJ shipboine.
,n the Japanese navy duiino.those two yeats.

_; :;-
. .-.e tloatplane's first signal, at07.28, read'10
.' :)^s. apparen f Iy enemy. sigh ted'. La ter s ign als
:re to identify'5 cruisers and 5 destroyers'but
-:: unl.i|08.20 was there any mention of an aircraft-
. ::rier a considerable shock to the Japanese,
'. .-.c realized that they themselves were now
to a carrier strike. Theywere correct.
the decisiveAmerican attackchanged the
. ,Lrse of the Pacific war.

Shsdower cf fr'fiidwag
T he B attie of M idw ay is seen as the tu rning- point in the P a c ifi c'N ar.'.' : :. .- =

struggle of carrier against carrier decisively going the Amer jcans ','. . . ; '
only sheer chance that theJapanese received any warning of tfie LtS."-:; ,
ships, a catapult fault on the heavy cruiserTone ensurjng fhaf ils,!c:::.::: =
Iaunch was delayed. I t was this alone which allowed Tone's'J ake tc : ;', . : =
American force. By cantrast, the Americans had partially cracked ii e
/apanese code, and had a fairly good idea o{where the J apanese v,'e:,' .: . ".

l:e of the mostraleresfingsea planes af theJapanese navy, theAichiMGASeiranwas designed as a submarine-launched attack afucraft. Designed fo be
:.:.:cped aboard the giant-il-40A'class ofsuSma fine,lhe originalmissionof theM6Awas to have been an attackonthe lockgates of the Panama canal.
ffi Eonis SOC Seasrull
At the climax of its Service life the Cur- 63 with the cruiser divisions of the
tiss SOC Seagull scout-observation Scouting Force; there were also 30
seaplane in 1940 was serving aboard SOCs with the Atlantic Squadron and
every battleship, cruiser and carrier in 15 with Carrier Divisions One and TWo
the US Nalry, as well as a destroyer, a in the Pacific,
seaplane carrier and two grunboats, Dwing the Japanese attack on Pearl
with a US Marine Corps squadron and Harbor nine embarked SOCs and 13
at a US Coast Guard statron. It had en- ashore were listed as destroyed, and
tered production in 1935 having although no SOC was directly involved
beaten the Eouslas XOZD-1 and in the great Battle of Midway about 20
Vought XOSU-I ln competition, and on Seagulls undertook scouting sorties
i2 November that year the first oper- before the Solomon campargn, flyrng
ational SOC-I was assigned to the light with Task Force 61. They were still
cruiser USS Marblehead, Subsequent extremely active rn 1943, partlcularly
versions were the SOC-2, SOC-3 and in the Wake, Marshalls and Gilberts
SOC-4 (the SOC-2A and SOC-3A beins campaigns. Although by 1943 most of
fitted with arrester gear) and the SON- the 150-odd aircraft strll surviving in
I produced by the Naval Aircraft Fac- service were usually equipped with
tory, wheel landing gear aboald Amerrcan
Featuring interchanqeable wheel escort carriers, some crursers strll con-
and float alighting gear (in the latter tinued to carry the floatplanes, and
conflgnlation rt was fitted with single these were present at the American
central float and outrrqged wing landings in North Africa in November
floats), the SOC replaced Vought O2Us that year, The Curtiss SO-3C Seamew
and O3Us, and was used to spot for the monoplane had been introduced to re-
fleet's big gmns, increasing the accura- place the SOC in 1942, but this later
cy of the main gmn armament of the US machine proved drsappointing and,
Navy's battleshrps, Each such bat- although a greater number was pro- Performance: maromum speed A Cur&ss SOC S eagrull s tands r eady
tleshrp embarked three or four SOCs, duced, it was the old Seagrull that re- 253 kn/h ( 157 mph) at sea level; climb for launch on the catapult aboard the
the healry cruisers four and the light mained in US Navy sewice longer, sur- to 1525 m (5,000 ft) in 5 minutes 54 battleshipUSS WestVirginia. /n i 940
cruisers two. Flagships r.rsually carried vivmg up lo the end of i944. seconds; semce ceiling 4540 m this scout-observation seaplane was
an additional Seaenrll for use by the (14,900 ft); range 1535 km(954miles) shipped aboard every battleship,
force commander. Production con- Specification Weights: empty 1591 kg (3,508 lb); cruiser and carrier in the US Navy.
tracts, totalling 304 aircraft for the US Curtiss SOC- I Seagrull maximum take-off 2466 kg (5, 437 lb)
Navy (plus three for the US Coast Type: two-seat scout and observation Dimensions:span 10,97 m (36 ft 0 in);
Guard), had been placed by the end of floatplane lenqth 9.65 m (3 1 ft B in); heiqht 4,29 m 7, 62-mm (0, 3-in) machine-gmn and one
l93B within two years 279 were 1n ser Powerplant: one 447-kW (600-hp) Pratt (14 ft I in); wingarea32,33 m2 7, 62-mm (0, 3-in) trainable machine-
vice, including 83 aboard the bat- & Whitney R-1340-18 Wasp radial (348 sq ft) gnrn in the rear coclpit, plus two 45-kg
tleshrp drvisions ofthe Battle Fleet and prston engine Armament: one fixed forward-flrinq ( 100-lb) bombs under the wings


Cuniss SC-I Seahawk

The Cwtrss SC-1 Seahawk monoplane The Seahawkwas a high-perfomance
was unique among American scout single-seater ordered by the US Navy
seaplanes of World war 1I in being a in 1 942 , and entering service in 1 944
relatively high performance sinqle- aboard USS Guam. In the event it saw
seater with an almost fighter-llke little combat andwas mainly used for
speed. It was almost the last of a long afu-seatescue patols.
line of aircraft in the scout-observation
category built by Curtlss to serue the war with Japan and which was
aboard American battleships and opposed by only small numbers of
cruisers. Like its immediate predeces- Japanese aircraft, a few Seahawks with
sor, it featured a single large central the 7th Fleet were used for gnrnnery
float with stabilizing wing{ip floats, control during the preliminary bom-
these being replaceable by flxed bardment before the seaborne land-
wheel landing qear for shore base op- ings, Some aircraft were said to have
eration, been used in the 'attack' category, the
Subject of Curtiss design proposals, Seahawk being capable of carryinq a
the SC-1 Seahawk was accepted by US pair of 45-kg ( 100-lb) bombs in a bay in
Nauy letter of intent on 30 October the central float; for anti-submarine
1942 and prototypes were ordered on work the aircraft would mount an ASH
31 March 1943. The first of two SC-l radar set in a pod under the starboard
aucraft made its first flight on 16 Febru- wing and a 113-kg (250-lb) bomb
ary 1944, by which time production under the port wing,
orders for 500 SC-ls had been placed. Total production of the Seahawk,
Production deliveries started in the before VJ-Day brought cancellation of
late summer that year, the aircraft outstandinq orders, was 566 aircraft;
beilg completed with wheel landing nine examples of an improved two-
gear for delivery to shore depots; the seat version, the SC-2, were delivered
Edo float assemblies, being purchased to the US Nalry in 1946,
separately, were fltted to the aircraft
according to fleet requirements; the Specification
first aircraft were shipped aboard CurtissSC-I Seahawk
trarsports to Australia late in 1944 for Type: single-seat shipborne scout and
delivery to warships of the US 7th air-sea rescue fl oatplane
Fleet, The first aircraft was embarked Powerplant: one 1007-kW ( 1, 350-hp)
h USS Guam on 22 October. Wright R-1820-62 Cyclone radial
The Seahawk saw lrttle operational prston engine
servtce other than constant air-sea res- Performance: maximum speed
cue pafrols, this despite the provrsion 504 km/h (313 mph) at B71B m
of a somewhat cramped bunk rn the (28,600 ft); climb to 3050 m (10,000 ft) in
rear fuselage limiting such rescues to 4 minutes 6 seconds; service ceiling
srngrle dtched airmen, In the relatively I 1370 m (37,300 ft); ranse 1016 km (625 Dimensions: span 12.50 m (41 ft 0 in); Armament: two flxed forward-fl ring
Straightforward recovery of Borneo, miles) lenqrth 1 1.09 m (36 ft 4.5 in); height 1 2, 7-mm (0, S-in) machine-gmns, plus
irowever, which was regarded as Weights: empty 2867 ks (6,320 lb); 5,49 m (18 ft 0 in); winqarea 26,01 m2 two I 13- andtwo 45-kq (250- and lOO-
somethinq of a srdeshow at the end of maxmum take-off 4082 kg (9, 000 lb) (280 sq ft) ]b) bombs

%usht OS2U Kinsfisher
)rsplaying many of the traditional fea-
:ures of the American naval observa-
jon and scouting biplanes of the 1930s
.radial engine, deep spacious cockpit,
-arge 'glasshouse'over the rear cock-
pit and central main float), the Vought
OS2U monoplane was the first military
:rrcraft to employ spot welding in its
primary structure,
Ordered in prototype form in 1937,
:he first XOSzU-l made its matden
]lght on 20 July of the following year,
:utial sewice deliveries being made
:n Augrust 1940. The first aircraft to
serve aboard an Amerrcan battleship
;as embarked in USS Coiorado, Of the
tr4 OS2U-I floatplanes completed in
--rat year the majorrty was distributed
between the Pearl Harbor Battle
: crce, Alameda NAS Battle Force and
:.e Pensacola naval air station. AVoughtKingfisherMk l of No. 107 Squadron,RoyalAustralianAirForce,in 1942.Kingtishers akosewedwiththe
Progressively improved OS2U-2 and F|eetAir Arm aboard armed merchantcruisers.In the US Navy mostKingifishers were catapultedfrom the fantaik
O;52U-3 aircraft were delivered up to of battleships and cruisers.
-342, the latter being the most wtdely
:sed version with increased fuel
:apaclty and improved armour pro-
:=ction for the crew; a total of 1,306 was
produced (including 300 OS2N-I air-
::aff built by the Naval Atrcraft Factory
:: Philadelphia). Apart from ships of
:e US Narry, the type equipped the
:shore Patrol Squadrons (which be-
:=rne exclusively equipped with the
.,;pe), and OS2U-3s also served at Pen-
--:ola and Jacksonville naval air sta-
:::x; therr operattonal tasks included
=,::uting for the fleet, gmnnery spottinq,
-,:--submarine patrol, ship{o-shore
:::rmunciations and rescue of ditched
=-:nen, of whom Captarn Eddle Rick-
=:backer (forced down in the South
?-=:frc) was the most famous, The ln-
:=::hanqeable float/wheel landing
;:ar enabled them to operate from
.:-:re bases when necessary. There
T:re even occasions when OS2U float-
;-=es were flown into action as dive-
- -*L^-^

-re OS2U-3 was selected by the

::--h Purchasing Mission in 1941, and
--- aircraft (FN650-FN749) entered
-=:;ce wlth the Fleet Air Arm joined
as the
{ngfisher Mk L Some of these
l': 103 Squadron and, equipped with
':-=. sewed aboard British armed use for coastal patrol and air-sea res- Junior radral piston engine
Performance: maximum speed
AKingrfisher catapults from
Texas in lft e Me ditenanean,
I 944.
::::hant crursers for sea patrol during cue, Fourteen aircraft were also used
::e:ations to combat Cerman block- as trainers in Jamaica; 20 others in- 264 km/h (164 mph) at 1675 m (5,500 ft); Texas raras lhelirstUS battleship to
.l: :.:nners, Most aircraft were deli- tended for British use were in fact deli- climb to 1525 m (5,000 ft) in 12 minutes launch aircraft after being fittedwitk
';=:=d direct to the Middle East and vered to the US Na\ry, 6 seconds; servrce ceiling 3960 m a flying-off platform while serving
,L =-:: Aftrca, where they found limited (13,000 ft); range IBSI km (1,150 miles) with the British G rand Fieet in I 9 I 8.
Specification Weights: empty 1870 kg (4, 123 1b);
Sdow: Over 1,300 Kingfishers were VoughtOS2U-3 maximum take-off 2722 kg (6, 000 lb) Armament: one frxed forward-ir-::;
and became the Type: two-seat shipborne observation Dimensions:span 10.95 m (35 ft 11 rn); 7.62-mm (0.3-in) machine-qn.m a:.: ::=
ez clus ive equipment of the Inshore and scout floatplane lengrth 10.24 m (33 It 7,25 in), height ^ 7,62-mm (0.3-jn) machine-gnm;- ::
?==ol Squadrons, aswell as serving Powerplant: one 336-kW (450-hp) Pratt 4.60 m ( 15 ft I in); wing area24 34 m' rear cockpit. plus 295 kq 1650 l-c ::
s:th the fleet invarious rofies. & Whitney R-985-AN-2 or -B Wasp (262 sq ft) bombs

Armed Forces of the World
M41A2 and '141 M4143 Bulldog light tanks deli-
vered in the mid- to late '1 960s from surplus US
Army stocks has been reduced by attrition and can-
nibalization to some 200 vehicles, with most vehi-
cles either now in reserve or in second-line units.
Similarly, the 20 or so survivors of the 100 M24
Chaffee light tanks delivered in the 1950s and the
M3 halftracks displaced from the infantry by the
M 1 1 3 APCs are no longer in the f ront llne. The place
of the M41 s and the M24s has been taken in combat
units by 148 British Scorpion tracked reconnaiss-
ance vehicles equipped with a 76-mm (3-in) gun. A
full list of the army's equipment includes:

armour:M4BA5 MBTs; M24,M41 , M41A'1 , M4143

and Scorpion light tanks; EE-9 Cascavel armoured
cars; M3 halftracks; Saracen, V-1 50 Commando,
M1134l and M113A2APCsand Shorland Mk3
patrol cars;
aftillery:ftawed) 75-mm (2.95-in) M116 pack
howitzers, 105-mm M10l howitzers, 155-mm
(6.1-in) M1 14 howitzers and 155-r-nm M198
(mortars) 60-mm (2.36-in) M 1 9. 8'1 -mm (3, 1 9-in)
M'l , 81-mm M29. '1 07-mm (4.2-in) M30 and 1 20-
mm (4,72-in) unidentlfied model;
anti-tankweapons:66-mm (2 6-in) M72 LAW re?#Aee?:
rocket-launcher; 57-mm \2.24-in) M 1 B, 75-mm ii,J,:rer:tl#.liA ;ilLi...:
M20, 90-mm M67 and 106-mm \4.17-in)M4OA2
recoilless rifles and Dragon and TOWATGWs;
air-defence weapons: (towed) 1 2.7-mm (0.5-in)
M55, 20-mm M1 67, 40-mm M'1 Bofors and 40-
mm L/70 Bofors guns;
(self-propelled) 20-mm M 1 6341 and 40-mm
M42A1 guns; (SAM) Redeye and Blowpipe
shoulder-launched missiles; and Fairchild C-1 238 Providers, five Lockheed C-130H/ RoyalThai border police are seen in action in
smallarms:9-mm Browning pistol; 9-mm Madsen H-30 Hercules, 20 N22B Missionmasters, five Nur- northernThailand against drug suppliers. After a
SMG; 5.56-mm (0.219-in) HK33, 5.56-mm tanio-built CASA CN-212 Aviocars, 17 BAe 74Bs and vicious firefight with the owners , a heroin factory
M1641 and 7.62-mm (0.3-in) G3 assault rifles; three miscellaneous aircraft. These are backed up valued at over two million US dollars was overrun.
7.62-mm M60 LMG and 12.7-mm M2HB HMG. by two helicopter squadrons (with 1B Sikorsky S-
SBTs, 27 UH-1Hs, four Sikorsky UH-60As and two
To support the army in the field there are some Bell 412s) and three light observation/liaison squad- units and has a strength of some 20,000. The main
60,000 national police, 2,000 border police, 1,700 rons (with 23 O-1E Bird Dogs and four Helio U-10s). strike force is a marine brigade of two infantry reg-
marlne police and a 33,000-strong volunteer de- To maintain sufficient aircrew to f ly all its alrcraft iments, an artillery brigade and an amphibious
fence corps with small arms and some light and helicopters, Thailand has expanded its training assault battalion. The last is equipped with 22 LWPT
armoured vehicles. fleet to a strength of some 64 jet and 54 piston- and one LWRT amphibious assault tracked APCs,
There is also an army aviation service with air- engined trainers of six different types. Further to whilst the artillery regiment has four six-gun batter-
mobile aviation companies and a number of inde- improve combat capabilities an order has been ies of 23500-m (25,700-yard) range lsraeli '1 55-mm
pendent helicopter flights. These fly some 117 placed for 12 General Dynamics F-l 6 Fighting Fal- MOB howitzers and two six-gun batteries equipped
fixed-wing ligh,t aircraft and 113 helicopters, of cons to match the latest Soviet types in the Viet- with the SRC GC45 '1 55-mm gun-howitzer that can
which the most important are B0 Cessna O-1 E Bird namese air force's inventory. More F-16s will be fire a base-bleed round to a maximum sea-level
Dogs and 76 Bell UH-1 B/H Hueys. Army reserves procured as soon as funds permit. For airfield de- range of 38000 m (41,555 yards). The navy has also
total 500,000 men with four divisional HOs. fence against sapper attacks the four main Thai air procured a number of MM.3B Exocet coastal SSM
bases have a battalion of air force troops equipped batteries.
The Air Force with Blowpipe SAMs, mortars and small arms. The actual composition of the navy is:
The 43,1 00-man Thai air force ref lects its primary
counter-insurgency role in having seven squadrons The Navy British'Yarrow' type, two American
f rigates : one
of COIN aircraft: one with 22 North American T-28D The 10,000-man Thai navy is undergoing some 'PF103'type, one ex-American 'Cannon' class,
Texans, one with 15 Cessna A-37B Dragonf lies, two modernization to enable it to match the capabilities and two ex-American 'Tacoma' class;
with 25 Rockwell OV-10C Broncos, one with 25 of its warlike neighbours, and the purchase of sub- corveftes: two Tacoma design building (a third to be
Fairchild AU-23A Peacemaker gunships, one with marines to reform its underwater-warfare force is a ordered);
14 AC-47D Spooky gunships and one with 14 Lock- real possibility. Of the new orders placed in recent light forces : three' B M B23O' class missile boats
heed T-33A armed trainers and three RT-33A recon- years the most significant are those for two Har- with lvlM.38 Exocet SSMs, three 'TNC45' class
naissance jets. poon-equipped Tacoma-built missile corvettes, and missile boatswith Gabriel SSMs, three'MV40O'
The single squadron of fighter-bombers f lying the forthe procurement of more missile boats and large fast attack craft, four'PSMM Mk 5' large patrol
survivors of 12 Northrop F-SAs and '14 F-SBs has patrol craft to join the existing force of light vessels. craft, six'PC461'large patrol craft, three ex-USCG
been flown in recent months with the two Sidewin- There is a 500-man naval air arm which flies a 'Cape' class large patrol craft, 10 ex-US 'PGM71'
der-equipped squadrons of 40 F-5E and five F-5F squadron of 1 0 Grumman S-2F tracker ASW aircraft, large patrol craft, seven'T91' large patrol craft, 24
Tiger ll jets on air-to-ground strikes against Viet- with another performing the SAR/maritime patrol coastal patrol craft and 40 river patrol craft;
namese positlons located inside the Thai border. and transport missions with four Fokker F.27MPAs, mine warfare forces. one support shlp, four coastal
There is also a tactical reconnaissance squadron 'our GAF N22 Searchmasters, two Canadair CL- minesweepers and five minesweeping boats;
with four RF-5As, two RF-5E Tigereyes, five piston- 2'1 5s and five Douglas C-47s. To support the marine a m phibious wa rfare forces : five LSTs, three LSMs,

engined photo-survey aircraft and 1 2 RC-47D Dako- corps there is a helicopter squadron of 14 Bell 2121 two LSiLs, one LCG, '1 0 LCUs. 26 LCMs, 12
tas equipped with Elint systems. These continually UH-1 H Hueys, and a light aviation squadron with 13 LCVPs, 10 plus LCAs and three armoured troop
monitor the Vietnamese incursions into Thailand Cessna U-l7s, 10 O-1 E Bird Dogs, two Lake LA4s carriers; and
and the various offensives within Kampuchea itself . and seven Cessna O-2As used in the FAC, artillery support sh i ps : Ihree training, six oceanographic,
The transport fleet comprises three squadrons observation, liaison and transport roles. one tanker. two harbour tanker, two water tanker,
and a royal flight with some 10 C-47 Dakotas, 16 The marine corps is one of Thailand's elite f ighting two transport and six miscellaneous vessels.

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