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Fighting Vehicle Systems

Forthcoming issues feafure:
Yolume l1 Issue 129 Lrght Aiicraft of World Wat II
Mdern Underwater Weapon Systems
Fu_b{ished by I900s Batlleships
-: -l
: --: :- j-:--a
3 ::-:::::: s- ^: -.. gte1 Moden trssault Boats and Hovercraft,
Light Cn:sers of World Wu I

Consultant Editor: Major General Sir

Jeremy Moore KCB OBE MC, Comman-
der of British Land Forces during the
Falklands campaign.

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ilodernTrack After 1 945 the USA and USSR
developed a series of vehicles which
t hey h av e now I arge Iy r epl aced with
s elf-propelled artillery.
Japanese Type 73 is descended from
theUS M4 andMS highspeed

Many armies used powerful tracked, vehicles to tow their

hearry artillery in World War II, and in the 1 950s the ASA and
USSRbuilt asefies of trackedprime movers Today these
have retired from front-Iine sewice, but a new generation of
tracked support vehicles is appearing.
Although self-propelled artillery weapons have been introduced on an
ever increasing scale in most European and Middle Eastern armies
since the late I950s, there rs strll a need for the towed artillery weapon,
These are not only cheaper to procure and maintain, but their smaller
size and lighter weight makes them much easier to transport by arrcraft
or helicopter than their tracked counterpart, which can be airlifted only
by heavy transport aircraft.
During World War II the USSR, Germany and the USA all developed
and placed in production firll-tracked prime movers to tow artillery
weapons across country as weil as carryllg the qun crews and a supply The USA has, however, continued development of tracked supporling
of ready-use ammunrtion. vehicles such as the M548 and the more recent Fightinq Vehicle Sys-
This trend continued in the post-war period in both the USA and, to a tems Carrier, These have the cross-country mobility required to keep
far greater extent, in the USSR. Today the USA prefers to use 6 x 6 trucks up wlth mechanized flrrmations of tanks, infantry fighting vehicles and
to tow its artillery while the USSR uses a mixture of trucks and full- artiilery,
tracked prime movers, The full-tracked prime mover has now virtually The increaslng effectiveness of artillery on the battlefield has led io
disappeared from front-line service in most Western armies as the USA the US development of the Field Artillery Ammunition Support Vehicle
has not designed and placed in production such a vehlcle since the (FAASV) which wlll keep M109 self-propelled howitzers supplied wrth
M8A1/M8A2 of the 1950s, In most cases Western armies now tow their ammunltion in the frrrward battlefield area, It is probable that other
artlllery with 4x4 or 6xO cross-country trucks, which are cheaper to armies, in East and West, will in due course develop and deploy systems
maintain and operate than tracked prlme movers, of this type to enable their self-propelled artillery weapons to remain
The USSR still use tracked prime movers to tow field gnrns, antitank tul1y effective,
gmns and, to a lesser extent, anti-aircraft gnrns. In many cases, however,
The US Army has ordered I ,500 M992s, although less than 20 per cent of them
6 x 6 cross-country trucks wrth a central tyre pressure-regnrlation system
have been delivered so far. Saudi Arabia has also ordered a numbet The hull
have replaced tracked prime movers in the majority of front-line Soviet of the vehicle is almost identical to that of the M I 09 with which it will operate,
units. the gun turret being replaced by a fully enclosed compartment.
>K ntui, Streaker High-Mobility Load Carrier
The Alvis Streaker hrqh-mobiiity load Powerplant: one Jagmar 6-cyhnder
carrier (HMLC) has been developed inlrne perrol eng i- e dcveloprno
as a private venture by Alvis Limrted of 142 kw (190 hp)
Coventry, and was shown for the flrst Dimensions:lengIh4 877 m (16 ft 0 in);
time rn 1982. So far two prototypes width 2 11 m (6 ft l1 in); height, cab
have been built and tested, but the 1.83 m (6 ft 0 in)
type has yet to enter production Performance: maximum road speed
The Streaker has been designed to 80.5 km/h (50 mph) range 491 km (305
provide logistic support for members miles)1 fording I 1 m (3 ft 6 rn); vertical
of the Alvis Scorpion famlly of high- obstacle O 61 m (2 ft 0 in)t trench2. L m
speed light tracked vehicles of which (6 ft 9 rn); sradient 45 per cent; side
over 3,300 examples have been burlt slope not known
for the home and export markets, The
Scorpion is weli known for its excellent Right: The flat load area of the
cross-country mobility, but it needs to Streaker can carry up to 3650 kg
be supported by a vehicle on the same (8,047 Lb) of cargo, with integral
chassis if its full potentral is to be real- seats fot thtee men provided as
ized, standard. The cargo area has
The Streaker rs based on the huil of removable sides and a tailgate and
the Spartan armoured personnel thevehicle is providedwith awinch
member of the Scorpion family, with with a capacity of 3600 kg (7,937 lb).
the driver seated at the front left under
drmou. protecTro"r ond lho enoine
compartment to his right. The vehicle
is available with the standard Jagnrar
4.Z'litre petrol engrrne developrng
142 kW (190 hp) or a Perkins 6-cylin-
der dresel developingr 149 kW
i200 hp). Either of these is coupled to a
TNlS transmission with seven speeds
.l both directions. The main advantage
:r the diesel-enqined Streaker is a
::-uch redued risk of flre and a longer
:lerational rangte as the diesel is more Right: The Alvis Streaker High
_-1 ellttiteiL MobilityLoadCarrier (HMLC) is a
The area to the rear of the driver is private venture by the company
:: ilat load area which can carry up to which has not yet entered
:::l kq (8,047 lb) of cargo, with integ- production. It is designed to operate
r-- seats for three men provided as with the Scorpion range of vehicles in
: =Card. The carqo area rs fltted with a number ofroles other than cargo
:::::vable srdes and a tailqate the carrying. These include various
:. s be ng usable as loadirg ramps eng ineering tas ks and, he r e,
,'..:: attached to the rear of the vehi mounting the B elgian LAU / I 7 MRLS.
:-: -i -,vinch with capacity of 3600 kg
:: lb) rs fltted as standard to assrst
-:, ,:=irng heavy items.
S-pension is of the torsron-bar type Below: The Scorpion {amily is
=,,: ::nsists of five road wheels, with renowned for excellent cross-
.-,= :: '.'e sprocket at the front and
idler country performance, and the
:. .---: lear: there are no track return addition of a supportvehicle on the
-=:S same cfiassrs r4li/I enable them to
: :jdrtron to being used as a cargo realize their full potential. The
::=,-.-:-e the Streaker has been de Streaker is available wilh either a 4.2-
!,I,:d to tow a wide range of equip- litreJaguar petrolengine or a
,:=:- ::d weapons, for example the P erkins 6 - cylinder dies eL.
- ::, r- Crdnance 105-mm (4.13-in)
-ur or the Royal Ordnance Bar
:,-:,:-a1,-er. various weapon systems
:=;: qurckly installed in the rear of
-.-::rcle, including the Thorn-EMI
-- =:,;:: antr-personnel minelaying sys-
.::- antl-tank guided weapons or
='.:: : multiple rocket-launcher such
.. -:-: Belgian LAU/97 which was de-
-::,-.:ared on the Streaker in 1984.
-:-: Cesrgn of Streaker is such that rt
---- :: qurckly adapted
to undertake a
range of roles on the battlefield
,:- :jCliron to carrying cargo or
.' -:. -:r systems. oi towirg various
-1-.--s has proposed special pallet-
:: -:::C systems which can be raprd-
-. ::a:ged to meet different oper-
= -::-:l lequirements For example
::--: p.Jlet could have a rapid refuell-
-:;: s-.-siem which could be qurckly ex-
::--,;:ed for a pallet with a trench-diqt
=::: :l another with a back actrng dig-
;=: lequired a dozer blade or load-
--,;: s:ovei can also be fitted to the
Crew: 1*3
empty 5354 kq (11,803 1b);
--=::r 3984 kq (19,806 lb)
ffi bentaur Multi-Role Military Vehicle Modern Tracked Prime Movers
The USA and Germany made largre- no track-return rollers. Steering is via
scale use of halftracked vehicles dur- the standard Burman recirculatingr ball
ing World War II, especially in the type on the front two wheels.
armoured personnel carrier role. in In addition to being used as a basic
the poslwar period most armies have cargo or troop transport armed wrth a
fielded fleets of tracked or wheeled ring-mounted 7,62-mm (0,3-in) or 12,7-
armoured personnel carriers, mm (0.5-in) machine-gun, the Centaur
although the US MZM3 serres and the has been proposed for a wide range of
Czech OT-810 halftracks are still in other roles, These include ca,rryrng
service, Eu-romissile Milan ATGW teams, tow-
In the late 1970s Lalrd (Anglesey) ing the Royal Ordnance 105-mm (4.13-
conceived the idea of buildinq a multi- in) Llght Wn and carrying its gmn crew
roie halftrack vehicle as a private ven- and ammunition, towing the Royal
ture, This would combine the cross- Ordnance Bar minelayer, being fltted
country and load-carrying capability with the Thorn-EMI Ranger anti-per-
of a tracked vehicle and the ease of sonnel mrnelaying system, and acting
operatron and performance of a as a recovery vehicle when fitted with
wheeled vehicle, a winch, or as a fuel resupply vehicle,
The first prototypes of the Centaur water carrier and command post (with
multi-role vehrcle were completed in tarpaulin cover or with a fully enclosed
1978, and pre-production vehicles fol- rear area and extensive communica- (5 ft 7 in) Seen here towing a Royal Otdnance
Iowed in 1979, The Centaur has been tions equrpment), Performance: maxrmum road speed Bar Minelayer while on evaluation
evaluated by a number of countries, The Centaur has also been prop- 100 lan/h (62 mph); maximum range trials, the Centaur marks the return
but so far large-scale production has osed for use in the reconnaissance role (estimate) 402 km (250 miles); fording of the halftrack as a supportvehicle.
not started although development of fitted with pintle-mounted machine- 0.7 m(2f14 in); vertical obstacle not The Centaur combines the chassis of
the vehrcle is now complete, gnrns and a 60-mm (2,36-in) breech- avarlable; trench not available; the long-wheelbase Land Rover with
The Centaur is essentially the well loaded mortar, and for towing Rapier gradient 75 per cent; side slope 30 per fle suspensron of the A|vis S corpion
known long-wheelbase Land Rover and other air-defence systems. For cent replacing the rear wheels.
powered by the V-B petrol engine, trials purposes it has also been frtted
with a larger rear cargo area and fitted with an Oerlikon-Birhrle 20-mm rapid-
with suspension parts of the Alvis Scor- fire cannon in the rear careto area.
pton Combat Vehrcle Reconnaissance
(Tracked), of whrch some 3,000 have Specification
already been built for many overseas Centaur
countrres. Crew: l* l
When used as a cargo vehicle the Weights: empty 3BB0 kg (8,554 1b);
Centaur can carry a maxrmum load of loaded 6970 ks (15,366 lb)
3090 kg (6,812 lb) plus the commander Powerplant: one Rover V-B petrol
and driver; as an alternative l1 fully engine developinq 98 kW (i32 hp)
equipped infantrymen can be seated Dimensions: lenerth 5.79 m ( 19 ft 0 rn);
iri the rear of the vehicle, This rear width2,00 m (6 ft 7 in); height 1,70 m
area is provided rmth the normal drop
tailgate, removable bows and a tar- Right: The Centaur has also been
paulin cover. fitted for trials purposes with an
The Land Rover V-B engine is cou- O e r likon- B iih r Ie rapid- fire 2 0 - m m
pled to a manual gearbox with four (0.7 8 -in) cannon. O ther anti-aircr aft
forward and one reverse gear and a roles have been projected.
two-speed transfer case, The front sus-
pension consists of semi-elliptical Below : Sporting the famous' death's-
sprinqs with double-acting hydraulic head' badge of the I 7th Lancers on
shock absorbers. The rear suspension the door, this Centaur is fittedwith
rs of the torsion-bar type, and consists the T horn- E M I R anger M ine sy s tem
of three dual rubber-tyred road which is desigmed to lay small anti-
wheels, wrth the drive sprocket at the personnel mines in grreat numbers.
front and the idler at the reari there are The 72 tubes fire I I mines each.

ffi+ Hish-speed rractor
In 1941 a decision was taken to design
a new medium tractor for the US fumy
Field futi]lery using automotive com-
ponents of the M2A1 tank, The pro-
totype of this was completed under the
desiqnation T9, and further develop-
ment was undertaken under the de-
signation T9EL Trials with the T9El
were a success, and in 1942 it was stan-
dardized as the M4 Medium Tractor,
renamed the High-Speed Tractor, 18-
ton, M4 in August 1943,
Productron of the M4 was under-
taken by the Allis-Chalmers Corpora-
tion, and in the period after World War
II quantitres were supplied under the
Mutual Defence Assistance Progrram
(MDAP) to a number of countries in-
cluding Japan, Brazil, Pakistan and
Yugoslavia, The M4 has not been used
by the US Army for many years.
TVro versions of the M4 were built,
one to tow the 90-mm (3,54-in) and
76,2-mm (3-in) anti-aircraft gnrns and
the other to tow the 155-mm (6, 10-in)
'Long Tom' gmn, 203-mm (B-in) howit-
zer and 240-mm (9,45-in) howitzer, The
vehicle was designed to tow artillery
weighing betvveen 8165 kg (18,000 Ib) Above: The M4 cab has seats at the
and 13608 kg (30,000 Ib) on roads and frontfor thedriver and one
across country, as well as carrying the passengrer and seating behind for
complete gun crew, personal eight gu n-crew. Two models were
weapons, artillery ammunition and produced originally, one for the 90-
essential supplies, mm AA gan designated C lass A, and
When towing the anti-aircraft Qnrns one for the 'Long Tom' I55-mm long'
rhe M4 was called Class A and fitted range gun, designated C lass B.
'r,rith an ammunition box with shell
racks for 54 rounds of anti-aircraft the M2HB machine-gmn canbe quckly
ammumtron, When used in the other dismounted for use in the qround role.
:cle, for towrnq artillery, it was known The O-cylinder petrol englne is in-
as Class B and fitted with a carqo box stalled at the rear of the cab and cou-
-rith shell racks and hold-down plates pled to a manual transmission with
suitable for ammunition, A total of 30 three forward and one reverse qear,
:ounds of 155-mm, 20 rounds of 203- The suspension is of the horizontal
nm or 12 rounds of 240-mm ammunl- volute type, and on each stde consists
ion could be carried (e,9, projectile of hvo two-wheeled bognes, a large
and charge), plus fuses. Each cargo drive sprocket at the front and a large
iox was provided with a swing crane idler at rear, and tvro track-return rol-
and trolley hoist for lifting the heavy lers, The tracks are of the steel block/
projeciiles into the box, rubber bushed type, and are 422mm Powerplant: one Waukesha I 45GZ 6 - The M4 H igh-S peed Tr actor
The cab is at the front ofthe vehicle, (16,6 in) wide. cylinder inline petrol engine stemmed from a l94l decision to use
-,rith seats for the driver and one pas- Standard equipment includes a tyre developing ]56 kW(210 hp) automotive parts for the MZAI tank
senqer, and to rear of this are double rnflation hose and a wrnch with a Dimensions: lenqth 5.232 m (17 ft 2 in); as tfte basis for a US Army field
seats for eight men, Entry is via two capaclty of 13608 kg (30,000 Ib) and width 2,464 m (B ft I in); heisht artillery tractor. It has long been
doorVopenings in each side ofthe cab, 91.4 m (300 ft) of i9-mm (0.75-in) cable, including AA machine-gmn 2.515 m phased out of service with U S forces,
Cver the top of the cab is a ring mount (B ft 3 in) but the Spanish army has only
br a 12.7-mm (0,5-in) M2HB antt-air- Specification Performance: maximum road speed recently retired its M4s.
craft machlne-gun, for which 500 M4 53 kr/h (33 mph); range 290 km (180
rcunds of ammunition are carried. An Crew: l*11 miles); fording 1,04 m (3 ft 5 in); trench 1.5 m(5 ftO in); gradient60per
M3 tripod mount is also carried so that Weight: maximum 14288 kq (31,500 lb) vertical obstacle 0,7 m (2 ft 3 1n); centi side slope 30 per cent

iffs Hish-speed rractor

The development of the M5 series of
high-speed tractors to tow artillery
weapons can be traced back to 1941,
crew also had their own small arms
such as rifle, sub-machine guns and
when the T20 and T2I were de- The M5 series has long been phased
veloped using the suspension and out of service with the US Army, but in
tracks of the M3 hght tank already in the post-war period it has been sup-
service with the US Army, In the end plied to a number of countries rnclud-
development of the T20 was stopped, ing Austria, Japan Pakistan and Yugos-
but the T21 was standardized as the MS lavia,
Medium Tractor in October 1942, and There are f,ve models, these being
production was undertaken by the In- designated the M5, MSAI, MSA2,
ternational Harvester Corporation. M5A3 and M5A4, the major differ-
In the summer of 1943 the M5 was ences being in the track and suspen-
renamed the High-Speed Tractor, 13- SION.
ton, MS which, when originally intro-
duced rnto service, was designeci to The MS can tow a weaPon weighing
tow 105-mm (4,i3-in) and i55-mm up to 9072 kg (20,000 [b) and
(6 lO-in) howitzers as well as carrytng provisionis madefor carrying 56
their complete qun crews and rounds of I 05 -mm ammunition. The
ammumtion. The vehicles were nor- roller visible at the front allows the
mally armed with a 12,7-mm (0,5-in) winch mounted above it to be used in
M2HB Browning machine-gnrn for anti- either direction. Five ditferent
aircraft defence, although the gun models have been produced.

M5 High-Speed Tractor (continued)

The M5 can tow weapons weighing

up to
9072 kg (20,000 lb) and has a
maximum payload of 5000 kq
(11,023 lb), Provision is made for car-
rying 56 rounds ol 105-mm ammuni-
tion, 38 rounds of lt4mm (4 S-in)
ammunrlron or 24 rounds (e.9.24 pro-
jechle and 24 propellant 'ch-argeil of
.155-mm ammunition,
The engine is coupled to a transmis-
sion with four forward and one reverse
gear, with a two-speed transfer case
grvinq a total of eight grears in each
Moulted at the lront of the M5 is a
winch with a capacity of 6804 kg
(13.000 lb) and two speeds in both
ci:rectrons. A roller located under the
allows it to be used to the rear of
the vehicle as well as at the front.
Standard equipment tncludes air
couplers front and rear, and an electric
brake connection for the towed load,
The crew compartment can be fitted
wrth a canvas top and side curtains to Above:The M5 medium tractor
provrde a measure of protection entered production in I 942 with
agarnst bad weather. International Hawester and used the
Suspension of the MS on each side suspension of the M 3 light tank.
consists of two bogles, each of which Originally designed to tow US Army
has two small road wheels, The idler is 105- and 155-mmhowitzers, it
at rear and the large drive sprocket at remains in servicewith the armies of
the front, and there are two small Aus tria, J ap an and Yu gos I avia.
track-return rollers,
The MSA] is similar to the M5 but
has a fully enclosed cab seating a total
of 11 men including the driver. The Specification
MSA2 has a horizontal volute suspen- M5
sion system and much vrrder tracks, Crew: l-l- 10
which give a much lower ground Weisht:loaded 13791 ks(30,405 1b)
pressure and therefore improved Powerplant: one Contrnental R6572 6-
mobillty across country The M5A3 is cylinder petrol engine developingr
an MSAI with suspension system mod- 154 kW (207 bhp)
ified to provide for a wide track by the Dimensions:lenqth 5,03 m (16 ft 6 in);
addition of spacers between tractor width2,54 m(B ft41n); height2.69 m
hu1l and suspensron brackets. The (B ft 10 in)
Il5A4 has seattng for 12 men and a Performance: maximum road speed
wrder hull, The clutch on this model is 48 km/h (30 mph); range 241 km (150
4!luls gflhelapanese GroundSelf Defence Force on parade sports a l2.7 nut
mechanically operated and the tracks miles); fordrng 1.3 m(4 ft4 rn); trench (.50
.cal) Browning M2 machine-gun on the ring-mouit. The M-SAI has a fuliy
equipped wrth welded extenders to 1.7 m(5 ft6 in); gradientS0percent; enclosed cab and the M5A2 introduced horizontal volute suspension. and '
improve traction in soft ground. side slope 20 per cent wider tracks giving lower groundpressure.

iut8 Higt -Speed Tractor

The development of the M8 family of
high-speed tractors can be traced
back to World War II when the T33
cargo carrier was developed on the
chassis of the M24 Chaffee light tank
This drd not prove to be a success, so
another vehicle was developed as the
T42, and this was standardizeC after
the end of the war as the MB high
speed tractor.
The MB was powered by a radial
petrol enqine developing 354 kW
(475 hpt coupled to d torquemattc
transmrssion. The next model was the
MSEI wing many automotive compo
nents of the M41 light tank family
which included the M42 twin 40 mm
self-propelled anti-aircraft gun sys-
tem, and the M44 155-mm (6. 10-in) and
M52 105-mm (4. 13-in) self-propelled
The MBEl was standardized as the weighing up to 17690kq (39,000 lb) The layout of the MBAl and MBA2 is The M8 is testimony to the versaiJif;-
MSAI and 480 were built by the Allis- and carry a payload of 7938 kq unusual, with the engine towards the of the M4 1 W alker B ulldog light ta::.k.
Chalmers Corporation at Milwaukee, (17,500 lb). Typical weapons towed by front ofthe vehicle coupled to a Gener- which also provided the basis for
Wrsconsin. A total of 480 of the MBA2 the vehicle rncluded the 75-mm (2.95- al Motors Corporation (Allison Divr- 105-mm and 155-mm self-prope|-!ei
with a fuel rn;ected engine vrere also in) M51 Skysweeper anti-atrcraft gun, sion) CD-500-3 cross-drive transmis- guns and the M42 'Duster' sel!-
built by Allis-Chalmers, Production of 155-mm Ml14 howrtzer, i55 mm M59 sicn with two forward and one reverse propelled AA gan.In US At:n7
the MBAI and MBA2 ran from 1950 to 'Longt Tcm' gun and 203-mm (B-in) range The driver rs seated in a fully service the M8 towea *e;:-=:::
1955 and some were subsequently MllS howttzer Kits were available to enclosed cab at the front left wrth the 'S kysweepe r' Afi gun or - J - - ::
-- =: =
supplied to other countries under the enable the cargo area to be adapted vehicle commander in the oppost'e 243-mmwns.
Mutual Aid Program (MAP) raproly Ior rhe carrrage ol rl e ammuni cabrn to hrs right. Mounted over the
The MBA1 and MBA2 hrgrh-speed tion and chargtes required by the par- Iatter is a ring mount for a standard gun i3l
tractors can tow a weapon or trailer ttcular weapon beinq 12.7-mm (0.5-in) anti-atrcraft machine- tion ar=
M8 High-Speed Tractor (continued)

The torsion-bar suspension on each AnMB tows rolling liquid long been phased out of servrce, the When being used as an artillery
side consists of six dual rubber-tyred transporters during an exercise in M115 has been replaced by the self- primemover, theMB can be fitted
road wheels, the drive sprocket at the Alaska. The M 8A 1 and M 842 have an propelled MilO, and the M114 has with seats for the gun crew. The
front and the idler at the rear, and four unusual layoutwith the engine been supplanted by the Ml9B which is cargo area has adrop tailgate and
track-return rollers, mounted towards the front, towed by a standard 5-ton M939 series removable bows, and somevehicles
The large cargro area has hrgh stdes connected to a GMC CD-500-3 cross- 6x6 truck, h ave hy dr au lically oper ate d
a drop tailgate, removable bows and a drive transmission. The driver tailgates tofacilitate the offloading of
tarpaulin cover, When the vehicle is occupies the left-hand cab and the Specification ammunition and s upp lies.
used as an artillery prime mover seats ve hicle comm ande r the r ig ht. M8
are provided for the gnrn crew, and Crew:1+l
many vehicles have a hydraulically prepare flring positions for the weapon Weights:empty 17009 kg (37,498 lb); 3,048 m (10 ft 0 ln)
operated tailgate to facilitate the being towed, Standard equipment on loaded 24948 kq (55,000 lb) Performance: maximum road speed
offloading of ammunition and supplies. all vehicles includes a winch with a Powerplant: one Continental AOS-895- 64,4 }cm/h (40 mph); range 290 km (18-
Some vehicles are also fitted with a capacity af 20412 kg (45,000 lb) 3 6-cylinder air-cooled petrol engrine miles); fording 1.06 m (3 ft 6 in);
hydraulcally operated dozer blade at The MBA1 and MBA2 are no lonqer developins 644 kW (863 hp) verticalobstacle0 46 m(1 ftO in);
the front ofthe hull, this betng used to in sewice with the US Army as the M51 Dimensions: lenqth 6.731 m (22 ft I in); trench 2. 13 m (7 ft 0 in); gradient 60 pe:
clear battlefleld obstacles as well as to Skysweeper and M59 'Long Tom' have width 3.327 m (10 ft 11 in); heiqht cent; side slope 30 per cent

M993 Fighting Vehicle Systems Carrier

The Fighting Vehicle Systems Carrier T he MS 93 F igh ting Vehicle Sy s tems
has been designed by the Ordnance Carrier is the support vehicle for the
DMsion of the FMC Corporation in San Vought Multiple Launch Rocket
Jose, California, origrnally to cafiy the System (MLRS) and it shares the
Vought Multiple Launch Rocket Sys- same chassrs.
tem (MLRS), The frrst prototypes were
completed in 1978, and two years later
first productron contracts were nutes, and ifrequired can be run out-
awarded, side the vehicle before being instal-
The Fighting Vehicle Systems Car- ]ed,
ner chassrs is designated the M993 The suspension ofthe FVSC is ofthe
and the US fumy ls expected to have torsion-bar type with sx dual rubber-
342 of these in sewice by 1987 for use tyred wheels, the drive sprocket at the
with the MLRS. The MLRS has also front and the idler at rear, and four
been adopted by France (one FVSC track-return rollers, An unusual feature
foom the USA and 56 to be built in olthe suspension is that it has a lockout
Europe), Italy (20 to be built in system operated from within the cab:
Europe), West Germany (two from the suspension is locked out when the
USA and 200 to be built in Europe), and rockets are being launched, so provid-
the UK (fow from USA and 67 to be ing a more stable firing platform and
burlt in Ewope), The Netherlands is erreater accuracy,
also expected to purchase the MLRS, The l2-round Multiple Launch
The FVSC uses automotive compo- Rocket System is mounted to the rear
nents of the M2 Infantry Fighting Vehi- of the cab, and the rockets are laun-
cle and M3 Cavalry Fightinq Vehicle, ched by the crew safely ensconced in
of which more than 2,000 have already the cab,
been built by the FMC Corporation, In addition to the M993 Fightinqr
The fu11y enclosed and armoured Vehicle System Carrier there is also a
cab is at the front of the vehicle, and basic cargo carrier vehicle (M987) changing complete powerpacks in the loaded 25400 ks (55,997 1b)
has seats for the three-man crew, com- which has yet to be placed in produc- field), medrcal evacuation vehicle, Powerplant: one Cummins VTA-903
munications equipment and an NBC tion. mine clearance carrier, command turbocharged B-cylinder dtesel
system to allow it to operate in a con- FMC has also built prototypes of the post, carrier for anti-aircraft mrssiles or developing3T3 kW (500 hp)
tammated area. Armored Forward-Area Rearm Vehi- long-ranqe attack missiles, and carrier Dimensions: length 6,78 m (22 ft 3 in);
The engine comparment is below cle (AFARV) which can rearm M60 for specialized equipment such as the width 2,97 m (9 ft 9 in); height, cab roof
and to the cab rear, the complete and Ml series MBTs in the forward AN/TPQ-36 and AN/TPQ-37 mortar- 2,59 m (B ft 6 in)
powerpack (consistinq of the engine battlefield area. and artillery-locating systems. Performance: maximum road speed
and transmisston) being interchangTe- Other variants of the Fighting Vehi- 61 krr/h (38 mph); maximumrange
able with that of the M2 and M3, a fact cle Systems carrier proposed by FMC Specification 483 krn (300 miles); fording 1,02 m (3 ft
which has obvious logistical advan- include the field artillery ammunttion FSC 4 in); verticalobstacle 0,91 m (3 ft O in);
:agres rn the field, The complete support vehicle, maintenance assist Crew: 1+2 trench 2,29 m (7 ft 6 in); grradient 60 per
powerpack can be rePlaced in 30 mr vehicle (with a hydraulic crane for Weights:empty 145i4 kq (31,998 1b); centi side slope 40 per cent

Fighting \Ghicle Sgstems -.'
Moderncombatvehicles requireintensivelogistic supportto enable them to sustain ffi, .,'. :i. .."'."".-
operationsfor anylength of time, butsupportingvehicles need tobe able to keepup
with armoured forces moving cross-country. The FightingVehicle Systems Carrier
is a supportvehiclefor the MLRS vehicle, based on the same chassjg buf the idea
+t'l ,, u
; ,
*. 'l'-
lrasbeen extended to produce avehicle to re-arm Main BattleTanks on the ,'i1'' "-s"'" ql;'- e.,".- "'
In November 1972 the Ordnance Divrsion of the
FMC Corporation, San Jose, Caiifornia, was
MLRSmoves ahead
In September 1977 BoeingAerospace and
.:; ;,"i".rfr,; i
awarded a contract to design and build pro-
to[pes of a mechanrzed infantry combat vehi-
the Vought Corporation (now known as LTV
Aerospace) were each awarded contracts lor !-fb
cle (MICV) designated XM723, This had a the vahdation phase of the GSRS
three-man crew consisting of commander, ln this phase each company delivered about
gunner and drrver, and carried elght fuily I50 rockets and three launcher systems to the
equ:pped rnfantrymen, US Army for extensive trials, Both systems used
By 1975 three prototypes and 12 pre-produc- the same carrier, designed and buiit by FMC
tron vehicles had been co.mpleted, but in the Ordnance Division,
lollowrng year the whole programme was After trrals with both the Boerng Aerospace
halted whrle the US Army reassessed its future and Vought Corporation systems, the latter was
requirements accepted for service ln May 1980, by which The fully armoured cab of the M993 ftas seafs /or js
In the end lt was decided that one vehicle tlme France, West Germany, the UK and Itaiy three-man crew and is tittedwith anNBC system to
would be developed to meet the requrrements had all become interested in co-production of enable it to operate in contaminated areas. The
the system in Europe, engine compartment is underneath and to the
of the infantry as the XM2 Infantry Figrhtingr
rear, and is interchangeable with that of the M2
Vehicle, and another for the cavalry (armoured and M3, offering considerable logistic advantages.
forces) as the XM3 Cavalry Flgrhtin9r Vehlcle. Into service
At the same time it was decided to cancel the The US Army has a requirement for 333 self-
XM800 Armoured Reconnaissance Scout Vehi- propelled launcher loaders (SPLL) based on tlonal as well as nuclear muniiions. Each Nl-:-.S
cle (ARSV) after prototypes had been built by the Fighting Vehicle Systems Carrier, 362 832 battery will have three frrrng platoons ea::
FMC (a llght tracked vehicle) and Lockheed tactical rockets and27,648 training rockets, In with three MLRS systems, which wr1l be :ap-
Missile and Space Company (a 6xO Uqht addition 480 8x8 rocket resupply vehicles able of delivering a massrve amount of firep:'.'.-
armoured vehicle), (based on the Heavy Expanded Mobility Tac- er to a ranse of over 30000 m (32,810 yarrs
The XMZ and XM3 w-ere based on the tical TTucVHEMT'T) and trailers are also re-
XM723 the main improvements being the re- qurred, AdoptedbyNATO
placement of the original one-man turret The first Multiple Launch Rocket System bat- The decrsion taken in 1978 to make the \l-:-.S
(armed with a 20-mm cannon) with a new two- tery was formed for training in the USA in 1982, a NATO weapon caused a sbght deiay as :-=
man turret (armed with a 25-mm cannon, a and by 1983 the system was firlly operational. It rocket diameter had to be rncreased a::-.:
7 62-mm/0.3-in co-axlal machine-gun and a is now deployed ln both the continental USA decision v,ras taken to develop three 'ui-ar:lc.
twrn launcher for Hughes TOW ATGWs) and in Europe with the US 7th Army. The flrst is a dual-purpose antl-vehicie -,:--
This whole project was then renamed the The US Army rs now reorganizing rts dr-
Fightrng Vehicle System (FVS) which con- visional structure, and under the Division 86
plan each armoured and mechanized division Aprototype of theFMC ArmouredForward Area
sisted of the XM2 IFV and the XM3 CFV, but RearmVehicie undergroes lests. This version of *e
from 1977 the programme also included the will have one battalion consisting oione MLRS M993 is intended to re-arm Ml Abrams and M6C
carrier used with the General Support Rocket battery and two batteries of 203-mm (81n) series MBTs. Mobile enough to keep upwith the
System (GSRS) later renamed the Multiple Mll0A2 self-propelled howitzers, the latter tanks moving cross-caun@, this will be a valuable
Launch Rocket System (MLRS). being capable olfiring a wide ranqe of conven- addition toUS armoured divisions.

personnel warhead contalning large numbers mobrlity as those they are supportingt, for if they Alarge number of variants are plannedinaddition
:i M77 submunitions, each oiwhich can pene- do not forward elements will soon run out of to the basicM993, includingfield artillery
essentral supplies and be forced to pull back. ammunition carrier, medical evacuation vehicle
:ate 100 mm (3.93 in) of armour, for example and various engineering models and missile
-re top of a tank where lt is most vulnerable, FMC has proposed that the FVSC be mod- platforms. A maintenance assri tance version can
lhrs warhead is at present fitted to all produc- ified to undertake a wide range of supporting mount a powerfulwinch.
--:n rockets for the US Army, roles on the battlefield, for example forward
The second warhead has been developed armoured ambulance, tank ammunition re- been pushing the Forward Area Armorei
specrflcally to meet the requirements of the supply vehicle, fleld artillery ammunition sup- Logistics Systems (FAALS) to the US Army.
-'Yest port vehicle (the US Army has already selected This has evolved out ofan in-depth study ofthe
German army, and contalns 28 AT-2 anti-
:ank mines. The thrrd warhead, now in tts early the M992 system based on the Ml09 self-prop- 1973 Middle East conflict and possible tuiure
s:ages of development, will contain a number elted howitzer chassis to meet this require- conflicts,
:r terminally guided submunitions, each of ment), maintenance assist vehicle with hyd- The FAALS is based on the Fighting Vehlcle
-,',-rich wrll home onto an armoured vehicle. raulic crane, command post/operations centre Systems Carrier and consists of three vehicles
with extensrve communrcLions equipment pro- FAALS-Refuel, FAAI,S-Rearm and ar.
FirstNATOMLRSsin 1987 vided with armour protection, mine-clearance armoured maintenance vehicle.
It rs expected that a total of 342 self-prop- vehicle, carrier for specialized radar and elec- The armoured maintenance vehicle will be
eied launcher loaders (SPLL) will be built ln tronics equipment such as the Hughes AN/ fitted with a 4536-kg (10 000-1b) capacity crane
:'i:rope, the first systems being completed in TPQ-37 artillery-locating radar, fuel resupply able to change complete tank powerpacks u:
-387. Olthese 200 will be for West Germany, 67 vehicle, recovery vehicle, platform for future the field, and will be provided to the cab rear
::r the UK 20 for Italy and 55 for France. In tactical misslle systems (for example Assauit with a module capable of supporting opera-
jdrtion each country has purchased, or will Breaker), and air-defence vehicle with mis- tions such as repair, replacement and diagnos-
p'.:rchase, systems direct from Vought for rnitial siles such as Roland. tics. It will also be able to tow a four-wheeled
:a:mng. Other nations, including the Nether- trailer carryrng a complete tank powerpack
-a:rds, are also expected to adopt the system in
AFARVtested (engine and transmission),
:re near future, as well as some countries in the FMC Ordnance Drvrsion has already com- Current US Army ammunition trucks and re-
l.lCdle East and elsewhere, pleted a prototype of the Armored Forward- supply vehicles not only lack cross-country
Area Rearm Vehicle (AFARV) which, if stan- mobilrty comparedwith the vehicles they sup-
Other roles dardized, will be rssued on the scale of seven port, but also have no armour or NBC protec-
The basrc MLRS carrier is called the M993, per M60/M1 tank battalion and eight per M2 tion, The FAALS-Rearm vehicle will be able to
well over 150 of these vehicles have now Bradley mechamzed tnfantry battalion. resupply two MI tanks simultaneously and car-
:een delivered to Vought, whrch integrates The AFARV has an identica] chassis and cab ry 120 rounds of tank amrmrnition. This particu-
-:e whole system and delivers it to the US to the MLRS carrier, but to the rear of the lar vehicle has evolved from the AFARV
r mv bullet- and NBC-proof cab are armoured stow- already tested by the US Army.
MLRS carrier, or Fighting Vehicle age compart*ents fot 105-mm (4. 13-rn) and The FAALS-Rearm can, be converled to
S=;siems Carrier as it is correctly calied, uses 120-mm (4.72-in) tank ammunition, Basically, a FAALS-Refuel configmration rn one hour with
jte same automotive components as the M2 tank requiring fresh ammunition draws up 7571 litres (2,000 US gal) of fuel transferrable to
a:d M3 (for exampie engine, transmission, alongside the AFARV and the loader's hatch ts tanks at the rate of 303 litres (80 US gal) per
suspenslon and tracks), a wide range opened up. The AFARV then lranslers new minute.
:: cther roles is now betng proposed by FMCammunition to the MBT wtth the aid of a con-
Scrporation, veyol system while the crew of both vehicles Futureof FAALS
L:r recent years the mobilrty of mechanized remain under armour protection. In addition There is no doubt that the US Army requires
::rces has been greatty improved by the rntro- (or indeed as an alternative to tank ammunl- the Forward Area Armored Logistics System,
jrclion of new armoured vehicles, for example tton) the vehicle can carry not only small arms but its procurement rs a question of whether or
MI Abrams and the M2 Bradley Infantry ammuniiion but also replacement TOW mis- not sufficient funding can be found withrn an
::ghtrng Vehlcle. These vehicles have to be si!ry fgl th9JV12 Bradley.lFV M901 Improved already tight US Army budget. In the past there
reiuppied with ammunition and fuel, wounded TOW Vehicle and standard infantry systems, has been funding for front-line items such as
spare parts and other essen- plus 25-mm ammunition for the Chain Gun of MI tanks, M2 lnfantry Flghting Vehicies and
:al supplies moved forward, and damaged and the Bradley antitank systems, but insufflcient fundtng has
:-sabled vehrcles reparred and recovered, It is been provided for the essential support vehi-
that the vehrcles carrying out these FAALS
concept cles without which the frontline vehicles can-
=ssential the same degree of cr6ss-country More recently FMC Ordnance Division has not operate over an extended period,
,=sks have

re ivrs+g rracked Cargo Carrier
The development of the M548 Tracked
Modern Tracked Prime Movers

Cargo Carrier can be traced back to

the early 1960s when the US Army
Signal Corps rssued a requrrement for
a full-tracked vehicle to carry special-
ized electronic equipment.
The first prototype was completed
under the designation XM54B but this
was not placed in prociuction and furth-
er development resulted in the
XM548EI which used automotlve com-
ponents of the M113Al tracked
I armoured personnel carrier already in
production by the FMC Corporation,
The XMS4BE1 was subsequently stan-
dardized as the M54B in i965, and the
t first productton vehicles were com-
pleted by FMC Corporation in 1966.
By October 1984 the company had
built no less than 3,683 M54Bs for the US
Army and 1,295 vehicles for the expofi
market The current productton model
is the M548A1, which has a number of
lmportant automotive improvements.
In addition to service with the US
Army, the M54B is used by many other
armies rncluding those of Austraha,
Canada Egypt, Greece, Israel, Italy,
Norway, Spain, Switzerland, Tumsra, One of the mostwidely-used tracked missrle system and its dedtcated sup-
the Umted Krnqrdom and West Ger- supportvehicles in service today, the porting vehicles, the transporter and
many. M54B stemmed Irom a US Army launcher for the Vougrht Lance surface-
The basic vehicle is desiqned to Signal Corps requirement for a to-surface missile system, which can
carry 5443 kg (12 000 lb) of cargro on tracked vehicle to catry electronic have a tactical nuclear warhead; a spe-
roads and across country, as well as equipment. Although the M548 cialized electrontcs vehicle for radars
towing a trailer or weapon weighing shares a number of automotive parts and electronic warfare, a minelayer;
up to 6350kq (140001b) Besides with the M I 13 APC, its hull and layout the launch vehicle for the M730 Cha-
actingr as a cargo carrier in forward are totally different. parral surface-to-air mtssile system
areas the M54B is also wrdely used as wrth four missrles in ready-toJaunch
an ammunition support vehicle for self- The cargo area rs at the rear, and has position; a twin 35-mm self-propelled
propelled artillery pleces such as the two doors at the very rear for loading antr-arrcraft gun, a recovery vehicle;
M107, M109 and Ml l0 purposes, removable bows and a tar- and a mine-clearance vehicle The M548 usedfor
Although the M54B uses automottve paulin cover. numerous spe cialis t roles inclu d::: q
components of the Ml 13 senes, tt has a The M54B is fu1ly amphibrous, being Specification mobile eleclronic warlare. as se€-:
different hull and layout. The dnver propelled in the water by its tracks, M548 here. It is also used to carry the
and three passenqrers are seated at the and standard equrpment rncludes Crew: l+3 British Aerospace Tracked Rapier
very front of the hull with the engrne infra-red night-driving ligrhts and Weights:empty 7439 kg (16 400 1b); SAM system and its dedicated
and transmiss on under rherr seots. winch The vehicle does not have an loaded 12882 kq (28,400 lb) support vehicles, and the
The engtne is coupled to a fully auto NBC system. Powerplant: one Detroit Diesel Model Chaparral and Lance missiles.
matic transmisslon wlth srx forward The M54B chassis has been used as
and two reverse speeds The cab has a the basis for countless specialized
removable canvas top and rear and vehrcles includrng the Britrsh Aeros
the wrndscreen can be folded for pace Tracked Rapier surface-to-air
wards if requrred. Over the top of the
cab is a ring mount for a 7.62-mm (0.3- Below : The basic model M 548 is
inro. 12.7-mm (0 5 rn) machrro-gun designed to carry 5443 kg ( I 2,000 Ib)
The suspension is of the torsion-bar of cargo as well as to tow a trailer or
type and consists of five road wheels, weapon weighing up to 6350 kg
wtth the drive sprocket at the front and ( I 4,000 Ib). The driver and three
idler at the rear; there are no track- passengers are seated at the front
return rollers. above the engine and transmtssibn.
t1548 Cqrgo Carrier &M752 lance lYlissile Launcher
The M548 chassis sewes in awide variety of roles.
Seen here are the basic cargo carrier model and
the launcher vehiclefor the Lance surface-to-
surface nuclear-capable missile. The M548 also
provides support vehicles for the Lance system, a i,
transporter model carrying the re-loads for the fit
battery. By late I 984 some 3,683 M548s had been
built for the US Army and I ,295 for the export
market. Over a dozen nations usevariants of the
M548, including the UK, West Germany, I taly and


Modern Tracked Prime Movers

€= tfiggz Fietd Artilery Ammunition Support Vehicte
Until the introduction of the M992 Field
Artillery Ammunition Support Vehicle
rnto the US Army, the 155-mm (6. 10-in)
M109 self-propelled howitzer was re
supplied in the forward battlefleld
area by M54B .racked careo caffIers
whrch lack armour protection for crew
and carqo.
In 1979 the US Army tested three
prototypes of a full tracked armoured
ammunitron resupply vehrcle. TVro of
these were based on the proven Ml09
chassis (one built by BMY and the
o'her oy AAI H.lman lngineeting
Laboratory) and the last on an FMC
stretched M548 cargo carrier chassis.
After extensle trials the Ml09 chas-
sis was selected rn preference to the
M548 chassrs for a number of teasons,
includinq its commonality with the
Mi09 self-propelled howitzer whtch it
would support in the field For the US
Army this offered a number of advan-
taqres rncludinq easier training and
logistic support
After trials with prototype vehicles
designated XM992 the vehicle was
accepted lor service with the US Army
and type classifled as the M992 Freld
Artillery Ammumtron Suppod Vehrcle
The first production order for the
M992 was placed with Fiscal Year 1983
funding the flrst production vehicles
being completed in l9B4 By the end of machlne-gun for local protectlon rear of the Ml09 via a conveyor syslem An M992 attends a US Army M /09 SP
1984 3B vehicles had been completed, In the ammunition resupply com- at six rounds per minute, a rate some- 155-mm gun.lnUS service itcarries
wrth another 1BS following rn 1985, The partment are racks for projectiies what higher than the normal rate of fire 93 155-mm shells,99 propellant
US Army has a requirement for some which are loaded through hatches in of the M109, charges and 1 04 fuses. The vehicle
1,500 vehrcles of this type, the rool Prototype XM992s had a hyd- BMY has suggested that the M992 can a/so be used to support the
The M992 is also in service with rauhc crane mounted on the hull front could be the basis of a complete family M 1 10A2 203-mm SP howitzer.
Egypt, whlch addrtionally operates a to enable the vehicle to resupply itself of tracked and armoured supporting
command post vehicle based on the direct from trucks, but productton vehicles, inluding a Maintenance
same chassis This has been ordered vehrcles for the US Army lack this Assist Vehicle, Armored Forward (10 ft6 rn)
by Saudi Arabia. crane, although it was specified bY Area Rearm Vehicle, Fire Direction Performance: maximum road speed
The basic hull of the M99 rs almost Egypt. The M992 also carnes the Center (already tested by the US 57 5 krri/h (36 mph); rangre 360 km
identical to that of the M1O9 with which appropriate propellant charges and Army) and Medical Evacuation Vehi- (224 miles); fording 1,07 m (3 ft 6 in);
rt rs designed to operate To the rear of fuses. In US Army service the M992 cle. trench 1 83 m (6 ft 0 in); gradient 40 per
the driver's compartment and engine carries 93 I55 mm projeciles 99 prop- cent; side slope 20 per cent
the turet has beeen replaced by a ellant charges and 104 fuses. The vehi- Specification
iully enclosed compartment of welded cle can also be conflqrured to suppod M992 The M992 Field Artillery Ammunition
aluminium armour that provides the the Ml10A2 203-mm (B-in) self-prop Crew:2+6 Support Vehic le suppft'es / 55-mm
same degfree of protection as that elled howitzer, in which case it carries Weights: empty 20000 kq (44,092 lb); projectiles and propellant charges to
offered to the remainder of the vehtcle 43 projectiles, 53 propellant charqes loaded 26i36 ks (57 6 19 lb) the US Army'sMl09 self-propelled
In tne roof ol the ammunrtLon com- and 56 fuses. Powerplant: one Detroit Diesel Modei artillery batteries, rcplacing the
partment is a commander's cupola In actron the M992 backs up to the BV-7 T B-cylinder turbocharged
1 Iightly protected M548 in this role.
,n'hich can be traversed throuqh 360' rear of the M109 self-propelled howit- dresel devloping 302 kW (405 bhp) The chassri r's a lso used by the
and is fitted with an externally zer and transfers fused proiectrles and Dimensions: length 6,78 m (22 ft 3 in); Egtyptian army as an armoured,
mounted 12.7-mm (0.S-rn) MZHB propellant charqJes directly into the wrdth 3,25 m ( 1O ft B in); heiqht 3.20 m mabile command post.

Modern Tracked Prime Movers
li-a0o Light Tracked Artillery Tractor
Srortly after the end of World War II
:e USSR produced the M-2 light artil-
The K800 is anup-engined M2, which
was a light artillery tractor based on
-ery tractor as the replacement for the the Su-76 chassis introduced by the
Ya-12 and Ya-13F light artillery trac- Soviet U nion in the late I 940 s. N ow
-:rs rntroduced towards the end of the retired from firstJine Hungarian
',';ar In the Soviet army the M-2 was units, the K800 is probably still in
replaced from the early 1950s by the fesewe.
-lT-L vehicle
In the 1950s Hungary introduced the
K-800 liqht tracked artillery tractor
;hich is aimost rdentical to the Soviet
lvl-2 but has a more powerful engrne. that installed on the Su-76 76-mm (3-in)
-is far as it is known the K-BOO is no self-propelled gnrn, with flve single-
-rnger in front-line service with the tyred road wheels, the drive sprocket
,{ungarian army although quantities at the rear and the idler at the front,
are doubtless held in reserve as the and three track-return rollers.
,Varsaw Pact rarely scraps obsoles- The K-BOO can carry a maxjmum
:ent mihtary equipment such items payload of 1800 kg (3,968 Ib) and tow a
aelnef put into store or exported to Afri- weapon or trarler weighing up to
:a or elswhere, 8000 ks (17 637 Ib)
The water-cooled dresel enqne 1s Many years ago Yugroslavia built a
:cupled to a manual transmission with version of the K-800 cailed the GJ-800,
-'re forward and one reverse
qear and This was similar in appearance to the
-s mounted at the front The two-man Hungarian vehicle but powered by a
:Jly enclosed cab is located in the O-cylinder water-cooled diesel de-
:-nlre, and has srngle observatior veloping BgkW (120hp) and fitted Weights: empty 6400 kq ( 14, 109 lb); roof2.20 m (7 ft 2.6 in)
:-atch in the roof and two wrndscreens with a cab from a standard FAP truck loaded B20O kq (18,078 ]b) Performance: maxrmum road spe: :
:-nged on the upper part to open for- also built in Yugoslavia. Powerplant: one Csepel D6 13 6- 35 kni/h (22 mph); range 300 kr : -:a
..;ards. cylinder water-cooled diesel miles); fording0 6 m(2 ft 0 m): . ?::::'
The rear cargo area has a drop tail- Specification developing 97 kW (130 hp) obstacle 0,5 m (1 ft B in); trencr I : :-
;ate, removable bows and a tarpaulln K-800 Dimensions: Iengrth 5,0 m (16 ft 4,8 in); (4 ft 11 rn)' gradrenl 60 per cer:: s::=
::-,,er. Suspension rs almost identical to Crew: 1+1 wrdth2.40 m(7 ft 10,5 in); height, cab slope 30 per cent


Mazur D-350 Medium Tracked Artillery Tractor

-re Mazur D-350 medrum tracked
::-jllery tractor was desrgTned and built
i- the Labedy Heavy Machinery Plant
:- Poland in the 1950s, and performs a
::ie srmilar to that of the Soviet AT-S
::-edium tracked artillery tractor.
The first prototypes were called
Mazur D-300, but these were underpo-
r=red and production vehrcles were
'::ed with a more powerful engine and
:=:amed Mazur D-350.
As far as it is known the Mazur D-350
,--.sbeen used only by Czechoslovakia
Poland to tow B5-mm (3.35-in) and
--'l-mm (3,94-rn) anti-tank gmns and
=-sc 122-mm (4.80-rn) and 152-mm
- 38-rn) guns and howitzers,
The Mazur D-350 can tow a weapon
-: trailer weighinqr up to 10000k9
22 046 lb) across country or 15000 kg
:r 069 Ib) on roads,
l,4ost reports state that the Mazur D-
::- was replaced in production at the
-a-oedy Hearry Machinery Plant by the
S,;et ATS-59 medium tracked artil-
-=._.' tractor, but this could well have
:-=--n specifically for'the export mar- The Mazur D-350 is the Polish (40,918 lb) and loaded cross-country
t-:: equiv alent of the S ovie t ATS - 5 I and 17060 kq (37,6 I i Ib)
,:e V-12 water-cooled diesel en- offers better crew comfort than the Powerplant: one D-350 V- l2 water-
I:3 rs mounted at the front of the vehi- Sovietvehicle. cooled diesel developing 26 l kW
:,: and coupled to a manual gearbox (350 hp)
:r'-:: five forward and one reverse bows and a tarpaulin cover. Standard Dimensions: lenqth 5.8I m ( 19 ft
:aar. equipment includes a winch with a 0 75 in); width 2.89 m (9 ft 5,8 in);
-:e flrlly enclosed four-door cab is capacity of 17000kq (37,478Ib) and
:: -::e rear ofthe engine and has seats B0 m (262 ft) of cable,
j:: :e drler and eight passengers, for Suspension is ofthe torsion-bar type
=::nple the complete Eun crew when wtth flve road wheels; the drive
-:-= -;ehicle is towrnq an artillery sprocket is at the front and the idler at
-: -:pon. This is a signficam rmprove- rear, and four small track-return rollers
r:::-: over the Soviet ATS-59, in which are fitted,
::,::. :f the Qun crew are seated in the
area, exposed to the elements or Specification
provrded with a tarapaulin cover MazurD-350
- ---= ir4azur D-350's cab also has an Crew: l*B
:::e:.'ation hatch in the roof and the Weights: loaded road 18560 kg
T- lrnt wrndscreens are hrnqed at
-:: ::. so that they can be opened for Seen here towing an M 5 3 I 00-mm
:::::-.-ed visibility or cooling in hot (3.9-in) gun, theMazurD-350 is
-=:--:-:L capable of towing a weapon or
trailer ofup to I0 tonnes across
" ;:-::s-ies. a drop tailgate, removable
lear cargo area is provided with
country or I 5 tonnes along a road.
il nr-r, and AT-LM Ligrht Tracked
Artillery Tractors
The AT-L was developed in the period
immediately after World War II as the
replacement for the older M-2 liqht
tractor, and flrst entered service tn
The AT-1, has a maximum payload of
2000kq (4,409 lb) and can tow a trailer
or artiilery weapon weiqhing up to
6000 kg (13,228 Ib). Typical weapons
towed by the AT-L include 160-mm!'
(6,30-in) and 240-mm (9,45-in) mortars,
antr-tank gnrns, and lZ}mm (4,80-in)
and 152-mm (5,98-in) towed qnrns and
The engine and radiator ofthe AT-L
are mounted at the front of the vehlcle
for ease of access for maintenance
purposes. The hvo-door fully enclosed
cab is to the rear ofthe engdne, and the Pact and exported to such countries as 3,7 mph), andcanmove 40 m3 11,413 cu The AT-LM light artillery tractor was
cargo area 1s at the very rear, The Egypt and Syria. In most Soviet front- ft) per hour, though this latter flgnre introduced in the mid-i 9S0s and has
latter is provided with sides, a drop line units they have now been re- depends very much on the actual soil beenwidely exported to the Soviets'
tailgate, removable bows and a tar- placed by 6xO trucks, conditions, and is reduced in frozen sometime allies in the Middle East,
pauhn cover, When the AT-L is towing The AT-L and AT-I,M are used for ground, Egypt and Syria. Typical weapons
artillery, the members of the gmn crew carrying a variety of specialized elec- The USSR also produced an towed include large mortars of l60-
normally sit on bench seats running tronic equipment such as the 'Small armoured tracked artillery tractor cal- mm and240-mm calibres aswell as
across the full width of the vehicle. Yawn' (ARSOM-2) counter-mortar/ led the AT-PM, The flrst prototype of 1 22-mm and 1 52 -mm howitzers.

The suspension of the AT-L is of the counter-battery radar, and the 'Lonqt this was completed in 1944 but it did
torsion-bar type with sx road wheels; Trough' and 'Pork Trough' (SNAR-2) not enter service for several years, In cylinder water-cooied diesel
the idler is at the rear and the ddve battlefleld suweillance radars. addition to towing field guns and developing 261 KW (350 hp)
sprocket at front, and there are three The AT-L and AT-LM can both be howitzers it was also used to tow anti- Dimensions: Ienqth 5,81 m (19 ft
track-return rollers, fltted with an OLT dozer blade at the tank gnrns such as the 100-mm (3,94-in) 0,75 in); width 2,89 m (9 ft 5,75 in);
In the mid-1950s the AT-LM was in- front of the vehicle, and this can be I- IL. height, cab roof2,60 m (B ft 6,4 in)
troduced, This is similar to the orrginal used for a variety ofroles such as clear- Performance: maximum road speed
AT-1, but has flve larQte road wheels, ing soil and obstacles or preparing Specification maximumroadspeed4Z km/h
with the drive sprocket at front and firing posrtions for other weapons and AT.L (26 mph); range 300 km (186 miles);
idler at rear; there are no track-return armoured vehicles, Depending on the Crew: l+2 fording 0,6 m (2 ft 0 1n); verttcal
rollers, terrain conditions, the AT-VAT-I,M Weights:empty 6300 kg (13,889 lb); obstacle 0,6 m (2 ft 0 in); trench 1,0 m
The AT-L and AT-I,M were widelY generally carries out dozing opera- loaded B3O0 kq (18,298 lb) (3 ft 3 in); gnadient 50 per cent; side
used by most members of the Warsaw tions at a speed of 4 to 6 km,/Lr (2,5 to Powerplant: one YaMZ-2O4VKr 4- slope 20 per cent

L HtS-Sg Medium Tracked Artillery Tractor

The ATS-59 medtum tracked artillery
tractor entered sewice with the Soviet
army in the 1950s to supplement the
older AT-S medrum tracked artillery
tractor, The vehicle can tow trailers or
weapons weighing up to I4000 kg
(30,865 lb) and carry a maximum
payload, such as ammunition or stores,
up to 3000 ks (6,614 Ib), TYpes ofartil-
lery weapons towed include the 130-
mm (5,I2-in) M-46 fleld gnrn and the
100-mm (3.94-in) KS-19 towed anti-air-
craft gmn. In most front-line Soviet unlts
the ATS-59, like other vehicles of this
Vpe, has been replaced by 6 x 6 cross-
country vehicles for economic and
lognstical reasons,
In addition to being built in the
USSR, the ATS-59 has also been made
at the Labedy Hearry Machinery Plant
in Poland, which also developed its
own medium tracked artillery tractor
called the Mazur D-350, In addrtion to Unlike that ofthe AT-T, the engdne of the AT-S medium tracked artillery TheATS-59 is distinguishable from
being used by members of the War- the ATS-59 is mounted to the rear of the tractor. This too is rarely seen today the AT-T heavy artillery tractor by its
saw Pact, the ATS-59 has been sup- cab and protrudes into the rear cargo within the Soviet army, much shorter bonnet. Intended to
piied to armies in Africa and the Mid- area, thereby limitinq the size of cargo There are several variants of the tow the M-46 1 30-mm field gun and
dle East, that can be carrried, ATS-59 lncludrng a tractor model (rear the KS- 1 9 I 00-mm AA gun, it has
The ail-steel two-man fully enclosed Suspension is ofthe torsion-bar type carqto area removed and replaced by been largely replaced in Iront-line
cab is at the front of the vehicle, and and consists offive dual rubber-tyred a fifth wheel for towing semi-trailers) Sovietunits by heavy trucks.
has an observalion hatch in the left side road wheels, with the drive sprocket at and a dozer vehicle, The latter is fltted
of the roof, In appearance the ATS-59 the front and the idler at the rear; there with a hydraulically operated dozer
is very similar to the AT-T healry track- are no track-return rollers, The basic blade at the front ofthe hull for clearing water-cooled diesel developing
ed artillery tractor; the latter is sltghtly vehrcle has a range of 350km (217 earth, snow and contaminated soil, and 224 kw (300 hp)
larqer and has a much deeper bonnet. miles), but with long-range fuel tanks for preparing obstacles and fire post- Dimensions: length 6,28 m (20 ft 7,2 in);
The rear cargo area ofthe ATS-59 is this can be increased to 5O0km (311 tions, width 2,78 m (9 ft 1,4 in); heiqht (cab)
provided with high sides, a drop tail- miles), a very feature when fuel 2,30 m (7 ft 6,6 in)
gate, removable bows and a tarpaulin resupply vehicles are scarce, Specification Performance: maxtmum road speed
cover, When the vehlcle is being used In Soviet army service the ATS-59 ATS-59 39 krn/h (24 mph); ranqe 350 kn (217
io tow an artillery pieces the members was replaced by the ATS-S9G, which Crew: l* l miles), fording 1 5 m (4 fr II in):
ofthe qnm crew are normally seated on has similar suspension but a new fully Weights: empty 13000 kq (28,660 lb); verticalobstacle L i m (3 ft 7 in);
enclosed forward control cab some- loaded 16000 ks (35 274 ]b) trench 2,5 m (B ft 2 in); gradient 50 per
bench seats that run across the full
-,rrdth of the carQlo area. what similar in appearance to that of Powerplant:one Model A-650 V-12 cent; side slope 20 per cent

.. t4
The NorthernThreot
Themajority of Sovietfirst-line divisions no longer use tracked prime movers, as
their artillery isnow entirely self-propelled.Yetthegianttractorswould have an
importantrole toplayin afutureconflict, equippingthe second-echelonformations
and, in the case of the AT-7, towing the massire 180-mm guns of the heavy artillery

-lccording to the latest Western intelligence most in the central and southern USSR and in
:stimates, the Soviet ground forces number the Far East except those on the Chinese bor-
under two mlllion officers and men orga- der are Category 3,
:-zed into 51 tank divisions, l4l motorized rifle
livrsions, seven airborne divisions, I6 artillery Reduced use of tracked prime movers
livrsions, eight air assault brrgades, 16 Spets- Recent tables of organization and equipment
raz brrgades plus many smalier artillery, tank, (TOE) of Soviet tank and motorized rifle divr
surface-to-surface missile, electronic warfare, sions show that they no longer have any fuIl
NBC defence, signals, antrtank, anti-aircraft, tracked unarmoured prime movers as all of
artillery brigades and regiments. their artillery ls now self-propelled (122-mm
2S1 and l52-mm 2S3).
Three categories The motorized rifle division does, however,
These divisions have three states of combat have one AT-S tractor in the maintenance
readiness: Category I, 2 and 3. Category I battalion while ditching and dozer versions of
-crmations are kept up to ful} strength in both the AT-T are drstributed throughout the divi-
ranpower and equipment at all times, and are sion. The motorized rifle division also include
,rerefore ready for almost instant combat after an antr-tank battaiion (not found tn the tank
irawing ammunition, fuel and other essential division) with 14 MT-I,B armoured tracked
supplies, prime movers, 12 of which are used to tow the
Category 2 formations have therr full scale of lOO-mm (3 94-rn) T-12 antr{ank gnrns, The tank In aconflictbetweenNATO and theWarsaw Pac:
equipment but only 50 to 70 per cent of their drvrsion also has the single AT-S and the ditch- powers Norway would be of primary s trateglc
:ranpower, They therefore require three days ing and dozer versions of the AT-S, importance. TheNorwegian army has a peacet:=e
reach full manpower strength from reserves While Category I divisions do not employ strength of only I I ,500 , which would rjse to J 55. irji
on full mobilization. Here a Norwegrian
:pon mobilization, tracked prime movers on a large scale, the infantryman is on exercise away from tfte se.ns::re
Category 3 formations have therr full scale of Category 2 and 3 divisions would probably use frontier with the Soviet Union.
equipment but this is often older material such them in signrficant numbers to tow therr 122-
as T-54/T 55 tanks and towed !22-mm (4 8-in) mm and 152-mm artillery as insufficient self-
ard l52-mm (6-in) artillery pieces rather than propelled arti1lery weapons have been pro-
:he more modern self-propelled weapons, duced to equip all Category 1 divisions of the
These divisions have only about 20 per cent of Sovret army, let alone Category 2 and 3 divr
Although tracked prime movers have fun
reir required manpower and require some s10ns,
replaced by 6x6 trucks in mosl Catqory :
:rqht to 10 weeks to attarn combat strength and They would also be used to tow some of the readinessSovietdivisions, they willbe ser_n fxr a
:each their deployment areas, large numbersof 57-mm (2.24-tn),85-mm (3.34- long time yet in the Category 2 and 3 fonnato:is
A11 of the divisions in Eastern Europe are ln) 100-mm(3,, and 130-mm(5 1i-in)anti- towing 122-mm and 152-mm gruns aad horilze:s
Jategory I formations, those in the European aircraft Qnrns whrch are held in reserve in slgni- Over snow the tracked vehicles would hare
,SSR are a mixture of Category i and 2, and ficant numbers and would be used to supple- superior mobility despite their age.



The Northern Threat

Over rough and snow-covered terrain, the But many believe that the threat to NATO's connaiSsance, transport helicopters and
full-tracked prime mover can tow field guns at flanks is greater, especially the northern flank, ground-attack aircraft. The ACE Mobile Force
a higher cross-country speed than normal 6 x 6 where Norway shares a border with the USSR, carries out numerous exercises on both flanks
trucks and their ground pressures are much Many years ago NATO recognized that a of NATO on a regular basrs as well as exercis-
lower. war in Europe was just as llkely to start on the ing in olher member countries,
The main threat to NATO from the Warsaw flanks of NATO as on the Central Front, and for Fqr political reasons Norway does not allow
Pact rs commonly believed to be only agalnst this reason the Allied Command Europe any pennanent NATO units to be stationed
the Central Front, specifically West Cermany. Mobile Force (or ACE Mobile Force) was within its !o1ders, although it has recently
formed. allowed the USA to store equipment for a bri-
This rs trained to fight on Lhe flanks of NATO gade in southern Norway, although the Norwe-
from the extreme cold of Norway to the usually gian military authorities recommended that
more warmer cllmate of Greece and Turkey. they should be placed in the north of the coun-
The ACE Mobile Force is composed oilight try where they would actually be required in
iafantry units from a number of NATO countries time of war,
including West Germany, the UK ltaly' the
USA and Belgium supported by artrllqry, re- Extraunitdeployment
In addition to the ACE Mobile Force, other
unlts could be deployed to Norway in time of
j war: these include the Canadian Air-Sea
Transportable (CAST) brlgade, a US Manne
Corps amphibrous brigade and a combined
:: ::
Britiih/Dutch amphibious forie.
-ii' :. .l
.:' r Ji
ri i i i,:
-: ir
:'.. l,l.
r: -f._+
: . '' '' 4..:.:1
1 a:lliia-:.. '
, r:A3n:

Modern Tracked Prime Movers

The climate in Norway is such that units have

:: be trainedto operate in the invariably harsh
and for this reason the ACE
I.I:bile Force trains in Norway while the com-
:=ed British/Dutch amphibious force trains in
::-e country for at least three months per year.
::r political reasons these forces do not train
-=ar the Norwegian/Sovret border where they
;,-culd be deployed in time of war,
In peacetime there is one briqade group in
:-:rihern Norway: this conslsts of three infantry
:attalions, one tank company, one I55-mm (6. I-
::) Ml09 setf-propelled artlliery battalion, one
battery plus support units. To the
-,';estern rear of the Norweglan/Soviet border is
a single infantry battalion, In time of war two
:-:rther Norwegian brigades would be formed
-:cally and another two flown up from southern
Iiorway, with perhaps a further two brigades
:eurg provlded by NATO. Rapid reinforce-
:-ent by air would depend on the airfields in
:-:rthern Norway being kept open,
The Soviet Kola peninsula oppostte Norway
::nes under the Leningrad Military District,

Below: The Russian army has always placed great Above: A Centaur of the I 7/ 2 I Lancers is seen on.
value on its artillery, and the modern Soviet forces exercise in northernNotway. The Ai6ed
have a formidable array of guns with which to blast CommandEurope (ACE) Mobile Force tains Ior
a gap in enemy defences. Here the mighty AT-T three months ayear in Norway to hone its abilitJl to
heavy artillery tractor tows an S-23 180-mm gun, fight in the harsh Norwegian climate. Norway has
following hard on the heels ofSovietunits political cold feet about allowing NATO units to b
advancing into Norway. Its 508-mm wide tracks indefinitely stationed within her borders.
give it a respectable low groundpressure even
whenhauling the2l-tonne gun.Tothe left, the
-',i. crew otaBMP examine thewreckageof aMil-9
The Northern Threat

whose headquarters are in Leningrad rtself

with 6th Army headquarters at Petrozavodsk
and corps headquarters at Arkhangelsk and
Soviet forces are believed to comprise one
airborne divisron (the 76th Guards based at
Pskov), one artillery divislon, eight or nine
motorized rifle divrsions, one or two air assauit
regiments and the 63rd Naval Infantry Brigade
based at Petsamo,
Of the above, two motorized rifle divrsions
(the 45th in the Murmansk area and the 34]st in
the Alakurtti area), the air assault regiments,
the 63rd Naval Iniantry Brigade and some artrl=
lery units are in the Kola peninsula. All of these
units are at Category I or 2 status, and thus can
move at very short notice without the need to
wait for reinforcements,
They would, however, soon have to be rein-
forced by units currently south of the Lenin-
grad Mrlitary District, most of which are fteg-
ory 2 or 3 status, so hopefully NATO intellt-
gence would be able to deteci any sudden
military build-up and rush reinforcements to
Norway, provided that the political decision
was taken early enough.
The Soviet ground forces are backed by
substantial air and naval assets, Although many per cent of the nuclear balhstrc submarines The AT-T tractor r a/so used lo ca rry the MDK-2
of the air assets are based to the south of the and a slightly smaller proportion of convention- pit-digging machine, which swings 90' to the
Kola peninsula, they can be flown into the area al and nuclear attack submarines are based in vertical for ditching operations. In good conditions
the MDK-? can dig at a rate of 300 m3 per hour,
at very short notice. Many of the atrfields in the the region. The majority of the submarine excavating a ditch 4.5 m deep and 3.5 m wide at
Kola penrnsula have been improved in recent bases ln this area are to the west of Murmansk. the bottom. On the front of the tractor is an OTT
years; runways have been extended and Communications are such that most of the sup- dozer blade.
strengthened, communications systems have phes to these bases have to be brought in by air
been upgraded, about 500 hardened aircraft or sea. 'Badger' bombers do vrsit airfields on a regn:lar
shelters have been installed, and air defences Naval Aviation is also employed in the Kola basrs and in time of war would use these bases
strengthened and improved with many 5A.-6 peninsula rn signifrcant numbers, rncluding to refuel on their way to attack the contlnental
'Gainful' launchers supplementing numbers of almost 100 Tupolev Tu-i6 'Badgers' and Tu-22 United States. There has been speculation that
older SA-2 'Guideline', SA-3 'Goa' and SA-5 'Blinders', 30 frxed-wing anti-submarine war- the new Tupolev 'Blackjack' bomber may be
'Gammon' types, New SA- l0'Grumble' andSA- fare aircraft, about 100 anti-submarine warfare based in thrs area,
12 'Gladiator' missrles are also probably now helicopters and 80 spectalized reconnaissance
aircraft, including some dedlcated to electro- The best main battle tank in the Norwegian army is
being employed to replace some of the older the Leopard 1, armed with a I 0 S-mm (4. I 3- in) gun.
missile systems. nic warfare, In additron there are also transport Seventy-eight of these vehicles were delivered from
This area is vital to the USSR as over 60 per and training aircraft, 1969-71, togetherwith sixARV models. Norway
cent of the Sovlet surface fleet is believed to There are no strateqic bomber aircraft also tields 30 M48ASs with 105-mm guns and 70
operate from this arear the Northern Fleet based in the Kola peninsusla on a full-time NM- I 16s - indigenously modified M24 Chaffee
headquarters are at Severomorsk, and over 60 basis, althouqh Myasishchev M-4 'Bison' and light tanks carrying 90-mm (3.54-in) guns.
Modern Tracked Prime Movers
ef-S Medium Tracked Artillery Tractor
-:-e AT-S medium tracked artrllery
:=:tor was developed in the 1940s and
=-=-:ered service with the Sovret army
:- re early 1950s, but was subsequent-
,-: replaced by the ATS-59 medium
:::ked artillery tractor, In addition to
,--:se with the Soviet army, the AT-S
:-- also been used by every member
-, Jle Warsw Pact wrth the exceptron
:, Czechoslovakia, and expofied to
.-.r countries as China, Egypt, Fin-
.--C, Syria and Yugoslavia. It is rarely
.::n rn front-line Warsaw Pact service
-: iay having been replaced by cross-
::-jntry trucks.
lne Af-S can carry a maximum
:a_,'load of 3000 kg (6,614 lb) and tow
:llers or weapons weighing up to
--lO0 kg (35,274 1b), T\Tpical weapons
:,:iude 100-mm (3,94-in) KS-19 anti-
=-:craft guns and i52-mm (5.98-in)
-ae engine is mounted under the
--,- enclosed four-door cab at the
:,:-i of the hull. The cab has seats for Above: The AT-S medium artillery
:: driver and sx passenqers, which tractor entered service with the Red
:-:a:rs that when the AT-S ts towtng Army in the early 1950s andwas
:-=--;ier weapons the remainder of the subsequently supplied to all
_---r, crew are seated in the rear cargo members of theWarcaw Pactexcept
-:a. The latter has high sides, a drop Czechoslovakia.
-.'trate, removable bows and a tar-
;'='.r.n COver
S':spension on each side consists of operations the OTS is normally driven
'' -: pairs of twin-wheel bogres. an at a speed of4 krn/h (2.5 mph) and can
. r.--r at the front and a drive sprocket move B0 m3 (2.825 cu ft) of liglt soil per
= ::ar, and four track-return rollers. hour, reducing lo 40 or 50 m'(1.413 or
-:e AT-S was also used as the basis 1,766 cuft) of medium soil per hour.
--r re BM-24T multiple rocket-laun- The dozer blade is cable operated.
:--:: which had a i2-round 240-mm Unlike the BAT tractor dozer based
: -5-in) multiple rocket-launcher on the AT-T hea\T/ tractor, the OST has
:'-,rted on the rear, but as far as it is a straight dozer blade which cannot be
- :','.1 this versron is no ionger in ser- used at an angle, Neither a V{ype doz-
,:: The rocketlauncher was also er nor specialized attachments can be
'-- -:ted
on a ZIL-157 6xO cross-coun- fitted,
::ck chassis. and rhis remains in In the past the AT-S was also seen
.=:.-ce with many countries and is with a fully enclosed box body to carry
=''=:- used by the Israeli army with communications equipment and spe-
, :.'--v manufactued rockets, cialized battlefleld radars,
::: oversnow use the SBKh was de-
=,-ped from the AT-S, This has diffe- Specification
:-: suspension and a much wider AT-S wrdth 2,57 m (B ft 5,2 in); height, top of Tfie 41"-S js use d by the F:::--:. =-:=;'
:-:-.: ior lower grround pressure and Crew: l+6 cab 2,535 m (B ft 3,8 in) in small numbers. A.ble ta to'r;
-- -:rproved performance on snow- Weights: empty 12000 kq (26,455 ]b); Performance: maximum road speed trailers orweapons iarergnii:g l; :c
'::ed terrain. loaded 15000 kg(33,069 lb) 35k$/h(22 mph); range 350 tcn (217 I 6 tonnes,it can carry up io i:ree
-:-: OST is an AT-S frtted with dozer Powerplant:one V-54-T V-12 water- miles); fording 1,0 m (3 ft 3 in); vertical tonnes on the rear catgo e:ea - :.=
:!:r: at the front ofthe hull, this blade cooled diesel developing 186 kW obstacle 0.6 m (2 ft 0 in); trench 1,45 m cftassr's sras used as tfte -6.r-s:
,j:=::;:ement being the same as that (250 hp) (4 ft 9 in); gradient 5O per cent; side mounting for the BM-21 i 2 rc'::.=
:-=::c the ATS-59 vehlcle, For dozer Dimensions: lenqth 5,87 m (19 ft 3. I in); slope 30 per cent 240-mm (9.4S-in) MRIS.

I ni-t Heavy Tracked Artillery Tractor

the carqo area, dual rubber{yred road wheels, and The AT-T is the o,ldes f a,r a Ja-'gte"-:
Suspension ofthe AT-T is ofthe stan- the dnve sprocket at the front and the tracked prime mover sti- -:. ::=:.:-
dard torsion-bar type which qives idler at the rearj there are no track- line sewice with tfte So;ie: a:-.;' :-: :
good cross-country mobilrty, with five rerLun rollers Mounted at the rear is a is used to tow theS-Z3 r'5t-:::::: gr:
The heavy artillery brigace c: =-:.
artillery division has I 2 o: ::.ese
nuc le a r - c a p a-b I e. Iong - r a: e ;.--:

U nloade d. tft e tracro: -':se-: ;re.';-'-.

over 20 tonnes.
AT-T Heavy Tracked Artitlery Tractor (continued)

power-operated winch which can be maxlmum depth of 1,5 m (4 ft I1 in), In Many Soviet tracked prime movers
used for self-recovery or to recover all these versions the circular digqing can be fitted with bulldozer blades.
other vehicles and equipment. machine is carried vedically at the but theAT-T forms the basis for the
There are a number ofvariants ofthe rear. BAT engineering vehicle. The BAT-M
AT-T, includrng a lengrthened version The MDK-2 pit drgging machine has tractor dozer is electro-hydraulically
(with seven road wheels) used to the circr.rlar digQ[ng equtpment car- operated, this example having an
mount the 'Irong Track' long-rangte rled horizontally at the rear and swung extra grouting tongue mounted on
early-warning radar associated with through 90'when required, The theblade.
the SA-4'Ganef and 5A-6'Gainfui' sur- machine can diq a ditch to a maximum
face-to-air missile systems. Another depth of 4.5 m (14 ft 9 in) and a width of Specification
AT-T has a firlly enclosed van body on 3.5 m (1I ft 61n), whrch makes it ideal AT-T
the roof of which rs hstalled the 'TYack for the rapid excavatton ofweapon and Crew:1+3
Drsh' (ARSOM-I) battlefield radar sys- vehicle pits in the forward battlefield Weights: empty 20000 ks (44,092 1b);
tem. area. loaded 25000 ks (55, I 15 lb)
The chassis is also used as the basis The BAT and BAT-M are standard Powerplant: one Model V-401 V-12
for the BTM and MDK-2 ditching AT-Ts with a powerfirl dozer blade water-cooled diesel developing
machrnes, while dozer versions are mounted at the ftont ofthe hull. These 309 kW(415 hp)
known as the BAT and BAT-M. There are.used for preparing firing positions Dimensions: lenqth 6.99 m (22 ft
are actually four versions of the BTM, and obstacles, or for clearing obsta- I 1.2 in); width 3, 17 m (10 ft 4.8 in);
the basic version consisting of a stan- cles in the forward battlefield area. height, cab 2.58 m (B ft 5.6 in)
dard AT-T heavy tracked artillery Performance: maximum road speed
tractor with an ETR-409 ditchinq 35Wn/h(22 mph); ranse 700 kn (435
machine mounted at the rear. This can miles); fording 0.7 m(2ft4 in); vertical (6 ft I I in); grradient 60 per cent; side
dig a trench 0.80 m (2 ft B in) wide to a obstacle 1,0 m (3 ft 3 in); trench 2, I m slope 30 per cent

[4 'i;h" 73 Full-Tracked Artillery Tractor

When the Japanese Ground Self-De-
fence Porce OGSDF) was formed in
the 1950s it was supplied with its initial
equpment by the USA. This equip-
ment included not only tanks (Sher-
mans and Chaffees), towed artrllery,
anti-aircraft guns and infantry
weapons, but aiso a considerable num-
ber of M4 and M8 high-speed tractors.
The M4 and MB grave good sewlce,
but it was later decided to design and
develop a new Japanese tracked artil-
lery tractor to towweapons suchas the
155-mm (6,I0-in) M59 gnrn (nicknamed
the 'Long Tom' by the US Army during
World War II) and the 203-mm (B-in)
MiiS howitzer,
After trials with prototype vehicles
the Hitachi Manufacturing Company
was awarded a production contract for
a tracked artillery tractor called the
Type 73, '73' standing for the year in
which lt was standardized.
Pirst production vehicles were com-
pleted in i974, but the Type 73 has not
been buiit in large numbers as the fltted with a hydraulically operated cyhnder air-cooled diesel developingt TheTypeT3 has notbeen
Japanese army, like those of many dozer blade at the front of the hull, this 298 kw(400 hp) manufactured in large quantities as
other countries, has in recent years being used to prepare fire positions Dimensions: lenqth 6. 13 m (20 ft 1.3 in); the Japanese Ground Self-Defence
been placing increased emphasis on and to clear obstacles from the path of width 2,95 m (9 ft B. I in); heiqht 2,30 m Force soon began to favour selt-
self-propelled artil1ery, these includ- the vehicle, (7 ft 6.6 in) propelled artillery.
ing the l05-mm (4,13-in) \pe 74 and Performance: maximum road speed
45 krn/h (28 mph); range 300 km (186 A T\pe 73 tractor tows the trusty I 55-
the l55-mm Type 75 self-proPelled Specification
howitzers. More recently Japan has TYpe 73 miles); fording 1.0 m (3 ft 3 in); vertical mm M 59' Long Tom' of World War I I
started to manufacture the US 203-mm Crew: l+ll obstacle 0,6 m (2 ft 0 in); trench 2,0 m vintage, still a fine piece. Unusually,
Mi i0A2 self-propelled howitzer under Weight:loaded 19800 kg (43,651 lb) (6 ft 7 in); gradient 60 per cent; side the anti-airctaft gun is fitted with a
licence. Powerplant:one Mitsubishi ZF6 6- slope 30 per cent smallshield.
The TYpe 73 has a fuliy enclosed
all-steel cab at the front of the vehicle,
wrth two entry doors in each side, and
on the roof is a cupola mounting a 12. 7-
mm (0.5-in) M2HB anti-aircraft
machine-eJun. This ls also provided
with a shield to give the gunner some
protection against smail arms fire and
shell splinters from the front,
The engrine compartment is to the
rear of the troop compartment, and the
ammunition is carried in a protected
compartment at the very rear.
Suspensron is of the torsion-bar type
with six large rubber-tyred road
wheels. The drive spocket is at the
front and the sixth road wheel acts as
the idler; there are no track-return rol-
It is believed that the TYpe 73 ls
fitted with infra-red driving lights, but it
is uncertain whether or not an NBC
system is installed, Some vehicies are

Armed Forces of the World

-1e army has been involved in some way or other
..ith the political running of Chile s nce independ-
:rce, but this tendency has increased greatly since
re military coup of 'l 973. Apart from internal anti --'=.+ * ,_
.:rrorist operations, whtch are now pr mari y the - -.*...#-"rei:
-",d &--!&"
sJs-_-e .--"ifrtr
:-ovince of the police, the armed forces are de u..i."r, :;.....,.G.i ,. .. - =
- . ..{:
: oyed mainly to coveT potential border disputes s$*$,6:l+:ut ""
,'.ith the neighbouring countries of Argentina, Boli- {F *'Fr |@ d
. a and Peru. During the 1982 Falklands war be-
:g -*-I - --b-' I
-.'reen Argentina and the UK, covert aid was 'T#
_"*"e;dT#. *,
;JE" --:- J
supplred to the latter in return for mtlitary J
.1 and spares.
country is divided for milttary purposes into **;:s*:r'!:;*"
: \ nternai Security Complexes (or Divtsrons) nter _ -rb
-: Security Complex 6 faces Bolivia and Peru, lnter-
- 1*- ''
--'-6"':-..4:' *.;:.;,
- Security Complex 5 faces Argentina, and lnternal |=3t€
:::urity Complex 2 contains the major cit es and the
- : n military training centres. Although staunchly
: -:-Western, Chile stillfinds it difflcult to obtain new
- r J pment for the armed forces because of concern
- .:r civil rights abuses since the coup. It
Chilean army
-re Chilean army has six divisional headquarters,
-',. gned one to each Internal Security Comp ex. There is also a small army aviation service which T he Lirssen F as t A ttack C raf t ( tor p edo ). se€i i E--:
:.:r of these formations consists in theory of three operates a composrte fixed-wing and helicopter on patrol in the Beagle Channel. were
-',rtry regiments, one Andean mountain regiment, group with a tactical battalion and a support unit. commissionedin themid-l960s. Builtta a i|es:
. -:valry brigade (of two regiments), one f ield artrl This flies some 28 helicopters and 37 fixed-wing German design, they displace I34 tons ait a:e
:-. group, one mountain artillery group, one en- aircraft, of which the most important are the 10 fitted with four 533-mm (21-in) torpedo t;nes
carry two40-mm (1.57-in) qrns. and are:apa:.t::
- -:er battalion and supporting units. However, be- A6rospatiale SA 330FL Puma, 1O A6rospatiale SA
upto32 kts.
---se of the potential border disputes, the three 315B Lama and three Bell UH-l H helrcopters, plus
--:'nai Security Complexes mentioned above have six CASA C-212 Iaclical transports and 1 B Cessna armour: AMX-3Oand M4A3 Snei-.-'.'l-- -'.",
==r reinforced at the expense of the others. For R172 Hawk lrght lia son and ground support aircraft. 13, M3A1 Stuartand M4143 lg-: -:-.. ::-:
'---', evel work there is an engineer regiment and The two armoured regtments operate a mix of Cascavel armoured car; M.l '3:.13,':::-,
'= 3ornas Negros special forces battalion. A f ull ist AMX-30 N/ BTs with both AMX l3 and M41 Bulldog MOWAG Piranha, EE-1 1 Ur-i- a-: ',': -r l.
-' :'rny units includes: light tanks. The last also serve in the mechanized .
artillery:(towed) 105-mm t4.i3- - -.', -:=- " --:
cavalry units, together with both wheeled and track, mm M56 pack howitzer, 105 -- :: ,:- - I - _ :=-
,, : visional headquarters, ed APCs. All the World War Il era armour has now {self-propelled) 155-mm(6.'i: ^,'.: -:",
', : armoured regiments, been relegated to training schools and second-line (mortars) 60mm(236-in)M.l I ----- : -='
. : -: cavalry ---
regiments (three mechanized and f ive units Since the mid-1 970s about 200 Brazilian-built M1/M29and 120-mm (4.f2 '. -,-.:^. ..-:".-:
- : -sed), EE-9 Cascavel armoured cars and some 250 FE-'l 1 anti-armourweapons:57-nrr \''3,-: _a,- -
-- ^'antry regiments (14 each with two battalions Urutu APCs have been procured to replace those 14.11-in) M40A1 recoil ess":s .':^.'-*:,.- -
,- i 1 0 Andean each with between one to f ou r vehicles not relegated to the reserve role. A local MilanATGWs;
- -.ialrons), firm, Cardoen, is also licence-building the Swiss anti-airweapons;20-mr,n GA -CC- .----- :-__-
, , -: Llery groups (six f ieid, three mountain and one MOWAG Plranha 6x6 wheeled APC as well as 35-mm Oerlikon K63.40 r- '.'- L': -. .-: -_,
. - lefence), severai indigenous APC designs. The same firm and mm Bofors Li70; and
.--:rgineerregiment, some others are also producing ammunition, explo- small arms.J.62-mm (0 3- n,S Ca-: - a: -- jj
- - -^ engineer battalions, and sives and locally developed anti-aircraft weapons. A and7.62-mm FN assau ir= :s 3 --'"',:.=-
, = scecialforces battalion. complete list of army equ pment includes: M53and0 45-in (1 1 43-n--','-l- - S'.' :.
f 62-mm MAG and 7 .62---'.'-:-:l _'.' :. .- -
0.5-in (12.7-mm) Brown r^c -','3

ln wartime a total o; z.ta aa:

be mobilized to jo;n :-: c3 L - :.-: -: : :- : - :
army. Of the latter 3!,1ll :-: ::-.
Armed Forces of the World
t2- Q't=s
PC-7 Turbo Trainers, and a helicopter squadron with transport, threetanker, one submarine depot, delivered refurbished BAe Canberra PR.Mk t high-
10 A6rospatiale Alouette llls and five Bell 206As for two tug and miscellaneous vessels. altitude photo-reconnaissance jets.
shipboard and shore base use. A small coast guard operates 1 0 43-ton coastal The transport element is just as diverse, and is
There is also a 5,000-man marine corps which is patrol craft, each armed with two 20-mm cannon divided into nine squadrons which f ly some 64 f ixed-
divided into four battalion groups that comprise and a pair of depth charges. on surveillance and wing aircraft and helicopters. Of these the most
amphibious warfare, coast defence and local secur- anti-smuggling patrols. notable are two Lockheed C-130H Hercules, five
ity elements, together with a specialized comman- Douglas DC-6s, 17 de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin
do unit. The weapons used include 16 M101 105- Chilean air force Otters, six 46rospatiale SA 3158 Lamas and 13 Bell
mm and 35 M114 155-mm howitzers, MOWAG The Chilean air force is the world's fourth oldest UH-1 H Hueys.
Roland 4x4 APCs, LVTP-S amph bious assault vehi- independent air force, and like the other two Chilean The training for all the above is conducted by a
cles, some 20 3f -mm M1A1 AA guns and a small services has suffered considerable difficulties in specialist training wing of three air schools. They are
number of Cactus (Crotale) SAM systems and 16 obtaining new aircraft since the coup. This has re- cu rrently replacing the Cessna T-37C jet trainer f leet
155-mm GPFM-3 coast-defence guns. The small sulted in the setting up of an indigenous aerospace with the T36, and the older Beechcraft T-34 Mentors
arms used are the same as those of the army. with industrythat is currently involved in building B0 mod- and other piston-engined trainers with the T35.
close support provided by 50 6O-mm and 50 B'1-mm ified Piper PA-28 Dakota primary trainers as the T35 For local deferice of air bases there are five anti-
mortars. Pillan, and 37 (with 23 more on option) Spanish- aircraft groups and four radar squadrons, The former
There are three naval zone commands, the equip- designed CASA C-101BB armed jet trainers as the has a mix of quadruple 12.7-mm M55 HMGs, twin
ment acquired over the last decade or so reflecting T36 Halc6n. 20-mm Rheinmetall Rh202 cannon, twin 35-mm
Chilean ties with the UK and West Germany. The The Chilean air force is divlded into three com- Oerlikon K63s and some two dozen elderly Amer-
most recent acquisitions have been two ex-Royal mands (Combat, Personnel and Loglstics), but only ican single-barrel M'1A1 37-mm guns. There are also
Navy 'County' class missile destroyers, two 'Type the first has any aircraft, its strength being deployed a number of Blowpipe SAMs issued to one battery
209' West German-built submarines. three lsraeli- in four combat wings and two combat groups. Each of each of the groups for use against low-leve1
built 'Saar 4' class missile boats, an ex-British RFA of the wings is also assigned a communications attackers.
tanker and three locally-built but French-designed flight with light aircraft and/or helicopters.
'Batral' class LSTs. Two of the three ground-attack squadrons fly Paramilitary force
The frll list of units in the navy :s. some 26 Hawker Hunter F.Mk 71 fighters and five The only paramilitary force available to Chile ls the
Hunter T.Mk 72 operational trainers, while the third 27,000-man Caribinero service. ln addition to their
submarines:two 'Type 209' class and two 'Oberon' is equipped with 15 Northrop F-5E and two F-5F normal police equipment, these units have some
class; Tiger lls; the Northrop fighter uses both AIM-9 Side- light infantry weapons and around 20 MOWAG Ro-
Iwo'County' class, two'Almirante'
d estroyers : winder AAMs and a small number of Hughes AGM- land 4x4 APCs. They also operate a small aviation
class and two ex-US 'Allen M. Sumner (FRAM ll)' 654 Maverick air-to-ground missiles. while the sole element of f ixed-wing aircraft and helicopters, plus a
class; interceptor squadron flies 14 single- and two two- number of small patrol boats.
f rigates:lwo 'Leander' class; seat Dassault-Breguet Mirage 50s armed with
light forces: three tug-type patrol vessels, three lsraeli Shafrir and French R550 Magic AAMs. A Two squadrons of the Chilean air force are
'Saar 4' class missile boats. f our Lu rssen type fast counter-insurgency (COIN) force of two squadrons assigned to the counter-insurgency role,
attack torpedo boats, three large patrol craft and flies the 29 survivors of 34 Cessna A-378 Dragonfly
equippedwith a total of 29 CessnaA-378
Dragonflies, one of the most cost-effective light
four coastal/harbour patrol craft; light attack aircraft delivered in the mid-'l 970s. combat aircraft ever built. This A-37 can carry a
a m phibiou s warfare fo rces : lhe' Batral' class LSTs For tactical and strategic reconnaissance duties pos sible 2 5 7 6- kg ( 5,680 - lb) weaponload ; here the
and two locally-built LCTs; and two units operate two Learjet 35As, nine CASA tip tanks are supplemented by underwing drop
support ships: one survey, one training, four C-101s and two survivors out of three recently- tanks.