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Volume ll Issue 132

Published by
Orbis Publlshing Ltd
@ Aerospace Pub ishing Ltd 1986
Editorial Offices
War Machine
Aerospace Pub ishing Ltd
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London W6 OFS

Managing Editor: Stan Morse

Editorial: Trisha Palmer
Chris Bishop
Chris Chant
lan Drury
Design: Rod Teasda e
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Film work: Precise Litho Ltd
Consultant Editor: Maior General Sir
Artists: Jeremy Moore KCB OBE MC, Comman-
Art Workshop der of British Land Forces during the
John Bidyard
Falklands campaign.

1 3863 Distribution and marketing offices: Picture acknowledgements

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technologicalrcvolutionof the tast fow decadesfias
ligh tw eight torped o, in
combination with the
dedicated anti-
submarine helicopter,
capabilityof ASW
vesse/s loan enormous
extent. This is an
seen a profomd change in the waging of war at sea, withthe AmericanMk46
torpedo rcplacing the depth charge as the major anti- torpedo attached to an
submarine weapon and the torpedo itself being helicopter, a
complemented, or in some cases replaced in the anti-shipping combination common
role by the guidedmissile. navies.

With the advent into service of the British Strngray lightwerght ASW service with the soviets have surfaced, and to date these have not beer
torpedo in the early 1980s, the era of the intelligent (or 'smart,) weapon substantiated.
arrived in the fleld of torpedo technology. Already the Americans are Of the other torpedo-producing nations only Sweden has produced
moving fast to close the gap by replacing their outmoded Mk 46 remarkably different designs, Its heaq4veight Tp6l family is based on a
weapons by the 'smart' Mk 50, whilst both the Royal and US Navies are hydrogen peroxide propulsion system of the type discaided by othet
working to fleld as early as possible new heav)-werght torpedoes (in the Western countries such as the UK as being too dangerous to iandje
form of the Spearfish and Mk 48 ADCAP respectively) to counter the under operational conditions, And the Swedish hghtweiqht Tp42 series
new generation of faster and deeper-dtving Sovret nuclear submarines is.still the only Western torpedo of tts class that cin be gnrided by wue
that have jusL entered service. alter an arrborne launch.
At the same trme the Soviets took the opportunity of springing their For the next century there is the prospect ol torpedo-tike weapons
own surprise in torpedoes rn the form of therr Type 65 long-range used as robotic sub-surface vessels in the place of manned submarines.
wake-homing anti-ship weapon of 609.6-mm (24-in) cahbre aboard such systems would be controlled from shore bases and form defensive
attack vessels. Such weapons are backed by a wide range oi standard barriers around friendly countries.
533-mm (2l-in) calibre steam- and electric-powered models (with
speeds ranging from 28 kts up to 45 kts or so) including the only nuclear-
armed torpedo left rn service with any navy. The Soviets also deploy a The launch of a modern heavyrveight torpedo from asurface yesse,lfias
changed little from those launched from-the destroyers and fast attack craft of
wide variety of smaller weapons mainly for ASW use. Surprisingly it is
only in the last few years that any reports of wire-guided weapons in
WorldWar II. What has changed, however, is the means by whi"i
is directed onto its tatgeL

; ];Jt,*ro$ r.
@ ft'At"lefunken Seal, Seeschlange, SST4 and SUT torpedoes
These AEG-Telefunken weapons con-
stitute a complete family of
heavyweight torpedoes. The basic
electdc:powered dual-speed SeaI and
Seeschlange (sea snake) were de-
veloped speciflcally for use by the
West German nalry, and are currently
rn use aboard rts 'Type 205/206' sub-
marines, whilst the Seal is also em-
ployed on some ligrht forces' missile
craft, There is a hrgh degree of equip-
ment commonalrty between the two
weapons, the major difference beinQt
that the smaller ASW Seeschlange has
only halfthe propulsrve battery capac-
ity of the antiship Seal. An active/pas-
sive homing head is fitted with a dual-
core wire-gnridance system that allows
rapid changing between speeds,
attack pattems and guidance modes in
order to meet the needs ofdeveloping
tactical situations.
The Seal was then taken as the mod-
el for the Special Surface Target (SST)
4 torpedo. which excepL Ior certain
features unique to West German oper-
ational requirements is comparable in
dimensions, construction and capabili-
ties to its predecessors. Used as the
standard anti-ship weapon sold with
export 'Type 209' submarines and
West German missile craft, the SST4 is
found in various NATO and South
er'.,,. .:-::,::: ,....!::.4: t).
American navies, and was used oper- ,,.

ationally by the Argentine submarine

San luls during the 1982 Falklands war
in several abortive torpedo attacks
against Royal Nalry task force ships,
The Seal was then further de-
veloped to produce the export Surface
and Underwater Target (SUT) torpedo,
As a dual-purpose ASWanti-ship A missile-armed Type 143 fast attack Right: The Surface and Underwater
weapon capable of being launched craft of the West G erman navy makes Target (SUT) torpedo, seen being
:rom surface ships. submarines or a test launch o{ an AEG/Telefunken Ioaded aboard one of thewidely
shore positions the SUT has the same Seal torpedo. One of a family of exported'Type 209' submarines, is
shallow-water and deep-diving en- weapons, it is designed for the the mostversatile of the AEG-
gagement capabilities of the other engagement of surface targets, and T elefunken heavytveigh t tor pedo
i-nembers of the family plus the same isfittedtoType 142 and 143 boats as range. Itis a dual-purposeweapon,
:ontact and magrnetic proximity fusing well as aboardType 206 submarines. wire guided for greater accuracy.
:t'stems, Like the SST4 it rs in produc-
:cn for export with the 'Type 209' sub- Specification lengthO 04 m(19 82 ft), or6,50 m
::AIInES SeescNanqe (21.33 ft) wrthwrre gn-udance casket
Dimensions: diameter 533 mm (21 in); Weisht: 1414 ks(3, I 17 lb)
length 4, 15 m (13,62 ft), or 4 62 m Warhead:260 kq (5731b) HE
Specification (15. 16 ft) withwire eruidance casket Performance: speed 23 or 35 kts;
Seal Weight: 800 to 900 kq ( 1,764 to I,984 lb) range 28 or 12 km (17.40 or 7,46 miles)
Dimensions: diameter 533 mm (21 in); Warhead: 100 kq (220-lb) HE .

,::nh6.0B m(19,95 ft), or6 55 m Performance: speed 23 or 35 kts; Specification

:- 19 ft) withwire gn-udance casket range 14 or 6 km (8.70 or 3,73 miles) SUT
1370 kq (3,020 ft) Dimensions: diameter 533 mm (2I 1n);
'Veight: (573-lb) HE Specification lenqth6, 15 m (20 1B ft), or6 62 m Warhead:260-ks (573 Ib) HE
'Tarhead: 260-kq (21,72 ft) with wire gmrdance casket Performance: speed 23 or 35 kts;
Performance: speed 23 or 35 kts; ssT4
:::.;= 28 or 12 km ( 17 40 or 7.46 mlles) Dimensions: diameter 533 mm (21 in); Weight: t414 ks (3 117 lb) range 28 or 12 km (17.40 or 7 46 miles:

il Houi"t sea mines

The offensive mines are mainly eventually marines because of their covert;
gnound mines, of which the most im- There are also qrowinq Soviet capabilities. These would be backe :
pofiant are the AMD-500 and AMD- stocks of risrng mines and underwater by aircraft of the Soviet naval ar forc:
1000 types (the number referring to the electrical potential mines for use in the whilst any defensive layinq would c=
relevant mine's nominal weight tn kilo- offensive ASW role aqainst NATO the responsibility of surface ship url-
grams). The AMD-500 contains 300 kgt targets. The rwo rypes of risrng mine
(661 lb) and the AMD'1000 700 ks available can also be Lrsed rn a secon-
(1,543 1b) of HE Using magnetlc, dary antrship role. These two types Specification
acoustic, pressure or combinatton in- are believed to be the 'Cluster Bay' M08
fluence actuating systems, these continental shelf and'Cluster Gulf con- Dimensions: diameter 0.90 m (2 95 -'
weapons have also been wtdely ex- tinental Iedge types in NATO terminol- maximum case length 6 096 m (20.C -
ported, evidence beinEt provided by ogty, There is also a smal1 stockpile of Charge weight: I 15 kq (253,5 lb)
recent wars in the Middle and Far nuclear-armed mines v,rth yields be- Maximum laying depth: 130 m (421 .
East The pressure types are almost tween 5 and 20 kilotons for use aqainst
certainly used oniy by the USSR and very high-value surface ships or sub- Specification
her most trusted Warsaw Pact Part- marines such as nuclear-powered air- IGI
ners, however, because of the possi- craft-carriers and 'Ohro' class SSBNs.
The primary offensive mrnelaying
Dimensions: diameter 0,9 m (2.95 -
maximum case length 9. 144 m (30 i -
bility of technologry compromrse and ,
the fact that in other hands they may plaliorms available to the Soviet navy Chargeweight: 230 kq (507 lb)
well be used agtainst their designers are its conventronally-powered sub- Maximumiayingdepth:275 m (902 --
,,5eJ*w;.$ciaedErol:a?- djrfdfes ij? e yeten ii? i) ; :
se*rqre* cf r:fAen+rise ghss/efe yes-sel,<, e !:e:. :-- :
j:lr:'r'jel a::tzn rrit.t:;1. r:e Io;rie"';:'irDl r,hesee Jangsarjr"oss r?afr/fun;-le'lrl $f e.,l.e,.r {olel,.rre'rr*.alf aEaJnsf Je,w nreJJ-pi.ofef..f€ei" idj?ets. T hE )'.;, : -..
.JaslE*iideri:r''-:.lje;,.rElnalirt6Spi*. ." . .. r
tfre';zlas.':-;;:e Ameri.t:a-tm,r.=::r'-lfureemecnt of E,,tra"uc cfuadj.V.A'I,(.l r;rou.{;n rl.rtder tai y..':a.r-s r;Jc, ,huf e*uJdAe cj.sed efe*ijyely a;::r: :
hol'el Jiouief g;i'oil,nd,fu; ses t-rn iiae 6"el* fral.Fl"et,rl f" rneri"rharif ennreys.

In oiclel ior l'.,lATO lo resist, halt arid then diirze

- I o ,'l ,. . Do o . . .n.c Wes :n
Eu.rope vast amounts ol sr-r;rp.lies and heavy
ellirlpm.eni must be morre,j via lhe sea lr.nes of
communrcatrcns (SLOCs) across the l.lolth
AtlantLc, Althougrh ilany oithe norlhern SL,OCs
ivculci be open to ioint ii'rterdiciLon by Sorlet
na,ral arr iorce rrrissile-carrylng s:rike legim,
enls and b_1r surlace shrps and. subrnarines ihe
sou:hern ones -r,rould beccme the priority
iafq.ets for subrnarines alone. Because ol the
ciistances invclved and speed reqrll:ements lc
. .h:.-^r .e O r.,r .O-F'O a 1r'.oCl-
ri,,or-rlJ- be a.ssigned io lhe nllclear-porruered
ciuise-. r,iissile and tcr:pedo aitack boats, rrvhrlst
coasial \,rva-rers, nalu.ral choke pr]tnts and poit
a.ieas -',r,.oulci become the hunting ground fcr
tle au,"tar ccrrren'rionally pcl,,vered uirils
i'ire Sovic.--l iheo i:y of submarine -urariare con
irnua.l1;r stless-os the r1'ounlnr; Of Co-ordinated
;.,irack-q blr a rrarietrv oi rrlulualJy supporiinq plal-

.r:l;:i:i'il fi:e.:r.ln-qiJe'-Fapa' elas-s c;* ;"yli-qs.lJe

:r.r!t c+;:.fd i,:;e.f],bil ffi a]:ra.luys*r ef a seri*s
.:.:''r:.r.i:;.'ia.';;res des'rgrur,i:C i* i*jc* ln iil* uS flnn-ie;:
:1,.:r'ii= G!'{ri:l], es "tJie ls a.fpa:rexf.l.'' a de-reitrpnenf
':t',1.i+ 'il.lier":'i*:' r:.kss ,tnr;e: Jrc:"n ltng seri:l* cf,ijle
.: 1 :;';ti:l r:;r:' a',tCh.r] i,f 4.iij' {rf tJ]e iif f.l'e- tiigJ': -s,pe**i
,'1. ir.: :!.i ;r' cla

S:-,'.et Attack

l::a.-ed positioning
. . . :='...=i crdfl wourd requrre Lhe posi-
,. ,:- : SSIs and SSGNs (after high-speed
:, ,-.. j -r,rr- :leir patrol and holdrng areas) in
: . -, -. .::,:rs tc avoid any possibillty oi in-
.--' :. -::. :onee and bearing from the
. . -..-r" posi'ron and route would be
r -:..,:a: -::crding to the submarine's own Above : A'Victor' class nuclear-powered attack Below: A 'Sierra' class attacksu.brnanhe is seen
. ..- : ,r-l he-r abihLv o disengage submarine submerges at the start of a patrol. Such underway tothenorth of Norway, Enlarged
- ..',,'.- -:,= ionc-range missile attack element boats would form the spearhead of any Soviet versions of the very capable 'Victor III', the
' , -: .. ::cvided by two or three SSGNs attack on the Atlantic jugular, duelling with 'Sierras' could well make long-range attacks using
defending NATO hunter-killer submarines in the SS-NX-? I cruise mrlsrJes or tie new wake-homing
- --,r::i ,'::r SS-N 3 'Shaddock' or SS-N-12
::: j' - :r:,se missrles, These boats would icy depths. 6 1 0-mm (24-in) very long-range torpedo.

: ::: :..: crearranged time to launch a co-

: -:.. I s rean attack of missiles from sever-
:. : :-'-:.= r': :r cne side of the convoy in order
'- -1 - - - . ^nrl iLSescortsinLo awelt
: - ..--r:lence deploymenr pat'ern and
, :i: rs :ruch confusions as possible. The
-., :----:::,e rn each salvo fired would also be
- . . :l:d foCOnnatSSanCe Syslem tO Send
l-:-'.-y posi-ronrng data qrLa a dala-
.. -: .- .fle la,lnch plallorm lor lo,iow on
. . ': '. -:: : ^re salei-rle communications chan
- - -- : nmand centre and as manv ol lh-o
:: :.. :rKurg units as possible Dunng the
- ::,--<n {285/350-mi1e) fliqrht of the SS-N-3
.. :i 1..-i2 mLssiles, which use rnedium- to
. --:-.---*ie terminal attack profles, one or two
.---- --cis SSGNs would close'o lheir own
..-.. .. : . -i..:ons nealel Lo Lhe convoy and on irs
r f e lo frre palrs oi therr orn n 55 km (34
-. : r-r_:e SS N 7 or 110 km (68 mite) range
. -.. I -: r+n pop-Lp anr--shrp cruise missiles
- - =:: :erminal missiles would
.. 1 = i .o alrrve amongsl tile ships after Lhe
.' -: --nr ranqe missrtes had hit. lo cause
. coniusron and lhe adoprion of yer
-- -: :;asive manoeuvres within the convoy to
...:: .5em To:dd lurlher lo lhe convoys
,- : , r,, at thls poini, two to three of the SSNs
,.r:.-rl cutside the convoy's ASW screen and
= : - iced tc carry and fire the massive Type 65
. - -:-r1.124 -rn; wa<e homing antl-ship Lolpe-
-:, '-,':uici also have timed the launch of be-
"::r- p-Qhr .nd l2 of rhese high-speed
' --ccns from astern or slightly abeam of the
"r: :-l-.'.y from a range of some 30 to 50 km ( 18 6
-niles,to arrive at aboul Lhe trme rhar .he
. .-. 5 ,vere lulnrng Lo mee the new mLssi-e
. ::< Asingle hitlromoneofthese torpedoes
''.'-:l its large explosive charge in the vicinity ol
.r3el's steerinq gear wouid be enough to cnp-
:.: it and leave it a sitting duck for any of the
missr,es By rhrs sragc. aird il all
' -..-s<immrng
, .s of Lhe had been followed coi-
- - ::.y and no 'rouble had beer- met. the convoy
-:. - iLs escorts would have bcen rhrown tnto
.,:al disorder with many damaged or sinking
- ,-ps litlenng its roule Any gaps opened rn lhe
iSW screen by the loss of an escort would then
:e exploiied by the remainlng SSNs lying in
-.Jnl ol the convoy and oursrde lhe escorts
,r.lvtr sonar ranqe -fhese wouid penelrale the
screen via the gaps and ciose to within some
,6 km (10 miles) ol the nrerchant ships to use

Modern Underu;ater Weap o:, s


Above: Thevery large'Oscar' class crujse mtssj/e Below: The loading of the Military Sealift
submarineis a rmedwith the 270 nauticalmile Command ship USTVS Mercurya t the portaf
rangedSS-iV-19, which alsc forms tftemarn sff,t'ke Wilmington shows thewide range o{stores and
weiponry of the nuclear power ed' battlecruiser' equipment that would be shipped across lie
Kirov. Atlantic.

:rt ill ril
, dili,.-. "rlsli,


w .#i#q..-
Scvret Attack

..- -:,=:: anC main armament of stralqht- Above: One of the first targets for attackiag Soviet Below: In the event o{ a crisis in central Europe. ti:
. . .- ,.,,--;-^ tr)t - (21-in) anlr-ship submarines would be the escorts. ?ftemosl US couid be able to call upan the pre-positionec
----.-,,e uuu-r-1rlt
. ..: :t-l acoustrc-homlng weapons to capable ASW vesse/s rn ffi e USffa vy are assigned vesse/s oflfiefiapid Deplayment joint Task Farce
-. - i-n:eed rargers and srnk as many as to the defence of the high-value carrier battle which could be underway from their Indian Ocee:
groups. with less capabJe yesse,lsprotecting the bases and rnto the Mediterrcnean in davs rather
.. , .= :: lhe undamaged ones. In ihe event
supply convoys.
- : r, . . r:sistance to these SSNs or the need thanweeks.
I ' -:-
': ,-.:: short-range
- chnv+-v:nna tnvnazl^
torpedo .l+.^l/-
attacks, l}'^h
, -s:J rn rhe long-ranqe stern or beam
-:<S would be vectored in the the
:- r:i:mand authority from their weapon
. - - j-.-)ns to apply rhe coups-de-grace,
-':lse the above scenario is idealtzed
:: Scr,rlet point of view, and takes no
-:,... l: .he plesenCe
-- :ne cresence OI weslern SUrlaCe
of a WeSteIn surfaee
. .--+': irlier group with long-range pas
. : lrrdys, large numbers of ASW heli-
=r.: .'.-erhead maritime patrol aircraft and
-,- l. crolecton in the form of an SSN or
-:-:-j rl]l.g-range passlve sonars to detect
L . _a: sllcmarlnes manoeuvlmg at speed
-:-: a:tack positions, However, the sce-
. ,=-.+red to conlain ail of the current
--..-, r-:- o ack optrons available lo Sovier
:::-=-::anders when using only subsuriace
.:. -:- aitack on a reinforcement convoy in
.-. .-:.-. l
-s: ci nuclear warheads on the missrles
-r' : -s rvould br,ng a whole new ou'-
.: a3 scenario, as area rather than indi-

- ....:lk-nq unr-s regurred lo rnflrct on a

--- :ie same or (more probably) a higher
- =. :- :ianase, Irrkewise the use of tactical
:.i\V :l'eaoonsbv
.'. -iS\,ny'.r,ieapons
.=.: thedetenclino
by the lorce
defending force
. ... : --, j-rnfl-cr enough losseson rhe artack-
. : '-:r::araes effectively to disrupt the Soviet
. : :-an belore it can become effective,

Important vessels in the resupply lifeline wauld The end result of the entire effarf :i eiemc-:,,:.'
include the US Navy's specialist ammunition ships, by the unloading of supplies on tie docks ='
suclr as U,S,SKiska- One certaintywhichwas Rotterdam. It is essential that in any coniitc: :.'
highlighted by the Falklands experience is that NATO forces hold the Warsaw Pact adva r :.. -
j ( count the losses bul only the high-tech war will mean enormous expendifures the major American reinlorcements an'J": .

of weaponry. Europe.
ffi Houi"t torped.oes Modern Undennrater Weapons
Soviet torpedoes, like their Western
counterparts, can be categorized into
healry and lightweight models for spe-
cific purposes, Of the former, two
caiibres are known: the standard
533 mm (2 L in) and the relatively new
609,6mm (24in). The 533-mm (2]-in)
versrons are thought to have been
evolved from German World War II
designs, and include straight- and pat-
tern-runmng surface- and submarine-
Iaunched steam- or electric-powered
models for anti-ship use, as well as
acoustic/passive homrng ASWantr-
ship versions Surprisingly, most large
modern surface combatants have mul-
ti-tube launchers for the ASW acous-
tic-homing versions. There is also a
special 5-kiloton yield nuclear-armed

non-terminal-homing 533-mm (21-in)

torpedo in service on many of the sub-
marines desrgmed for use against high-
value surface targets such as cafirers
or Very Large Crude Carrrers. Similar-
Iy the huse 9.14-m (30-ft) long 609,6
mm (24-in) anti-ship Type 65 torpedo Above : The Yitse-Admiral Kulakov rs
has been introduced on board later- the second ofthe largeASW
generation nuclear attack submadnes destroyers of the 'Udaloy' class. In
for use against surface ship targrets, It rs addition to her ASW missiles and
belreved to use wake-homing gur- helicopters, sheis armedwith two
dance methods and, with selectable quadruple 533-mm (21-in) torpedo
50- or 30-kt speeds, has rangres of 50 tubes, one of which is visible astern
and 100 km (31 or 62 miles) respective- of the aft funnel structure.
Iy, With rangres like these the Type 65
rs being used to supplement the pop- tard their entry into the water,
up anti-ship cruise missile weapons of According to some reports there is
'Charlie' class SSGNs, and the type's also a short 400-mm (15,75-mm) anti-
availability for the frrst time allows ship torpedo which is found aboard the
Soviet SSNs to fire torpedoes from out- first-qeneration'Hotel','Echo' and
side the ASW screen of a convoy. 'November' class nuclear submarines
For air, shipboard and submarine in their stern tubes, The later-genera-
ASW uses at close ranqe a 400-mm tion nuclear submarine classes
(15,75-in) electric-powered hght- apparently have had several of their
weight torpedo has been in service for standard 533-mm (21-in) calibre torpe
a number of years. This has now do tubes fitted with liners to fire the Above : The'Alfa' c/ass submarlne is Below: Backbone of the Soviet anti-
apparently been supplemented for ASW version of the same weapon, considerably shorter than other submarine force, the' Krivak' clas s.
use aboard ASW aircraft and helicop- The standard fusrng system fitted to Sovief S.SIV design s , so it is unlikely to like all major Saviet vessels, is fitted
ters by an even larger 450-mm (17,7- Sovret torpedoes rs an active maqnetic have been fitted to fire the massive with torpedo tubes. The eight tubes
rn) weapon which is beheved to have a proximity device (to ensure detonatton 6 1 )-mm ( 24-in) torpedo reportedly abaft the bridge, in quadruple
largrer warhead and grreater range to under the target's hull so as to break its in service with the Soviet navy mounts port and starboard,
increase lethaiity. Both the airlaun- back) with a secondary contact unit for although it may he armed with the pr o b a b ly fir e acou s tic a I ly - h om i ng
ched weapons use parachutes to re- a direct hlt. slralegrcSS-/V- 2 I C ruise mis sile. 533-mm (2 I -in) torpedoes.
fE iif'crv L3, L4 and LS torpedoes
-ie electric-powered 550-mm (21,7- The Sintra-Alcatel-built L3 is a
-::) calibre L3 ship- or submarineJaun- conventional ship- or submarine-
:ied ASW homing healryweight tor- launched active acoustic homing
;edo rs currently in servrce with the anti- submarine torpedo. U nusually,
::ench navy and was designed by the ithasadiameterof 550 mm(21.65 in)
l:ection Technique des Construc- but has been offered in the more
.-:::s Navales to attack submerged standard 533 mm (2 I in) for export.
:::jets at depths up to 300 m (984 ft) It is in widespread French naval
--i speeds from 0 to 20 kts. It is fitted
,',,:- an AS-3T active acoustic gur-
:a:-ce system that has a detection sion ofthis has been developed for the
:--ge of about 600 m (1,969 ft) in ideal expofi market as the L5 Mod 4P multl-
:::ditrors, and the warhead is deton- role torpedo. All versrons are fltted
=.=d by an electro-magnetic proxrmity wrth a Thomson CSF active/passrve
::-.-:g system, A 533-mm (21-in) ver- gnridance system and are capable of
.-::- ',.,rih the same perlormance is vadous attack profiles includinq direct
-;."able for export, lenqth and weiqht and programmed searches using
::-::g 4.318 m (14, 17 ft) and 900 kg erther of the acoustic homing techni-
- :31 1b), Apart from France, several ques available, Known operators ofthe
:- -:e countnes (including Spain)
-.';:-::: have bouqht 'Daphn6' class sub-
LS other than France include the Bel-
gian navy (LS Mod 3) and Spain
:,=-::es have also obtained the larger- (aboard submarines),
-:jlra ruaannn

-:!sc ln servlce with the French navy Specification

--. ::e 533-mm (2]-in) electric-po-
-.r::eC L-4 air-launched torpedo for
Dimensions: diameter 550 mm
*<: ','i'rh helicopters, aircraft and the (21,7in); lensth4.30m(14. II ft)
1.1^':;cir ASW missile. Fitted with an Weisht: 910 ks (2,006 lb)
:--;e acoustic-homing system, rt de- Warhead: 200-kq (4411b) HE
:::raes a crcular search path upon Performance: speed 25 kts; rangre
=:--::xg the water until its seeker ac- 7,5 km (4,66 miles)
r,*-res the target. The warhead rs de-
:::-::eci erther by an impact fuse or a Specification
;::r:-mrty acoustic influence fuse. L4
:::::h L4s have recently been mod- Dimensions: diameter 533 mm (2 L in); Above:The L4 airJaunched torpedo Below : The L5 series of multi-
=::,:ed to rmprove shallow-water per- length 3,033 m (9.95 ft), or 3, 13 m can function in shallow water against purpose torpedoes is fittedwith
::::::-rce and its 0/20-k target capa- ( 10.27 ft) with parachute pack submarines manoeuvring at up to Thom s on - C SF ac tivel pas siv e
: "1,- nom penscope depth to around Weisht: 540 kq (1,190 lb) 20 kts. I t also provides the warload homingheads, although theMod I is
: -'--:: (984-ft) deep cruisinq, A version I/llarhead: 104-kq (229-lb) HE for the Malafon ASW missile system, intended for surface yesse/ use and
-:: s-:nace ship launching has also Performance: speed 30 kts; range and a ship-launched version has the heavier Mod 3 version (shown
::=: cieveloped: this has a lengrth of 5 5 km (3.4 miles) been desigrned. fi ere) egurps s ubm ar ines.
: :, r: i10.83 ft) and a weiqht of 570 kq
- 2:r 1b). Specification
-:.: most recent of the L-serres lor- t5
;:d:es is the electric-powered
-,'.-::-:: is avarlable in four versions, The
L5, Dimensions: diameter 533 mm (21 in);
length 4,40 m ( 14,44 ft)
ASWanti-ship LS Mod I Weisht: (Mod 1) 1000 kq (2,205 lb),
:arned by surface ships, whilst the (Mod 3) 1300 ks (2,866 lb), (Mod 4)
:=-::iar-role but heavier LS Mod 3 is 920 ks (2,428 b) and (Mod 4P) 930 kg
-:i by submarines. A sinqle-role (2,050Ib)
-,-J_art. the ASW t5 Mod 4, has been Warhead: 150-kq (331jb) HE
:::,;ed fuom the Mod I and is used Performance: speed 35 kts; range
::.:-_* by surface ships. A fufiher ver- 9.25 km (5.75 miles)

fI iif'cN FIZ torpedo

---: FI7 ls the flrst wire-gurded
to be used by
:-=a-;gweigrht torpedo
:,: French navy Designed for use
-;:-:rst surface ships from submarines,
:: -.'!'eapon can be employed erther in
:: ,',.rre-giurded mode or in an auton-
:::::us passive homing mode, the
::pabrlrty for instant swrtching be-
.;een the two modes beinq provided
::, a control panel aboard the launch
: ajorm. The terminal attack phase is
' :.rnally ol lhe passrve dcoust'c type
::der the torpedo s own mternal con-
::1. A dual-purpose surface- or sub-
::-arne launched variant, the Fl7P, has
:so been developed for the export
::-arket and has been bouqht by Saudi
.Type ior use aboard its 'Madina'
F200Q') class frrgates and by
Sparn for use aboard rts 'Agosta' and
iiodernrzed 'Daphne class sub-
narines. The FLTP differs from the
basrc F17 in having an active/passle
acoustic-homrnq seeker which allows
:ompletely autonomous operation if
required lenqth 5.9 L4 m ( 19.40 ft) The wire-guided F I 7 heavyweight torpedo is an anti-shipping submarine-
Weight: 1410 kq(3, 108 lb) launchedweapon, although an automatichoming head is standard. The F17P
Specification Warhead: 250-kq (5511b) HE is a developmentcapable of shipor submarine launch, and in addition towte
FT7 Performance: speed 35 kts; ranqe gaidance is equipped for active or passive acoustic homing.ln all the models.
Dimensions: diameter 533 mm (21 in); lB km (11 iB miles) however, the terminal atfackpftasers usually autonomous.

Modern Underwater Weapons
Thomson-CSF sea mines
Thomson-CSF produces hvo types of As offensive mines have to be haid
operatronal sea mine, The TSM35l0 (or covertly, often in or near enemy
MCC23) is an offensive gnound mine waters, the most appropriate system
f,tted with a multi-sensor fusing system for such work is the submarine.
based on two or all of the magmetic, Hence theTSM 3510, incommonwith
acoustic and pressure actuating influ- many other mines in production
ences, and rs shaped for launching today, is designed to be ejected
from the standard torpedo tube of a through standard torpedo tubes.
submarine, The sensrtivity of the fusing
can be adjusted before laying to surt
the depth of water and the type of mine deployed from surface ships have purchased 'Daphn6' class sub- Specification
target likely to be encountered, The fitted with mine rarls. It is checked in its malmes, TSM3530
mrne is armed (by withdrawtng two descent to the sea bottom by a para- Dimensions:diameter 1,20 m (3.94 rt)
safety pins) before it is loaded into the chute-retardingr device which ensures Specification lensth 1,10 m (3,61 ft)
tube and is activated by a preset trm- that correct orientation is achieved, It TSM3SIO Weisht: 1200 ks (2,646 lb)
rng delay to allow the submarine to is armed by a preset timing delay Dimensions: diameter0,53 m (1.74 ft); Actuating sensors: combinarion
clear the area, TWo srmilarly shaped which allows the laying platform to length2.368 m(7,77 fI) magnetic acoustic, maqnetic press':::
training mines, the TSM35l5 clear the area, Weight:850 kq (1,874 lb) acoustic pressure. or magmetlc
(MCED23) and the TSM35I7 Both mines are in servrce with the Actuating sensors: combination acoustic pressure
(MCEM23), are also in servrce, French navy and have been sold magnetic acoustic, magnetic pressure,
For defensive puposes there is the abroad, especially the TSM3510 which acoustic pressure, or magnetrc
TSM3530 (MCTIS), which is a gnound is found in several of the countries that acoustic pressure

ffi ft"r"oni Stingray torpedo

Designed to supplement the Amencan Similar in size to the previous
Mk 46 Mod 2 and to replace the Mk 44 generation of lightweight torpedoes,
torpedoes in British service, the Mar- the MarconiStingray also has a
coni Stingray lightweight torpedo was similar performance. Where it differs
the sequel of the abortive MOD in- rs in flre sophrs ticate d guid ance.
house lightweight Mk 30 and 31 proq-
rammes which were cancelled in Specifi cation (provisional)
1970,The Stingray is the first Britrsh Stingray
torpedo to be developed entirely by Dimensions: diameter 324 mm
private industry and incorporates a (12,75 in); lensth2.6 m(8.52 ft)
number of technical innovations. The weiqht:265 4 ks (585.2 lb)
weapon is capable of being launched Warhead: 40-kg (BB-lb) shaped-
foom helicopters, aircraft and surface charqe HE
ships over a wide range ofspeeds and Performance: speed 45 kts; range
sea states and as a result ofits unique 1l I km(6,9miles;
qdance system, ean be used satisfac-
:crily in both shallow and deep waters Right: The new generation of
',',ith an equally high single-shot kill lightweight torpedo gives sigmificant
plobability, the former bernq demons- anti- su bm arine cap a bility to
lated recently during a development r e latively u nsop his tic ate d sys tem s.
: al shot when Stingray Cropped from The Britten-Norman Defender could
: BAe Nrmrod of No. 42 Squadron hit carry Stingray and could use its
=i sank the
decommissioned con-
submarine Porpoise,
sophisticated electronics to attack
the most advanced of submarines.
-;larently whrlst she was moored at
-:+:s:ope depth.
-r-:rough deployed operationally
=;:-C several ships during the 1982
: .:rds war, Stingray was not flred
--, --;:r and did not actually enter full-
.:-: semce with the Royal Navy and
- -;=' -:- Force until 1983. Since then
-:- r-;=acon has been sold to Thailand
"-- :-=,-ci. ln terms of qeneral per-
--i::.::,le rt is simllar to the Mk 46
:., -;:- -: seems, the British torpedo
:- -' ;:-Jy deeper diving depth of
r., : :25 ft). The Strngray also pos-
-i;::-: ::- onboard digital computer
::-i:r:1 :: a multimode multi-beam
l:--.; !:Ssrve sonar that effectively
r:':-r: , : smart' weapon, Propulsion
-i :'ii :-_ :-ectncally-driven pump-jet
nn. -: I :E::._,. activated by sea water
t:,:- =::-]=s :3 speed loss as the depth
n:::--: l:e warhead is of the
r--: - --:-:.i: l)' shaped-charge van-
i-i ::ii=: :-= blast type to ensure
;n:::r::: :: a Soviet Submarine's
:i!: -L:F:- t::-strLlction,

"Txis!:l; :-=FA-;, will form a part of the

,{i;Ji.ffi- ;;1;=-sr t of several classes of
.ilcm'ai -N+,i:rr-:-.rfa ce combatant- The
ut:nF,j:P:- n{be launched from
mn:rme: ;=:= ans of the US M k 32
t!:tts lll'g - shown here in a trial
larlrtr ::fi ::e l,pe 2 J frigate HMS
Sfingrqg in Action
The phenomenal growth in the power of the Soviet navy in the past two decades has
nowhere been so prominent as in the development of the submarine. New
technologies applied to submarine and weapon design have provided a challenge
to NATO, and one of the most sophisticated of NATO's replies has been the
advanced lightweight S tingr ay torpedo

..-= advent of the high-speed deep-diving 1975, the Stingray was evaluated for possible
-:-qra SSN and 'Papa' SSGN anechoic-coated US procurement. However, the Americans
::::anne classes at the begrnning of the 1970s found that although its new shaped-charge
;:=sea:ed major problems to NATO ASW warhead and advanced active/passive acous-
;--:ers rr lhat the standard lightweight torpe- tic seeker with rntegral computer gave it an
tr: es -n at the time, the Mk 44 Mod I and the
r-rse unnvalled target detection and destruction
l,k =t Mod 0/I/2, had totally inadequate hom- capabrlity in comparison with the Mk 46 Mod 5,
::; arC underwater performances to meet this the Stingray was very much more expensive
::=a: Although a modiflcation programme and had only srmilar underwater speeds, max- Marconi's Stingray exhibits all the qualities of a
e;entually initlated in an attempt to red-
:,'.-=s imum diving depth and endurance character- modernASWweapon, being lightenough to be
:=ss -,re balance (on the seeker side at least) istics, which were prectsely the areas in which ttansported by small helicopters yet fast enough to
--: :re Mk 46 under the trtle NEAR-Term Im- the US Nairy was looking for marked improve- cope with the most modern nuclear submarines.
:::;3rent Program (NEARTIP) it was later ments. It was also pointed out that a new-type
::;e.'ed by several American admirals durlng propulsron system rather than the electric-bat- On surface ships the Stingray is launched
J.::-;essional testimony that the NEARTIP tery type fltted would probably resolve these from the port and starboard 325-mm (12 75-in)
:::-;erslon had only resulted in upgrading the operational limitations, calibre triple torpedo tubes of the quick-reac-
l"k =6s io handle the pre-'A1pha'generation of tion Ship's Torpedo Weapon System-2, which
=:-::-ariaes coated with the same anecholc is a second-generation development by a Brlt-
l::--gls found on the newer boats. Despite these American obsewations about ish firm of the US Navy's Mk 32 torpedo-laun-
-:- re mrdst of all this, and as a flnal result of Stingray, the Royal Navy stuck with its choice cher unit and is integrated into the ship's Actron
:-= :a:rcellation of the British Minrstry of De- and ordered the weapon in significant quanti- Information Organization (AIO) At present
:=:-:= s Mk 3l 324-mm(12.75-in) callbre interim ties for use aboard its surface ships and heli- STWS-Z rs fitted on certain 'lreander' class fri-
-;:-r;eight torpedo project rn 1970, contracts copters. The Royal Air Force has also adopted gates, all batches of the 'T\7pe 22' class ASW
,-;=re pl.aced with Marconi for the design, de- it for the main armament of its BAe Nimrod ships and some of the 'Type 42' class des-
;=-:pment and initral production of an auton- MR Mk 2 maritime patrol aircraft, which can troyers, In the future it will be fitted aboard the
-:-:-rs acoustic-homing torpedo lnltially each carry up to nine Stingrays in the internal new 'Type 23' 'Duke' class ASW frigates.
as Naval Stalf Requirement 7511 or 'Son weapons bay. On Royal Navy helicopters the Under normal circumstances, in all ship-
-: l,k 3L', and finally as Stingray, As part of the load is usually one or two on a Westland Lynx board cases the mode of operation is for the
,-r lia-.ry's similar Advanced Lightweight Tor- HAS Mk 2/3 and up to four on a Westland Sea STWS-2 microprocessor-based tracker and
:=:: .ALWT) programme inrtrated in August Krng HAS.Mk 2Al5 prediclor systems to receive on an aulomalic

The MAD attack

as Nlmrod patrols ln rad o and rada r s lence, one of the crew eyebal s a
srrfaced submarine. mmedlate ya smoke flare ls dropped and the aircrafl
: icles the area of the now crash d ved boat at ow ieve and n r ght radius.
\lmrod sows act ve and pass ve buoys whlle ln the turn, and each crew
-ember sea rches the array of sensors for a fu rther s ghting

Passive buovs s molv \ Active buoys
isten forthe no se thatthe are dropped arc -:
submar ne makes and with the passi\':
broadcast them to the buots. They €r
overflying Nimrod. sqBBly.distan*
Receplion f rom twobuoys informatioftaaC
Gn supply bearing canlocateslle.:
information submarines bv
recording retu-:
reflected baci.,
the submafi.g

metalhu ls of havc a marked effec thc ocal Earth s mac field Dlstortionsofl naturc dre detected bv
gearcarr ed in aft boom ofthc overf y ng j. The effect ls ihard pronounced and LS ac ind catlon ol a boal
Modern Underwater Weap ons
:=sis target data via an information channei known to seduce earher torpedo types from charge warhead is exploded by a dire:: :'-*--
-::m the marn AIO unrt, These data are passed their search patterns, Once locked on to a vali- tact fuse so that all of the force of the i--: _:
.: the tracker, whrch then computes the dated target, Stingray is thus virtually impossi- directed rnto penetratrng the pressure :- ' -:-.
arget's current posrtron and drsplays the flre- ble to shake off unless the submarine is fast any depth the effect of the explosion ::- : : :- -
::ntrolled problem, The computed data is also enough to outrun it (assuming that it has de- marine rs readily apparent, whrlst a: s:-.,,: .'.::
-:assed into the predictor, which in turn com- tected the noise ol the weapon homrng in), depth the damage should be more ::.-=. :--
putes the target's predrcted course and uses The computer gnrides the torpedo to the opti- ficient either to cause the vessel to sin< i::: =:
.nis information (together with data on the mum point on the target, where the shaped- (where a catastrophrc hull failure v.c : I . :- -:
ship's own headrng, speed etc.) to generate
and drsplay the actual fire-controj solution that The guidance system of
cptimizes the probability of seeker acquisition modern torpedoes is fragile
ior the weapon to be used, The ship's Principal enough to require parachute
Warfare Officer (Underwater) can then use the retardation when Launched
from fast-moving aircratt such
actron channel of the system to select and pre- as the British Aetospace
set launch details into the most appropriate Nimrod-
weapon of the six available to him in the tubes,
Once the launch point has been reached the
torpedo rs ejected from its tube on the rough
bearing to the target and retarded rn flight by a
smal1 droque parachute to ensure the correct
nose-flrst attitude for entering the water,
Search pattern commenced
Once the weapon has submerged, the para-
chute is drscarded and the weapon makes for
the target's predicted location to start its search S tingr ay's on boar d c ompu ter
pattern. The onboard computer and the multi- will have been fed target data
beam active/passive sonar enable the Stingray up until the moment of launch,
to make its own tactical decisrons during an and uponentry to thewater
will discard the drogue
engagement by anticipating a target's changes parachute and begin to seek
ofcourse, speed and depth throughout analysls the targetwith its own sonar.
of information it is receiving, The software is
also powerful enough to reject any counterme-
asures technrques such as towed noisemakers,
elected acoustic jammers or mobile decoys
:rat may be deployed by the target, It also
,lnores any extraneous background noise ol
re marrne envlronment, which has been
Sting Ray attack
Nimrodhaslocatedahosti csubmarneandhasstored n i1s :;,.:a:ai:t Submarlne s rr.:i
computer factors reiatlng to its bearlng. track and depth -
nformation gained by ts arrayof sensors These EarlV torpedo s :-:
parametersareass gnedtothe St ng Ray mmediatelv iffiA#ffi1 SrngRaysr.e.i
before its aunch and the torpedo enters thc water know ng
where to look for the target

Sting Rayrs acoustic

sensotsare much more
acute than those of
prevroustorpedoes and lts Sting Rai's warhead
initial search pattern can be has a shaped charoe and
carred out much more can inflict crippling damaqe
qulckly at vulnerab e points on ihe
submar ne's hul

Sting Ray's sensors :-:

adept at detectlnq
Sting Ray's computel ':'.'ii the sea b,-d where rar:-
can eomnL JJe The iLrlLrre cluttercan rnhiblt no'-:
position bf the target and ll deteolnn

\ :
can calculate the best shoil
cut to meet t
exlsting, rather than ts
projected, posltlon; this

- outruns and outranges thc
:- o-P"do
Strngrray in Action
:: :::---. :- -:-: CreSS-_te, CI iC fOfCe t: iO COme
.: :: s--t-'1ta -r,-.1erc :ne shtp s other weapons
-- i ^.* , _-

-:- -:-3 :,it:r:ie lau:rch application the initral

r:-3 t,-::- :- :re :arget rs usually dependent on
:--,:-3t --:-= ::cs: platJorm's sensors (such as pas
:-'.==:--.-: scnobuoys and active drpping so-
:.': .: .:+ '.-+c:orrng in ol the plariorm via in-
-::::-t_::- ierived from external sources such
-: I s::c s :owed-array or active sonar sets.
--:-:_ ::r!fe: localization is usually effected by a
:--;:l:::.. anomaly detection (MAD) system
--: - --:e permits the markrng of the weapon
l:'. t:---in point by a smoke or flare pot, Once
-:-= sc:: rs identified a parachute:retarded
S---;=,.- -s released to enter the water, Once
-.-.::-=:ged it starts on a preprogrammed
:=1:::r Da:iern designed to optimize the
r:-::-:=s oiacqurring the target, When acquist-
-:- .ias :aken place, the ability of Stingray,s
r-:-:r.:r :c anticipate the target's movements
r::-:s jt:o its own by effectively minimizing
_:_: , ':-e spent on rnanoeuvrinq after the tarqet
r-- l -:. i :ivrng rrsella greater chance to close marlne scares througrhout the war, but as far as Stingray undergoe.s fesfs af fhe n ew pro,Tuction
r: r :--. t: during the battery's lifetime of some can be ascertained these torpedoes hit nothino line built by Marconi for the project.-The cost of the
--::: ::lllUies OI SO, save a frigates Type 182 Lowed noisemakei programme has been considerably more than first
Little combat use decoy on one occasion and, if the reports are to estimated; staying in the van of advanced weapon
be believed, several unfortunate whales which technology is not cheap.
-r--:::"gh fully operational weapons were just happened to be in the wrong place at the
=.::.- south by several ships during the 1g82 wrong time. lf Stingrays had been used instead
:...ra::is war no Stingrays were flred in an- ol lhe Mk 46s, practically all lhese ,false target
;=: 3:ry the Mk 46 Mod 2 was used under hrts would not have occurred and the Santa-Fe
fo.und to do ii and (now more important)
whelher or not lhere is the political wrll to
l:r:-.1: ccnditions, the first being dropped on would have certainly added considerable tor- implement such modification as hiqher-cost
- - -:-pr-i 1982 by HMSBnlIant's Lynx HAS Mk 2 pedo damage to its hst of woes infltcted bv the projecis cream off avarlable financill asseLs.
,: S:::h Georgia during the combtned heli- hehcopters; she may possibly not have Failing such a development, Stingray wrll
r: ; .:: 3perations against the surfaced Argen- reached the safety of Grytviken harbour. probably end up as yet another Brrtish success
--:-: s-tbrnarine Sanla Fe bv a Westland
Wes- For the future rs tikely that the American story ior the orher side,
i+... .--:.S Mk 3 equrpped wirh depth charges, suggestion for engining Stingray wrth a new
and several Westland Wasp HAS.Mk propulsion plant (to tncrease lts maximum
,:= '-,,:t-x
,=i -with AS, 12 wire-quided
: :: ..=T r\4k 46s were dropp-ed by missiles underwater speed to match that of the new
A_Stingray is launched from a frigate of the Royal
Sea King Soviet submarine classes) wrll be followed
-::p:ers and others were fired-from ships Navy,-..Although primarily an air-launched weapon,
-__ However, like all defence malrers todav thrs theKingfisher system has been developed to iltow
:--,'.S-- systems during a number of sub- will depend on whether or not the cash can be tube launch fromsurface yesseis. -


v \p'

:r: 'a
Modern Underwater Weapons
Marconi Mk 24 Tigerfish torpedo
-:-e origins of the Mk 24 Tigerfish
---:avyweight torpedo saga can be
:-:d as far back as 1959 in a British
:rcedo project codenamed 'Ongar'.
:_.- 1970 it was realized that the technol-
:1v rnvolved could not be handled
-,1ely by an rn-house servrce bilized (by retractable mid-body stub The end result of an unbelievably protracted development programme, the
=pproach, so the then Marconi Com- wings) torpedo is gnrided rn this fashion Tigertishwire-guidedheavyweighttorpedo is a developmentof the Mk 24
:.ry was given the job of developing up to the point where its own three- torpedo, having a maximum speed variously estimated at 35 or 50 kts and a
:e weapon from 1972 onwards, Thrs dimensional aclive/passive sonar maximum r ange at low s peed of s ome 2 I km ( I 3 miles ).
-,';as flve years after the oriqinally en- seeker head and computer can take
-.-agred in-servrce date. As a result of over for the attack on the tarqet, At
ieveiopment and engdneering prob- present only the Royal and Brazilian
:ms the flrst verslon of the Tigerfish navies use the Tigerfish, A further
.re Mk 24 Mod 0, entered fleet servrce proqramme is under wdy lo examlne
-r 1974 with less operational capability possible enhancements to the
-ran originally desired, It was only wedpon s capabrhtres wrth a vrew to
granted its full Fleet Weapon Accept- countering the new qeneration of
ance certificate in 1979 after pro- Soviet nuclear submannes.
iracted evaluation,
To rectlfy the problems Marconi in- Specification
rtrated development of a product-im- Mk 24 Tigerfish
proved version, the Mk 24 Mod I, dur- Dimensions: drameter 533 mm (21 in);
ing 1972 but this also encountered lenqrth 6.464 m (21.2 ft)
technical problems and flnally entered Weisht: 1547 kq (3,410 lb)
limited service in mid-1978. By i98l Warhead: 134-kg (295-lb) HE
sufhcrent update kits were available to Performarce: speed 24 or 35 kts;
upgnade all the earlter Mod 0 weapons range 2i or 13 lcn (13.05 or B,0B miles)
to this standard, Designed for sub-
marine use against submerged (Mod 0 TheTigerfishis propelled by a two-
and 1) and surface (Mod 1) tarqets, the speed electric motor driving a pair of
dual-speed electric-powered conta-rotating propellers designed
Tigerfish is gmided in its initral stage by for high efficiency and low noise
wire dispensed from both the sub- production. T he I 34- kg (29 5- Ib)
marine and the torpedo itself, using high- e x plos ive w arhe ad c an be
Cata denved from the launch plat- detonated by contact or by proximity
cnn's passive sonar sets, The roll-sta- fusing.

ffi ft"r"oni Spearfish torpedo

l:signed to meet Naval Staff Requtre-
::,:nt 7525, the Marconi Spearfish is an
- r; anced-capabilities wire-guided
:-al-role (ASWanti-ship) heavy-
:';:.rht torpedo, It will be able to en-
:-pe the new generation of Soviet Externallyvery similar tothe Mk24 Tigerfishwire-guided torpedo that itwilleventually replace, the Marcon
,,;:-speed deep-submergence sub- Spearfish is radically ditferent internally and has a considerably enhanced performance.
using a new HAP-Otto fuel-
: -=-:res
,-,-:red Sundstrand 2lTP01 qas tur- pedo project, The computer will en- Specifi cation (provisional)
: = :ngrne with a pump-jet outlet to able the torpedo to make its own tac- Spearfish
: r
-:;e speeds rn excess of 60 kts (up ttcal decisrons during an enqagtement, Dimensions: diameter 533 mm (21 in);
-<s on trials), The warhead is of optimizrng the homing modes avail- lensth B.5 m (27.9 ft)
. - -r-lected-energry shaped-charge able to the underwater environment weisht: ks (4,400 lb)
- :=
--i is capable of penetrating the
.'=,. S:viet developments in sub-
encountered and to the target's use of
decoys and manoeuwing patterns.
Warhead: 249-kg (550-]b) HE
Performance: speed 24 or 60 ks;
. ---.: io',,rble-hull construction which Work on the development pro- range 46,25 or 28.6 km (28.75 or 17.75
: --. :=,::rd
aboard the 'Oscar' SSGN totypes began in 1982, the first in-water miles)
,, - --.::oon' SSBN classes. To ensure trials taking place in the following
':- := r,3apon actually contacts the year, Production deliveries are be-
,' lieved to be due in
l= : :-'-lllhe lnstalled gnridance sys- 1987, with oper-
- j:s ::chriology developed origi-
. - ; -:: -:: Strngnay lightwetght tor-
ational capability scheduled for


FFV Tp42 series torpedoes

-:,;::-ai1y rntended as the successor to atlnq in the quiet state in shallow wa-
-,: i-:,,.al Swedrsh narry's Tp4l, the ters. A new three-speed selectable
Tl-{2 the base model of a whole propulsion system and increased qnri-
.=:,=s =
:i hghtweight 400-mm ( 15.75-in) dance wire capacity have imProved
.::p:i:es burlt by FFV for the home the maxrmum range of the weapon, at
:,--<:: ald for export. The basic mod- the slowest speed, by 33 Per cent in
-:-= Tp422, entered service in mid- comparison with the earlier Tp42 mod- Above: The Type 42 range of Below: The advantage of lightweight
::: a:ld rs intended primarily for els. The equrvalenl export version IS lightweight 400-mm ( I 5.75 -in) torpedoes is that they can give a
-lS-,',- :-oeratrons from the nary's small desigrnated Tp43XO andwillbe able to torpedoes is the only air-launched significant anti-submarine capability
-:::. :: Bcerngr-Vertol 107 helicopters. use alternative propulsion systems if torpedo known to be wire-guided. I t to the smallest of helicopters. The
-::rtque amongst western light- required. The lightest of the whole can be controlled by a hovering or Type 422 has been launched from the
- cruising helicopter, although a Swedish navy's A8-406 helicopter s,
,'i:-j::-.reapons in that rt is capable of Tp432/43XO family will be the helicop-
',';:: ;rrdance after an airlaunched ter-launched variant which weighs variant has been designed for although the W I 07 (licence-built
r:' -,'..j'The terminal attack phase is 280kq (6171b), and because it has a surface or submarine use. The Wpe Boeing-VertolCH-46) is the usual
::::-ed cut by a passive sonar system. smaller battery capacity this wlll have 427 exportversion is illustrated. platform.
l::p-isron ts by an electric battery of a maximum range in the order of 15-
:-: s-.,-er-zinc type whilst the war- 20km (9.3-12,4 miles) at the slowest
:-=:d'. fitteci with both proxtmity and speed settinq, iJses, The torpedo can be set
,: :*:: at one of fivo speeds whtch are Specification
::---qeable after launch either via the Tp422/427
j l:. Je -.41re Jr as an instruclion pre'
- Dimensions: diameter 400 mm
::::r:rnmed inio the seeker unit. A (15.75 in); lengrth 2,44 m (8,00 ft), or
-.::.- model, for
the Tp423, is beheved 2,60 m (8,53 ft) with wire gnridance
: :: ,::tended launch from surface section
.--;s ard submarines against sub- Weight: 298 kq (657 lb)
:,=::,: :r ship taJgets. The export ver- Warhead: 45-ks (99-1b) HE
s::- :- .lre IP42U423 rs known as the Performance: speed 15 or 25 kts;
Tp427 and has rnternal/Stutdance range 20 or 10 kn (12,43 or 6,21miles)
::-,;es -,vhich effectively introduce
r-:::::: sonar and proximity fuse fre- Specification
--:r.r.:S -n order not to compromise
j-;= :,-s: r-a-!ry settings.
Dimensions: diameter 400 mm
:- -334 the Swedish narry initiated a (15,75 in); lenqth 2.60 m (8.53 ft), or
::: ' ::: r:rptovement programme that 2,BS m (9,35 ft) withwire guidance
,--.. ::sjed in the Tp432, which is due section
.: ::-::r productron tn 1987, This is de- Weight: 2BO to 350 kq (617 to 772 1b)
:-=::=tr :c use new digital mtcro- Warhead: 45'ks (99-lb) HE
!::l:ss:r guidance unrts and is oPti- Performance: speed 15, 25 or 35 Ks;
::,:=i:: attack the new generation of range 30, 20 or 10 km (18, 64, 12,43 or
: .'.--:- l: :.ventlonal submarines oper- 6,21miles)


FFV TpG I series torpedoes

[Jn]ike most modern heavyweight torpedoes, the FFV Tp61 is not powered electrically but by a hydrogen-percxidel
ethanoldrivenengrtne. Sucfi systems aremoreunstable thanbattery power, butof much higherperformance.

lJj;*.sr+1*,S'... -:::]lr*'-;t"

lionvay is in the process of acquiring

';e :mpr oved Tp6 1 3 torpedo in Place
oiihe lp5'l already operated.The
:e'r' weapon will probably equip the
'7-'pe 2A7' submarines suchas
-J::;.-':g. seen he re, as well as the new
'l;pe ? r' 5' class which will enter
!s:i -:E:r iire J990s.
FFV Tp6l series torpedoes (continued) Modern Undenvater Weapons
-liernal software changes to give so-
:ar and pro:omity fuse settings diffe-
:ent from Swedish ones. Each Tp6l
series torpedo can be left in its tube for
:p to four months wilhout requiring

Dimersions: diameter 533 mm (21 in);
-ength 7.025 m (23,05 ft)
Weisht: 1796 kg (3,959 ]b) or (Tp613)
-E50 kg (4,078 Ib)
Warhead: 250-kg (551-]b) HE
Performarce: speed 45 kts; range
20 kn (1.43 miles) or (TpO 13) 30 km
ilB,64 miles)

Snar, a 'Snogtg' class fast attack craft,

is fittedwilhfour 533-mm(2f -in)
torpedo tubes in addition to Penguin
anti-ship missiles. The torpedo and
the missile have similar ranges and
although tfie missrTe ri m uch faster
the torpedo does not appear on an7
radar screen.

tfir. sz torpedo
The origrinal Westinghouse Mk 37 Mod
0 heavyrnreight torpedo entered ser-
-ncein 1956 as a submarine- and sur-
per cent increase in endurance and a
100 per cent rncrease in seeker detec-
tion range rn comparison with the ori-
:ace ship-launched ASW acoustic- ginal Mk 37 models. At least 16 coun-
roming free-runninq torpedo. Fitted Lries are known to use the various ver-
;rith studs along its sides, the 482,6-mm srons of the Mk 37 family including the
i19-in) calibre Mk 37 can be fired from above, plus West Germany, SPatn,
siandard 533-mm (21-in) torpedo Argrentina and the Netherlands
::bes, As operational experience built
':p with the weapon, many Mod 0 tor- Specification
pedoes were refurbished and mod- Mk37
'-ed to bringthemup to the Mk 37Mod Dimensions: diameter 484,6 mm ( 19

3 standard, Althouqh useful in the ASW in); lenqrth (Mod 0 and 3) 3.52 m
::le these free-runninq weapons, (11,55 ft) or (Mod l and 2) 4.09 m
r,-:ich could dive to 300 m (985 ft), (13,42 ft)
Tere not suited to really lonqr sonar Weight: (Mod 0 and 3) 649 ks (1,430 lb)
r:tection ranges as during the torpe- or (Mod 1 and 2) 767 kq ( 1,690 Ib)
f : s lxr to a predicted target location it Warhead: 150-kq (330-lb) HE
.r- possible that the target could per- Performance: speed 16 or 24 kts
::r: evasive manoeuwes taking it out range (Mod 0 and 3) 16.5 or 7,3 km
::-:e 640 m (2,100-ft) acquisition range (I0,25or4,5miles), or(Mod I and2)
:, -:e weapon's seeker head. Thus 8.7 kn (5.4 miles)
r-:: gudance was fitted to the Mk 37
r: ::cduce the Mk 37 Mod I version, Specification
r';:r entered sewice in 1962 aboard NT37E
.:-:-:::can submarines, This was fol- Dimensions: diameter 484,6 mm
-:;n:i by the updated Mk 37 Mod 2 (19 in); lensth(Mod2)4.506 m(14.78 ft)
:::-;ersion of Mod i weapons, or (Mod 3) 3,946 m (i2.62 ft)
-r*:::grh the standard US Navy sub- Weisht: (Mod 2) 748 ks ( 1,650 Ib) or
:-=-:-e-launched ASW torpedo for (Mod3)640 kq(1,412 lb)
rrl:= 23years, the Mk 37 is now found Warhead: 150-kq (3301b) HE
:l; i:oard the diesel-electnc boat Performance: speed 22,4 or 33,6 kts;
--i-: l::1er. range (Mod 2) 21.7 km (13,5 miles) or
-l.i::-r- rave been converted to Mk 67 (Mod3) 18,3 km (1 1,4 miles)
:-:::r:re-launched mobile mine
r:;L r.lilst others have been put Above: Dutch seamen man@uwe
lr: rl:: najor
upgrradrng progrrammes the long, heavy bulk of a NATO
:--i::: =le to other countries. The first standard NT37 totpedo into one af
id-: ::- a'icat1on, in the mid- 1970s, re- the Iorward tubes of a'Dolfijn' class
ii"L"lr:: -:- re Northrop NT37C, which submarine. T he oigi'inal M k 37
rrtr-t:,::::es a new thermo-chemrcal enteredsewice rn tfie J9,50s. but
; r::i--E:: system based on that of the pr ogres sive modifications b1;
lr,'i:l !:
::-tr has an antr-ship capability Westinghouse and Northrop hare
r:rr:r. l:e NT37C ts known to be in u pgir a d e d th e w e a pon' s cawh ii:
m:-;l:- r--:- Canada and Israel aboard an enormous extent.
5,nn ::::::-rrne fleets. In 1979 Hon-
* ''u=- -=:l.rred the riQthts to the
liTill =-: ai the request of several
trd I - l.t :- '.:sers further developed
:E ili,=:':: :c the Honeywell NT37E
Jt-"ll]rrlilj rr::ci allows the fitting of
rlu l,a-f':
=::-:lonal kitS tO produCe
WT:E l$od 2 and 1fI37E Mod 3 con-
irqinrir:s :: -:: i:asic Mk 37 variants, In
$rir-:5i -=:::: iese new variants dis-
IJ,i i . .- !€: :eirt mcrease in speed, a
il :+: :-:: i-crease rn range, an B0
NucleqrWeapons cf Sea
| :. e proliferation of nuclear weaponry has seen widespread
of nuclear anti-ship and anti-submarine
'",,'eaponry atsea. Sucft are the defences of a modern Carrier
I a::ie Group that a nuclear attack may be the only feasible
::.einod of attack, and the temptation to use a nuclear weapon
:: a;srupf a submarine attack could well prove irresistible.
--:. :: sJrprs ng to some that in any future war between NATO and the
.-.'.. ract the f-rrst use of tactical weapons with low kiloton yields will
-: -: ::cJr at sea as an inteqral part of a fiercely{ought ASW battle for the
- -- - - .'i c and ts surroundinq sea areas. Although a large number of the
--l -::::rs contribute naval forces to NATO's Atlantic command structure,
- - = , ('s Royal Alr Force and Royal Navy, the Royal Netherlands air force
- : .- y
= - S \avy are f ulLy trained in the operational use of the 5/'10-klloton eld
:- ---=z' depthbomb.
^ . -=..'... colitrcal move the Dutch have made the decision to withdraw the
:- -=::: i,7 from thetr Lockheed Orion force, each of whose '13 P-3Cs can
:--. ...: SJCn bombs.
- :^: '- (:ne B57 bombs are held in nuclear weapon stores {or wartime use
^: :-: s'our squadrons and an OCU flying 31 BAe Nlmrod MR.Mk 2s {two
--:::ial and the Royal Navy's seven front-line and trarning sqrtadrons
: :: r . rn 64 ASW and 22 tra nrng Westland Sea King HAS M k 2Al5s (one
'- . .=.^ ine Sea Kings plus the thlee f ront-line and tralning squadrons with
ABritish AerospaceNl'mrodsefs out from its base atKinloss on the first leg of
- :, . r-: -)n pd10' 1 tralningWestland Lynx dAS.M<2 3s(onebombeach) oneof its longNorthAtlantic patrols.TheNimrods are equipped to carry two
:. -:: r ', ieillnlng number of Westland Wasp HAS.Mk 1s (one bomb each) 5-10 ktyieldB-57 weapons, butwould only be so armed if the threat of war
, -:: .^: sr-nallerl-klloton yteld variant of the UK's own indigenous tactical was overwhelming.
::' r':. :v bomb, the Green Parrot.
= .' - S Navy aerial nuclear
- -^' ASW del very platforms are the 24 active and available to American submarines. Some 50 nuclear attack submarines are
'--:-.: s:radrons (nine aircraft each) of Lockheed P-3 Orions. These are currently equipped to carry and launch this obsolescent weapon, but the num-
.:r:. -i carrer and one shore-based squadrons ('10 aircraft each) of bers are declining slowly as non-com patible digital f ire-control systems are f itted
-'=-==: .-i-3A Vlking (one bomb each) ASW lets, and 12 carrrer and two in place of the earlier analog systems; cruise mrssiles are thus being carried
instead of SUBROCs. A new lonq-range ASW Stand-Off Weapon is under
(slx Sea King (one bomb each)
alrcraft each) of Sikorsky SH-3H
:::ters. The replacement for the Sea Klng, the Sikorsky SH-608 development for submarine use in the late'1 9BOs. Contrary to some reports
- .... . :iso tasked to carry the B57 or its successor about the Royal Navy, no other NATO navy uses either shrp- or submarine-
launched n uclear warhead-equipped ASW weapons of the types iust described.
l, -rciear ASW ln a similar way only the Soviet navy amongst the navies of the Warsaw Pact
-::.-: \,+TO surface sh ps nuclear ASW weaponry is llmited solely to US has been equipped with any nuclear ASW weapons: since the 1950s a wide
:--:,.:- :s.',vh ch are equipped to carry and fire the EUR-5A ASROC missile variety of tactical nuclear delivery systems has been developed for all operation-
' :-e 1.5-k loton yleid W44 warhead in a Mk 17 nuclear depth charge al branches of the Sovret navy. For aircraft use a 10/'1 s-kiloton yield nuclear
- ,.-: .^l.:r 65 frigates, TB destroyers and 27 cruisers have been made depth bomb is carried by the Soviet naval air force's force of 55 TupolevTu-'142
- . =,: -.:zi,e with ihls weapon system. ln the long term the RUR-5A ls to be 'Bear-F' (two bombs each) long-range, 50 llyush n l1-38 'May' (two bombs each)
-: : -:: :. :ie Vert ca Launch ASROC, which has a much longer engagement
'.- ,- -:::'d submarines the Mk 45 ASTOR wire-guided anti-ship torpedo In October 198I the Soviet navy suffered the embarrassment of a'Whiskey'
,i. -,--'.'<.''34 warhead) has been completely replaced by the conventonal- class submarine being lefthigh and drywhile on aclandestine missioninto
:--;-:r leaving the UUM-44A SUBROC underwater-launched missile Swedish waters. Radiation monitors detected nuclear weapons aboard the
-- : ..5548,iow-yield warhead as the only tactlcal ASW nuclear weapon vessel, most probably as the warheads of torpedoes.

%= €..
.r*,.,,::_ d."l!%l. .,

. ...:,.#$#ry

,$1 " _,-, ;.4.

lne main US nuclear delivery platform at sea is the force of more than 400 p-3 An ASROC missile is launched from the guided missile {rigate USS !::.:,::
3nons equipping 37 front-line and reserve squadrons of the uS Navy. This is (F!G-l). Only theUS Navy operates nuclear-tipped ASROC. wjth r.c:= ::::.
:e latestversion, theP-3C Updatelll, seen over the'Oliver Hazard Perry' 170 s.urfac-e-combatants capable of firing the single-kiloton depth c:.a:;:
:.ass fnErale USS Mahlon S. Tisdale. version of the missile.
--.:,,um-range and 90-odd Benev M-1 2'Mail'(one
bomb each) short-range as October 1981, with the fiasco of the Sovret 'Wh skey .:s: :_- ._- _-.
-: ,V aircraft, together wirh a fairly large proporr on of the g0 lvlil lVi-14 'Haze-A' aground on rocks n restricred Co3>ro ..: :.r :
--: bomb each), 120 Kamov Ka-25'Hormone-A'(one bomb each) and 50 plus by rao al on-mor-itoring tech^iqJes tnal lne bodt nao s_c- t. . a-. . -. - - .

' ."cv Ka-27 'Helix-A' (one bomb each) ASW helicoprers available. The 'Hor- shows the widespread use of these weapons in the So, -.. -_ :.
to'pedoes a^d to provde a long-rarqe ASW weapo^ r' : r:.==. :
,res'and'Helixes'are used both from shore bases and afloat on aviation
.- :s, cruisers and destroyers. aboard severa of their nuclear attack and cruise mrssile sJC-:. -:: - - : _.

Surface weapons 1970s their own version of the SUBROC, desiqnated SS-l'i-- a :. '. -- , .-
-:r surface ship use only the 'Kiev' and 'Moskva' class aviation shtps use an "o- standard 533-m- {21-;nr catibre torpeoo-rubes ric ):.' .
and bearing data denved from the launch platform's o\..",i >:--.-. _ ,- : :
-::OC type weapon, the SUW-N-I system with its FRAS-1 rocket equrpped l5-ki oton yielo nuc,ear depth bon b to the ,rrmediare . c - .. - -
". .s^ aie,nuciear depth charge. Other surface ships use the SS-N-'T 4'Silex'ASW
which has a homrng torpedo with conventionalwarhead as tts payload.
l^ aodilon ro lnese nlc'eaTweapons, botr- s des co_.0 - -:l -- .
Tes,oecl ve straLeg c rCBV fo.ces 'or I mited n,moe.> :. . . ^-: ... -

^ ccntrast the Soviet submarine force is well endowed with tactical nuclear vrelo weapons to santt ze large o.ean areas o, a'l u-o i\..:.. - .: :
::3ons. Leaving aside cruise and ballistic misstles, most convent onal and\ option would, however, only be used in a full-scale war,';. -__- . ,. _ . l
---:ar submarines tnclude as part of their torpedo outfit some two to four would also destroy any friendly units in the area.
:::-nm (21-in) calibre antr-ship torpedoes equipped with 1S-kiioton yield nuc-
-.' .varheads; these torpedoes can also be used ln the area-targetASW role. ln
'. -. JSI such a torpedo was the fjrst Sovlet naval nuclear weapon tasked, in the A Kamov Ka-25 'Hormone' moves along the bows of the Soviet h.e,:cc:::: .i.- , i'
crur'ser Moskva. The helicopter is probabty capable of carrying; r,, --..:;.-
-':-'950sandearlyl960s,withtheantt-carrierandanti-portroles.Asrecently depth bomb, and the cruiser fires the nuclear FRAS- I rocket. -

*e.3**'.:;" jg*.-=.**-J€


€ Mk 44, Mk 46 and Mk 50 torpedoes

The Mk 44 Mod 0lightweight torpedo now been given the desrenation Mk 50
was selected for production in 1956 Barracuda following a competitive
and in the following year became the evaluation, Frtted with a directed-
payload for the new ASROC ASW mis- energy shaped-charge warhead, the
sile as well as the standard US Narry Mk 50 is rougrhly the same size and
ship- and air-launched lightwetght tor- weiqht as the Mk 46 but will be faster at
pedo. The weapon is electrically po- 55+ kts and be able to dive deeper (to More than 9,000 Mk 46 lightweight torpedoes have been produced by
wered and urrlizes a seawater-acti- will also have a new
600 m/1,970 ft). It Honeryellfar servicewilh theUS Navy and the navalforces of more than 20
vated battery and an active-hominqt stored chemical-energy propulsion other countries.ltis launchedfrom the air, the surface andbyASROC.
seeker with a detection ranqe of 585 m system with a closed-cycle steam tur-
(1,920ft). A slightly modified version, bine in conjunction with a pump-jet
the Mk 44 Mod I, was produced at a arrangement An onboard computer
latter date, and this model differed and advanced actlve.passlve sonar
only in internal details, Several coun- will give the weapon 'smart' capabili-
tries procured the weapon, but most tres similar to those of the British Strng-
have now replaced it with the Mk 46 ray. An in-service date of 1990 is antici
although some like the UK have kept pated.
stocks because of the Mk 44's better
shallow-water performance than its Specification
successor, The US Nalry replaced it Mk44
completely from 1967 onwards by the Dimensions: diameter 324 mm
Mk 46. (12,75 in); lensth (Mod 0) 2,54 m
The active/passive acoustic-homing (8.33 ft) or (Mod 1) 2,57 m (B 44 ft)
Mk 46 progrramme began in i960, the Weisht: (Mod 0) 192,8 ks (425 lb) or
first production rounds of the air{aun- (Mod 1) 196.4 kq(433 lb)
ched Mk 46 Mod 0 variant being deli- Warhead: (Mod 0) 34-ks (751b) HE or
vered in 1963, The new torpedo (Mod 1) 33. l-kq (73-lb) HE
achieved twice the ranqe of the Mk 44, Performance: speed 30 kts; range
could dive deeper (460 rnll 500 ft ver- 5.5 km (3,4 miles)
sus 300 m/984 ft) and was 50 per cent
faster (45 kts versus 30 kts) because of Specification
the use of a new type of propulsive Mk46
system, In the Mod 0 this was a solid- Dimensions: diameter324 mm
fuel motor, but as a result of mainte- (12,75 in); lensth2 6 m(8,5 ft)
nance difficulties 1t had to be chanqed Weight: (Mod 0) 257,6 kq (568 lb) or
lo the Otto-fuelled thermo-chemical (Mod I 2, 4and5) 230,4 kg (508 lb)
cam engine in the follow-on Mk 46 Warhead:43. 1-kq (95-lb) HE
Mod I (which flrst enteled servtce In Performance: speed 40/45 kts; ranqe
1967 for use in ASROC, surface shiP 1 I km (6.B miles) at 15-m (50-ft) depth
Above : The development of the
and some arrborne launchinq Pur- or 5,5 km (3.4 miles) at 457-m ( 1,500-ft) dedic ate d an ti- s ub m ar ine helico p te r,
poses) and the Mk 46 Mod 2 that flrst depth tog e ther with the lightweig h t
appeared in 1972. There was no Mod acoustic homing torpedo, has
3, so the nexl vanant to see service was Specifi cation (provisional) immensely extended ASW radius.
the Mk 46 Mod 4 intended specifically Mk 50 Barracuda This Mk46 torpedo, dropped by an
for use as the payload for Mk 60 CAP- Dimensions: diameter 324 mm SH-3ASeaKing, is deploying a
TOR mines. However, because of (12.75 in); length2,9 m(9,5 ft) parachute to retard its speed.
Soviet submarine developments (pri- Weight: 362,9 kq (800 Ib)
marily in the area ofanechoic hull coat Warhead: 45. 4-kq ( t00-lb) shaped- Right: A Mk 46 torpedo is launched
inqs to deqrade actlve sonar acoustic charge HE from one of the triple torpedo tubes
transmissions) the US Nalry had to de- Performance: speed 55+ kts; range fitted to all of the cruisers, destroyers
velop a modfrcation kit with new gnri- 13.7 km (8.5 miles) and frigates of the US Navy.
dance and control untts, engtne rm-
provements and an enhanced sonar
transducer to restore the 33 per cent
loss in the 550-m (1,800-ft) detection
range suffered by Mk 46s when en-
countering such coattngs. Known by
the title NEARTIP (NEAR-Term Im-
provement Program), the Mk 46 Mod 5
is being procured both as new-build
weapons and as convetsions of the
earlier Mod I and Mod 2 weaPons,
Apart from the US Naqr, other users
of the Mk 46 include Australia, Brazil,
Canada, France, Greece, Indonesia,
lran, Israel, Italy, Morocco, the Nether-
lands, New Zealand, Pakistan, Saudi
Arabia, Spain, Turkey, Taiwan, the UK
and West Germany. The Mk 46 was
used operationally by the Royal Navy
on a number of occasions during the
Falklands war with inconclusive re-
sults, although the threat of Mk 46s did
help in the damaginq and subsequent
groundinq of the Arqentine submarine
Santa fe off South Georgia.
The replacement for the Mk 46 in US
Navy service rs the Advanced Light-
weight Torpedo (ALWT), which has

The Israeli navy is one ofseveral that

have acquiredMk46 torpedoes, and
some of the 36 'Dabur' class coastal
patrol craftoperating in the
Mediter r anen and the R e d S ea hav e
been equipped with a Pair of single

€ ffit +a torpedo Modern Underwater WeaPons

-:-e Mk 48 heavwveight torpedo ts the

-::est in a long line of US Nalry 533-mm
2,-in) calibre submarine-launched
r,-eapons. As a long-ranqie selectable-
-.peed wire-gnrided dual-role (ASW
:::trship) weapon it replaced both the
l,k 37 series vl'ue-gnrided ASW torpe-
j: and the US Navy's only nuclear
-rned torpedo, the anti-shrP Mk 45
-ISTOR fitted with a lo-krloton 1'reld TheMk4S torpedois carriedby allUS attackand ballisticmissile submarines, acontinual process of development
warhead, Development of the Mk having enhaiced its performance in line with that of Soviet submarines in the past 15 years.
-3 began in 1957 when feasibility stu- By 1978, because of an increastng decade: these developments rncluce
ies were initiated to meet an oper- Mk 48 Mod 3, which had the same
:-ronal requirement eventually tssued 762-m (2,500-ft) depth capability as the awareness of the latest Soviet sub- improved antrship homrngt featurEs
:. late 1960. The weapon was intended Mod I but introduced a new two-way marine capabilities in the area of an even greater maxtmum dir'::,::
TELECOM (rather than one-waY) speed and divinq depth, an ADvanced depth and a hrgher ta-rget speeo =-.
both a surface- and submarine-iaul-
torpedo, but the {ormer reqlxre- wire-guidance communication link CAPability (ADCAP) version of the Mk gagement envelope. The operar::.'
that allowed the torpedo head to trans- 48, the Mk 48 Mod 5, entered develop- date for the first ADCAP Mk 48 Mc::
:rent was dropped when swface-laun-
Ttio mit its search data back to the launch ment, A new higher-powered sonar is expected to be 1986. Foreigm .-.'=::
:red weapons went out of favour,
of the Mk 48 are limited to ALLt=' :
-;ersions were produced to meet the plalform for more accurale processing was fltted both to improve the tarqet
:angre and speed performance figrLues io produce what was tn effect a track- acquisition range from the curent and the Netherlands.
:-eeded to enQlage a 35-kt submerged via-torpedo gnridance mode, 3660m (12,000ft) and to reduce the
:rget: the Westinghouse Mk 48 Mod The latest production standard (to effect of enemy decoys and anechotc Specification
0 which used a gras turbine and was which most previous weapons are coatinqs. The sonar is electrically Mk48
s:bsequently refined to the proposed being upgraded) is the Mk 48 Mod 4 steered to decrease the need for the Dimensions: diameter 533 mm (2 . :
::oduction Mk 48 Mod 2 variant, and Thrs has the same TELECOM facilities torpedo to manoeuvre in the search lenqth 5,8 m (19, 17 ft)
:-e Gould Mk 48 Mod I which used an of the Mod 3, enhanced sPeed (to phase. Togrether with a larger fuel Weisht: 1579 ks (3,480 lb)
l:to-fuelled piston (swashplate) en- 55kts) and depth (to 9l5m/3,000f0 load, this gives the new vanant a lon- Warhead: 294.5-kq (650-lb) HE
capabilities, plus an additional fire- ger ranqe (using the same propulsion Performance: speed (Mod 1 alc:.
;:re and a redesigned acoustic-hom- 48 kts. (Mod 4) 55 krs or (Mod 5; : - .::
:-E system. The latter was chosen for and-forget mode which can be initi- system) and a new under-ice capabil-
ated if the torpedo's own noise masks ity, Further modifications are at pre- rangre (Mod I and 3) 32 kn (20 r-es.
::-ass production, operational capabll-
the launch submattne's passive sonar sent being researched to gdve an Up- (Mod 4) 28 km ( 17 5 milest or i M: i :
--; being achieved in 1972.
grraded ADCAP weapon for the next 38 lrn (23,75 miles)
The next version to be built was the detection sets.

Above: Crewmen aboard the

'Sturgeon' class nuclear attack
submarjne USS P ar go car efu lly
receive a Mk 48 Mod I torPedo into
the torpedo room. Most canent
.American SS,lVs have r e du ce d
torpedo armament to allow for
mr'ssrJes sucft a s S ubro c, H arPun
and T omahawk, or tube- Iau n chxi

Aboveleft: AMk48 torpedo is

lowered into the torqedo room c::3
nu cle ar - powered b all is tic mis s :-e
submarine USS Stonewall Jacks::. : :
the Naval S ubmarine Su PPo: : :'-: : z'
Kings Bay, Georgia. These
subm ar ines ar e arm e d wt'j'.
torpedoes for self-protec::::. : :.:

Lett: An artist's impresstor c: :.= --:

stage in the life of a M k 48. with *'e
onboard sonar homing in on the
hapless target at a maxim u.i,n s-D€s:
of close to 60 kts.
fl Whir"t
Motofides A184 and A244 torpedoes
The Al84 is a dual-purpose ASWanti-
ship heavyweight mre-gmided torpe-
do produced by Whitehead Motofides
and carried by Italian navy sub-
marines and surface ships. It has also
been expofied to Taiwan for use on rts
'Guppy II' and 'Improved Zwaardvis'
class submarrnes. The panoramic ac-
tive/passive acoustic-homrng head Capable of submarine or surface launch, theWhitehead A184 is capable of engaging both submarine and surface
controls the torpedo's course and targets.Wire-guided, itis capable of operating atgreatdepths and in a two-speed mode.
depth in the final attack phase whilst
the initial wrre guidance uses the Specification
launch platform's own sonar sensors to Al84
guide the weapon up to the point of Dimensions: diameter 533 mm (21 in);
acoustrc acqursition. Like most modern lenqrth 6.00 m (19.69 ft)
electrically-powered torpedoes the Weisht: 1265 ks(2,789 ;b)
A1B4 is fitted with a silver-zinc battery Warhead: 250-kq (5511b) HE
and has dual speed capabilities (low Performance: 24 or 36 kts; range 25 or
speed for the passive hunting phase I0 lcn (15,53 or 6,21mi]es) The Mediterranean is a very difficult environment for the elfective use of
and high speed for the terminal attack tor pedoes, and the A2 44 h as been desigme d to repl ace the US - built M k 44 in
or active phase). Specification Italian service with that fact in mind.
To complement the AlB4 and re- A244/S
place the Amerrcan Mk 44 for opera- Dimensions: diameter 324 mm
tions in the notoriously difflcult ASW (12.75 in): Ienqth 2.70 m (8.86 ft)
environment of the Mediterranean the Weight: 221 ks (4BZ lb)
lightweight 4244 was developed. This Warhead: 34-kg (75-1b) HE
is an electrically-driven weapon suit- Performance: speed 30 ks; ranqe
able for use by aircraft, helicopters or 6.5 km (4.04 miles)
surface ships in normal or shallow wa-
ters, ln its original form it was fitted Right: Designed for launch from
with a Selenia AG70 homingr head, but surtace ships, helicopters and
the latest variant, the 4244lS, has a aircraft, theA244 is capable of both
CiACIO-S advanced homing seeker, active and passive operations, in a
Using special signal-processingr tech- wide variety oI attack pattems. The
mque, this allows both active and pas- weapon has also beenadapted as a
sive operations which can discrimin- potentialwarload for the lkara anti-
ate between a real tarqet and decoys, su bm arine mis sile sy s tem.
The 4'244 and A244lS have been sold
to a number of countries including Below:TheAl84 is the latest
Argentirn, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, heavyweight product of one of th.e
Iraq, Libya, Nigeria, Peru and Vene- world's oldesttorpedo
zuela, Whitehead is currently working manufacturers. As with most modern
on a replacement weapon for the A244 torpedoes, it is electrically powered
serres, the 50-kt high-performance to a maximum speed of 36 kts, and
4290, which uses seeker technologry has a maximum range of I 0 km (6.2 I
derived from the A244lS weapon, miles) atthatspeed.

Armed Forces of the World

Although the Mexican arrned'orces played a critical

role ln national politics up to and :ncluding the revolu-
tion of 191 1-20, they are nc!{ iae least polrtical in
Latin America and are resoo:s cle for little more
ihan internal security. Deiei:ce:ga nst external ene-
mies has generally been lea lc Vex co's powerful
northern neighbour, the USA.
Mexico is dlvided into 35 Nl! l:a''' which
correspond basically with the 3i S'.a:es :' \4exico
and the solitary Federal Distr,c'I. Hs ^ :l.e other
ccuntries in the region, all three se'\ a=s 3re en- it
gaged in various forms of civic ac: c' :-3: -: -tre
:-b: c health and educational progra--:s J
The army 5
Tne 94,5O0-strong Mexican arrnv ce-' s:-: :a:-
:'the Military Zones with one or tlvc ''=".', ==:.2-
cns and, in the majority of them, one ca\3 ^, -3-c r-
:nt. Based at Mexico City itself are ins -a I ar.:'r'
-rits, including the mechanized baita ors c' :re
r'esidential Guard br'gade group. i\ c ^:a^:^' c:-
;ade groups and one paratroop brrgaie. Tre :avaln
-:giments are gradually undergoing mecnar zai on
,', th both wheeled AFVs and soft-sk.nned venrcies

=s these are
purchased. A full list of tne army in ts
:..rrrently in berng includes:

:re infantry divrsion HQ,

:re Presidential Guard mechanized brigade group
(of three battalions),
:,vo infantry brigade groups (each of two infantry Armoured cars confront students during the I 968 ments industry exists, and this manufactul'es : '=,',
battal'ons, one arrroured .econnaissance riots. The Mexican army has had little hand in types of small arms, ammunition and more :.:=-: -
squadron and one artillery battalion), national politics (by Latin American standards) an indlgenously designed light armoureci ca- <-: ,', -
since 1 929, but the refusal of the PRI to concede so as the DN-3 Caballo. The most recent fore
:ne paratroop brigade (of two battalions), much as a single elec tion in I 9 I 5 might well bring
-4 independent lnfantry battalions, ases have included 42 French Panhard EAC-3::-
the political struggle on to the streets before long. Lynx armoured cars and 27 Panhard VBL lig"; -=..--
:ne special forces battalion,
:re armoured regiment. naissance vehicles (includlng erght equippe: :: :-:'
:ne armoured reconnaissance regiment,
ry and fire Milan ATGWs). A full llst of the eq-
i3 independent cavalry regiments, To back these regular units there are an additional in service is:
--- ree artillery regiments, 250,000 conscripts who are organlzed into National
:re combat engineer battalion, Service Brigades that receive minimal military train-
- ing.
3 construction battalions, Operated by Escuadron Aero 209, Grupo Aerer: i "

-^ <nown number of independent engineer The equipment used by the army is a curious based at Santa Lucia, Mexico State, this
companies, and mixture of fairly modern European and obsolete A6rospatiale SA 330J Puma is one of two WP
-:(nown number of independent air-defence American types; several models of AFVs have been transport helicopters operated by the Meican air
artillery batteries. exported only to Mexico. A small indigenous arma- force.

Armed Forces of the World
rmou r : M34'1 Stuart and M5A1 Stuart light tanks ;
DN-3 Caballo, M3A1 and PanhardVBLscoutcars;
lz pitrs,
'Gearing' class FRAM-1 destroyers of World War ll
vintage were bought. The only other major purch-
2068 JetRangers and '10 Bell 205As which can also
be armed for the COIN role.
MAC-1 , Panhard ERC-90F1 and MB armoured ases in recent times have been the six 'Halcon' class The fixed-wing transport needs of the armed
cars; and HWK-I 1, M3A1 , Panhard M3WS, patrol ships ordered from Spain in '1 982 and the forces and civilian government departments are
MOWAG Roland and AMX-1 0P APCs; continuing programme of the 'Azteca' class large undertaken by four squadrons and a VIP presidential
artillery:\towed) 75-mm (2.95-in) M116 pack patrol craft, initially f rom the UK and then from local unit. The latter has a mixed inventory of nine Boeing
howitzers and 1 05-mm (4.1 3-in) M'1 01 howitzers; shipyards after '1 973. ln a recent expansion of the 727 jetliners, two Boeing 737 jetliners, a Fokker
(self-propelled) 75-mm MB and 105-mm M7 local shipbuilding capability nine'Aquila' class patrol F.27. a Lockheed JetStar VIP 1et, Lockheed Electra
howitzers; ships have been ordered. These are basically a ver- airliner, a BAe HSl25-400 VIP jet, five Rockwell
(mortars) 60-mm (2.36-in) US,81-mm (3.2-in) sion of the 'Halcon' class modified to local needs. Sabreliner commuter jets and a Cessna 41 0R, plus a
French and US, 107-mm (4.2-in) US and 120-mm The complete inventory of the navy includes: single Bell 212 and two A6rospatiale SA 330 Puma
(4.72-in) French; VIP helicopters. The remaining fixed-wing transport
a nti-a rmou r weaponsi 3.5-in (88.9-mm) M20 rocket- destroyers:Iwo ex-US 'Gearing FRAM-1 ' class and assets include two Douglas DC-6s. one Douglas
launchers, 57-mm M'1 B recoilless rif les, 37-mm one ex-US'Fletcher' class; DC-7, five Douglas C-54s, 20 Douglas C-47s. three
M3 ATG and Milan ATGWs; frigates:one ex-US 'Edsall' class, one 'Durango' de Havilland Canada DHC-5D Buffaloes, 12 Pilatus-
air-defence weapons: 12.7-mm M55 gun; and class and four'Charles Lawrence/Crosley' class; Britten Norman lslanders, three Shorts Skyvans,
small arms:O.45-ln (1 1.43-mm) Obregon and Colt Iightforces:six 'Halcon'class large patrol craft, nine five Fokker F.27 Friendships and a few Cessna twin-
M1911 pistols; 0.3-in (7.62-mm) M1 Garand, M2 'Aquila'class large patrol craft (building), 1B ex-US engine llght communications aircraft.
Carbine and HK33 rifles; 5.56-mm (0.219-in) 'Auk'class patrol ships, 16 ex-US 'Admirable' Training for the various squadrons is undertaken
H K53 and 0.45-in M 1 92841 Thompson SMGs; class patrol ships, one'Guanajuato' class patrol on 20 Mudry CAP-10B primary trainers. The trainee
0.3-in Browning Automatic Rifle and RM2 LMGs; craft,3'l 'Azteca' class large patrol craft (plus pilots then progress onto the survivors of 20 Beech
0.3-in Browning M 1 91 9 MMG; and 0.5-in more building), seven coastal patrol craft, and 17 F33C and 20 Beech M usketeer Sport trainers before
Browning HMG. river patrol craft; they finally attempt the Pilatus PC-7. Multi-engined
amphibious warfare forces:Iwo LSTs; and training is done on a few Beech Barons and Piper
The navy su pport ships : seven survey ships, one tender, one Aztecs, while helicopter pilots learn the Bell 47G at
The 15,200-man Mexican navy has 13 Naval transport, two harbour tankers, one training ship, squadron level.
Zones to protect. of which five are subordlnated to eight tugs and 1 3 miscellaneous vessels. For rapid-reaction duties the air force operates a
the Gulf of Mexico Command and eight to the paratroop banalion that is independent of the army.
Pacific Ocean Command. A small350-man naval air The air force
arm flies three squadrons and operates a smalltrain- Like the other two services, the Mexican air force Paramilitary forces
ing school. Of the squadrons the most important are has suffered considerably from financial restraints Mexican paramilitary forces comprise 23,400
the maritime patrol squadron with eight Grumman and it was not until 1 981 , with the delivery of a single Federal Police and a 120,000-strong Rural Defence
HU-'1 64 Albatross amphibians, and the helicopter squadron of 10 Northrop F-SE and two F-5F Tiger ll Corps. The latter includes some 80,000 mounted
squadron with four A6rospatiale Alouette llls, five fighters, that it re-entered the arena of air forces personnel and 40,000 dismounted members, all us-
Bell 47Gs and five MBB BO 105s. The last are operating let fighters. The Tigers operate alongside ing obsolete small arms passed down from the
configured for shipboard use. a single counter-insurgency (COIN) squadron flying armed forces.
The 4,5OO-strong marine corps is organized into 14 Lockheed AT-33A armed jet trainers. The con- There is also a small coast guard which has six
three battalion headquarters that control a total of 1 siderable force of North American AT-2BD armed patrol craft and an aviation element with 17 helicop-
Marine security companies. They are equipped with piston-engined trainers has now been retired, the ters and fixed-wing aircraft. The coast guard is cur-
obsolete small arms and French 81-mm mortars. six COIN squadrons now flying armed and camou- rently involved heavily with its Amerlcan counter-
Although the discovery of oil in Mexico allowed flaged Pllatus PC-7 Turbo Trainers. A total of 55 has part on anti-smuggling duties to prevent drugs
more money for the defence budget, with many been procured for both the COIN and basic training reaching the USA.
re-equipment schemes being proposed, the subse- roles. A photo-reconnaissance/survey squadron
quent economic crises have now delayed indefinite- also exists, and this uses some eight Rockwell Aero
ly any real chance of their implementation, and the Commander 500s equipped with cameras, For the Organized intrusions into Mexican fishing
navy has had to maintain in service its fleet of old grounds, plus the need to protect the offshore oil
SAR mission there are two squadrons, of which one
fields, have increased the importance of the
surface combatants. The navy's role appears to be doubles in the light tactical support role with eight
counfi's navy in recentyears. HeribertoJara
the patrolling of an exclusive economic zone (includ- lAl Arava 201 transports; the other operates 23 Corona rs one of 3 I 'Azteca' class large patrol boats
ing the offshore oilfields) and fishery protection helicopters of eight different makes, of which armed with one 40-mm ( 1.57-in) and one 20-mm
against foreign poachers. ln 1982 two ex-US Navy numerically the most important are the five Bell (0.79-in)wn