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Yolume 12 Issue 133

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Bombers ol
Nowhere is the teclnologrical impetus provided by war more
evidentthanin aviation. Atthe start of WorldWar I, afucraft
Iooked asif aboy couldtie some stringto them andflythemin
a breeze, but in fow short years the fighting aeroplane was
appearing in such diverse forms as the single-seat ground
attack fighter and the multi-engined., long-range heavy
The use ofthe aeroplane to dehver flre and explosive against an enemy Typical of the first-generation bombers evolved during the early years of war,
on the ground was inevitable from the moment the Wright brothers first the Voisin Type VIII and IX two-seat bombers formed the backbone of the
Frenchnight bombing force. Maximum bombloadwas 300 kg(660 lb).
achieved controlled flighi in 1903. What remained in doubt was the
degree and accuracy with whrch rt could be delivered, At the beginning bomber, Apart from the Russians, both the Germans and Brrtrsh (as well
of World War I in the West aerial bombs were confined to nothing as the French and ltalians to a lesser extent) pursued the development of
bigger than hand grenades as the Russians, who alone possessed large large bombers, although only the former, wrth therr huge Rjesen (giants)
aircraft, started liftlng bombs of more than about 68kg (150 lb) and managed to get a truly heavy bomber (able to hft a 1000-kq/2,205-Ib
quickly went on to produce weapons of twice that size weapons that bomb) into operational service during the war. Yet it was the Brrtrsh who
were obviously able to cause as much damage as a large artillery shell, flrst created a strategic bomber force, the Independent Force under
but capable of delivery over a much greater range, Malor General Sir Hugh Trenchard, an element of the RAF that was to
The regular use of the large high explosive bomb in the West came dominate Brrtrsh Arr Staff philosophies for 50 years,
about through the Germans employment of airships, whose raids on At the other end ol the scale much smaller bomb-carrying aircraft
British and French towns and cities were sanctioned by the Kaiser only were increasingly used over the front lines rn France, Italy, Macedonia
in return for assurances by the Imperial Navai Staff that miiitary targets and the Mrddle East agarnst such targets as would otherwise be shelled
alone would be hit. inevrtably, in the absence of any bomb-aiming by arti]]ery, One olthe lessons learned was that dropping bombs accur-
equipment, civilian casualties resulted so that any such assurances ately on anything but sizeable, stationary targets was extremely difficult,
became purely academic, Wrthrn two years bombs of 300 kg (661 1b) especially if the target was shooting back, Towards the end of the war,
were landing amonQr the humble homes of the British and French capit- therefore, as the fightrng on the various fronts became more fluid and the
a1s and elsewhere, Thus arrived total war. soldiers left the sanctuary of their trenches, the machine-gun became
Gradually, however, the value of the airship (progressively shown to the favoured weapon of the ground support aeroplane
be increasingly vulnerable to attack by frghters firing incendiary Air Force had had more than 400 Handley Page
By the end of the war, the Royal
ammunition) was seen to be of lrttle milrtary significance while at the 0/400 bombers delivered, with raids of up to 40 aircraft at a time being made
same time it squandered manufacturing and operating manpower so on industrial centres inGermany. The O/400 also carried the750-kg(1,650-lb)
that, after 1916 lt began to take second place to the aeroplane as a bomb, the largest such weapon used by British forces at that time.
ffiil 8"oror,i Ca.3, 4 & s
The prototype Caproni Ca 30 which
first flew rn October 1914 was a three-
engined bomber with a central crew
nacelle and twin booms to carry a tri-
ple-ruddered tail unit. The powerpiant
comprised a central engine mounted
at the rear ofthe nacelle (a 100-hp/75-
kW Gnome driving a pusher prop-
eller) plus two wing-mounted BO-hp
(60-kWl Gnomes each drrving a -rac-
tor propeller. The deflnitive model
was put into production as the Ca.3,
and the initial order was for L2 aircraft, ThisCaproniCa 3l was operated by EscadrilleCEP I15, Aeronautique
although a further 150 were manufac- Militaire (French air force) out of Plateau de Malzeville in 1916. More than 700
tured subsequently Ca 3 I s were built in three main variants.
In l9l8 there appeared the Caproni
Ca.4, a larqe triplane bomber with the
same three-engined nacelle and twin- three had been completed. Neverthe-
boom layout of the Ca,3, All but the flrst less, the US Army Air Corps' Northern
three production Ca.4s incorporated a Bombing Group used the Ca.5 over the
streamlined nacelle, with a gunner's Western Front as did the Italians and
cockpit in the nose and the early Ca 41 the French,
examples were powered by 300-hp
(224-kW) Fiat A. 12 or Isotta-Fraschini Specification
V,5 engines Twenty-three aircraft Ca.S (Ca 44)
were fltted with 400-hp (298-kW) Type: heavy bomber
Liberty engrines as the Ca 42 and sx Powerpiant: three 250-hp (186-kW)
were supplied to the Royal Naval Air Fiat A, 12 piston engdnes
Service Performance: maximum speed
The Caproni Ca.S was developed to 150 knth (93 mph); service ceilingr
supersede the Ca 3, The prototype 4600 m (15,090 ft); range 600 km (373
was flown rn 1917 and 659 production miles)
examples were built between l9l7 Weights: empty 3300 kg (7 275 lb)r
and 1921, powered by 250-hp (186- maximum take-off5300 kg ( I 1,684 lb)
kW) Fiat A I2 or Isotta-Fraschim en- Dimensions:span 23,40 m (76 ft
sines, or by the 350-hp (261-kW) 9,25 in); length 12 60 m (41 ft 4.25 in);
Liberty The type was also selected for height 4 48m(14 tt B33rn) winqarea
manufacture in the United States. 150.00 m'(1,614.64 sq ft) The Caproni Ca 4l was essentially similar to the Ca 40, but hadno nose
However, when the Armistice ended Armament: two I 7-mm (0.303-in) landingwheels and had a tandem seating arrangement for thetwo pilots.The
World War I production plans for Reveili machrne-guns plusa unusual bomb arrangement on tft e sides of fhe bottom wing nacelle is well
1,500 aircraft were cancelled after just bombload of 900 kq (1,984 ]b) displayed, as is the considerable size.

ffi Sii.otrr.y early aircraft

Following his first unsuccessful experi- The Sikorsky IIya Muromets, seen in
ments with rotary-wing aircraft rn 1909 l914, was afar cry from the Bl6riots,
i0, the Russian Igor Sikorsky concen- Farmans, Taubes and BEs thatwent
trated upon design and development towar ayear later in the West. The
of fixed-wing aircraft. His Sikorsky S- 1 aircraftwas without parallel at the
to S-5 were lrttle more than ex- time, and the first production model
perimental types, but with the S-2 bi proved capable of flying I 6 people.
plane he achreved a flrst 12-second
hop in 1910 Growinq experience and
capabrhty garned him an appointment during the war period rncluded the
in 1912 as a designer and chief en- 5-16 a conventional tlvo-seat recon-
gineer of the Russo-Baltic Wagron naissance biplane whrch powered by
Works (RBVZ) and he at once became an BO-hp (60-kW) Gnome rotary en-
involved rn desiqn and constructron of gine could be operated on wheel or Specification Weights: empty 3600 kq (7,936 lb);
the worid's first four-engrned aircraft, ski landing gear The S-20 which en- Sikorky Ilya Muromets B maximum take-off 4850 kg ( 10,692 lb)
named officially Russkii Vitiaz (Russian tered servrce in L9 17 was a single-seat Type: heavy bomber Dimensions: span 34,5 m ( 1 13 ft
knight), This formed a basis for de- scout powered by a 110-hp (82 kW) Le Powerplant:four I50-hp (I I2-kW) 2,25 in); lenglh 19.0 m (62 ft 4 in); wing
velopment ol the Ilya Muromets series Rh6ne rotary; it was Sikorsky s last de- SaLmson piston enqines area 150 0 m'z(1,614,6 sq ft)
offour-engine healry bombers used by sign in Russra, for with advent of the Performance: maximum speed Armament: typically 10 16-kg (36Jb)
the Imperial Russian army during revolution in 1917 he emiqrated to the 100 hx/h (62 mph); service ceihng not bombs plus a variable defensive
World War I The first of between 70 I]SA known range 420 km (260 miles) armament
and B0 of these alrcraft was flown for
the first time rn January 1914, and on 12
February 1914 the type established a
world herght-with-payload record,
carrying 16 persons to an altitude of
2000 m (6,562 ft). Few ofthese produc-
lron aircrait were -denrrcal improve-
menr and development being con-
tinuous, and shortaqre ofengTines meant
they were flown with a variety of
powerplant whrch. rn sorne cases rn-
volved a mrx of engines on one aircraft
Other desLgns to enter production
Over B0 I lya Muromets were built,
used aErarhsl German targets on the
Eastern Front. They first saw action
on the night of 15 February 19 15, and
were able to operate with relative
impunity (although with limited

Growrd &grmek &s? &WW& Bombers of Worid War I

The massivesfrides taken by aviation in the four years of

WorldWar I were nowhere more eloquently demanstrated.
than in the titanic battles of l9I 8. Tactical air power, a f lasf
makinga significant contribution to the struggle, had matured
into an indisBensible tool for the prosecution of rnodern war.

The use of alrcraft to attack targets {troops, trunsport and artillery batteries) in
the front line increased steadilV from the occasional opportunist forays of 1 91 5
to ihe f ull-scale offensiye actrons by swarms of aircraft towardd the end of the
war. Moreover as eerly as 1916 aircraft, whrch today would be classified as
tactical suppori aircraft, were being conceived to attack battlefield largets,
atlthough by and large these were 'general-purpose' aircraft capable of dropprng
light bombs on targets of opportunity while they went about other duties, such
as gun.nery observation and reconnaissanie. lt was not until 1918 that the
'trench fiqhter' (a dedicated gun-armed ground-attack f ighter) came to be recog-
nized as a weapon in its own right.
lronically one.of the best of Allied aircraft in the lactrcal support category was
brought inlo.service as elarly as January 1917, was extremely popular with its
crews, and continued to q jve excellent servlce rlght up to the Armistice, yet thts The AEG DJ 1 was e srngrJe-se at atmoured graund attack fighter roughly
aeroplane, the Armstrong Whitworth F.K.B (the 'BiS Ack') never attracted the eq uiv ale nt to the,Sopwif,h Sa/am an d e r. F ir s t ing in S e p te m b e r J g J 8, its
fame of other World War.l aircraft. Despite its size the BiqAck was simple to f1y, fuseiagre was skinnedwith aluminium andithad a 195-hp engine;the
manoeuvrable. stronq and capable of withstanding a great deal of damage from armistice intervened betare it could be developed further.
ground small arms fire. By early 1918 the manufacturers were producing the
type at the rate of four every day. men miraculously survrved, Hammond, one of whose leqs had 10 be ampuia.:l
To illustrale the type of work underiaken by the 'Big Acks' in 1918, as well as receiving a bar to his MC, and Nlcleod the VC.
the hazards faced, it is worth recordinq that two of the most outstanding awards The other award of the VC to a Big Ack pilot was made to Captain F.M. F ;ii':::
of the Victoria Cross were made to pilots of this type. A No. 2 Squadron F.K.8, of No. B Squadron who, with Lieutenant J.A.G. Hasla.m, on 10 August 19 i I r,:
flown bV the 1B-Vear-old Lieutenant Alan McLeod with Lieutenant A.W. Ham- just dropped his 5'1-kg ('1 2-lb) bombs on a German gun posrtion when ne ,...,.

mond, MC, as his observer, was returning from a bomblng attack on enemy attacked by srx enemy scouts while still flying very low over the trencl.e. -'= -
forces during the great German offensive of March 1918 when it was atlacked first burst of fire almosi severed West's left leg and wounded h rn in tne r l- - -,
by Fokker Dr I triplane, This was shot down by l-1ammond. but almost rm- yet, faint from loss of blood and hal{-dead from pain, he managed to h.r.:-:
mediately seven more Fokkers set on.the Big Ack. Mcleod shot down one of F,K.B level while Haslam drove off their attackers. West succeedec :n ta::.---
these with his front gun and Hammond two others, aithough both British crew safely in the British lines but ref used to be tal<en to hospital unt I he hai c ..:- =
members were wounded, the laiter six times. The rear cockpit floor fell out and f gtaj]e! !'eport of German
gun dispositions to the tank commander r+' ii. ,. - : --
the fuel tank was hit and set on fire. Despite beinq wounded live more trmes, No. B Squadron was working.
Mcleod climbed out on to the port wrng and with one hand gripping the burning
control column manaqed to crashland the blazing ajrcraft in no-man's land, TheJunkersCLII was an enlargedversian of theJ 7 whiih also formed the
Hammond continuing to fire his Lewis gun until the crash knocked him uncon- basis for the D I manoplane fighter.TheJunkers series of dedjcated grou:ti.
scious. German aircraft then started to bomb the wreck, again wounding attaekaircraft,tittedwitharmourprotection{orenErines, crewandfueltanks.
Mcleod, as British troops began dragqing the arrmen lowards their lines. Both could have been the Sturmaviks of the Great War.


$.J: i!:r::.i

. %€**


# -*_*_%-**

Ground Anack in 1918

Above: A Liberty-engined D.H.9A is typicat of the much-improved aircraft that

were to see sewice againstGerman airfields inthe lastmonths of thewar. The
'Nine-Ack' alsowent into IJS servicewith the Marine Corps Northern Bombing
Group in theweeks before theArmistice.
Below: By 1918,with one of themajor fasks assigned to air power being the
Above: The SopwithSalamander was the British answer to the hazards of suppor-t af groun4 forces, many aircraft found ihemselvei trench-boribing
flying and tighting over the machine-gun laden battlefields of I g l8. Heavily and column-s tnfing. T he S opw ith S nip e, an im p roved ve r s ion of the C am6j.
armed ancl armoured. itwas the c/assjcBrjtrsft 'Trench Fighter was typical of the scouts co-opted into the task.


t L:'

lndeed the work being done at this time by No. B Squadron foreshadowed the For such attacks the CL Il carried trays of grenades alonq the outside of .-.
cab rank tactics by Hawker Typhoons and Supermarihe Spitf ires during the last fuselage, ihe, weapons-being lobbed bverboard at targets"of opportunrty.
two years of World War 11. In 1 9 B the squadron was attached to the Tank Corps,
1 During the last great German 'push'of March l g j B t6ere were ho fewer tn.-
the observers' cockpits often being occupied bytank crew members as the RAF
observers travelled in the tanks; early experiments using rudimentary radio
38 Schlachtstaffeln (battle squadrons). most of which flew Halberstadr C! .
and CL lVs. These were also employed in an offensve role, flying in groups :-
telephone for communication soon gave place to wireless telegraphy, but about si,x to strafe enemy trenches and artlllery so as to keep opplsirig trooc-.
techniques were still be;ng evolved at ihe time of the Armistice. Another use of heads down at the moment of attack bV the German jnfantrv. Until"the fi;.
L.K.8s, t^'s r rre o \o. 35 Squao-on. ,nvotvec tnp oropp ng
o+ ,40
phosphorus bombs to generate smoke screens. Durinq the attack bV the British
rnonihs of the war, however, the Germans raO" nlrcn g;;r1;; ;; oi air.,.:,
n ach ne gJns rhe A l'es Wre^ wariare became s6 m-ch n ore tiutc
Xlll Corps west of Sera-in on B October '1918 a two-hou"r screen was maintained those l -a. mo.tns as t1e bred(rhrorgh was ach eved aro rhe Ge'-
by telays of aircraft to conceal the build-up of the attacking forces. F.K.8s were armies forsook the shelteiof their trenche"s to begin their headlong retrea.
also used to excellent effect in Macedonra, the aircraft {including some British and French scouts {the Sopwith Camels andsnrpes, the RAF"S.E.bA:
of No 47 Squadron dropping 2210k9 (5.000 lb) of bombs odthe retreating the Spads and the Nieuports) dropped down to low level to deliver their o,...1
tsulgarlan army in the Kosturino Pass on 21 September 19j8. On the same dav deiuge o -ac^ ne.g-n l,re on r^e l^ororected colune ns o, troops a^d ho...:.
BrisLol F.2B F.g^1ers o' No. I Austral ar Squaoron took very heavy toll o, Tu.<:s.t d'aV!. r'arSpo-1. Ar coroals o\e- l-e .ouleo Cerman a-mieS we.e Commo
troops retreatlng through a valley tn Palestine. place ano cas-a or borr s oes we-e ^edvv oul. as Gern an and Atl eo p ir---
w9,fe to discover, air cornbat at iow level was exceedrngly dangerous anc
Similar German development difficult, and it was the Allied superiolty of numbers that fiially ov"erwhelme:
German grggnd-supporl a rcraft followed much the same development pat- the German air force. indeed aircraft like ihe Halberstadts, excellbnt thouch the,,
tern as that of Eritish and French aircraft, although iheir use of bombs tended to were in support of an infantry altack, were far less effective when foiced tc
give way to guns and grenades. Among the Sircraft which commanded the de'e^d rremselyes aga'.s. ,he A I eo sco.tts. \eve.t-e,ess I was in 1p€, 6f lor.
greatest respect among Allied scout pilots were the Halberstadt CL lland CL lll, tactCs'orn^g1lq flovrt ov LnoSq -aoe-SlaolS Laar t^e SeedS O
the former being used in close co ordinatron w rh advancing infantryformations were sown: the tlght inteqration of air and qround forces to achteve break'-
during the battles on the Western Front f rom the late sumrie r ol 1g1j onwards. tl^rorgr or the oarrlef ero. When, 15 years aler a rew Cermar air .orce wa
So successful were these atr support operations during the German counterof- born Lhe .ulln a"p : o..rory'u-cl or wouio bo Io sJoport ihe Gerrran al n^\ o.
fensive of 30 NoVember in the Battle of Cambrai {hat a iubsequent Brltish court thp q'o-^d.
of inquiry stated that German aircraft f yrng below 3O m (100 ft) and firing their Bii contra.r tne B. tsn, wno we-e ^drd at wo-< ol rhe e"d o, tne wo
machine-guns lnto the front,line trenches had had a devastatino effect on the develop ng tre t-erc^'ighter, SJC.l aS lne Soow rh Sa amanoe' (w th a batte'}
rorale o'rne oe'eroe's, who seemed unaole lo "r;r bacl, witn Lh6 small arms at ot lo-ward-fir;ng g;ns) and Bl-raro, dropoed rne enL re concepto{ h gh-pertorm-
-eir disposal ln the Cerman al Lac(s o.t rre Somre br dges of Sepremoer 1 91 7 ance close-support aircraJt and reverted to the liqht bombrer. Just 2iyears later
rhe r,albersradts had causeo wdespread panic on tnJ o'olnd, -sry o'lhe the wreckage of scores of Fairey Battles in Belgian and French fie{ds lent stark
troops leaping off the bridge parapets to escape the deluge of fire from above. testrmony to folly of such a foolish policy.

Bregruet 14
The Breguet 14 two-seat tractor bi-
plane began life on the drawingt
boards at the company's Velizy-Villa-
coublay works in the summer of 1916. It
remained in production from March
1917 to 1928, and was not withdrawn
from service with France's A6ronauti-
que Militaire until 1932,
Although rather ugly, the Bre. 14 was
rmmensely practical and tough, Its
angular fabric-covered wings and
fuselage were of duralumin, steel and (2,271Ib): maximum take-off 1565 kg Seen in the colours ofthe I 5e
wooden construction, wtth arlerons on (3,4s0 rb) E scadrille, 5 e Groupe, 33e Regiment
both upper and lower wings. Sturdy Dimensions: span, upper (original A6rian d' O b s ew ation of the F rench
cross-axle landinq gear was fitted and ailerons) 14.36 m (47 ft 1,25 in) or air torce in the years after the end of
the Renault engine, which had a rec- (balanced ailerons) 14.86 m (48 ft 9 in), thewar, this Bre.l4AZ is typical of
tangn-llar frontal radrator, performed Iower (onginalailerons) 12.40 m (40 ft one of the mostfamous French
we11, bomber, which did not go into large- B in) or (balanced ailerons) 13,66 m aircraft of all time, serving in a
The Bre. I4 A.2 reconnaissance ver- scale production, and the Bre.l45 (44 ft9,75 in); lenqthB.BT m(29 ft multitude of roles until I 932.
sion was equipped wrth camera. ambuiance. A Bregn-ret 14 had been lrlq in); hershl 3.30 m (10 ft J0 in), wing
less transmitter and racks for four liqht used experimentally for rapid evacua- area (origina) ailerons) 47,50 m/
bombs. It was the first version to make tion of casualties from just behind the t5l 1.30 sq ft) or (balanced ailerons
its mark, beqinning to replace the front line in 1917, In 19iB four Bre.I4S 49.20 mz i529 60 sq ft) Flown in the summer of 19lB, the
obsolescent Sopwith 1Z2-Strutter dur- ambulances, each carrying two Armament: one fixed 7,7 mm (0,303-in) Bregruet 17 was anexcellent
ing the summer of 19i7. The type was stretcher cases, operated on the Aisne Vickers machine-gun on port side of development of the Bre.l4 airframe,
issued to a number of well-known re- front. fuselagre and twin 7,7-mm (0,303-in) being more compact and with an
connaissance escadrilles, rncluding The Breguet 14 served with 14 Lewis machine-gnrns on ring mounting uprated engine. The gunner had two
the 1le, 35e and 227e, as well as many escadrilles in Greece, Serbia and the in observer's cockpit, plus bombload conventionally-mounted Lewis guns,
escadrdes attached to heavy artillery Middle East at the end of 1918, but it up to 40 kq (BB lb) and one beneath his cockpit.
regdments of the French army, Bre.14 was in the French overseas empire
8.2 bombe's made many impresstve that it was to achieve qreat distinctron
formation daylight raids deep behind over more than a decade in the period
the German lines, When the Novem- behveen the two world wars, The ver-
ber 1918 armisttce brought hostilities sion utilized in the more far-flunq col-
to an end, Breqnret 14 B 2s equipped onies was the Bregnret 14 TOE (Th6atre
the 15 escadrrJies of the le briqade de des Operations Ext6rieures),
Bombardement, while Bre 14 A,2s
were flying wilh l2 day-reconnarss- Specification
ance escadrr7es and the 19 escadr/Jes Bregnret 14 A.2
of the Aviatron des Corps d'Arm6es, Type: two seat reconnarssance atrcraft
The five independent army divisions Powerplant: one 300-hp (224-kW)
each had a Bre,14 A,2 escadrille. A Renault 1 2Fe Lnh ne ptston engrne
total of 27 Bre.I4 A.2 escadril/es was Performance: maximum speed
attached to heavy artrllery regiments. 184 km/h (114 mph); sewice ceiitngt
Other wartime verisons of the type 6000 m (19,690 ft); endurance 3 hoLus
included the Bre.14 B.I sinqle-seat Weights: emptyequipped 1030 kq

>K il,oyat Aircraft Factory F.E.2 r

The Royal Aircraft Factory F.E.2 rep-

resented an initial solution to the prob-
lem of providing effective forward-
flring capability before the introduc-
tion of interrupter gear. It had a two-
seat fuselage nacelle in which the
powerplant was mounted at the rear to
dnve a pusher propeller. The pilot had
the rear position and the forward cock-
pit was occupied by the observer/qnrn-
ner, Initial versron was the F.E.2a, po-
wered by a 100-hp (75-kW) Green en-
gine, but disappointing performance
resulted in the 120-hp (89-kW) Beard-
more engrne berng installed rn the
F.E.2b, whrch was enlerrng servrce ir
small numbers towards the end of
l9]5. Two F,E.2c aircraft were pro-
duced by the Factory, these havinqr the
pilot seated forward and observer to Abov e : A R oyal Aircr aft F actory
the rear for a night flying role, The F.E.2b of N o. 2 2 S qn, Royal F lying
designation F.E.2d applied :o a versron Corps, based in France in I 9 I 7.
wlth similar airframe, but a 250-hp Operating from a number of airfields
(lB6-kW) Rolls-Royce engdne, this pro- in the army co-operation role, the
vided considerably improved per squadron tookpart in themajor
formance, offensives of the spring of thatyear
In operatronal service the F.E 2b, before converting to F.28 fighters.
workmg in collaboration with the Airco
(de Havilland) D,H,Z, gradually res-
tricted the menace of the Fokker
monoplane. but was in rurn lo meet lts
match when confronted by the more This is thought to be an F.E.2b of No.
advanced Albatros and Halberstadt 25 Sqn preparing for a night raid in
scouts that began to equip the German 1916, a rolewhich became ever more
air sewice in late 1916, However, the important to an aircraftvulnerable to
suitability of the F,E,Zb for night flying each new generation of fighting
meant that it was to be deployed for scoufs.
Royal Aircraft Factory F.E.2 (continued)

night bombrng operations in Europe Powerplant: one 120-hp (89-kW) (0.303-in) Lewis gmn, but later a second
and for home defence against dirigi- Beardmore inirne piston engine Lewis gun was addedt in a bomber
bles and Gotha bombers Performance: maximum speed role a maximum of 159 kg (350 lb) of
occupied in these roies until the final 129 km/h (80 mph) at sea level; service bombs could be carried rn various
year of World War L Production of ceiling 2745 m (9,000 ft); endurance 3 combrnations
F,E,zb aircraft totalled 1,939, hours
and althougrh there is no accurate re- Weights: empty904 kg (1,993 lb); Introduced in late 1915 todealwith
cord of the number of F. E.2d aircraft, it maximumtake-off 1347 kq (2,970 lb) the'F okker S courge', the F.E. 2 (in
is beheved that about 250 were burlt. Dimensions: span 14.55 m (47 ft 9 in); collaboration with the D.H. 2)
lengrh 9.83 m 132 ft 3 rn): height 3 85 m gradually gained an ascendancy, but
Specification (12 ft7.5 in), wing area 45.89 m' soon became vulnerable to the
RAFF.E.2b (494,0 sq ft) Albatros and Halberstadtof 1916. It
Type: two-seat fighter Armament: rnitially a sinqle 7. 7-mm ended thewar as a night bomber.

>K iiandley Pase 0/100 and 0/400

To meet an Admiralty speciflcation of
December 1914 lor a large twin-en-
gine patroi bomber, Handley Paqre iost
little time in desigrnrnqr an aircraft to
meet ihis requirement and when the
Handley Paqe O/I00 prototype was
completed, it was the largest aero-
plane that had been built in the UK.
The 0/100 was powered by two 266-
hp (198-kW) Rolls-Royce Eaqle II en-
gtnes, in armoured nacelles, mounted
between the wings just outboard of the
luselage. Accommodalron was ln d
griazed cockpit enclosure, the floor and
sides of the cockpit being protected O/ 100 no. 1463 was landed by its RNAS crew on the firstgood field they saw
by armour plate. Flown for the flrst after breaking cloud on their flight to France on I J anuary I g I 7 ; it was I 3 miles
time on l7 December 1915, the 0/100 inside enemy territory, near Laon. Among the German evaluation pilots was
was found to be rnadequate in per- M anfre d von R ich thofe n.
formance and the second prototype
had a revised open cockpit for a ctew
of two (with provision for a gunners
positron forward), the cockpit armour
plating and most ofthat incorporated rn
the engrne nacelles was deleted, and
new radlators were rntroduced ior the
water-cooled engines
Formation of the first 'Handley Page
Squadron', as it was then known, be-
gran rn Augrut 1916 and this unit became
operational in France in late October
or early November; its flrst recorded
bombinq attack was made on the niqht
of 16/17 March i9 17 against an enemy-
heid railway junction At the time the RAF was formed, the RFC's standard heavy bomber was the
Production deliveries of the 0/400 0/400, an aircraftfromNo.20T Sqn atLigescoutt, Fnnce, in 19tB being shown
began rn early l9lB this belng an im- here. This was the first British squadron used solely for long-range night
proved version of the 0/100 which drf bombing, and the fi$t tooperateHandley Pagebombers.
fered primarily by having more
powerful Rol1s-Royce tagle engines. a was also at about this same time that Specification maxlmum take-off6350 kq (14,000 lb)
revised fuel system and radiators, and these aircraft began to deploy 748-kg Handley Page 0/400 Dirnensions: span 30.48 m (100 ft 0 in):
the introduction of a compressed-air (1,650-lb) bombs the heavrest used by Type: heavy bomber length 19.16 m (62 ft 10 25 in); height -
engdne starting system. Although pro- British sewices during Worid War I Powerplant:two 360 hp (268-kW) 6.71m(22 ft 0 in); wingarea 153, l0 m'
duction of O/100s totalled oniy 46 air- More than 400 O/400s were deli- Rolls-Royce Eagle VIII 12-cylinder (1,648 0 sq ft)
craft, substantial numbers of O/400s vered for sewrce with the RAF before Vee prston engines Armament:up to five 7,7-mm (0,303-in
became operational before the end of the Armistice of November 1918. The Performance: maximum speed Lewrs qn-rn on pivoted mounts, plus a
the war and, for example on the niqht type remained in service in reduced 156 km/h (97 mph); service ceilingr maximum bombload of 907 kg
of l4l15 September 1918 a force of 40 numbers until late 1919, when it was 2590 m (B 500 ft); endurance B hours (2,000lb)
O/400s attacked targets in the Saar. It replaced by the Vickers Vimy Weights: empty 3719 ks (8,200 lb);

The large fuel capacity of the Handley Page 0/400 made it a suitable aircraft to The 0/400 replaced the O/ I00 in production early in 19I B, being powered by a
blaze the trail for the Empire flying routes to come. This aircraftwas used by pair of 350-hp (261 -kW) Rolls-Royce Eagle engines and having improved fuel
Borton, Salmond andSmith to survey the airmailroutefromEgypt tolndia, systems and radiators. Maximum bombload was of the order of 907 kg
andis seen in Delhi on I 2 December I I I B. ( 2,000 lb), and the heaviest bomb carried was of 7 5 0 kg ( 1,650 1b).

ffi fiandley Pase Vil500 Bombers of World War I
Designed and developed to make it
possible for the RAF to mount attacks
on German targets from bases in the
UK, the Handley Page V/1500 must be
regarded as the flrst practical strategdc
bomber. Largrer in size than the O/100s
and O/400s that had preceded it, the
V/1500 was powered by four Rolls-
Royce engines, these mounted in tan-
dem pairs between the wings, out-
board ofthe fuselage, but was in other
respects similar rn overall configmra-
tion lo the earlier bombers.
The prototype, assembled by Hand-
ley Page from components manufac-
tured by Harland and Wolfl was flown
for the first time durrng May 1918, This
differed primarily from production air-
cra{t by having a single larqe cooling
radiator to serve all four enqines, the
standard installation becoming one
hexagronal radiator forward of each
pair of engines. This larger aircraft
provided accommodation for a crew of arcraft flew via Rome, Malta, Cairo, Specification The Handley Page Vl 1500 was ta
five to seven. and Baghdad to Karachr, which it HandleyPageV/1500 late for World War I and ta
large for
When the armistice was signed only reached on 30December, Thrs aircraft Type: longr-range healry bomber the peacetime Royal Air Force, but
three V/1500s were ready for oper- was used rn May 1919 to make a bomb Powerplant: four 375-hp (280-kW) had thewar lasted until 1919 its 2lAG
ational use, these standinq by with No, attack on Kabul during the problems in Rolls-Royce Eagle VIII 12-cylinder Ign ( I ,300-mile) range and massive
166 Squadron at Bircham Newton, Nor- Afghanlstan. Another V/1500 was ship- Vee piston engines (for the time) bombloadwould have
folk, where they had been frustrated ped to Newfoundland with the object Performance: maximum speed made a sigmificant contribution.
by bad weather from attacking targets of making a first west-east flight over 159 kr/h (99 mph) at l9B0 m (6,500 ft);
in Germany. The type saw only limited the North Atlantic, but this project was sewice ceiling 3355 m ( I 1,000 ft); (23 ft O rn); wing area?7}.7O mz
post-war service with the RAF, gEa- abandoned when Alcock and Brown range 2092 km ( 1,300 miles) (3,000.0 sq ft)
dually being replaced by the Vickers achreved the first crossing in a Vickers Weights: empty 7983 kg (17,600 1b); Armament:single or twin 7.7-mm
Vimy. One was used to record the first Vimy. The post-1924 desiqination was maximumtake-off 13608 kq (30,000 lb) (0,303-in) Lewis quns in nose, dorsa-
through flrght from Enqland to India: H,P,I5, Dimensions: span 38.40 m (126 ft 01n); ventral and tail posiiions, plus up :o
takinq off on 13 December 1918, the lenqth 19,51 m(64 ft0 in); heisht7,0l m 3402 ks (7,500 ]b) ofbombs

ffi [i"t"r, F.B.zlVimy

The Vickers F.B.27 Vimy bomber pro-
totype was flown for the first time on 30
November l9l7; like the de Havilland
D,H.10 Amrens and Handley Page V/
1500, it was designed to provide the
RAF with a strategic bomber that
could attack lndustrial targets in Ger-
many, Although token numbers of
each had arnved in France or were
wlth British squadrons before the
Armistice of 1l November l9l8, none
ot them saw operational servtce in
World War L The F.B.27A Vimy Mk II
was ordered into large-scale produc-
tion, but contract cancellations at the Seventy-five Vickers F.B.M k 27A Vimys were ordered from Westland at Y&viI.
war's end llmited the total built to about but only 25 were completed, the second aircraft being depicted here. Itwas
230. It was not until July 1919 that the planned to use American Liberty engines, but standard Rolls-Royce Eagle
Vimy was in full RAF service, equtp- VI I I s were eventu al ly fi tted.
prng flrst No. 58 Squadron in Egypt,
then other squadrons in the Middle land-Australia flight by Ross and Keith Iraq from 1921. Serving with Nos 45 Powerplant: two 360-hp (268-k\&l
East and rn the UK, It remained in flrst- Smith and their crew; and the attemp- and 70 Squadrons at Hinaidi, they not Rolls-Royce Eagle VIII Vee pL-t::-
line service until replaced by the Vick- ted first England-South Africa fliqrht by only carried out their basic tasks, but engmes
ers Virginia during 1924-5. Pierre van Ryneveld and Christopher were used as air ambulances and play- Performance: maximum speei
The Vimy is, of course, remem- Q, Brand, of which the flnal leg, Bula- ed a significant role in establishing the 166 krri/h (103 mph) at sea level
bered in aviation history for its wayo to Cape Town, was completed in Cairo-Baghdad airmail route, service ceiling 2135 m (7,000 ft)
pioneeringr flights, including the first a D,H,9, maximum range 1448 lan (900 rnl-;-
nonstop west-east crossingT of the Final derivative of the Vimy was the Specification Weights: empty 3222 kg (7, 104 )b',
North Atlantic by John Alcock and Vickers Vernon bomber/transport VickersVimyMkII maximumtake-off4937 kg (10.884 L.
Arthur Whrtten Browni the first Eng- used by the RAF during its policing of Type: healry bomber Dimensions: span 20.75 m (68 t 1 r.
lenqlh 13.27 m (43 ft 6.5 in); hergi::
4,76 m ( 15 ft 7,5 in); wrnq area
122,44 m'z (1,318,0 sq f0
Armament: one 7, 7-mm (0. 303-r,r)
lrelt'rs machine-gnrn on a ScarffI::g
mouriting rn both nose and mrd
positions, plus up to II23 kq (2 I ..' :
ofbombs on external racks

The Vickers F.8.27 Vimy was

designed to provide a heavy bomber
for the RFC, but only a single Vimy
MklV had reachedFrance by
October I 9 I 8. I t went on to prove a
mainstay of theRA.F's bombing
s quadrons, and Alcock and Br own
flew one across the Atlantic.
UI Z '-\
- ng Whitworth F.K.8
As a replacement for the B.L 2c,
Koolhoven designed the Armstrong
Whitworth F.K.8, an aircraft of
altogether more sturdy appearance,
with a considerabiy larger fuselage to frI'
cope wrth the specialisr equrpmenr re-
quired for the type's army co-opera-
tron role. Produced at the same time as
the Royal Aircraft Factorys R.E.B,
which was intended for the same task,
the F,K.B was generally considerably AnArmstrongWhitworthF.K.S, one of arun of 200 aircraftorderedfrom
superror, but no doubt polrtics were 4nErus Sanders on & C o, N ewcas tle upon Tyne, in a conttact of 5 J uly t I I 8.
responsible for the much larger orders Sandersons nze re the largest builder of the type. Two 'Big Ack' (is lhe type was
for the government-establishment known) pilots were recipients of theVictoriaCross.
Pirst flown in May 1916, the F.K.B
was sent to the Central Fiying School at tween B0 and 100 F.K Bs per month by Specification Weiqhts: empty869 kg(l,9LO lb);
Upavon for testing where, although its the end of i9l7and this continued until Armstrong Whitworth F.K.8 maximum take-off 1275 kg (2,8 i I lb)
handling was satisfactory, it fell some- July i9lB, when the company received Type: two-seat general-purpose Dimensions: span 13.26 m (43 ft 6 in);
what short of the specified perform- contracts for Brrstol Fiqhter production arrcraft length 9,58 m (3 I ft 5 in); heisht 3 33 m
ance. Nevertheless, substantial orders and handed over F.K B responsibrlity Powerplant: one 160-hp (1 19-kW) (10 ft 11 in); wrngarea 50. 17 mz
were placed Armstronq Whrtworth to Sanderson. Beardmore rnline piston engrne (540 sq ft)
recerved contracts begrnning in Au- The F,K,B served wrth several Performance: maximum speed Armament: one frxed 7, 7-mm (0, 303-in)
gust 1916 for more than 700 while squadrons in France, the first to be- 153 km/h (95 mph) at sea level; climb synchronzed Vickers machrne-gn-rn
another 950 were built by Angus San- come fully equipped being No. 35 to i9B0 m (6,500 ft) in 19 minutes; and one trarnable 7.7-mm (0,303 in)
derson in Newcastle Production at the while other squadrons served ovet- senrice ceiling 3960 m (13,000 ft); Lewis machine-gmn in the rear cockpi:
Armstrong Whitworth factory was be- endurance 3 hours

ffi Rir"o D.H.4, 9 and 9A

A major reason for the Allied vrctory in Front in the spring of 19 iB its perform-
the air war against Germany was that ance fell far short of expectations. Its
the Allies managed to develop more BHP Puma engine gave endiess trou-
and more powerful aero-engines ble and there were not enough Rolls-
while the German arrcraft had to make Royce Eaqles to equip the armada of
do with a limited variety of weaker D.H.9s raprdly being assembled,
powerpiants it was an enqiine, the su- Westland came to the rescue having
perlative Rolls-Royce Eagle which manufactured larqe numbers of D.H 4s
endowed an otherwise conventronal and D H.9s, they redesigned the air-
two-seater called the Airco D.H.4 with craft to accept the American Irrberty
a performance on a par wrth enemy engine The result was the D.H.9A
scouts The prototype D.H 4 had flown which was a massive improvement
in Augmst i916 wrth a different power- and is rightly regarded a one of the
plant but delays in placrngTthrs unit into best strateQdc bombers of the 'Great
production led to early models car- War. Unlike most of its contempor-
rying a 250-hp (186-kW) Rolls-Royce aries, the D H,9A continued in produc-
enginet this was later developed into tion after the war and served with dis-
the mishty 375-hp (280-kW) Eaqie VII tinction in lraq and on the troubled Because of the fuel tank between pilot and observer, the D.H.4 was nicknamed
'r,rhrch enabled the D H.4 to top 225 ktn/ North West Jrontrer ol Ind-a. the'Flaming Coffin' by its crews. Nonetheless, it was built in extremely large
h (140 mph) in level flight and to climb numbers, its considerable virtues outweighing that major fault.
io LB30 m (6 000 ft) rn under 5 minutes Specification
The D H,4 was flrst dehvered to No AircoD.H.4
55 Squadron, RFC, in early 1917 and Type: two-seat day bomber
eventually equrpped nine RAF and 13 Powerplant: one 375-hp (280-kW)
American squadrons by the Armistice Rolls-Royce Eag.Le VII rnhne prston
it also serued wrth the RNAS. General- englne
ly armed with a Vickers machine-gun Performance: maximum level speed
tr-ng lorward and one .somelines 230 km/h (143 mph); climb to lB30 m
:wo) Lewis guns in the observer s posi- (6,000 ft) in 4 mrnutes 50 seconds;
,ion, the D.H.4 could carry up to 209 kg service cerlinq 6705 m (22,000 ft);
i460 lb) of bombs on underwrng racks. endurance 3 hours 45 minutes
Machines built by Westland lor the Weights:empty 1OB3 kg (2 387 lb);
RNAS carried twin Vickers gTuns and maximum take-off 1575 kg (3,472 lb)
.he observer's Lewis on a prllar mount- Dimensions:span1292 m(42 ft4 5 in);
-ng. Two D.H.4s were modifred as lenqth 9.35 m (30 ft B in); heiqht 3 35 m
,trshrp inlerceplors each sporlng d ( I I ft O in) wing area 40.32 m2
r ti-lb quick-flrer mounted to flre near- /424 A .^ frl
ly vertrcally upwards, they anticipated Armament: one (RFC) or two (RNAS)
scme of the nighlflghters of World fixed forward-firing 7, 7-mm (0.303 in)
War II but never saw achon Vickers machine-gnrns and one or two
The only flaw rn the desiqn of the 7,7 mm (0,303 in) Lewis quns in aft
D H.4 was the distance separatrnq prlot cockpit, plus up to 209 kq (460 ib) of
and observer, which rendered com- bombs on underfuselage/wrng racks;
munication almost rmpossrble. American-built DH-4s had two 7 62-
Although the layout qave the pilot good mm (0 3-1n) Ma"lin 1o rwa rd-hnng
downward visibrlity and the observer machine-gmns, but otherwise were as
a good field of frre the lack of com- British production
municatron was a serious drawback in
air-to-arr combat The D.H.9 rectrfled
:ais. placing the crew close together in The D.H.9A served for many years
a newly designed fuselage marned to with the RAF, but unlike its
:1e same wings and tail as the D.H.4. predecessor was only used in small
lesrgned as a long-range bomber rn numbers by the US Army.ltwas used
ld-1917 the D.H.9 was heralded as in the 37-hour endurance record set
an outstanding alrcraft but when the on 27/28 August I 923 by the
:rachrne appeared on the Western Americans S mith and Richter.

Airco D.H.4 qnd D.Hg in Action
Geoffrey de Havilland always had aflair for producing aircraft that fitted the billfor
a specific requirement. In 1916, withWorldWar I in progress, therewas a need for
an advanced bombing and reconnaissance aircraftwhichwouldgive theRFC a
'strategic' bombing capability, being able to hit German targets far beyond the
trenches. The aircraft that more than met this need was the D .H .4.

When Geoffrey de Havilland's D.H,4 first June I9lB, and as such the main lnstrument of
reached Royal Flying Corps squadrons early in strategic bombrngr by the Allies.
1917 it was greeted with enthusiasm as posses- Between October 1917 and the end of the
sing a performance adequate to outdistance war a year later, No. 55 flew repeated bombing
then-current German scouts such as the Albat- raids over western Germany in daylight, the The D.H.4 was a revelation to the pilots of the Roya)
ros and Fokker D ill, as well as being able to nature of the raids becoming increasingly of a Flying Corps, giving bomberpilots an advantage
outmanoeuvre (in experienced hands) all such strategic type. Some 94 such attacks were in performance over the German scouts thathad
aircraft, As such it earned lastrng fame as the made against munitlons factories and other wrought havoc among the pusher squadrons in
first successful high-performance day bomber. targets in Cologne, Darmstadt, Diiren, Frank- 1916.
Early arrcraft were powered by 250-hp (186- furt, Kaiserslautern, Mannheim, Metz-Sablon
kW) Rolls-Royce engines and these accompa- and Saarbrucken, some of these objectives in- East, but rather larger numbers serveci -,';-:
nled No, 55 Squadron to France early in March volving flve and a half hour flights which RNAS units in the Aegean, Tbro D,H.4s, -r;:r-::
1917, followed by No, 57 Squadron in May and allowed no margin for air combat, These raids were sent to strengthen 'C' Sguadron c: i:--
by No, 25 Squadron two months later. The first- cost No, 55 Squadron a total of 69 D.H,4s. bros, carried out a number of bombrng a:a::€
named unlt drd not enter combat immediately, Durrng the great German offensive of March on the Sofia-Constaniinople railway in Nc;e:--
being ordered to hold its D,H.4s in reserve so 1918 the prlots of the 9th Wrng (Nos 25 and 27 ber i917, TWo months later naval D.H.4 oc=-
as to achieve the greatest possible surprise in Squadrons) were ordered to adopt low-flyrng bers carried out a series of attacks on &e Ge:-
the Battle of Arras which opened on 6 Aprr1. On attacks (desplte all nsks and bad weather) in man battle-cruiser Goeben aground in the \a:-
that day and on several subsequent occasions harassing enemy troops, Such attacks were rows near the Dardanelles until she rn'as -,';-:--
No. 55 Squadron attacked Valenciennes rail accompanied by fairly heavy losses, and at the drawn from danger; thereafter ihe D.H.4s 1e-
way station as an important German com- end of the month the squadrons were allowed cially modified to provide an endurance ::
munications centre. Early in May the targets to resume operations at higher altitude, seven hours'flying time, were used to keep
shifted to the rail junctions at Brebieres and eye on the warship as she lay at anchor :e-
Bussigny, where a small number of casualties RNAS service Constantinople, At least one of the pN-l< r'--
was suffered irom ground fire, At much the same trme as the RFC began craft, based at Mudros on the island of Ler:::s
During the Battle of Ypres of May 1917 No. 55 flylng the D,H.4 over the Western Front in the was detached to the Greek airfield of Arie:-
Squadron was joined by the D,H,4s of No, 57, spring of 1917, the Royal Naval Air Service also koj to join the Armstrong Whitworth F.K3s :i
the llght bombers berng able to operate out of started introducing the aircraft for all manner of No. 17 Squadron RAF in bombing attacks ::-
reach of German opposition above 4875 m duties in addrtion to day bombing over German the retreating Bulgars in September 19-8 :,
(16 000 ft), In October that year, by whrch trme ports. No, 2 (Naval) Squadron (later to become Italy the D,H.4s of Nos 224,226 and227 Sci;a:-
No, 18 Squadron had become the RFC's fourth No, 202 Squadron after amalgamatlon of the rons (based at Adrano, Otranto and Tara:::'
D.H,4 squadron in France, No, 55 was with- RNAS into the new RAF) was the first to receive carried out bombing raids on the subna-r-:=
drawn from the front io become one of the first the aircraft and was tasked with reconnaiss bases at Cattaro and Durazzo,
three units comprising the RFC's 4lst Wrng ance of the Zeebrugge area in preparation for
The US 1 l th Aero Squadron (Day Bombardnent)
(the others berng No, lO0 Squadron with RAF the famous raid by the Royal Naqr on 22123 pose with their US-built, Liberty-engined D H.4s at
F,E.2b pushers and No. 16 (Nava1) Squadron April 1918 CaptainK.G, Boydof No,2lTSquad- their base atMaulan. By the autumnof 1918 theIIS
with Handley Page O/100s), The 4lst Wing, ron sank the German submarine UB 12 with Army had significant force in Eurcpe , but the only
later renamed the VIII Brrgade, ultimately be- two direct hrts with l04-kq (2301b) bombs, native-built aircraft used were the British-
came the Independent Force of the RAF on 6 A handful of D.H,4s was sent to the Middle designedD.H.4.
Airco D.H.4 and D.H.9 in Action


r,i \,

Bombers of World War I

,:.'r.l $

...t. $il

Without doubt the best Airco D .H .4s were those

powered by the 375-hp (280-kW) Eaghe WII, but
this engine was costly and in short supply (and,
because of its bigger propeller, needed longer
landing gears). Many other engines were
theretore fitted, most of the ear&er machines
hauing the RAF.3a, a water-cooledV- I 2 of only
200 hp ( 1 49 1<W) produced by the Royal Aircraft
Factory. A77 12 was one oI the RAF-engined
machines, built by Airco in summer I I I7 and
delivered toNo. l8 SqnRFC, whichwithNo.4g Sqn
used the RAF-engined version exclusively, from
June 1917. The frontal radiator tapered sltgh-f,.
ftom top to bottom (the reverse of the BHP versions
and had a single exhaust stack. At first the
valuable D.H.4s were kept above 457 2 m
( I 5 ,000 ft) , but during the crucial days of March
1 9 I 8 No. I 8 Sqn was ordered over the front at low
level to harass the advancing enemy ttoops.

A Westland-built D.H.4, probably
serving with No. 5 (Naval) Squadron,
Royal N aval Air S ervice, in the s pring
of 19I B. After the formation of the
RoyalAir Force on I April 1918, this
was renumbered N o. 205 S quadron,

tended to be equipped with the D,H,9, whlch engine trouble, with the result that the reduced
was expected to possess a greater range than formation had to abandon its raid,
the D,H,4, thereby extending the area of the Frustrated by such raid failures it was not
RFC's bombing operations, In the final out- surprising that Trenchard acrimoniously de-
come the D.H,9 was no better than the D,H,4 in manded the immediate introduction of the Lib-
the matter of range, and could seldom carry as ery-powered D H 9A (the 'Nine-Ack') whrch
The D,H,4 was the only Brrtish aircraft much bombload; only when the improved had been undergoing leisurely development
selected for production in the USA to see com- D H 9A appeared in service in the last three since late in 1917, although the first American
bat service in France with the American Ex, months of lhe war was any improvement appa- engines did not arrive in the UK until the sprinq
peditionary forces; indeed by the end of the rent, The principal weakness of the D,H,9 was of 1918, No, I l0 Squadron wrth D,H,9As jorned
war more than twice the number of Brrtrsh-butlt its BHP engine, the offlcially-favoured power- the Independent Force at the end of August,
aircraft had been produced rn the USA, Po- plant which happened not to lend ttself to mass but flew only five bombrng raids before the
wered mostly by Lrberty engines, the Amer- productron and gave constant trouble in ser- end of the war; in the last two months of opera-
ican D.H.4s equrpped a total of 13 operational trons the squadron iost 45 arrcraft, and only two
squadrons, of which five were bomber units, The flrst aircralt to reach France equrpped of its attacks were deemed successful to anv
Among the most famous bombing operations of Nos 98, 206 and 21 I Squadrons ofthe new RAF extent, Both the D,H,9 and 9A fared rather betl
ihe last year of the war was the great attack by in April 1918, some of these D.H.9s participat ter in the eastern Mediterranean and in Paies-
200 bombers, commanded by William Mitcheli ing in the Battle of the Lys that month, and tine, although their operations were generalty
and accompanied by 150 escorting scouts, on dropping more than 600 5]-kq (1]'2-1b) bombs on a smaller scale than even those of the D,H,4.
the German army as it attempted to concen in the front-line areas. As with the D,H,4, The lessons of the bombing operations by
trate for a counterattack against the Allied however, it was wlth the Independent Force relatlvely small aircraft in dayhght, such as the
olfensive in the Argonne-Meuse area, Indeed that the D,H,9 saw most seffice, equipping Nos D,H.4 and 9, were there for the learning, The
:he effectiveness of this raid was to colour 99 and 104 Squadrons, Between June and Americans usually employed much larger
Mitchell's views on the use of bombers and was November 1918 these two squadrons flew a formatrons, oiten with accompanying flghter
to have a profound influence on the future poli- totai of 83 rards, A measure of the problems escort; occasionally losses were suffered, but
cies of the US Army Air Corps. being encountered may be judged by the fact seldom such as to reduce the effectiveness of
By the end of the war D,H,4s had equipped that during these attacks no fewer than 123 the raids by a srgnificant degree, Despite the
25 squadrons of the RFC, RNAS and RAF; a aircraft had to return early with enqine trouble, relatrvely hght bomb loads carried, damage
small number of the aircraft operated wrth the Moreover, whrle the D.H.4s were able to hold was inflicted out of all proportlon when com-
Brrtrsh forces sent to Archangel 1n May 1918, their own in the face of German scouts, the pared with that by the small formations of Brrt-
'ruhlle others were sent later to Baku in Azerbar D.H,9 was exceedingly vulnerabie, a fact that ish aircraft whose squadrons were frequently
Jan to support British naval forces in the Cas- was quickly exploited by the defending scouts. all but overwhelmed by opposing fiqhting
ptan Sea, taking part in bombrnq attacks on the On 3l July I2 D.H.9s of No. 99 Squadron set out scouts, Yet it took the RAF 22 more years to
Bolshevik-held port of Astrakhan at the mouth to bomb Mainz, Three soon returned with en- learn the folly of commrtting small formations ol
cf the Volga gine trouble, another was shot down by scouts unescorted bombers to daylight raids in the
over Saaralbe and three more near Saarbruck- likely presence of fighter opposition,
The D.H.9 and'Nine-Ack' en; the survivors dropped their bombs on that
Because the D,H,9A survived in service so town and turned for home, but three more
nuch longer than the D H 4 tt gained lasting were shot down before the leader, Captain
-ame, yet during the war enjoyed a far less A,H, Tayior, and one other survivor landed at
aistingurshed career than the earlier aero- their base at Azelot, In an even worse debacle,
plane, berng summed up by the squadrons as a 29 D. H,9s of Nos, 27 and 98 squadrons took off to
I H 4 whrch has been officrally interfered wtth bomb the railway junction at Aulnoye on 1 r

:: suit it for mass production', Indeed, except October, but no fewer than 15 turned backwith
,';nen powered by the 430-hp (32l-kW) Lion
=rEine, its performance was markedly inferior. The D.H.9 (seen here at Eastchurch in 191g) shoutd
The raison d'etre of the D,H,9 was to increase
-:e RFC's bombrng potential, On 2l have been an improvementon theD.H.4, and
June 1917 indeed in terms of design itwas. However,
:-= War Office decrded to increase the num- powerplantproblems gave the new model a
-:r olsquadrons from 108 to 200, the majority of performance that was distinctly inferior to that of
j-e new units berng bomber squadrons in- itspredecessor.


@ Pilot Press Limited

D.H.9 no. D2854 served with No. 22 l
Sqn during the Allied intervention in
Russia after the wan Seen as it
appeared inJanuary 19J,9 at
Petrovsk, itwas later handed to the
White Russians when the RAF
withdrew in August of that year.

Sewice in the MiddleEast saw the

use of aluminium dopeon the main
airframe, this No. 45 S qn D.H.9 A also
sporting the red trim of 'A' Flight and
the winged camel badge signifying
the squadron's long association with
the Middle East. This aircraft was
based atHeliopolis in 1928 for patrol
duties in Egypt and Palestine. Note
the auxiliary radiator under the nose
for desert use.

67 Outboard interplane s:--::

68 Reconnaissance ce-a-:
69 Fuselageupper ong.-:-
70 Pl)ryood rear decking
7'l Portlowerwing eac -:
72 Diagara wire braci-_l
3T Maln f ueltanl. mountrng 73 Squadron Leade: s
32 Starboard ma nfuelt.nk pen nant
capacity 50 lmp gal (227 74 Ai eron connectinc a:: :
lltres) 75 Ruddercables
33 Portmalnfueltank, 76 Tailplane brac ng n ':
capacltyS0 mpga 1227 77 Fin constructlon
litres) 7B Rudderhornbaiaice
34 Vickers0.303 in (7.7-mm) 79 Ruddercontro hcr-
machlne gun B0 Sternpost
35 Pllot's gunsight B1 Rudderconstructlc^
36 Centre section rear struts 82 Tai navigation ig.:
37 lnboard lnterplane struts 83 Pontallpane
38 Stream ined f ying wlres 84 Port e evator
39 Tralllng edge cut-out Bb E evatorcontro l'c-^:
40 Frontspar 86 Tailp ane incidence ::-:-:
41 Wing rib construction screw jack
42 Compression ribs 87 Ventra fa ring
43 Wlng internalw re bracing BB Tallpanetrlmcac:s
44 Leadlng edge ribs 89 Steel tai skld shoe
45 Port navigation liqht

90 Tai skid
91 E astlc
92 Fuse age
93 Bottom
94 Pon win
12 400-hp (298-kW) tiberty 89 95 Rearfus
T 2-cylinderVee engine 96 Botiom
13 Exhaustplpe 46 Roundedwingtip 97 E evatcr
14 Enginecowllng ouvres 47 Portupperalleron 98 Deeose
15 Starboardupperwing 48 Alleron control horns fuseLagr
lead ng edge 49 Alleron cable 99 Sparew
T 6 Wing panelfabric covering 50 Rearspar 100 Boticf;
T 7 Starboard lnterplane struts 51 Traillng edge ribs attac.r
T8 Frontfuseageframe 52 Rearstrut T01 Underc
construction b3 Windscreen 02 Fuse ac:

l9 Ashenginebearer 54 nstrument pane T03 Turc

20 Tropical radiator 55 Machine-gun ammunition 144 Px'-z -.'.-=.
21 Waterplpe boxes
22 Engjnebayfireproof 56 Pi ot's contro co umn T06 :!-:.: .::r:::
de Havilland D.H.9A cutaway bulkhead 57 Eng nethrottlecontro s T07 Sc ::'::::
23 Oi tank 5B Rudder pedal bar 1Ct ,.-..
drawing key 24 Oi flercap
25 Centre section fronTstftrts
59 Tai plane trlm wheel
60 Pi ot's seat
TC9 ::::::r:i
a::: -: _:
:: _

1 Two-bladedfixedpltch 6 Cooling intake 26 Diagonalwlre braclng 61 Cockpltcoaming 1 lC S:a'!:.-: -: -, -::

wooden propeller 7 Radiator 27 FueLvent 62 Observels control co umn 111 utca'aa-- a. -'-:-' :----:
2 Stafterattachmentdog B Radiator mountlng 28 Gravity fueL tank, capacity B 63 Observer'sseat ^^ ----- -: -
3 Propel er hub fixinq bo ts I Draincock lmp ga (36 I tres) 64 Scarff elevatlng gear 1'|3 S:a-:::-:,1 -l ::-:

4 Radiatorshutters 1 0 Starboard wlng tlp skid 29 Wlnd driven f ue pumps 65 Gun e evating gear
5 Fll ercap 1'1 Aircraft plcketing cable 30 Fuelfi lercap 66 Observer's Lewls gun f-i! -a,';a-a: .;::-::

From 1914, AEG supplied the German
air sewice with a number of unarmed
reconnaissance arrcraft known as the B
series and little real development was
necessary for the evolution ofthe AEG
C I that was introduced in March 1915.
it carried a 150-hp ( I 12-kW) Benz Bz,lll
inline engine, and a machine-gmn for
the observer on a flexible mount in the
aft cockpit, With the emphasis changr-
ing gradually from a stable reconnalss-
ance platform towards a more man- The AEG C IV was the most widely
oeuvrable aircraft that could evade produced ofthe AEG C series of two-
enemy scouts and flght back, the C II of seater reconnaissance aircraft, an
October 1915 was a rehned version of estimated 400 machines seeing
theCL service. Larger than the earlier
The most extensively constructed aircraft, it introduced the Mercedes
member of the C series was the C IV, DI I I I 1 9-kW ( 1 60-hp) engine and a
its development spurred by the Ger- fixed forward-firing machine-gun for
man arr service's qrowing apprecra- thepilot.
tion of the importance of aerral recon-
naissance, A little larger than the C II, it scale during the Battle ofVerdun, such trenches or columns of rnfantry on the Performance: maximum speed
introduced the more powerful Mer- units were soon the subject of a high- march, In additron, the observer had a 158 kntt (98 mph); sewice ceiling
cedes D.llI engrne, a fixed forward- priority progrramme of expansion and Parabellum machine-gun on a ring 5000 m (16,405 ft); endurance 4 hours
firing machine-gmn for the pilot, and a equipment. AEG's J I was developed mountinq, The J II of 1918 was general- Weights: empty 800 kg (1,746 lb);
three-position variable-incidence tail- hurnedly to meet this requirement, Iy simrlar. More than 600 J VII aircraft maximum take-off 1 120 kq (2,469 lb)
plane that was adjustable on the The J I was virtually a C IV provided were built, Dimensions: span 13.45 m (44 ft 1.5 in);
ground. Production fign-rres for the IV with a 200-hp (149-kW) Benz Bz,lV en- length 7, l5 m (23 ft 5.5 in); heiqht
are estimated at 400. gine, plus 390 kq (860 lb) of armour 3 35 m (10 ft I i.75 in); wingarea
In 1916 the German air service intro- plate to protect the crew and power- Specification 39.00 m'z (419.8I sq f0
duced lirfanferre-Flieger units (infan- plant. TVro LMG 08/15 machine-gnrns AEGCIV Armament: one fixed forward-firrng
try contact patrol units), which would were mounted in the floor of the aft Type: two-seat armed reconnarssance 7.92-mm (0,3 1-in) LMG 0B/15 machine-
now be regarded as close support or cockpit, pointing downward and for- aircraft gun, and one 7,92-mm (0.31-in)
gzound attack squadrons, Proving to ward at an anqle of about 45', so that Powerplant: one 160-hp ( I l9-kW) Parabellum machrne-gn-rn for obsewer
be valuable when used on a small they could be used for straflnq enemy Mercedes D.III inline piston enorne onrinqmounting

Halberstadt C and CL series

Based on the Halberstadt B II two-sea- (149'kW) Benz Bz,lV engine. entered service with the Schttzstaffeln for the carriage of small antr-personnel
ter and developed similarly as a re- The most proliflc of the Halberstadl (protection flights) of the Imperral Ger- qEenades, or of four or five 10-kg (22-
connarssance aircraft, the Halberstadt C series was the C V high altitude re- man Aviation Service. The single Ib) bombs, The CL II soon demons-
C I retained the earlier aircraft's slab- connaissance aircraft, which cockpit had tandem accommodation trated its value to the German high
sided fuselage, but the crew posrtions appeared in 1918. A camera mounted for pilot and observer, the latter being commandwhen, on 6 September 1917,
were reversed and the rear (obser- in the rear cockpit could be directed provided wlth an elevated gnrn ring 24 a:rcrafl attacked with great effect
ver's) position was provided with a through a shding hatch rn the floor. De- which allowed him to flre his Parabel- British troops crossing the bridqes
mountinq for a pivoted machine-gnrn. veloped to act as escort for the Clype Ium machine-gun both upward and over the Somme at Bray and St Christ.
Towards the end of 1917 the improved reconnaissance aircraft, the Halber- forward over the upper wing. Trays The escort units were then redesig-
C III appeared, powered by a 200-hp stadt CL II appeared rn 1917 and soon were fitted on each side of the fuselage nated as Schlachtstaffeln (battle
flights) for close-suppofi duties and
were used extensively during the clos-
ing months of 1917, particularly at the
Battle of Cambrai on 30 November
when the Germans launched a suc-
cessful counter-offensive.

Type: two seat ground support aircraft
and escort fiqrhter
Powerplant: one t 60-hp ( I l9-kW)
Mercedes D, I I I 6-cylinder inhne
piston engine
Performance: maximum speed
165 km/h (103 mph) at 5000 m
(16,405 ft); sewice ceiling 5100 m
(16,730 ft); endurance 3 hours
Weights: empty 772 kg (1,701 lb);
maximum take-off I 130 kq (2,493 lb)
Dimensions: span 10,77 m (35 ft 4 in);
lengthT,30 m(23 ft 11.5 in); height
2.75 m (9 ft 0.25 in); wing area-27,50 mz
(296.02 sq ft)
Armament:one or two flxed forward-
firing 7,92-mm (0.31-in) LMG0B/15
machine-gnrns and one pivoted 7 92-
mm (0,31-in) Parabellum machrne-
gun, plus four or flve 10-kg (22-lb)
bombs and grenades

D eveloped to escort reconnajssance

flights, the two-se at H alberstadt C L
III proved an effective bomber and,
carrying racks of light bombs,
played an important partin the
German counter-attack at Cambrai
in 1917.
lE iT"ttt"-grandenburs C I and Phonix C I Bombers of World War I

l:e of the earliest designs of Ernst
,--:,rkel for the Hansa und Branden-
:-.lgrsche Flugzeug-Werke GmbH,
:,= Hansa-Brandenburg C I was built
.:,: ersively ior Lts era. beiro cor-
: rlcted not only by Brandenburg but
.-:o under iicence by Phonx and Ufagr
-: Austria. A conventional two-bay bi
: -:n€ oL wooo and labrrc const.rLctron,
. had a slender fuselage with the
llwerplant mounted in the nose, pro
'. Ced a combrned open cockpit for the
p-1ot and observer/gunner, and
:rounted a braced tail unit at the rear.
andrng gear was of tailskid type.
Entering service in i916, C Is saw
','.rde scale use by the Austrran forces A Hansa-Brandenburg C I built bi'
:rld some examples continued in ser- Ph'6nix. with aHiero engine. as it
-,rce untii the end of World War L In the appeared in Au stro- H ung arian
icng period of time over which they service in 19 I 8. An ungainly-looling
-.n/ere operational C Is were seen wLth machine, itwas armedwith the
powerplants ranging from 160 to Au s tr ian S c hw ar z 16 s e m a ch in e- gr'::.
230 hp (119 to 172 kW) and wrth a varr
--ty of armaments. Basically this com-
prised a single machrne-gun on a pr- and observer/gunner rn tandem open
','oted mount at the rear of the cockprt, cockprts Phdnrx built 110 C Is and
but later verslons also had a sinqle for- these entered servrce in the spring of
-,vard-flringr machine-gmn mounted rn 1918, remarning operational until the
Cifferent positions. Some were used for end of the war
liqht bombing missions and were
:quipped to cary up to 100 kq (220 lb) Specification
-.f light fragmentation or incendiary Ufag-builtCISrs 169
bombs on racks beneath the fuselage Type: I wo-saat a rmed reconr a issa nce
-.r lower wing aircraft
The Austro-Hungarian aircraft Powerplant: one 220-hp (164-kW) Benz
inanufacturer Phonix Flugtzeuqi-Werke Bz IVa 6-cylrnde' rrlrne prsron encine
begtan wrth hcence manufacture of Performance: maximum speed
Albatros and Brandenburg aircraft L58 km/h (98 mph); service cerlinqr
-.xnrnq to aircraft of its own desigm 6000 m (19,685 ft)
The flrst of these was the Phonix C I Weights: empty 820 kg (1,808 lb);
,rlo-seat atmed teconnaissance and maximumtake-off I 320 kg (2,910 ]b)
;eneral-purpose biplane, which the Dimensions:span 12.25 m (40 ft
lompany deveioped from the Hansa- 2,25 in); length B 45 m(27 ft8.75 in);
Brandenburg C II, which it had built heiqht 3.33 m (10 ft I iin)
:der licence. An ugly but practical Armament: (standard) one Ernst Heinkel began his career designing biplanes for the Austro-Hungar:a:
.-:craft, the C I had fixed tailskid land- Schwarzlose B-mm (0 3 15 in) machine- Empire, and eventually built jets for Hitler. TheHansa-Brandenburg. one o:
j-g gear was powered by a Hiero Ln- gn-rn on prvoted mount ovet rear of his early designs, was manufactured under licence by Phonix and Ufag ::
.-:e engine and accommodated pilot combined cockpit Austria. It served as a reconnaissance aircraft and Light bomber.

iuni."rr early aircraft

small-arms fire from the qround mak- (134-kW) Mercedes D IIIa enqlne Ab- Powerplant:one 200 hp (-i:-l<.-. :=-:
ing the J I popular with its crews. Pro- out 50 examples of this were built be- Bz.lV G-cylinoer rnhne pr: . - :- : :. _:. - ,
duction totalled 227. lore the arm6lrce. entering service as Performance: m&xrmuJr. i .- j!
Junkers lhen lurned ro a new serres the Junkers CL I and carryingTthe same -:
155 km/h (97 nph): endu:.--..^ .- ' .
of cantrlever low-wing monoplanes, armament as the D L Three examples Weights:empty 1766 k; : ::.
rhe single-sear J 7 ot l9l7 servrng as of a floatplane version of this aircraft maximumLake-off2l7€ k; i . :. :
prototype for the J 9 sinqrle-seat fighter entered service with the German nar,ry Dimensions:span .:.=;'':.
l6.i r-- ',:..i
which, powered by the 185-hp (]38- during 1918 under the designatron lenqh9. l0mr29ir lO. .:.
k\ /) B.M.W engnne and armed with twin Junkers CLS I. 340 m(I I rt I 75 rn) .'..:.; J-:
forward-flring LMG 0B/15 machine- 49 40 m'z ($3,52 sq fi)
guns, was built in small numbers under Armament: two ixed fcr;;a::-=,-- -
the military desiqnation D I Specification ; 92 mm (0.31-j-) LMC : , -- - = : *
The Junkers J I0 was a trffo seat ver- JunkersJ I qrunsandone tratna:l: - :- -:--..
sion of the J 7 powered by a 180-hp Type: two-seat close-support aircraft in) Parabellum machi,: - ;-:-

-:': -:-:.e-;a tiye Junkers J I metal

n:::;,ane wa s followed by sixJ 2
;,-'::-': :r r' 9 J6; fhr!rs fhe second of
.-n _-: r-:. T hn shee t iron covering
l:*,: : ::ie /ed to the se and later
'i:r:== ::.rgra-ff being dubbed'tin
r :;:r=;= " a:rtough dural sheet was
-- -- --^i.-^^J
The Birth of Sfrategic Bornbing
From their introduction into military service, aircraft were used to attack enemy
ground forces as well as to conduct reconnajssance patrols, but by 19 I 5 designers
onboth sideswere planninglarge multi-enginedmachines able to rangefarbeyond
the front line; the strategic bomber was born.

No account of the war's strategic bombtng However, spurred by the achievements of the
efforts by the UK and Germany can begin other big Russian Srkorsky bombers which had been
than with brief reference to the origtns of active in the East, and frustrated by the inability
bombing in the West by lighter-than-air craft, of the Tauben to reach worthwhile targets in
for therein lay the premeditated drift towards England, the German aircraft industry set to
total war, if not by deliberate assault on the work early in i915 to evolve much larger bom-
civihan population then by the knowledge that bers, the G-class, Grosskampfflugzeug or'bal-
no means exrsted to ensure that bombs would tleplane', These aircraft, from AEG, Gotha,
only ever fall on military targrets, Friedrichshaien and other makers, started
On the outbreak of war the Kaiser, mindful reachlng operational units before the end of
perhaps of his own family ties with English the year but it was not for another year, after the
royalty, had expressed abhorrence at any ae- creation of the Luftstreitkrafte (air force) under
rial bombing that might endanger civilians and an officer of field rank, General Ernst von
went so far as to withhold approval for air Hoeppner, that plans were hatched for a sus-
attacks on targets rn England. The imperial tained air attack by aeroplanes on England, By
Naval Staff, however, anxious to demonstrate then improved aircraft, notably the Friedrrchs-
the superiorlty of rts arrshrps in attacks on dock- hafen G IIl and Gotha G IV, had flown and the
yard and other naval targets in the Thames plans included the formatron of three Kampf- America's leading bombing exponent was
estuary, managed to persuade the Kaiser to geschwader (bomber wings), of which Kagohl B rig adier - G e ne r al M itchel l, w ho se contr ov er s ia l
temper hrs ban on such attacks in return for 3 would be committed to raids on England, and bombing trials during July I 92 I involved sinking
assurances that such raids would not endanger the others against tarQtets in France, the G erman Dreadnougfi t Ostfriesland by aertal
the crvilian population nor indeed the British
capital itsell Inevrtably, as the navy's (and soon Belgianbases
alterwards the army's) airship crews roamed In due course the new bomber wing, com-
the nrght skies over England searching for prising srx Staffeln and commanded by Haupt
'military'tarQrets, bombs fell on towns (and Lon- mann Ernst Brandenberg, occupied lts bases
don), and crvihans were killed, The first such in Belgium. On 25 May l9I7 23 Gotha G IVs set
raid occured on the nrght of 19/20 January 19 15 out to attack London tn dayltght after losing two
when two Zeppelins dropped bombs on King's aircralt in force landings in Belgium, Crossing
Lynn in Norfolk, the Essex coast near Burnham-on-Crouch,
Other raids by arrships followed, but it was Brandenberg found his path to the capital
not until the ni qhl ol 21 3 September I 9 I 6 that the obscured by cloud so turned south to see if his
llrst alrshrp was shot down by an aeroplane crews could find worthwhile targets in Kent,
over the UK when Lieutenant W. Ireefe Robtn- Eventually the formation arrived over Folke-
son of No. 39 Squadron RFC brought down a stone where the Gothas released nearly five
Schutte-Lanz over Hertfordshire (for which he tons of bombs, killinq 95 and tnjuring 260,
-uvasawarded the VC) Almost three months Although the Dover anti-aircraft guns opened
later two more airships were destroyed in a fire with a heavy barrage and about 40 British
srngle night over the East Coast, Later that alrcraft took off in pursuit, the Gothas escaped,
same day, 28 November i916, a stngle German
aeroplane flew brazenly over central lrondon
and dropped six small bombs in broad dayhghi
and escaped,
Meanwhile Germany, and more particularly Despite the best endeavours of the RFC and the
anti- aircraft guns, landing accidents accounted for
:he German army, had been at work develop- the majority of Germanbomberlosses on mosl
the aeroplane as a bomb-carrier, at first raids. This D.H. I 0 shows that the British
:reating several units of Tauben (aircraft with encountered similar problems;both sides in fact
lcve-shaped wrngs) able to reach just beyond fitted nose wheels to some aircraft to prevent them
::e battle front with a few very small bombs, nosing in.
Bombers of World V/a: .

r -.':o lose two more of their number rn fcrced more attacks on south east England but on a taken of the raiders (though nc Ci::-. , : : -
: rlngs Cimrnrshing scale as a result ol losses, mainly shot do,,vn) and on 19/20 May t:: :: -
-rrs rard provoked an anqry outbursr in tte from accidents but also to a growing number in flew their last attack agrainst Erg:.--,r ' - .

: - - sh parliament whlch -r/as still rumbhng on combat Thrs sapping of strength resulted in Gothas and three Giants stragglej -- - - :.-
.-:n on 5 June Brandenberg launched hrs the decrsron being taken to switch to night and Essex, no fewer than sr l: :...
,=::nd raid this trme klllinq 45 people rn the rardrnq, any pretence at confrning attention to brought down by night flying Sic.--:' .
.-'.'a1 dockyard at Sheerness, One -week later mllrtary targets havrng long since dissipated and RAF S,E 5A fighters (and or: :: : . : :
,: 13 June 20 Gothas set out for London their Ironicaily, however, the flrst such raid by only aswellasthe gundefences O,,.er .:=', .
.,-:rnE point the railway termrnus ol Lrverpool four Gothas on 3r4 September struck the naval sporadic raiding by Kagohl 2 F.:.. =- . .
:.:eet. The formation reached the capital barracks at Chatham where a srngle 5] kg 5Ol continued until 30 Octcber -.. -.. : .
iere it dropped more than four tons oi ( I 12 lb) bomb caused the deaths of 13 I sleep- attack hit an army supply bas: . - -
- :mbs; three bombs actually struck the aiming ing ratings and inlury to 90 others (the highest
, :rnt but another hrt an infants school at Poplar, toll from any single bomb during the war) The British Independent Force
, --1tns 16 children In all, this raid killed 162 and Later the same month the Gothas were [he Cermon s-rd-4 ]
ured 432, the highest toll of any srngle rard on lorned by a new squadron Riesenflugzeugab- reached its cllmax before the =::r - - ,
r: UK durrng the war. teilung 501 commanded by Hauptmann rhcreafler d^clrnod By c, . r
The outcry rn the Brrtrsh parliament now Richard von Bentivegni one of trvo such units attempts to undertake bomb.:.: .-= -
::ached new heights which quickly provoked now flying the huge R type 'Grant' bombers rn-med-a e drca o'Lhe W-s ::. -l .

.':tion to strengthen the defences, and resulted Such was the size of these arrcraft (the Zeppe gain impetus only at the end , -
r the formation of a commisslon headed by the lin Staaken aeroplanes were powered by four creased progressively righi u. : ..-.- -
--:uth African, General Jan Smuts io examine five or even srx engines) that each could carry war. Another feature of :he :r ..
le entire structure of the RFC and RNAS and Lhe same bombload as hve Gothas. indeed,
lerr abilty to provtde adequate home de- when a second raid reached London on 29i30
:nce. The recommendations of thrs commis September wrlh four Gothas and three Giants,
jion were far reaching and eventually 1ed to the Bntish authorrtres estimated that 1B Gothas
re amalgamation ol the two services' to form hod o ocl,ed he cao ol
re Royal Air Force on I April 19lB ]n 1918, however, as the fruits of the RAF
In the meantime Kagohl 3 carrred out several reorganization matured a grolvlnc; loll rruas

:',., .,11:,:;: :: ;l --:-:ffi-t:1:'.,i
tlE: )tN,::;.::;) ::r.rt::. r'i.1,::::,-j;: -r

1. - I -
- . -'i$w
' t'.' ""
The Birth of Strategic Bombingr

The Airco D.H. I 0, Iike the Vic ker s

Vimy and the H andley-P age V I 5 00,
was designed to conduct a strategic
bombing c am p aign ag ains t
G erm any. Only eight of the l, 29 5
ordered had been delivered when
the war ended. Nevertheless, 220
machines were finally produced for
theRAF post-war.

The need to protect bombers from

enemy fighter aircraft soonbecame
pressing, and the French developed
a long-range tighter, the Caudron R
I I , to escort formations of Breguet
l4B2s. This is a machine of Escadrille
C.46 as it appeared between
F ebruary and November I I I 8. I t
carried tive Lewis guns; twin nose
and dorsalmounts, and one firing
downfrom the nose.

force was the scale of participation by the VIII Brigade), and on 6 June il was renamed the ing; nevertheless, on accouni olthe much grea-
Royal Naval Air Service; rndeed from the outset Independent Force of the RAF, commanded ter tonnage of bombs dropped on Germany,
the entire heavy bomber force (composed of by Major General Sir Hugh Trenchard, Be civilian casualties were more than double
Handley Paqe O/lOOs) was naval-crewed, a tween then and the end of the war thls force those suffered in the UK.
predomrnance that only lost its identity when increased to 11 squadrons with a total of about One other weapon was being prepared for
the RNAS and RFC amalgamated to form the 75 D.H,4s, D.H,9s and D.H.9As, some 50 O/400s use over Germany when the Armistice brought
RAF and a squadron (No 45) of Camels. Among the an end to hostilities, This was the very large
The 0/100 stemmed from an informal en- targets attacked durrng the last six months Handley Paqe V/1500, comparable in slze to
quiry addressed by Murray Sueter to (mostly by nrght) were Baden, Bonn, Cologne, the German Giants but a much more formrd-
Frederick Handley Page early in 1915 whether Koblenz, Darmstadt, Diiren, Frankfurt, Heldel- able aeroplane, Conceived wlth the lntention
he could produce 'a bloody paralyser', by im- berg, Kaiserslautern, Karlsruhe, Ludwrg- of bombing Berlin from bases in the UK, this
plication a big aeroplane capable of carrying a shafen, Mainz, Mannheim, Luxembourg, Offen- great aircraft was capable of carrylng a 1497-
large bombload, Already working on such an burg, Saarburg, Saarbrucken, Stuttgart, Wies kg (3 300-1b) bomb, and at the moment the
aircraft that had been loosely deflned by the baden and Zweibrucken, as well as numerous Armrstice came rnto effect on I I November
Admiralty, Handley Page modifled his design airfields and other military targets. The raids 1918 three V/1500s were standing on Bircham
to take more powerful engines, this aircraft, the involved the dropping of about 550 tons of Newton airfield rn Norfolk, ful1y fuelled and
O/100, being flown in December that year, En- bombs (compared with less than a tenth of this bombed-up, awaiting orders to take off for the
tering service wrth the Sth Naval Wing at Dun- flgure dropped rn all the raids on the UK) and a German capital, As rt was, the only such aircraft
kerque the followlng November, the brg bom- total of 352 aircraft was lost includrng 148 ever to drop its bombs in anger did so on the
ber could carry up to sixteen 51-kg (112-1b) D,H 9s and 69 O/400s clty of Kabul during the Afghan War of 1919,
bombs and started daylight operations with Clearly the achievements of the Indepen-
Romanian troops pose beside one of the giant
No, 7 (Naval) Squadron in Aprrl i917 along the dent Force eclipsed those of the reiatively German'R' class bombers captured in Bessarabia.
Belgran coast; soon afterwards the Sth Wlng small number of German bombers, and from Romanian troops had been among the firstvictims
changed its operations to night rardrng of such reports as were produced after the of ground attack aircraft, bomharded with water
.argets immedrately behind the Western Front; Armrstice it is clear that a far higher proportion melons by Bulgarianfliers inthe Balkanwars.In
:urther south the 3rd Wlng, also equippingwith ol bombs fell on strictly military and strategic five years aircraft had become serious fighting
C'100s, embarked on night raids on German targets than was the case of the German bomb- machines, and weapons much deadlier.
rdustrial centres up to 95 km (60 miles) behtnd
:re front. One aircraft, flown by Fhght-Lieute-
:ant John Alcock (who later achieved fame for
r.s transatlantrc flrght) from Mudros, set out to
i:cmb Constantinople but was forced to ditch in
-ee Sea ol Xeros, the crew berng taken prison-
46 O/100s were produced, Handley
laEe developed an improved version, the O/
=--l this aircraft achieved considerable pro-
i:::ion with about 400 completed by Handley
?a3e and a further 107 in the USA before the
cf the war, Meanwhile
=:l.ssemble the RFC had begun
._ a bombing force in France com-
: -sedof No, 55 Squadron'sAirco D.H,4, No. 100
S;-*adron's F,E,2b and the Naval'A' Squadron's
I -li aircrafi. Commanded by Lieutenant-
l,-:rel Cyril Newall, the 4lst Wing was
:r-:-ed on il October 1917 to continue the
:-:::cing of German industrial targets started
:-; -:e F.NAS' 3rd Winq, Belore the month was
- -. .:e D.H.4s and O/100s had raided the Bur-
:-::- -,',-crks near Saarbriicken and the F,E,2b
:-lll1:- ilaO
.-:::a:- rad OOmOeq ratlwavs neal
bombed rallWays
ratlways near iarKen-
::: ?-alding by these squadrons continued
-l: -re winter, and on 1I February
---r: -::: Februarv 1918 the
:r:: r,as raised to brigade status (becoming
AEG G series
- --e rntroduction of bomber squadrons
, :he Westem Front in World War I
. :s nol long delayed Oermany rnrt
:.i "'-
Kampfstaffel (battle squadron) un-
-.s in early 1915 The arrcraft that
=qurpped them were used primarLly
=< multi-grun flghters but the potential
:: tactical and strateEdc bombing was
scon apprecrated, It was ln 1915 that
-:e flrst of AEG's twin-engined bom-
:ers appeared. The brplane AEG G I
powered by two 100-hp (75 kW) Mer
ledes D I engines, These powerplants
.vere hardly adequate to confer spark- AnAEG G IVofBogohl4, Staffel l9 atBazuel, in I9lS.lntroduced at the end..:
L-ng performance on what was little had the same powerplants as theGothas and Friedericfis.ha:'e:.s
1916, the G IV
rnore than an enlarqed C IV: one that but had neither their payload nor their range, yet the aircraft continued :r,
,vas 75 per cent heavrer and yet had production andwas still in servicewhen the Armistice came.
cnly about 24 per cent more power.
Perhaps it was not surprising that only Weights: empty 2400 kg (5,291 lb);
a single example was built. maximum take-off3630 kg (8,003 lb)
The G II, flrst seen in mid-19i5 was Dimensions:span 18,40 m (60 ft 4.5 rn);
siightly larger but had two t 50-hp ( I 12- lensth 9 70 m (31 ft 9.75 in); heiqht
kW) Benz Bz.lll engines. Only about 15 3.90 m (12 ft 9.5 rn); wing area 67.00 mz
cf these G IIs were burlt before the G (72 1.2 I sq ft)
ill was introduced and this also was Armament: two 7 92-mm (0,31-in)
produced in only limited numbers Pa rabellum machine-guns. one on nnq
It was not until the end of 1916 that mountrngrin forward cockpit and one
the G IV began to enter service. Like on rail mounting in aft cockpit
rts predecessors it had a basic steel-
tube structure and fabric covering. All Right: At a time when other German
cockpits were interconnected, enabl- twin- e ngine d m achine s f avo u r e d
rnqt crew members to change positions pusher arrangement, AEG installed
in flight if circumstances so dictated. ifs engnnes as fra ctor units on all its
The G IV was hampered by a range twin-engined aircraft. F ive hundred
that was very hmited when the aircraft and forty-two G types were
was carrying a crew of three and a produced andwere used for short-
maximum bombload of 400 kg (BB2 lb) rangemissions.
AEGs G sedes production totalled
almost 550 aircraft, of which about 500
were G IVs. rr any of rhen remairrng rn
servrce until the end of the year.
Variants, built in only very small num-
bers, included the G IVb with an rn-
creased span three-bay winc;: thc G
IVK with a Becker cannon of 20-mm
calibre instailed rn the nose,

Type: biplane bomber/
reconnaissance aircraft
Powerplant: two 260,hp (i94-kW)
Mercedes D IVa inline pnton engines
Performance: maximum level speed
165 krn/h (103 mph); service ceilrngr
4500 m (14,765 ft); maximum
endurance 5 hours

TheAEGG II appearedinJuly 1915

and paved thewayfor theG IV. Only
about I 5 wete manufactured, but
several did see active service with
the Kampfgeschwader over lhe
Western could carry 200-kg
(441-lb) of bombs and mounted two
or thr ee m ac hine-gruns.

Gotha G II, G III, G IV and G V

During 1917 and l91B Britrsh people
generally, and those who lived in Lon-
don particularly came to dread arr _*
-:tacks by the Gothas', a name which Fq
.-:ey applied rndiscrrmrnately to all
3erman bombers making day or night
:ards Development by Gotha of arr-

:raft rn this class had started dunng
-: I5 ano rhe first ol rhese twin-engrne
::mbers were the Gotha G II and G III
-, 1916 Built in only small numbers
:ey were grenerally similar differing
,:Jy rn internal detail, but early experi- The 194-kW (260-hp) Mercedes engines of the Gotha C :','.:.,'.=-. j :
::.--e oI lhese a]rcrail operarLng in England at 4500 m ( I 5,000 ft), ne ar the ceilings of the at - - : e ;. :.i ?=' :
::ope brought development during intercept them, and also gave the Gothas a respecfaiie ::= :-':-:^gg: =
,l-5 of the lonqer-range G IV Of steps taken to c oun ter th em he lp e d le a d t o th e u ntfi c a i c : :-' :: s -:j I :: :
'?d ,^/ooo and sreel construcrron RNAS on All Fool's Day, I I I B.
Gotha G II, G III, G IV and G V (continued)

The Gotha G VII was developed

during 19 I 8 as a long-range photo-
r econnaiss ance aircraft, deleting the
nose armamentfor extra speed. The
wings were slightly swept to
compensate for the stunted nose,

with pl1'wood and fabric covering the

G IV was of three-bay biplane con-
figmratron wrth a basrcally square-sec-
tron fuselage braced tail unit and tatl-
sk'd landing gear rncorporarirg -win-
wheel marn unrls fhe twrn-^ngrne
powerplant, comprrsing two Mer-
cedes D IVa inlines strut-mounted be-
tween the wingrs, directly above the
marn landrng gear, was arranged to
dnve pusher propellers, a large cut-
out being provided in the trailing edge
of the upper wing to give the neces-
sary propeller clearance The G IV the danger of nosing-over durrngr nigrht Powerplant: two 260-hp (194-kW) Dimensions: span 23.70 m (77 ft 9in);
was followed by an improved G V that operation. Mercedes D IVa 6-cylinder rnline lensth 11,86 m (38 ft 1i in); heisht
was basrcally the same, but introduced A number of Gotha G serres aircraft piston engines 4 30 m ( 14 ft 1 25 in); wlns area
rmproved equipment and a number of followed the G V, mostly built in ones Performance: maximum speed Bg 50 m'z(963.40 sq f0
refinements, including cleaner more or twos, 140 km/h (87 mph); service ceihng Armament: two 7,92-mm (0,31-in)
streamlined engine nacelles, The G 6500 m (21,325 ft); ranse 500 km (31 I Parabellum machine-guns on pivoted
Vb was a denvatle with a pair of au- Specification miles) mounts ir nose and dorsa.lposrtrons
xrliary wheels mounted forward of GothaGV Weights:empty 2740 kq (6,041 tb); and a bombload of 300 to 500 kg (661 to
each main landing qear unit to reduce Type: three-seat Iong-range bomber maximum take-off 3975 kq (8,763 lb) 1, 102 lb) according to rangTe of mission

E i"pp"rin-staaken R series
World War
Soon after the beginning of
I Count von Zeppehn initrated the de-
velopment of healry bombers which he
could ioresee wouto be of grea- rm-
portance to the natron's war effort. The
desigrn of landplane versions began
under the leadership of Professor
Baumann the frrst of them berng the
Zeppelin-Staaken V.G.O.l which
established a basic layout and srze for
the remainder of these giant arrcraft.
With biplane wings a slab-sided fusel- The remarkable Zeppelin-Staaken'R' series was constructed from scratch,
age and biplane tail unrt, the V.G O I there being no experience to draw upon in the design of such gargantuan
was supported on the ground by flxed bombers. By pioneering design work and trial and error, they evolved into
tailskid type landinq gear, whose marn seven-man bombers able to carry a substantial payload.
unrts had multiple wheels, plus two
more wheels beneath the nose First 260-hp (194-kW) Mercedes D.lVa en- Powerplant: four 245-hp (lB3 kW) Dimensions: span 42,20 m ( i38 ft
ilownon 11 April 1915, the V.G.O.lwas gines; and three Type 830I twin-float Maybach Mb IV or 260-hp (194-kW) 5.5 in); lenqth 22. 10 m (72 ft 6 in);
iound to be underpowered and was seaplanes which had the same power- Mercedes D,IVa lnli ne pLSton engines heiqht 6.30 m (20 ft B in)t wins area
re engined. The production R VI of plant but introduced an entirely new Performance: maxtmum speed 332.00 m'z (3,573.74 sq ft)
which the first was dehvered rn June fuselage, 135 km/h (84 mph); sewice ceiling Armament:four 7.92-mm (0 3l-in)
i9i7 ehminated the powerplant from 4320 m (14, 175 ft); maximum duration Parabellum machine-guns, plus a
-le luselage nose. R VI production Specification l0 hours maxrmum short-range bombload of
ictalled 18, one being built by the com- Zeppelin-StaakenRVI Weights: empty 7921 kg (17,463 lb); 2000 kq (4,409 Ib)
pany and the remainder under sub- Type: seven-crew healry bomber maximum take-off I 1B4B kq (26, 120 lb)
3ontract by Aviatik (sx), Ostdeutsche
Werke (four) and Schirtte-
anz (seven), They were followed into
ploductron in 19iB by the similar R XIV
i:iree aircraft) and R XV (three air
:laft) both versions having f,ve
l.I.ybach Mb,lV engines. An adv-
version developed
=:ed four-engrne
:-.-Aviatik, with one 220-hp (164-kW)
l: IVa and one 530-hp (395-kW) Bz VI
:- :ach nacelle, was allocated the de-
:;atron R XVI (AV); three were to
:-r','e been built but only one was com-
before the end of the war
ants included the single R VII
'.'.:-:l drffered from the R IV by having
lvlercedes D.llis in the nose and
--'-: Benz Bz.lVs in the nacelles; the
Tlpe L twrn-float seaplane with four

i-nR IV inflightmade an r'mpressive

spectacle. Early models suffered
:enibly from engines blowing up,
citen during take-oIf or prolonged
:ijnbing, which strained them to the
-:::Lit. The first R IV to be delivered
ie a so,lo attack on London in
:=:ebruary 19 1 8, scoring a direct hit on
i: ?ancras railway station.
Armed Forces of the lfu orld

Although theoretcalLy a :te-'.:z :c;nlry, Finland
signed a treaty with the USSR ln 1948 which re
quires herto fight anyaggressorattacking the USSR
across her territory. ln case of this happening the
Soviet Union would provide either direct mllitary
assistance or aid as required by the circumstances
Desplte these treaty Iimitations and the restrictions
they place on its armed forces, Finland has de-
veloped its own arms industry which manufactures
armoured vehjcles, artlllery pieces, mortars and
small arms for the home market and, by certain
expediencies, for the export one as well. However,
major weapon systems have tended to be bought
from the USSR and Sweden for poljtrcal reasons,
with occasional purchases f rom France, the UK and
the USA.

The Army
At the mornent the Finn;sh army co'nprises some
30,900 men of whom 22,30O are short-term con-
scripts. They form the following front-line unlts:

one armoured brigade (of one tank battalion, one The Finnish armed forces use a mix tur e of S c;: e :
armoured infantry battalion, one f ield artillery Until 1960 the army used mainly ex-German and innish infantr'7
ex-soviet World War ll armoured equipment refur- and indigenous equipment; F
battalion plus supporting units), -are
m a inlv a'rme d w ith d er iv ativ e s o f th e S ovie t'Ei
- :'-
six infantry brigades, bished ln Finland. fhis mat1riel was initially sup- manifactured to high standards at VaLmet'
seven independent infantry battalions, plemented and then supplanted by more modern ---
Soviet vehrcles. During the late 1960s and early modernization programrTre. At the s:^-='.--=
one commando tnfantrY blgade,
1970s the inttial deliveries were supplemented by opporlJn tywasta(enro eolace l-i i. =-:--.' -
two field artillery regiments, wheeled APCs used in small numbe's .. = ----
other small purchases. On the M BT f ront about 00
two independent f ield artillery battalions,
T-54 and T-55s were purchased. the former be ng try brigades, and several hundred l::: :=- ;---
two coastal artillerY reglments,
relegated to training or havrng thelr turrets taken off and built SISU XA-1 B0 wheeled;',rC: -' = :==-
two independent coastal artr llery battalions,
or static defence roles. ln 1980 a maior re- orderedfordeliveryfrornthen-ld-'3:1. -- -':: -
one mobile coastal artillery battalion, f

one air-defence regiment (including a SAM equipment programme was started for the Parola In 1980 Finland embarked on a moderntzaxa:.
battalion), Armoured Brigade. The tank component was up- programme for the Parola Armoured Brigace. T:e
five independent air-defence baitalions, graded byan orderin l984tothe USSR for'100of jts meChanized inf antry are re-equipping'ii:;. :- e
two engineer battalions, i-;Z Mgts armed with a 125-mm (4 92-in) main BMP - 1 M I CV iL|u s tr a te d he r e, w h il e th e ar:t' o : : +=
gun BTR-50 APCs are also be ng replaced by the battalion has received l0a T-72s to repiace ::
one signals regiment, and ohsolescent T-54/5s.
one siqnais battallon BMP-1 ordered in 1980 as the first phase of the

::.fa. . *:
.. -;,
I / il
L/ lt
Armed Forces of the World t/[
Itl \_-
terms of artillery the Finns rely on both indigenous
and foreign-built models, the firm Tampella being
especially prominent with severa.l highly successf ul
designs, Like most Scandinavian countries, Fin-
land's coastlines require great emphasis to be
placed on coastal artillery, and weapons up to 152-
mm (6-in) calibre are founo.
A full list of the equipment used by the army

Armour: PT-76 light tank; T-54 (training), T-55 and

T-72 (on order) MBTs; and BTR-50P1(50PU, BTR-
60PB/60PU and SISU XA-1 80 APCs;
Artillery: (towed) 76-mm (3-in) M/02,76-mm M/36,
05-mm (4.13-in) Ml41 ,122-mm (4.8-in) M60 and
130-mm (5.12-in) Mr56 [ield guns; 105-rrm M 37
10. 105-mm M61137,'l 50-mm {5.91-in) M/40 and
52-mm (6-in) Ml3B howitzers; and 155-mm (6.1-
in) M/74 gun-howitzer;
(coastal) 1 OO-mm (3.94-in). 1 30-m m and 1 52-mm ;
(morta rs) 6O-m m (2.36-i n ), B 1 -m m \3.2-in) ; 1 20-
mm (4.72-in) and l6O-mm (6 3-in);
Air-delence: (towed) 20-mm Flak 38, 23-mmZU-
23, 30-mm, 35-mm GDF-002, 40-mrn L/60 and
L/70 Bofors and 57-mm 5-60;
(self-propelled) ZSU-57-2 ; and
(SAM)SA-3 and SA-7; ..
Anti-armour: 55-mm M55 rocket-launcher; 75-mm
Miniman LAW; 95-mm (3.74-ln)95 SMbB-61
recoilless rif le; and SS.1 1 , TOW and AT-4'Spigot' class armed with Swedish RBS15F SSMs. The last Finland's dense forests and multiplicity of lakes
ATGWs;and of the Soviet-built 'Riga' class frigates has been and bogs severely limit theemploymentof
Small arms: 9-mm M35 and 7,65-mm Parabellum converted to a minelayer, whilst treaty limitations conventional artillery, so Tampella have
pistols; 9-mm M31 SMG; 7.62-mm M62 rifle; and prevent the acquisition of any submarines. A four- produc ed a range of excellent mortars.
1.62-mm M62 and 7.62-mm M32 MGs. vessel class of fast attack craft based on the 'Hel-
lcebreakers: nine plus two building ; and
sinki' design is also being procured to introduce Miscellaneous: 10.
To supplement the regular forces there are greater commonality into the fleet. A full listing of
700,000 reservists for all the services, and these the current and fJture fleet is: The Air Force
would be mobilized to create units of up to brigade The Finnish air force has 2,900 men, including
strength for the army within seven Military Areas. Corvettes: two'Tu runmaa' class ; 1.300 conscripts, and is tasked'with defending Fin-
Missilecraft: one'lsku' class (trials), four'Tuima' nish air space. To do this it is divided into three
The Navy class, two (+ 1O) 'Helsinki' class; I fighter wings, wh:cn are each assigned to an a,r-
The Finnish navy is like the other services in being Fast attack craft: six'Nuoli' class and four defence d strict. Although Lhere is only one f ighrer'
limited in size, having only 2,700 men of whom 'Helsinki' class (planned) ; squadron perwing. the equipment is relatively soph-
1.400 are conscripts. A plan to increase its capabili- Coastal patrol craft: one plus four building; isticated, The airqraft include 27 Soviet-supplied
ties was announced in 1974 but monetary problerns Large patrol craft: five; third-generation MiG-21bis'Fishbed-N' multi-role
had by 1980 severely limited the scope of this prog- Large minelayers : three ; airpraft, 12 new-build Swedish Saab J35S Drakens
ramme. The main offensive capability is centred on lnshore minesweepers: 1 3; and six refurbished J35F Drakens. A further 20 or so
a small force of missile craft which is being in- Amphibiouswarfare: 11 coastal transports and 14 J35Ds are to be delivered to equip a fourth squadron
creased in numbers by the bullding of the 'Helsinki' LCU s; from the mid-1 9B0s if funds permit.
To provide tactical reconnaissance there is a f light
of six first-generation MiG-21 'Fishbed-C' day
fighters, whilst to train fighter pilots in operational
techniques there is an OCU with eight BAe Hawks,
three Saab J35Cs, a few modified J35BSs and up ro
eight MiG 2'1 U/UMs. The fighter squadrons use AA-
2 'Atolls' on the MiGs and a mixture of Rb27 radar-
guided and Rb28 lR-guided Falcon missiles on the
Drakens. For primary and basic training duties there
is a fleet of 30 locally designed and built Valmet
Vinka piston-engined trainers with 15 Fouga Magis-
Ier and 2-l Hawk jet trainers, both licence-built. A
f urther 5 Hawks are due to replace the Magisters in

due course. The transport inventory is minimal, in-

cluding only three Fokker F.27 Friendship Mk .100s
and three multi-role Learjet 35As. Rotary-wing
duties (inc uding SAR missions) are undertaken by
six Mll Mi-B 'Hips'and two Hughes 500s. No expan-
sion in either area is seen in the foreseeable f uture.
To assist the armed forces there is also a Frontier
Guard of 3,500 men in seven battalions and a 600-
man Coastguard. The latter has some 50 patroLcraf:
of various sizes and three Mi-B helicopters.

The Finnish air force flies a combination of

Western and Soviet aircraft; SaabJ3S Drakens
have been produced under licence atValmet,
while others were purchased direct.