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Volume 12 Issue 135

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-:.n Ridyard der of British Land Forces during the
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light Crulsers
The prtnciple task of light ctttisers during World War I was to
scout ahead of the mainbattletleet. But, intheweather
HMS Southampton sanft
the German cruiser
Frauenlob and lfie
conditions of the North Sea, this often meant that these forpedoboat S 35 af
weakly-protected vessels had to venture within range of the Jutland butsuffered
severe damage during
enemy b attleships' main armannent. the night action.

'We crouched behrnd the tenth of an inch platrng and ate bully beel but raprdly away from where he ;udged the next salvo would land, He
rt drdn t seem to go down very easrly. It seemed rather a waste of time to usually got it right,
eat beel for surely in the next ten mrnutes one of those ll-inch shells Vrrtually unprotected cruisers, relying on their agrlrty to keep out of
would get us, they couldn't go on falling just short and lust over indeflnite- trouble, were initially drfficult for the British Admrralty to accept
ly and, well, lf one did hrt us - hght cruisers were not designed to Crgest although, hrstoricaliy, they were close in concept to Nelson's frigates.
11 inch high explosives. , .' This laconic eyewitness account was by an Once in service, however, both Bntrsh and Germans found them indis-
officer aboard HMS Soufiampton at Jutland, but could equally well have pensrble, They were deeply involved in every major action and in all the
come from a thousand others on either side. humdrum, unseen and uncomfortable drudgery that hes behind the
The oider fleet concept ofpushing forward armoured cruisers to gain simple expression 'sea control', Many were lost but all were valiantl-,.
intelligence of the enemy had been bankrupted by the arrival of the served, Despite their apparent fragrlity they proved remarkably resis-
battle-cruiser and the fast battleship, the job passing to the new Qrenera- tant to gunflre and the endless 'dripping' of therr crews concealed a
tron of hght cruisers. To do therr job requrred getting to within clear deep-felt love for their ships, few envying those with 'cushier billets c:-
visual range and this, in typical vrsrbilltres, meant well within heavy gn:n the big ships,
range of the enemy 1ine. It took dedication and nerve to press such a Ne/son sajdfie would die with thewords'want of frigates'engraved on his
reconnaissance well home with half the bridge observing the enemy heart;the RoyalNavy's problem before 1914 was a shortage of cruisers fast
line and the other half watching the navigator who manoeuvred the ship enough towork ahead ofthe new generation offast battleships.

l_-'-tr -' .-:3&

..'- W",w
iiltfunt' class
Intended primarrly for colonial duties, For their size and date, they were They were protected cruisers wlth a Specification
the three'Friant' class cruisers dated respectably armed wrth a marn battery full-lengrth 30-mm (1 lB-rn) armoured 'Frianf class
from that splendidly srlly penod when of sx 164-mm (6 4-in) Wns Though deck, arched over the machinery and Displacement: 3,880 tons standard
French ships were unique in the these were only 3O-calibre weapons thickened on the flankinqt slopes to Dimensions: iength 95 0 m (3 L 1.7 ft);
world, Despite their modest size they the muzzles of the two sited on the B0 mm (3. 15 rn). No less than 20 boilers beam 13.0 m(42.7 fI), draught 6,4 m
were built on the same 'fierce face centreline at each end were vrrtually were drvided between three spaces. (2r 0 ft)
principles that also groverned the in line with the deck limrts. The re- The orrginal class consisted of the Propulsion: two sets ol lrLple-
armoured cruisers and battleships, maining four guns were sited on spon maqnifl cently-named Cft asse/oup- expansion steam engtnes delivenngt
Each featured the exagqerated ram sons 'growinq' from the steeply-slop- Laubat, Buge aud and Friant, foliowed 9,500 ihp (7085 kW) to two shafts
bow and bulbous stern that gave ing sides, thus gaimnq a measure of by the sliqhtly modified du Chayla, Speed: 1B 5 kts
buoyancy at either end and extra axial chase fire, The narrow upper Cassard and d?ssas. A good rdea of Endurance: I I 125 km (6,9 15 miles) at
length to improve the hnes, Their hiqh deck was sponsoned further to the breadth of scope open to the older 10 kts
freeboard hulls were two levels deep accommodate a 100 mm (3.9-in) Sun at shtps rn J 914-Bgiven by lnelr servtce
rs Armament: sx single 164 mm (6.4-in)
over their entire length and pierced each'corner' and 10 47-mm quickhrers in the Caribbean, the Red Sea the loursingle 100-mm(3 94 in)and 1O
Iiberaliy with rectanqrlar ports rather were also supposed to be fitted. At Levant coast and the Dardanelles, the single 47-mm gn-rns, and two 450-mm
than the usual scuttles to rmprove liv- least one unit, the nameship origrnally Indian Ocean and the Black Sea. ( 17, 7-in) torpedo tubes
ing conditions in the tropics. The sides had some of these weapons sited on Armour: B0 mm (3. 15-in) belt
were given a pronounced tumble- 'military masts both guns and masts Complement:375
home havrng to be removed as a result of
stabilrty problems

With her exaggerated ram bow,

bulhous stern and pronounced
tumblehome, Friant was a c/assic
French warship. Designed for
colonial service, her sides were
lib er al ly p ie r c e d w i th r ec t angu I ar
ports to improve ventilation- Shewas
recalled from the Caribbean in 1914
and served throughout thewar.

'Jurien de Ia Gravidre' class

-As the American USS Sl .Louts was to guerre de course defeatlng the UK cruisers were constructed but, by the of casemates rather than srded turrets
be a diminutive of the 'Cahfornia' de- economically rhrough lne oeslr uctlon end ofthe century, it was obvrous that There was no belt, the volume beneati:
srgn, so was Ihe Jurien de la Gravidre of her mercantrle marine rather than war was now far more likely with the the waterhne being covered by a 65-
scaled down from the 'Gueydon class her battlefleet. What therefore, was Triple Alhance than wrth the UK and mm (2 56-rn) protective deck anC
arrnoured cruiser but at an eariy date. required were coast defence ships Aube's rnfluence waned It was at thrs flanked by cellular sub drvision
That she was one-off rs interesting rt and a large number of corsairs (pri- point that lhe Jurien was burlt Though havrnq less installed power
se1f, representing probably the last vateering had been declared interna- Of vrrtually the same length as the than the larger shrps her flner ltnes
gasp of the so-called Jeune Ecole tionally illegal by the Congress of Paris 'Gueydons , whe was nearly 5m and lighter displacement were sup-
movement. This stemmed larqely from rn l856 but. run by the governmanl. it (16.4ft) smailer rn the beam, a con, posed to realize 23 kts. Thrs speed was
the beliefs of Admiral Aube during the was presumably respectable), the siderable amount that called lor a hgiht never achieved. As with most Frencl:
iBBOs that, as the UK was the most like money for them being made avarlable er dnd lowel SUpp'S luCIuIe ln .om- cruisers rn the war, her potenhal wm
ly enemy of France, the latter's fleet by the scrappinq of the redundant bat- pensation, wrth poles tn place of mrltl under-urLhzed. the Jurten bei".o ^m
should be recast with this in mind. It tle fleet and its expensive rnfrastruc ary masts. Further topside wetght was ployed primarrly in containing a larqe-
would be easrer, he argrued, to adopt a ture. A number of commerce-raidrng saved by liErhter calibre quns and use ly qurescent Austrian fleet in the Adria

Despairing of de{eating the British

battle fleet, the French planned a
series of fast light cruisers to attack
merchant shipping, even building
one, Chateaurenault, fo /ooklike a
Iiner. Jurien de la Gravidre was a
failure; designed for 23 kts, she never
managed more than 21, and that only
,;.ffi\ for an hour or so.

F d rr5l

Jurien de la Gravidre' class (continued) Light Cnrisers of World War I
tic and in minor operations with the
Brrtish in Greek and Turkish waters.

Jurien de Ia Gravidre
Dispiacement: 5,650 tons standard
Dimensions: length 137.0 m (449.5 ft);
beam 15.0 m (49.2 ft); draught 6 4 m
(21 0 ft)
Propulsion: three sets oftriple
expansron steam engines delivering
17,000 ihp (12675 kW) to three shafts
Speed:22 kts
Endurance: I 150 km (7,145 mrles) at
10 kts
Armament: two twin and four single
164-mm (6,4 in) and 10 srngle 47-mm
gmns, and two 450-mm ( 17.7-in)
torpedo tubes
Armour: 65-mm (2.56 in) deckand 5O-
mm ( l,98-in) gunhouses and
Complement: 511

Jurien de la Gravidre rzas desrgned as

a commerce raider, her intended
victims British merchantmen, but
d6tente befr4leen Great Britain and
France left her without a role. She is
seen here entering Toulon for a refit
inSeptember 1916.

€# Jduano'class
Itairan fleet operations have always Typical of ships built rn the aqre of the threelowbutevenlysizedandspaced Specification
been [mrted large]y by the confines of reciprocatinq engine were the two funnels rmpartinq a somewhat 'Quarto'class
the Mediterranean; this has combined 1,300-ton 'Agordats' whrch, as scouts, Japanese appearance Displacement: 3 275 tons standard aii
-,r,rrth close rivalry wrth the neighbour- were poorly served by their 22 kts Before Quarro was even launcneS. 3,450 tons full load
rnq French to exefi great influence on and, when the Ouarlo was completed however. and obvrously not appreciat Dimensions: lenqth 131.6 m (431.8 ft)
thell warshlp desrgn over the years in 1913, she marked something of a tng her excellent design, the Italians beam 12.9 m (42 3 ft); draught 4.1 m
Tlprcally, endurance and protection revolutron. Of abour the same si.e as laid down two 'improved and en- (13 4 ft)
have bebn subordinated to speed and the earlier British scouts, her later larged versions, the Marsala andlVino Propulsion: four sets ofsteam turbmes
armament Lrke other fleets before machinery permitted a maximum of Bixio These had lower installed pow- dellvering 25,000 shp (18640 kW) to
1914, the ltahans flrrted with the idea of over 29,000shp (2i620kW) on four er and were triple-screwed yet stlll four shafts
the scout cruiser once the steam tur- shafts, resultinq rn a trral speed ofnear- contrived four funnels which were Speed:28,5 kts
brne and oil-flring were available to ly 29 kts Her turbines were of Parsons oddly spaced and, together with the Armament: sx srngle I 2O-mm (4. 7-rc)
produce sufficrent power in a small manufacture and were relrable masts, glven a pronounced rake. Their and sx singrle 76-mm (3-in) gurs,t*:
hull. Unusually where thrs beqinninqr throughout her comparatively long more ltalianate appearance was not 450-mm (-7 7 in) lorpedorubes ani
mrght well have been expected to re- career (she was not finaliy stricken un- matched by performance, however up to 200 mines
sult ln a serres of ever larger ciasses tll1939) LongT and low with a raised their Curtiss machinery typlcally pro- Armour: 40-mm ( 1.57-in) and 2O-run
the Itahans rnitrally progressed down- forecastle, she was a classic scout her ducing power for about 3 ks less than (0,79-in) decks
ward to the larqe destroyer and the Quarfo, and they were drscarded Complement: 247
thouQrh the diflerence was flne this in the late 1920s The sheer cost of
was recoqnized rn the cateqorization of speed is well illustrated by the quoted
esploratori rather than rncrocitort Jeg- endurance flgmres of Quarlo at 15 kts
gerl she couid cover some 4265 km (2,645
mtles) but at 28 kts less than 1110 km
(690 miles).

Long,low, and fasf, Quartoftad

the characteristic speed and
grace of an Italian warship,
although her three small funnels
made her look a little like the
lapanese destroyers operating in
the Mediteftanean during World


Piercrng the Fog
Warship construction progressed so rapidly around the turn
of the century that the distinctions between some types of
warship became blurred, and whole generations of vessels
were rendered obsolete at a disturbing speed. I 9 I 4 found
warships of widely varying ability serving side by side.

Many categories of warship were, and indeed remain, difficult to label in

absolute terms: in this respect the light cruiser is typical. From the Washington
Treaty of the early 1920s it was simply a cruiser with guns of 152-mm (6-in)
calibre or less, an over-simplification that led, by 1945, to a band that ranged
f rom the
'14,7001on American 'Worcesters' at the top end to the little 3,750{on
Italian 'Capitani Romani' at the lower. Where the functions of these similarly-
labelled classes were greatly different so, too, were those of ships of the
generation before. 'Light' meant at thls time not'small' so much as'fast', thus
necessarilyalso meaning 'lightly protected'and'lightlyarmed', with functions of
e rher comrrerce destruction or scouting.
Small cruising ships for colonial use aside, mainstream cruiser development
in the transitional era was directed to producing something akin to a derated
banleship, a type short-lived as a consequence of its inferior characteristics, ,SMS_Dresdena tValparaiso after theBattle of Coronel. She joinedvonSpee in
resulting from the enormous weight of its protection and the low power of its the Pacific after an ineffectual commerce raid in the South Ailantic, and
machinery. ln order to be faster than the main body of the fleet, the cruiser was achieved little after escaping from the Falklands batile. The ship may have
obLiged to abandon its massive vertical belt and rely on a combination of been the same c,lass as Emderu but the crew were not.
norizontal armour laid over a closely-subdivided lower level.
This, the so-called'protected cruiser', enjoyed a vogue until the advent of for the main body of the fleet, while having the speed to avoid apprehension.
'ace-hardened steel armour, which offered greatly increased resistance to That such evasion of action was unpopular was evidenced by the reception
cenetration on a reduced thickness and weight. This development brought given to the early proposals to fit 4 in gunned ltght cruisers with a pair of 6-in
about a renaissance of the armoured cruiser, whose brief reign was then weapons aft to deter pursuing enemiesl ln the event, the 6-in gun had been
:erminatedabruptlybythearrivalof thebattie-cruiserinl90T. lmprovedmachin- accepted as standard tn the Royal Navy by 1914, and early experience of its extra
and new quick-firing guns enabled the protected cruiser to survive this hittrng power soon persuaded the Germans to follow suit. But this type of
:ecade. Small second- and third-class cruisers patrolled the imperial trade cruiser was largely ignored elsewhere, except perhaps Japan.
'crtes, joined bythe two'Powerfuls', a leap in size and hopelessly uneconomlc While (with the exception of the two 'Brummers') the German f leet stuck only
:it necessary as a riposte to French and Russian essays in commerce-raiders. a developing series of their own 'Towns', the British contrnued also with the
The trend to lighter protection was one followed very warily by the British smaller ships, their task eased by the eary adoption of steam turbines and oil
-:mrralty, but a new influence during the 1890s was the so-called torpedo firing. These classes moved logicallythrough the'Arethusas'to a series of 'Cs'
r -;rboat. Whether f orelgn or B ritish, this type proved too slow and u nequal to its and'Ds', their size seeing them employed as'attached'cruisers to the Grand
:es gned role, but its ships proved adequate as leaders to the large flotillas of Fleet battle squadrons or co-operating closely with destroyer flotillas, as at
-.-all torpedo boat destroyers then coming into service. Harwich.
Togo had made classic use of cruisers during the Russo-Japanese War of
Germanscouts 1904-5, particularly in shepherding Rozhdestvensky's fleet to its doom at
-o the Royal Navy scouting was a service to the main battle f leet and was a job Tsushima, but this gave little indication of how the British and Germans would
':- armoured cruisers, but fleets with smaller budgets needed to be more use their considerable numbers after 1914.
-.:vatlve and, in 1900, the Germans built the little 25-kt iVovik to Russian Half a dozen Germans were on distant stations and, despite early successes,
=::ount. The inevitable British response were the four'Gems'of about the their ultimate destruction was virtually certain. Some British light cruisers founcj
.'-e size, but slower (signif icantly, one heralded a new era in being powered by themselves in early days involved in hunting raiders both tn the lndian Ocean and
=.:am turbines). They had only minlmal protective deck but, in parallel, were off South America but, for the most part, they were occupied in attritional
:'-rCrced eight'Scouts' using four leading builders to interpret a specification warfare in home waters.
.". ." a fair degree of f reedom, resulting in a selection of comparisons on how to
_ Of the war's major engagennents, Coronel, the Falklands and the Heligoland
.,:'< in lrght protection on a very tight displacement limit. Desptte their name, Bight hinged largely on cruiser performance, while at both the Dogger Bank and
,^:se little ships were rapidly put to use as destroyer leaders. Jutland init al contact was gained by light cruiser scTeens, reconnoitering ahead
)eslroyers of the time were f ragile things and were commonly organized into of therr main forces.
' :: ;as of upwards of 20 ships. Their operation was the business of a Captain (D) Th.e ships of both fleets proved remarkably resistant to gunfire, losses being
.',:c, with hrs staff, needed a larger ship not only to provtde the necessary dominated by casualties to mine and submarrne torpedo. Even in the North Sea,
.::ommodation but also to guarantee keeping pace wrth the pack in poor conditions could be coid enough to cause gun mechanisms to jam. Open, single
::^citions. These early ships were armed only with 102-mm (4-in) guns but mountings were used throughout the war, and only with the 'E' type stretched
--:se matched, in calibre at least, the 105-mm (4. 13-in)weapons favoured in the versions of the'Ds'did the prototype twn gun-house make its appearance.
' = ser's developing f leetand were, in any case, adequate to disable an enemy Torpedoes were carried by ali classes of both sides yet, as in other types of
:3s:royer in support of their own. Destroyers were rapidly ncreasing in size and vessel, there was generally a curious lack of result in their use. This may well
,':abiiity, however, and larger leaders were soon found to be necessary. have been due to the expense of the weapon militating against adequate
,'. ih the supersession of the armoured cruiser in 1907, the British began on a practice and, if history can be held to teach lessons relevant to our own times,
:-: series of 'Towns'which, like the sailing frigate, could find, track and report this bodes ill for the current heavv relrance on missiles.
Constructed in.lB89, Surcouf was one ofa serjes of light cruisers built for the
French navy to prey on British commerce. Designed for the (then) nimble j

speed of 20 kts, she carried four 5.5-in guns and four torpedo tubes. Note her t:'
pronounced ram bow. i
ii I

* '-
t.. 'ff'-k

r I i |l
'ii ll
Light Cmisers of World War I
Right:Well wrapped up against the
Baltic cold, the crew of HMS
Caradoc s a/t 6 -in gun open fire on
Bolshevik positions in the Baltic.
Light cruisers carried their main
armament in single open mountings
throughout the war, despite
instances of the cold jamming the

B elow : F lagship of the 3rd Light

Cr u is er S q u a d r on, HM,S Falmouth
was scouting ahead of the Grand
F leet in August I I I 6 when she was
torpedoedbyU 66. Taken undertow,
she reached Flamborough Head only
to be torpedoed again byU 52. Here
sie selues in the wate r the nex t dav.

-n- -


The clean,'modern' Iines of SMS

Konigsberg IIm ake a dramatic
co ntr as t w ith Sur couf' P ow ere d by
turbines, alJ vesse/s of ffte c,lass
e x c e e de d the ir desr'gped
horsepower on trials, and in deep
water theywould probably have
topped29 kts.

r. it.. r:-1, Jt Ei -
NIZ !!
strictly protected cruisers, the 5,900 tons on a 145 by 17.1 m (376 by (26 100 lb) Thus the lighter machinery Specification
'Gem' class ships (HMSAmethyst, Di- 56 ft) huil, the 'Gems' on virtually the for a three per cent greater economy 'Gem'class
amond, Sapphire and Topaze) mark same length dispiaced only 3,000 tons produced power for an extra I S kts.- Displacement: 3,000 tons standard
ihe point of departure for the light by virtue of a siender 122-m (40-fi) These slender little ships were also Dimensions: length 114,0 m (374.0 ft)
cruiser rn the Royal Navy. Protected beam The 'Challengers' had a shghtly armed only wrth 102-mm (4-in) Wns beamI2.2 m(40,0 ft); draugrht4.4 m
cruisers rehed primarily on an arched heavier deck but needed 12 500 ihp (possrbly rnfluenced by German ciurs- (14 5 fl)
armoured deck, running the full lenqth (9320kW) to make 2l kts whrle the ers with the superior 105-mm (4, 13-in) Propulsion: two sets of triple
of the ship, below the waterline at each 'Gems' could manage 22 kts on only gun a much-crrticized move Thouoh expansion steam engrnes deliveringr
end but higher amidships to clear the 9 800 ihp (7310 kW), More srgmflcant- not officrally described as 'scouts', tie 10 000 ihp (7455 kW) to two shafts or
rop of the hrgh recLprocaring engrnes ly, one of their number Amefftysl was 'Gems' closely paralleled the first (Ametiyst) two sets of geared steam
and boilers. Such ships came in a vari- the first smaller shrp to be fitted with scont-type cruisers then also being turbines delivering 12,000 shp
ety of sizes but, like the armoured steam turbines, By fittinq her with built, whlch sacriflced armament and (8945 kW) to two shafts
crursers possessed too little (if any) cruising in addition to main, turbrnes, some protectton to accommodate Speed: 22 kts or (Amelrlysl) 23.5 kts
speed margin over the fleet's main Parsons nearly overcame the machin- machinery for 25 kts, Sapp.hrie was Armament: 12 sinqle 102-mm (4-in)
body with whrch to act as scouts. The ery's greatest weakness, an economy very active in the Dardanelles cam- and eight single 3-pdr gmns (later
fow 'Gems', launched in 1903-4 were inferror to rhat of reciprocating engrnes paign and Io Topaze and Dr'amond, as altered to two single 152-mm/6-in and
burit in paraliel with the two 'Challen- at lower speed, Even so, comparative 'attqched cruisers', fell the melancholy eight 102-mmquns) andtwo 457 mm
qers' but, where the latter displaced trials against the similar-hulled Topaze task of rescuing the few survivors ofthe ( IB-in) torpedo tubes
saw the lurblne ship consuming battleship HMS Formidable off Port Armour: 5 l-mm (Z-tn) deck
l3l5 kq (2,900 lb) of coal per hour at iand at the rwn of ,he year rn 1914. No Complement: 296
l0kts against lhe Topaze's 1043k9 'Gems'were lost
(2300 Ib). At 14kls consumprion was
about equal whrle, at the upper end, T he'Gems', Topaze, Amethyst,
the more compact turbrnes developed Diamond and Sapphire, were the
12,000hp (8945kW) compared wrth predecessors of fhe Scouts, carrying
9,800hp (7305kW) for only 1t06Bkq only4-in guns and lightprotection to
(24,400Ib) per hour against 11839kg gain speed. HMS Amethyst had
turbines which gave her a I Vs-kt
advantage over her sisters and \ower
coal consumption at high speed. She
was leader of the Harwich Force and
DestroyerCommand in 1914, butleft
for the Grand Fleet in August.


NtfZ T
Scout types
ihe largest qun' on the 'hiqhest
the idea of the 'fast scout' was
and the two 'F' class ships from
Fairfield had a poop in addition. Only
srngle 102-mm/4-in and one 76-mm/3-
in gnrns), and two 457-mm ( l8-in)
20 Magazine
21 Dynamo room
::Jy entrenched and, though ofques- the hvo'A'class ships from Armstrong torpedo tubes 22 Dynamo room
23 Doubebottom
.-::able worth, was resurrected by had four funnels, the remainder three Armour: 5l-mm (2-in) deck 24 Auxi iaryengine room
:-:';al staffs from time to time to pla€rue Both the Fairfield ships and the two'P' Complement:270 25 Twin 14- n lVkX torpedo
:,: :aval architect, British involvement class ships from Laird worked in a 5l- 26 Ma n feedwatertank
:::babiy stemmed from the classrc mm (2-in) vertical patch in addition to a 27 Englne room
-::;:e to 'rep1y' to any foreign lead, In hght protective deck, The last pair 28 15.800 hptwin s x-cy inder
eng nes
-:-s case it was the l,/oyrk, a 3,000{on- comprised the two 'S' class ships from HMS Foresight

29 Store
:-:: built in Germany to Russian Vrckers, An unusual feature at the time 30 3-pdr quick firlng guns
rrllllnt, which inspired Elswick to was a single, tall mast. All averaged cutaway drawing kg.y 3T Funne
32 Steamplpe
::el a similar but enlarged design 1o over 25 kts over an eight-hour full- 33 Funne casing
:-: Admiralty. Impressed by the 26-kt power trral. HMS Alfenlrve maintain- 'l quarters
Captain's 10 Twin screws 34 Super heaters
i.-sran, this authority put out a general ing 26.25 kts for an how, well up to 2 Ouarterdeck 11 T2-pdrshelroom 35 Funne uptake
3 Skyllght 12 Searchllghtplatform 36 No. I boilerroom
:;::rfication for a small, fast cruiser destroyer speeds of the time and a 4 Wardroom 13 Searchllght 37 No.2 bo lerroom
-:-a. could serve for the safe observa- record for a ship of her size. Their cost 5 T2-pdr(28-cwt)quickfirng t4 Stove 38 No.3 bo lerroom
of around f275,000 apiece attracted gun
-:: cf ar enemy port as the 'eyes' of a 15 Flaglocker
6 Engineers'quarters 16 Officers'quarters
:.--kadLng squadron The requrre- criticism particularly as their function 7 Steerlngcompartment 17 Pantry
:::. was to maintain 25 kts for eight was seen to be capable ofbeing equal- 8 Steeringengine TB Gig
:-:-:s. and a 5560-km (3 450-mile) en- ly well performed by destroyers in the 9 Balancedrudder 19 Cutter
::a:lce at 10 kts Armament was to nafiow seas and by merchant cruisers
:,:l:de two torpedo tubes but only 12- rn the open oceans In the event, they
l:: (76-mm/3-rn) gn-rns. The light scale performed admirably attached to line
:' :rorection was lo be a prolecilve squadrons or as flotrlla leaders to des-
a:3k'at least I7z rnches in thickness or troyers, Only HMS Pathfhder was lost,
-= :qurvalent in a vertical belt, an in-
.::. s-ing lack of comrr'trrenr ir con Specification
.=-!: mth designed function Four prop- 'A'class
:s:ls were accepted, a pair of ships Dispiacement: 2,670 tons standard and
::,ng built by each of Armstrong
2,940 tons full load
Fairfield, Laird and Vickers, Dimensions: Iengrth 114.0 m (374.0 ft);
.-- :i them berng completed in 1905. beam 11,7 m(38 25 ft); draught4 I m
Cn a liqht displacement iimit, all (13 5 ft)
-::ked low and lean, with single, srded Propulsion: wo se-s ol I nple-

,::pedo tubes three-quarters aft, four expanslons ream engines deliverLng

-2-pdr guns alonq each side and one 16,000 ihp (11930 kW) to two shafts
::-cre forward and aft, These were la- Speed: 25.5 kts
..r up-rated to nine 102-mm (4-in) Armament: 10 single 12-pdr and eight
-.'.-:apons. All had raised forecastles single 3-pdr gn-rns (later altered to nine

-_:: a
Ligrht Cruisers of World War I
'Active' class
Following the completron ol the first
eight scouts, there was a perrod of
appraisal Thrs was a time olrapid Ger-
mdn bJrioLng ard 1" ey hod iJst con-
pleted SMS Bremen ihe flrst of a new
'hght cruiser type denved ltke the
British ships, from the smali protected
crurser Similar in length but beamier
the German ships had the advantage of
continuous high ireeboard and their
rnfluence resulted eventually ln the
Brrtrsh 'Towns The Admtralty de-
Ld-o ro der,elop lho qn'dlla' .rL_c6I
iurther in parallel, however; not only
could such shrps marntain thetr speed
longer than a destroyer in deterlorat-
Lng weather, but they had the flrepow
er to drspose ol it Further the larqe
destroyer flotrllas of the time needed a
leader with accommodatlon for Cap-
tarn (D) and hrs staff. These, then
rather than scoutrng, became thetr
The shrps of the second, extended
series of small cruisers were thus not
iermed 'scouts and wete constructed, scribed as a 'double skin' amidshtps: tives' as leaders to three of the iour HMS Activecruises off Queenstown
not by prlvate yards, but by Pembroke vertical, spaced platinq to defeat sen- Grand Fleet destroyer flotrllas, an in 1917 before her deployment to the
Dockyard This srngle small yard did sitiveiy fused projectiles AIl were tur arduous duty from which they were Mediterr anean. The' Active' clas s
rvell to complete the four 'Boadiceas' in brne-driven and carried dual coal./otl relieved by the larger 'Arethusas as was the third group ofScouts.
1909 11 and the three foiiow-on 'Ac- ful: the oil was sprayed onto the they became availabie. Of these flotrl- h able fr om its
d is tinguis
tive' class shrps (HMS Active, already burning coal in the furnace las, the lst with 20 destroyers and the predecessors by the plough bows.
Amphion andFearless) rn 1912 3 The and at the cost of rather too much 3rd with 15 were part of Tyrwhitt s Har
nrst parr, thouqh given 102-mm (4 in) smoke, Qlave a rapid boost rn heat wich Force.
guns received only six of them Only enerQly to the boiler. delivering 18,000 shp (13420 k\\-;::
three could flre on the broadside While Amp,hlon was mtned and lost Specification two shafts
whrch was lnadequate to sink a small only two days after the outbreak ol 'Active'class Speed:26 kts
target from a lively platform, so later war the reminder survtved desptte Displacement: 3,440 tons standard Armament: 10 sinqle 102-mm (4 ::.
shrps were given 10 gn-rns, olwhich stx beingr very actively involved. The four Dimensions: length 123.4 m (4OS O ft); and loursrngle3-pdrguns. ani
could frre on the broadsrde The flrst 'Boadiceas' served as 'attached cruis- beam 12 6 m (41,5 ft); draught 4,0 m 533 mm (2l-in) torpedo tubes
two units had a hght protectrve deck ers' to each of the four Grand Fleet (13 0 ft) Armour:none
but the remainder had what was de- battle squadrons and the three 'Ac- Propulsion: two sets olsteam turbines Complement: 320

39 Three quafterWhlte- 58 Lobby B elow : When she was c omplete d n

Forster cy lndrlca boi er 59 Paint store early I 905, HMS Foresight carried
40 Bulkhead 60 Capstan J1x I Z-pdr guns and a pair of ) 4-in
.11 n et va ve 6T Ram
42 Clrcu ation pump 62 Torpedostore torpedo tubes. Her gun armament
43 Coa bunker 63 3pdrshelroom was later changed to l0 ' 4-in
44 3 pdr ready store 64 Foredeck weapons. Of the 'scout' types, only
45 Wire ess off ice 65 Feed watertanks
46 Wire ess aerla 66 2 narmourbet Foreward and Foresight ftadpoops
47 Venti ators 67 7e ln armoured deck (ends) and could further be distingruished
48 Forcmast 68 T 7: in armoured deck
from the'A','P' and'S' classesby
49 Lookout stat on (amidsh p: )
50 Compassplatform 69 Waterl ne having high funnels and no cowls. Ot.
51 Compass 70 Ventllatorto crew's friais, Foresight's engines developeci
52 Brldge q uaTters
I 5,800 ihp, making 25.28 kts.
53 Chart room
54 Crewquarters
55 Steam plpeforheating
llvlng spaces
56 Stokers'quarlers
57 Dynamo roomr'machlne

At Secl Before Breakfcst
As thewar clouds gathered over Europe in 19l,4, the battleships of theGrand Fleet
steamed north to their lonely anchorages, Ieaving southern waters in the immediate Below: HMS Arethusa uras com missioned in 1914 as
care of lighter units. Led with great panache by commodore Tyrwhitt, the Harwich flagship of the Harwich Force. Tyrwhitt described
Force was in action with characteristic promplness lfte day war was declared, and her as a 'regtlar flyer and a ripper'; she could
make over 28 kts and maintained speed well in
one of its destroyers fired the first shot of the war at sea. heavy seas. Together with H MS Fearless sfi e /ed 3J
British destroyers into the Bight in August.

Following the Fleet Review of July 1914, the

Royal Navy went straight to its war stations and
the Harwich force was immediately estab-
hshed with the arrival there of the llght cruiser
HMS fearless with 20 destroyers oi the lst
Flotrlla and HMS Amphion with the lS-strong
3rd Flotrlla. They were led by Commodore
Tyrwhitt, whose broad pennant was worn by
HMS Amelhysf. 'Reggle' Tyrwhitt, or Com (T)
as he was rnvarrably known from his title, was a
dedicated seaman and born fighter; he was to
lead the force for the duration ol the war, infus-
ing it with enormous enthusiasm,
Though intended to be a southern wing of
the Grand Fleet, the Force was almost im-
mediately taken under direct Admlralty con-
:rol because of the remoteness of Jellicoe's
erganization. Together with the Bth Submarine
lLotrlla (under the command of Tyrwhitt's great 18 kts rather than her designed 23,5. He de- The Arelhusa and Feariess, with 31 des-
riend and fellow zealot, Roger Keyes) they manded, and received, the new HMS Arethusa troyers, were to sweep from the north and roll
:ad the task of controliing the Hoofden, the in exchange, He described her as a 'regular westward along the German coast, pursurng
:arrow southern gullet of the North Sea, A mea- flyer and a ripper'and, without doubt, her 152- any fleeing enemy onto a submarine trap set by
s;re of support could be called upon from the mm (6-1n) guns and 76-mm (3 in) belt were to Keyes, The Force left early on 27 August, only
:-elghbouring Humber, Nore and (later) Dover prove invaluable. one day after the commodore had accepted his
::mmands. On 18 Augn-rst the Fear/ess and four of her new ship, and were surprised to meet Good-
Startrng as he meant to continue, Tyruhrtt destroyers siqhted the German cruiser SMS enough at 03.30 on the followrng morning,
',',-:s at sea
before breakfast on the first day of Rostock but took her for something larger, Shortly before 07,00 a German destroyer was
-ie war to counter the enemy's anticipated acted indeclsively and lost her. Com (T), ab- sighted and fell back with a division of the 3rd
: relaying actlvitles. Following up a report of a sent from the scene, was furious but more than F1otilla in joyful chase, What was not known
s';prcious-looking packet type ship, the Ger- compensated by the end of the month with his was that the Germans had suspected such an
:.n Konigin luise was intercepted and sunk, action in the Heligoland Bight, operation and had prepared a defence in
.:-: destroyer HMS lance firing the flrst shot of Keyes' submarlnes had observed a great depth, with two patrol lines backed by hght
:: sea war in the process, Honours were soon regularity rn the German patrols, and he and cruisers. Arethusa was soon heavrly engaged
=.:ned, however, as the Ampijon ran on a Tyrwhitt proposed a raid. This was right on the with SMS Steilin and Frauenlob. The Fearless
::,-ae on her return, sinkrng with considerable enemy's doorstep and, in case of interference obliged the former to retreat but the latter soon
-:ss cf ]ife, from hrs heavy units, would require support profitted by the frequent jamming of theAreth-
::r several days oifensive patrols off the from the Grand Fleet, usa's new gmns, rnflicting a deal of damage.
I-..:h coast drew a blank and the force was Beatty's battle-cruisers and Goodenough's Only a 152-mm shell hit on her bridge per
: *--ed south to cover massrve troop move- lst Lrght Crurser Squadron were requested suaded the German to retlre,
:-:::s across the English Channel. Even now it and refused, only to be reinstated by Jelhcoe.
-:,':s obvious to Tyrwhitt that the Amethyst, This latter news did not reach the Harwich Newchallenge
=-.::ugh only 10 years old, could make only Force, which had already sailed, Driving westward, the enemy destroyer 7
187.was overwhelmed, but Goodenough now
found himself challenged by Keyes who also
had received no prior warning of his presence.
Arethusa now found herself involved with SMS
Strassburg, her brand new machinery all but
broken down, Again the Fearless arrived at a
critical juncture, wrth the Sfellin returning with
a newcomer, SMS Matnz. In shrftinq visibility
and unsure of Goodenough's slrengrh, Tyrwhrit
called for Beatty's asststance,
An anxious hour passed, with the lreliusa's
condition looking increasingly parlous and the
enemy further reinforced by SMS KoJn and
Anadne. The time was spent constructively,
however, for the Marnz desprte a spirited de
fence was hounded to destruction by the des-
Iroyers and cruiser gunf,re.
Beatty's appearance was sudden and decr
sive, His decrsion to take his irreplaceable
ships into such waters was typically
courageous and caught the Germans unpre-
pared. The Koln was sunk and the fleeing.Sfei

SMS Derfflinger was one of the battle-cruisers used

by the Germans to bombard Britain 3 easf coasl.
One of Tyrwhitt's cruisers, HMS Aurora, spofted
theGermans offDogger BankinJanuary 1915, but
muddled signalling let all but SMS Bliicher escape.

:a 58
Light Cruisers of World War I

trn heavily damaged, whrle the little Ariadne,

which blundered across the flagshrp's path,
farrly disintegrated under 343-mm (13.5-in) sal-
voes at close ranqe.
Victory had been snatched fortuitously from
an untidy me1ee, Whrle Beatty and Tyi-whitt
were all too aware of thts, they found them-
selves lionized by press and public,
Any ideas of the Royal Navy's invincibrlity on
the part of the latter bodies was swiftly rec-
tified, however, for the following month, the
Harvrich Force had the melanchoiy task of tak
ing on the survivors of the three 'Bacchantes
sunk near the Dutch coast by that new weapon,
the submarine, Very much 'chummy' ships,
their loss was keenly felt, An alarmed Admiral-
:y tned, rmtially, to keep Tyrwhrtt's cruisers in
port but then relented, giving him two more in
:he form of HMS Aurora and Undaunted. The -.',-:-r
.a'rer ship was commanded by the ersrwliile The North Sea was sown with mines by both sides, teaming and vuinerable coastal trade rn
captain of the unfortunale Amphton and, on the particularly along the British east coast, and was to be known, 25 years later. as --l-'-
very day of her arrival in October 19 i4, he took Tyrwhitt's own ship, HMS Arelhusa, was badly A11ey'. Zeebrugge and Ostende posed an e:,i-
damaged by one off Felixstowe on I I February less threat, and Tyr-whitt supported bomi:ar:
a drvisron of destroyers on a sweep, accounting
1 9 1 6. An attempt to tow her home failed, the -
for four of the enemy's destroyers off the Texel, ments by the Dover force in both May ani -:-=
cruiser drifting on to the Cutler Shoal and sinking.
A new and disturbing tactic on the part of the 1917 In the latter an enemy destroyer. ','.=.
Germans was to use Hipper's battle-cruisers in honours were about even, caught but agarn the score was offse--,',':.+:. .

hit-and-run bombardments of the English east To coincide with the 1916 lrish Easter Rebel- the followrng winter, four Britrsh des:r: .-::.
coast, These raids were almost impossrble to hon, Hipper mounted a battle-cruiser foray were mined in succession off the Hccl< .:::=
counter without prior intelligence, but a great against Lowestoft and Yarmouth, Tyrwhitt un- sinking in icy conditions wrth heavy icss :, --,=
chance was squandered at the Dogger Bank in supported by healry units, made contact and, tn Again Tyrwhrtt was rn a supporrr. = :--- ..

January 1915, Aurora ol the Harwich Force spite of hrs cruiser, HMS Conquesf, betng hit by Keyes' gallant attempt to block the : ,:,-c ! : r -: -,=.
sighted the enemy and, in company wtth both several 305-mm (]2-in) shells hung on until the Apnl 1918 Followrng the mrning of :,';: :- :--:
Beatty and Goodenough, became involved in a Admiralty ordered his disengagemenr cruisers, Tyrwhitt took to transporting 3i,l:.
qeneral chase. As a result of damage, ambi- The following month saw Jutland Agatnst all the cruisers' davits, These sha1lc'.,,--i:--,:.
guous signalling and faulty interpretation the his instincts, Tyrwhitt was held tn harbour all boars Lhen paLrolled salely over :r: : - ::
Britrsh allowed Hrpper to escape with the loss day, awalting orders, He was flnally let off the whrle the brgger shrps 1ay off to recc,.':l -:-=:'-
of only SMS 8/richer. Whrle Tyrwhitt himself leash but then recalled. Had the group been The stratagem went drsastrously a,,n.'1--, -,-.-:-=: =
flnished off the latter with torpedoes, the alfair present during the night action, its outcome unit of six boats was lost to Germar: s:1.-:-=,-
was unsatisfactory with, among other things, must surely have been dtfferent. attackoff Vlieland in August 19lB. On .r= :r::,
the light cruisers finding themselves outpaced side, a Zeppehn was downed by a S--:'..:.
by the battle cruisers. Fleet forcedback Camel fighter launched from a des.l,'.-=-
Enemy submarine activtty forced back the towed sled.
Seaborne air attacks operatrng hmits of the Grand Fleet, and the On 23 October 1918 the Force fougi. --: -.-.
Wrth Zeppeltns becomtng an jncreasinq responsibilities ol the Harwich Force thus in- engagemen (once agarn aga-nsL dfl :r-iir-. :--
bogey, the Harwich Force struck at source with creased. They covered the 'Beef Run'from the attack) and followed the Armis.-:: :"
the world's first seaborne air attacks. Seaplane Hook against depredations from the enemy shepherdrng rn the large numbers c: s;:::----
carriers converted from cross-channel packets destroyers based on Zeebriigge, forcing dered U-boats. Over the four years ci'-.:::::'-,
were escorted deep into the Bight but thelr several vicious little engagements, They co- ting effort, it had grown to a dozen cri:s=:s .:,:
overloaded and underpowered aircraft had vered the endless trafftc rn troops and supplies cost of rts achievement had been tr..-c a:'^-:=:,.
dlff,culty rn getting airborne, A continuing in- across the Dover Strait and watched over the and 16 destroyers sunk.
volvement with avration saw also the use of
hrgh speed, destroyer-towed sleds and tem-
porary runways on crutsers' foredecks to
launch higher-performance flghters.
Between the endless sweeps, the Force was
occupted in coverLng convoys capturing
enemy trawlers (to galn intelligence), bom-
bardments and the escorting ol mrnelayers,
They accounted in turn for the enemy mine-
layer SMS Meteor but the heavily-fouled
offshore approaches cost Tyrwhitt his own
ship,Arel,husa rn February 1916 when she was
broken in two by a mine. New'C'c1ass cruisers
were by now arriving, better able to pace the
bigger 'M' class destroyers and the Force's
strength at this pornt was eight cruisers and 23 Above: HMS Danae was the only one of her c]ass ::
destroyers. see active service, joining the Harwich llotiiia ::.
the summer of 1918. Displacing nearly 6.04C ic:.s z
In a typicat operation, Tyrwhitt took a strong
full load, capable of 29 kts and armed w i th s ix € - ::.
eiement close to the Danish coast, escorting guns, shewas afar cry from the cruisers tr se:-,':::
the seaplane carrier HMS i/lndex in a raid in 1914.
against the Zeppelln sheds at Tondern.
During a snow flurry, two destroyers col-
lided, one, HMS Medusa, being capable ol
only 6 kts. She was taken in tow but the group LeIt: Beatty's couraEreous decision to in'.e:-.'=:.:
was attacked by enemy destroyers. The cruis with his battle-cruisers at Heligoland ensured '.:e
er HMS Cleopatra sank one by ramming, only defeat of the German lightforces, but jt'r'/as a... j
to be hrt in turn by Ihe Undaunted, To retrieve gamble to risk irreplaceable warsfirps like ;-"l-i
this casualty meant sacrificing the Medusa so Lionin enemywaters.
ffi ibr,"rt ctass
Contemporary with the "m'
'Acttve' class,
the British built a quintet of larger
ships, the 'Brrstols which looked like a
cross between the smaller ships and
the big armoured cruisers whose con
struction had ceased about four years
before. It had been the supersession of
such ships by battle-cruisers that pro-
duced the requirements for the
'Towns', big enough to cruise with the
fleet and fast enough to work ahead of
it, But while armed sufficient to iook
after themselves, they were unable to
undertake the heavrer duties of the
armoured cruiser,
The 4,800-ton 'Bristols' suffered
aqain from a mixed armament, a
meagre pair of 152-mm (6-in) guns
beinqrsuppiemented by 10 102-mm (4-
in) guns. A 76-mm (3-rn) protective
deck was fitted. For therr dutres, they
were critrcized as being etreatly
underarmed, and the four J
'Weymouths that followed had an ail
152-n m marn ba lery Theu srze was
httle increased, however, so their pro-
rection suffered a sigmrflcant loss in
vlew ofthe fact that thetr speed had not the Southampton earned fame wear
been rmproved and that they could be inq Goodeno.Lo's b"oad pennant rn a
r.m down by a battle cruiser faultless performance at Jutland while,
The six'Chatham' class ships (HMS of the latter, Ihe Sydney will be re-
Chatham, Dublin, Southampton, membered for drsposing of the raider
Brisbane, Melbourne and Sydney) of SMS Emden,
-:11-12 were improved Weymouths
-:err elqht srngle 152-mm mountings Specification
s ill not superimposed but marnly 'Chatham'class
s-ded, so that a broadsrde v;as of only Displacement: 5,400 tons standard
'-;e qmns They did have a partial 76- Dimensions: length 139,6 m (458.0 ft)t
::r belt worked in, but again enjoyed beam 14.9 m(48,75 ft); drauqht4.6 m
-.- :ncrease Ln speed the ndin reason (15 0 ft)
,:r -,,.rhich bernqr that they were the last Propulsion: four sets ofgeared
: ihe coal fired ships, for which the turbines de[vering 25,000 shp
,:: way to produce more energy was ( 18640 kW) to four (Soul,hampton two)
-, ncrease
" the size of the ship and shafts
:-sial1 more borlers, Speed:25.5 kts
-: rs interesting to note that German Armour: erght singie I 52-mm (6-in)
,;:,i cruiser construction had followed one 76-mm AA and four srngle 3-pdr
:r, almost exactly parallel path also quns, and two 533-mm (21-in) torpedo
:i:ptrng a belt at this time. In general tubes
-::t/ were slenderer, of higher power Armour: 76-mm ( I-in) belt
.:: usefuliy faster. Thetr power was Complement:490
":scrbed by triple propellers and re-
::rted the dilflculties that the British
-,'.-:re having
in that one ship of each
:-ass was twin-screwed with the re
::-alder quadruple Three ships of the
-^ ass served rn the Brittsh Royal Navy,
:-r:e in the Australian Of the former
'Chatham' class (continued) Light Cruisers of World War I
Left : T he mixed armament of the
'Bristol' class did not prove a
success, and the'Chathams' were
armed with eight 6-in guns which
grave Sydney ove rwhelming ly
superior broadsides in her fightwith
tfi e Emden. Three of the class seryed
with theRoyalNavy and threewith
the AustralianNavT.

HMsSouthampton assfte appeared inJuly 1919 when operating off Murmansk

during the Allied intervention inRussia. The'Chatham' class were superior
sea-boats to the preceding British cruiser classes, as the forecastle was
extended down more than half the |ength, and lower metacentric height
reduced rolling. Horizontalarmourwas supplemented by a thin armour belt.
The high velocity guns of the 'Weymouth' class had proved unsatisfactory, and
the'Chathams' mounted a new, Iower-velocity 6-in gun which was
considerably lighter yet could stiil score hits at up to I 4,000 yards. After an
active wartime career which included action at Heligoland, Dogger Bank and
Jutland, she leftRussianwaters in 1919 tolead the 7th LightCruiserSquadron
in South America. After service there and at the Cape she spent 1921-4 in the
East Indies before going into reserve at the Nore.

- ::='::::::='*iffi aa a ^a a
ffi ibarotine'class
The success ofthe 'Actrves' pointed up Some earlier units were later fltted
the advantages ol a larqer and hiqher with a runway over the forecastle qun
powered class that could better oper- to fly off a figrhter for use agatnst the
ate with the fleet main force the enemy s spott-ng Zeppelins
'Boadiceas' for tnstance, suffering Ultimately 28 'C'class cruners were
badly by having to keep station on the built but, wrth the last completing after
battle squadrons tn heavy weather. the war, they varied qulte widely in
Hrqher power was now a real possibil- desrgn All following the initral 'Caro-
1ty with the rapid advances in steam hnes had only two funnels and main
turbine engineeringt and the eight armaments were rattonahzed to frve
'Arethusas' followed rn rapid succes- -52 mm (6-irJ centreltne rnoun lngq.
sion, They were powered lor 30 kts (a Later ships had gn-rns supenmposed
120 per cent increase in shalt horse- both forward and aft, a few taking an
power over the Actives') though their arrcraft hangar beneath the bridqe To
actual speeds were up to 1.5 kts slow counteract the wetness ofhard drivtnq,
er. A major functton beinq still seen as they were also fitted with a so-called HMS Caradoc engages Bolshevikforces inKaffa Bay during theBritish
counterinq the everJarqer destroyer, 'trawler bow' having a knuckle and intervention in Russia. On 26 December l918, together with hersisler Calypso
they were given an oddly mixed marked sheet Thrrteen went on to see and three destroyers, she captured two Bolshevik desfroyers. Caradoc
armament of two centreline 152-mm service in World War II, in which six survived to serve again in World War II and was finally sold in I 946.
(6-rn) guns with eiqht 102-mm (4 tn) were lost. Some were used early-on in
w.apons rn sirole, s,oed moLntLngs. the new Northern Patrol but had to be
They also carrted a quadruple 533-mm replaced for the same teasons as the
(21 in) torpedo tube bank on either 'Talbots' in World War I
srde. The extra machinery demanded
a much larger hull but thrs was further
rmproved by addrng a 76 mm (3-Ln) Specification
vertical belt to the 25 mm (]-in) pro- 'Caroline'class
tectrve deck. Displacement: 3,750 tons standard
Sx 'Caroline' class crutsers (HMS Dimensions:length 135,9 m (446.0 ft);
C aroline, C arysfort, C leopatr a, C om- beam 12.6 m (41,5 ft); drauqht 4,2 m
us, Conquest and Cordelia) then fol- (14 0 ft)
lowed rn quick succession, five of them Propulsion: four sets ofgeared
toom royal dockyards. A 3-m (iO-ft) in- turbines deliverrng 40, 000 shp
crease ln length was of less consequ- (29825 kW) to four shafts
ence than 0.5m (1 6ft) extra on the Speed:29 kts
beam, rmprovrnq sttffness As wtth the Armament: two single 52-mm (6-in),
1 A Above : T he Royal N avy's apparently
Arethusas , the mixed armament
proved decidedly unpopular and most
eight singrle 102-mm (4-in) and one or
two single 76-mm (3-in) AA gnrns, and
'-":'l insatiable demand for light cruisers
(there were over 40 in service or
.-ri€r€ r€ drrr€d with a varyinq number two twin or quadruple 533-mm (21-in)
'i nearing completion by I I I 5 ) Ied to
:f 152-mm (6-in) wns as reflts permit- torpedo tube mountings :tr. six' improved Centaur s' being
ed. A 'flrst' for both classes was the Armour: 25-mm ( 1-in) deck and 76-mm :f ordered in I I I 5. Twenty-eight'C'
-rclusion of a hrgrh-anqle 76- or 102 mm ::. type cruisers were eventually built,
-3'or Complement: 325
'i allwith similar atmamenL HMS
4-in) gun for use against atrcraft
Cassandra" seen here, was mined in
As completed, HMS Caroline theGulf of Finlandin 1918.
mounted two more4-in guns thanthe
pr eceding' Arethusas', but the
superiority of 6-inweaPons had
already been established. Some of
the 4-in guns were removed in 19I6
and all had gone by the next Year,
replaced by auniform armamentof
four 6-inguns.

>K ib'"la* Below: Rumours that theGermanswere building new and more powerful light
Where the 'C'{ype cruisers passed Destroyers by the latter part of the war
throuqh several stagies to reach the had advanced to the stago where they cruisers led to the'Danae' class mounting a sixth centreline 6-in gun and,
ultLrnate 'Car]lsle' type, the 'D' class were bigt enougrh to outdistance a taking advantage of the increased beam, they also mounted aheavy torpedo
shrps were really the next loqical step. cnriser in all but the worst sea states armament of I 2 /. 2 I -in weapons in four triple mountings.

D'class (continued) Light Cruisers of World War I
-nd the 'Ds' drd not therefore suller a nent of the fleet between the wars. the 'Ds'was started during World War Specification
-.,gnif,cant jncrease rn srze to Mosl o[ lhe 'Cs that saw service in I as the pla n ned trio of 'E' class cruisers 'Danae'subclass
accommodate up-rated machinery. World War II had been usefully con- (only two were completed), doubling Displacement: 4,650 tons standard
They were, however, about 6 m (20 ft) verted to AA cruisers, with the new the machinery to achieve an asto- Dimensions: lenqrth 143.6 m (471.0 ft)
ionger to take a srxth, centreline 152- twin HA 102-mm (4-in) mountings and nishing 33 kts, They were completed beam 14.0 m (46.0 ft); drausht 4.6 m
mm (6-in) mounting, squeezed be- the requisrte fire control (thouqh it was rn 1919 20. One, HMS Enlerprtse, car- (15 0 fr)
iween the forefunnel and the bridqe, generally agrreed that they could fire ried a prototype twin 152-mm mount- Propulsion: hvo sets ofqeared stean
ls such they were the last class to take ammumtion fa.r more efficiently than ing, Both she and HMS Emerald had turbines deliverrng 40,000 shp
the all-sinqle mount main battery that they could stow it). The 'D' class ships, also an aucraft and catapult, and a re- (29825 kW) to two shafts
-was extremely demanding of axial on the other hand, were never so con- cord ]6 torpedo tubes. They had the Speed: 28,5 kts
lengrth. Advantaqe was also taken to verted and, berng decidedly old- thick-and{hrn funnels of the 'C' and 'D' Armament:stxsinqrle 152 mm(6 n]
Couble the torpedo armament to four fashioned by 1939, were used in low- classes, but were drstinctive by havrng and two single l02-mm (4-in) AA 9u=
-riple mountrngs. Only the three hazard duties such as patrolling the also a third funnel set well aft. and fourtriple 533-mm (21-rn) torped:
'Danae' class units HMSDanae Daunf- more distant trade routes or hunting tube mountrngs
,less and Dragon of the first group raiders' supply ships. One, the Dune Armour: 25-mm ( 1-in) deck and 76 ;:,::
,';ere completed in time to see active dln, was sunk in the South Atlantic by (3-in) belt
service, johing a selection of 'C' class U-124 (wtlh one of the longest re Complement: 375
:mrsers in the Harwich Force. corded torpedo runs) rn Novembr
Five more were completed postwar 1941, the Royal Navy's blackest month. The 'D' class survived the war and. ir'
.:lMS Delftj, Despatch, Diomede, A hiqh-speed stretched version of lfte case ofDespatctL a scfteme to
Dunedin and Durban) and a further convert her into a royalyacht, and
-:ur were cancelled. With liqht cruiser found themselves in action once
c'u1dmq resumed only in the 1930s, the again in I 939. They were generally
ls and'Ds' were an important compo- used to patrol the most dktant
w ater s, althoughllMS Dunedin was
torpedoed and sunk bylJ-IZ4 off
Brazil in 1941.

l8#ele' class
-re 10 'Gazelle' class cruisers (SMS beam and their honzontal protectton against the attentions of torpedo craft, dlne was surik rn the Bal:: :
Amazone, Ariadne, Arkona, Frauen- cloubled in thickness to 50 mm but as they were rapidly superseded the British submanne E i -:
Iob, Gazelle, Medusa, Niobe, Nym- ( 1.98 in). Watertube boilers produced by improved classes, they soon found
phe, Tlrefis and Undine) bore roughly a 40 per cent increase in power at no themselves serving worldwide in Ger-
:-e sarne relationship to German light penalty while the marn battery was tm many's burgeoninqt imperial interests.
::urser development as the 'Gem' proved to1O 105-mm (4.13-in) quns. Theywere smart little ships, weatherly
:-ass did to the Britrsh, They were These weapons probably influenced and with good freeboard, featwinq an
--.'olved from the single SMS He1a, the British rn their choice of 102-mm exaggerated ram bow which, like the
::mpleted in 1896 (sunk by Max Hor- (4-in) weapons for their equivalent French, gave extra buoyancy forward
.:i s E 9 a month after the outbreak of ships, though the German gun was and improved lines on a limited lengrth.
r:r). This ship, which was later recon- more powerful, with a muzzle veloctty Despite their age they were well
-rlcted, was a useful prototype, lim- that enabled rt to outrange even the used during the war and suffered
- :C rn speed by the low rating of her older 152 mm (6-in) gnrn of the Royal accordrngly. Ariadne was shattered
--.'lindrical boilers, but demonstratinqr Navy, by close-range salvoes from Beatty's
:at a heavier armament could be ship- The class was produced by the Ger- flagship HMS fuon at the Heligoland
;:i and that the protective deck could mans as a fusion between earlter con Biqht action, Frauenlob was also there
:: lprated, cepts of 'fleet' and'overseas' cruisers, but was eventually sunk by a torpedo
ln the same length, therefore, the and were sized accordinqly. Their tnr from HMS Southampton duringr the
l-elles' had another I m (3,3 ft) of tial duties were to screen the fleet confused night action after Jutland. Ua-

The I 0'Gazelle' c,lass cmisersbui:

between j,897 and 1903estabh.snea
the basic pattern for German
cruisers. Handsome vessels. r:Li a
good freeboard. thet e xaggera:e=
ram bow endowed them with er;ra
y buoyancyforward.?hrsisF=uer-:t
, whichwas torpedoed andsun:kb-;
'. .. HMSSouthampton at JutJand

tf i r<
'Berlin' class
Besides the British, the German was
rhe only fleel ro burld l,ohl crursers rn
any numbers rn rime to make a signr
ficant contribution to the war The 10
'Gazelles' had proved to be excellent
prototypes and foilow-on ships were
heavrly based on them, thence de-
velopinq very logdcally from class to
class. By the Kaiser's instruction the
earlier mxed bag of names had to give
way to uniformity, all new light cruisers
being named after crties Thus the five
'Berlin' class cruisers, completed in
1904-5, were named after the capital
(SMS Berlin) the three Hanseatic city-
states and Mirnchen (Munrch), They
were essentially'Gazelles' stretched
by 6 m (20 ft) to accommodate 40 per
cent more power which necessitated
a third funnel, They retained the same
armament and scale of protection also
the characteristic positioninqr of the
foremast forward of the bridge struc-
ture and the extreme 'ram bow, Olthis
group SMS Lilbeck became the first Iengthened by 4m (13.lft) to in- Dar-es-Salaam to operate rn the indran Konigsberg, seen here in pre-war
German cruiser to be propelled by crease power to over 13,000 shP Ocean simultaneously wlth SMS panoply, was atDar-es-Sa laam in
steam turbines, her 14,000-shp (10440- (9695 kW). It ts of note that thts extra lmden. oul her ma ol s-.ctrss wds .T )S14 andcaughf HMSPegasus wilft
kW) outfit being of Parsons' designi size was not used to load the shtp wtth surprising and overwhelming the Iittle her fires drawn off Zanzibar, sinking
they were not geared at this time and any more armament and the 105-mm crusrer HMS Pegasus off Zanzrbar be- her in just l5 minutes.
to absorb the power at hiqh revolu- (4. 13-in) gun was retained for its hrqh fore tamely allowinq herself to be
trons, an original multi-propeller rate of flrer up to 20 rounds per minute blockaded and, eventually destroyed
arangement was tried on two shafts, with a well-drilled crew Compared in the Rufiji delta. Propulsion: two sets of -rtplo-
The system was not partrcularly suc- with British shrps of similar length, the expanslon steam engrnes dehvennqf
cessful wrth the screw technologry of Germans were a full 2 m (6.6 ft) wider Specification 13,200 ihp (9840 kW) to two shafts
the time and, pendinq evaluation, the in the beam, improvtng stabrlity and SMSKcinigsberg Speed:23 5 kts
three follow-ons in 1906-7 reverted to also bunker capacity. Both the latter Displacement: 3,350 tons standard and Armament: i0 srngle 105-mm (4 l3-in)
-'e well-trLed trple expansion cngina. and the conservatively-rated machtn 3 950 tons full load qnrns and two 450-mm ( 17.7 ln) torpedo
Ci these, SMS Danzig and Leipzig ery contrrbuted to the ships' designed Dimensions: lenqth 115.25 m (378 i ft) tubes
',vere virtual repeats but the one-off but alrerno ivc role as commerce ralders beam 13.33 m (43,7 ft); drauqht 5 1 m Armour: 50 mm ( 1 98-rn) deck
-. ri ar SMS K6nigsberg was .oain The Konrqsberg herself escaped from (16 7 ft) Complement: 320

'Dresden' class
-: lollow the lone SMS Kontqsberg, general, the machrnery of German
ie German navy built the three'Stet- cruisers appears to have been conser-
tm' class and two 'Dresden'class cruis vatively rated as they were often cap
:rs whrch though off,crally of two clas- able of exceedinq their legend
s:s were very similar, SMSNrirnberg, speeds.
^Stettin and Stuttgart were all com- The two 'Dresdens'offered a better
.cleted in 1908, with SMS Dresden and appearance wrth three equl spaced
Emden followinq in 1908-9 On the funnels and a cleaner hull, from whtch
same beam as the earlier Konigsberg, the earlier sponsons (Schwalbennster
.,1ey were longer by about 3 m (10 ft), or swallows' nests) had disappeared.
allowing a better machinery arrange- The Emden was the last triple-expan
r:lent and shghtly improved lines, The
Sieitins' were unrque rn the fleet 1n Riglrf;Dresden lies atMas aFuera.
:,avlng a unequal spaclng to thelr three Cornered by HMS Kent, HMS
-:nnels whrle the nameshtp essayed a Glasgow and tft eAMC Orama sft e
.rther experiment in steam turbines, hoisted awhite flag after the British
.re compact nature of which enabled opened fire and while the future
-re development of over 50 per cent Admiral C anaris, then a lieutenant,
nore power for an extra 2 kts. In negotiated with the Royal N avy, her
captain blew up her forward
SMSEmdenasshe appeared magazine.
in the Pacific, I 909- I I I 4. On
the outbreak ofwar she
slipped out ofTsingtao and
steamed for the Indian Ocean
to prey on British merchant
siips in c/assic c or s air
tradition. Emdenwas the last
cruiser built by Germany with
r ec ipro c ating engine s,
perhaps because they were
easier to maintain on so
distant a station.


'Dresden' class (continued) Light Cruisers of World War I
sron engrned crutser built by the Ger- berg was run down and destroyed by poor condrtron, she broke out to Juan Propulsion: (Dresden) four sets of
:lans, the simple reliability of the HMS Kenl, whose stokers had worked Fernandez where, on 14 March 1915 steam turbrnes delivering 10 BO0 shp
rachinery being a positive asset for miracles. It was very obvtous that the she was cornered and sunk by HMS (8,050 kW) to two shafts, or (Emden)
.:re necessary self maintenance under- almost universally 105 mm (4 13-in) Glasgow and Kent. two sets of trrple-expansion steam
:aken durrng her raiding cruise. Her gunned Germans were always at a dts- engdnes dellerinq 14,500 ihp
--xbine-driven srster Dresden, howev- advantage when unable to escape the Specification (10810 kW) to two shafts
:r, was the only one of von Spee's shtps British wrth their 152 mm (6-in) 'Dresden'c1ass Speed:26 kts
.: be so fitted and was able to develop weapons. 'lhe Dresdens existenco Displacement: 3,590 tons standard and Armament: 10 single 105-mm (4. 13-in)
:re extra speed necessary to out dis- was a lonely one. This was no area for 4,270 tons full load gmns and two 450-mm ( 17 7-in) torpedo
rnce Sturdee's ctuisers at the Falk- rardinqt and she went into hidinq in the Dimensions: length 118 25 m (388,0 ft); tubes
-:rds and survive, whlle lhe very slml desolate inlets of Tierra del Fuego for beam 13.33 m (43 7 ft); draught 4 8 m Armour: 50-mm ( l.98-in) deck
--r but reciprocating-engined ly'tirn- two months until, with her boiier tn (15 75 ft) Complement: 360

'Breslau' class
-:e four 'Kolbergs', completed in were regn-lnned with 150-mm (5.9-in)
:,3-10, were afull l2 m (39,4 ft) lonqter weapons.
:::, the 'Dresdens despite being the Magdeburg was lost as earlY as 26
:s. all-turbine class. They doubled Augmst 1914, berng destroyed by the
:: -nstalled power of the earlier shtps, Russians after grounding in the Gulf of
-.,:leased bunker space and took Finiand. The recovery of her code-
::r.1er two 105-mm (4. 13-in) quns books proved prLceless to the Allies.
:,: -n
as contemporary with the British Her sister Breslau was something oi a
:::iicea' class, smaller ships with cause c6ldbre when wtth the battle-
....-sL{ to 10 102-mm (4-in) weapons.
''.:-:r. cruiser SMS Goeben, she reached
the followrng year, the Royal Turkey at the outbreak of war. As the
.-'.-_; rephed with the first 'Town' Yavuz Sultan Selrm and Midilli they
--- -p (the 'Bristol class) they built
were an endless threat to both the Rus-
slightly larger than the 'Kol- sians rn the Black Sea and the Anglo-
:=:;s thouqh similar in power and French forces outside the SIraiL Midillt
.:=.: of protection. Siqtniflcantly was sunk by runnrng into a British
- ', :','er, they also put aboard a pair of minefleld in January 19lB
,: :::,m (6-rn) gnrns.
-:-: deliberately developinEt Ger- Specification
:r- senes continued almost without a 'Breslau'class
::=-< with the four 'Breslau' class Displacement: 4,550 tons standard and
ri:rs (SMS Eres/au, Magdeburg, 5 590 tons fuil load
j::alsund and Strassburg) These Dimensions:length 138 5 m (454.4 ft); .Li?e Goeben, Breslau .io:ned'th e Turkish navy; styling herself 'Midilli', sfie and
- beam 13 5 m (44.3 ft); draught 5.1 m the battle-cruiser thre,,tei,4d Reis-:;ar iorces in the Black Sea and ALlied units
=:: compatable in srze to the Bristols
.': .rterest.ngly. the qJartet n- (16 7 ft) in the Aegean. She perisher:l when a sortie inJanuary )918 went disastrously
: :::C double-, triple- and quadruple- Propulsion: two (Slrassburg), three wrong,'Breslau struck five British mines and sank, while Goebenwas mined
. .' propulsion, for evaluation pur- (Magdeburg andSfajsund) or four too, stranded, and had to be towed to safety.
: .:s Both powerandspeed differed (Breslau) sets ofsteam turbines
--ierably, the ships (like the British delverrngr between 22,300 and
---.=: adoptrnq a four-funnel layout, 33,500 shp (16625 and 24980 kW) to
stacks were typically German, two, three or four shafts
- = ,;: cased for only hall their height. Speed:28 to 30 kts
: -=: efficiency was improved some Armament: 12 single 105-mm (4 13-in)
"-r -oy adopting oi1 burners to sup qnrns (later altered to seven srngle 150
:,=:-.nt the coal in the furnace While mm/S.9-in guns) and four 500-mm
:- .,:-rnq the gun armament of the 'Kol (19 7-in) torpedo tubes
:-:;s they increased the torpedo Armour: 1S-mm (0.6 in) deck and 70-
.:,--nent from two 450-mm (17 7 in) to mm (2 76-1n) belt
:JO-mm (19.7-in) tubes. Another Complement: 365
- -:.:','ation was to reduce the protec
': reck from the previously universal Rr'grht: Breslau a tConstantinople with
: ::r (1.98 rn) to only 15 mm (0 6 in) Goeben. Their passage across the
.-. a new LeoLure in a M ed i te r r ane an repre s ente d a
.' ::n (2 76-in) belt. This was a fun- humiliating defeat for the Allied
:=-::ntal chanqe of heart not born of navies and was a stunning strategic
:...-: experience War, howevet, was victory forGermany, since the
- ::3w that the fast rate of flre of the imposing presence of the squadron
: rm glrrns was still no match for the enabled pro-German elements in
-=.-.:l and slower British 152-mm guns Turkey to pitch theOttomanEmpire
. -' .-veral groupsof G-rman cruse"s into thewar against the Allies.

i:eslau lnlrodu ced several

-:,novations:the new bow improved
s-oakeeping, she had a cleaner hull
unusually, an armouted belt.
lhe cut-down quarterdeck provided
z platform for mjnes, and eacft vessel
ri the class had a different set of
:,:rbines. Magdeburg was lftemosf
tucial G erman loss of the war :
gr ounded in the B altic, fhe Russjans
:aptured her code book.


'Frankfurt' class
The four 'Breslaus' were followed rn pair of 'windfalls buildinq to Russian
L9l3 by the pau of twrn-screwed 'Karls- account, and a further pair of specraltst
ruhes', nearly identical except for the cruiser-minelayers Eight more laun-
almost-obligalory slroht rncredse tn ched or building at the Armrstlce,
length and beam Improvedborler and were never completed.
layout enabled the next pair (SMS f ranklut L and l4liesbaden panlcL
Graudenz and Regensburg) of 1914 to pated at Jutland as part of the 2nd
revert to three funnels being other- Scoutinq Group, Both, with SMS Pflau,
wlse sLmilor Both of these pa,rs were were badly I red led when they ran -nto
later rearmed with 150-mm (5.9-tn) Hood's battle-cruisers, the Wiesbden
gnrns, but the f,rst to take them from the becominq a total wreck in beinEt an
outset were also the frrst to be com- immobilized'Aunt Sally between both
pleted during the war and after the fleets though remarninqi afloat for near-
early lesson of the Heligoiand Bight ly 12 hours after having sustained a
action, SMS Fra nkfurt and Wies baden fearful battering. Frankfurt suwtved
or rhe 'Frankfurt' class. Wo' trXPerL the war to be surrendered with the
ence not only decided their main bat- Hrgh Seas Fleet. She was not sunk in
tery of eight larger qnrns but added a the qreneral scuttling of 2 I June 19 19 at
parr of HA BB-mm (3 46-in) weapons for Scapa Flow, beinq one of the ships
use against atrcraft. The new belt and beached in trme by the Royal Navy
splinter deck protectron was also con- She was eventually translerred to the
flrmed as correct and repeated subse- Amerrcans and expended 1n 'Billy'
quently in all other war-burlt light Mitchells controversial aerial bomb-
:ruisers, A small increase in beam en- ing trials.
abled them to ship 120 mines on deck,
another improvement to be repeated Specification
-r later ships An rnnovation in machin- 'Frankfurt' class
:ry led to the 'Frankfurts' being fitted Displacement: 5, 150 tons standard and
'.'.:rh reducilo- gears lor lhell steart 6,600 tons full load
::rbines (contemporary with the same Dimensions: lenqth 145 3 m (476.7 ft); l2 kts
=iditron in the British 'Cs) beam 13,9 m(45 6 ft); drausht6 i m Armament: elght single I 50-mm (5. 9- Frankfurt and Wiesbaden were the
Wrth shared prrorities, the early se- (20 0 fr) in) and two BB-mm (3.46-rn) gmns four firstGerman light cruisers to receive
-.-ere losses in light crursers sustained Propulsion: two sets of greared steam 500-mm ( 19 7-in) torpedo tube and i20 150-mm (5.9-in) guns for their main
:;.'the German fleet were hardly reco- turbines dehvering 37, 500 shp mlnes armament. They also mounted a pair
. .roo dur-ng rhe war onlv su mo"e (27960 kW) to two shafts Armour: 20 mm (0.79-in) deck and 70- of 88-mm (3.4-in) anti-aircnft guns. A
-::Lrally beinq completed (and repeat Speed:28 kts mm (2.76-in) belt modest increase in beam allowed
: ; names of lost ships), together with a Endurance: 8900 km (5,530 mties) at Complement: 500 them to carry 120 mines on deck.

EI 'Askold' class
,: Russians Askold was an early Allmainbatterygunsweremounted the Far East at the outbreak of World expansion steam engines delivering
. :ranglan chieftain, but to the Royal singly, eight with light shields and on War I, she came under British oper- 19,650 ihp (14650 kW) to three shafts
l,-'.'-; that knew her well the ship the open deck and four casemated. ational control, taking part in the Speed:23,5 kts
Askold was simply the 'Packet of The forecastle was very short and the search for von Spee escorting con- Armament: l2single 152-mm 16 ir)
,-,::dbrnes', one of the few shrps out- concentration of weight forward gave voys in the Indian Ocean and then and 12 single 76-mm (3-in) gmns, and
--j: ihe French navy boastinq more her a reputatton for wetness and ln sewing in the Mediterranean, on the srx 380-mm ( l 5-rn) orpedo tubes
:,= iour funnels. The ship was laun- order to meet the demands of the spe Levant coast and at the Dardanelles, Armour: 50 mm (1,98-in) deck, and
,::i in lB99 by the Krupp-Germania cification, her butlders (not famtliar Following the 1917 revolution and with patches of 100-mm (3.94-rn) and 3B-mm
.-, ::n at Krel and, though contempor- with this class of ship) underestlmated the UK siding agarnst the Bolsheviks, {,.6. ln) arnou. over the mach:nery
-:; '..nth the German 'Gazelle' class for scantlings in some areas of the hull she was taken over by the British and spac-as
:.-- closer in concept to the earlier Nevertheless, she had a successfui lay rusting until returned and scrap- Complement:5OO
:::_,.as . In common with others of the and useful career. ped in 1922.
:=:: she was truly a protected cruiser As part of the Port Arthur squadron Askold, seen as completed in 1901,
Specification had avery active career; her
Askold beautiful colour scheme replaced by
Displacement: 5,9l0 tons standard a coat of grey, she fought the
Dimensions: lenqth 132, I m (433.4 ft); J apanese off Por t Ar thur in I 904 and
beam 15,0 m (49 2 ft); draught 6.2 m broke out to Shanghai and
(20 3 ft) internment. I n I I 1 4 she j oined the
Propulsion: three sets oftrrple- hunt for von Spee's squadron.

Emdens Epic Rctid
In August I9l4 Germany's Pacific squadrongathered in the Marianas, and at the
suggestion of her captain the cruiser Emden was detached to raid British commerce
inlie IndianOcean. Conducted in the classic corsair tradition, her cruise attracted
worldwide attention, and the chivalry and daring of her captain won prajse even
3afeguarding Germany's interests 1n the Far heardofwarwithJapanandthepursurngofold
=ast"was Vr"ce-Admrral Graf von Spee's East scores in her investment of Tslngtau. Emden
-rsratic Squadron, based on the limited facih was now without friends or facllities,
.-:s of Tsingtau in northern Chrna. Its maior A first problem was.the failure of a collier to
-:rits comprised the armoured cruisers SMS make a pre-arranged rendezvous off Timor
::harnhorst and Gnejseaau, and the hght and bunkers were taken from an auxrliary On
::rrsers SMS Emden, Nirnberg and Leipztg. 27 August the little cruiser came through the
..{is area of responsrbility b-eing vast, von ]rombok Strart and entered the Indlan Ocean,
-:cee spent consid'erable ttme at sea Follow British radio disciphne
was slack, von Miiller
--1 ihe'sarajevo alfair in June l914, war looked raprdly becoming aware of major activity rn the
jnd, taking the practical view that area, Duringtheweekspentrunninglhelength
-rgtau would be hdefeniible agarnst Allied of Java and Sumatra, a dummy fourth funnel wa_s
-',-ui powet, he decrded to get 'lost' in the contrived to gtve the_appearance of a British
.=:rfic, thus avoiding the fate of the Russian 'Town', A second coaling stop a! the northern
:::- Arthur squadron a decade before end of Sumatra also falled and had to be re-
3n1y the Emden remained and, on the re- soived as before, the ships almost running foul
:=-ot of the warning telegram on 30 July her of the British cruiser HMSHamps,htre one of a
--c:ain, von Miiller, put to sea to await events, force seeking another German SMS Konlgs-
::s:ilities against Russia commenced on 3 Au berg
;--:- and the?mden captured the new auxihary From here, von Miiller struck out across the Captain Karl Friederich Max von Muller becane
--' :,.an which she took back to Tsingtau for IndianOceanbut, despitecrossingmajortrade
the most famous German sea captain. his na:ne a
byword for chivalry and enterprise. He joinei
-c,d conversion to a raider (Kormoran). By routes, arrived north east of Ceylon on 10 Emdenin the Far East in I I I 3 and soon maie a
':-,..' the UK and France were also hostile, and September having taken only a Greek ship, name for himself dealing with brigands an the
,-can was also expected to declare, so \ron loaded with contraband (and lnvalualole) Brit- Yangtse. It was he who suggested a campaig:, ::
l.-dler wasted no iime, topped up and sailed ish coal. Emden then followed the Coiombo- thelndianOcean, and he executed itwith rigcrc:s
:- 6 August with two auxiiiarres to rendezvous Calcutta route northward and was tmmediately professionalism.
-.'-.h voi Spee in the Marianas. A conference rewarded. Her first prize was the Bnttsh ship
(par- , : =-
port hrs 250-odd captrves and, incide:-:--
--:re on 12 August decided that the squadron 1adus, which was strrpped of useful items
. -:i-rld make for Germany via the Pacific and trcularly soap that was in very shorl supply) ginning his great reputation for fair:::ss --:
;.-= Horn but von Mi1]]er, having convinced his before being sunk. Four other ships were humanity.
.=:1ror of the etreat prospects open lo a crurser taken in rapid succession but their crews were Dangerously ciose to the Sandheais := :-:
way, becoming an embarrassment in numbers. A tured the empty colher Trabbock. T: s :.: --=:
-- -le Indian 6cean was aliowed his own without delay he used hrs Qruns ra-:-:t ...::
My dutiful thanks for the confidence piaced passing neutral .ltalian.was stopped and, re-
, ne, Success to the Squadron and Bon quested to take them to land but refused, after- charges but, in the depth of nigth: ::-= :.-.
.:_.age': with this valedictory signai Emden wards warning the British City of Rangoon of
,=-. io-n Spee to his separate fate olCoronel and the Emden's presence, This shrp broadcast a_ Emden'sgrracefu 1profi[e soon began ta haun: :.3
;' = Falklinds. Von Muller moved at a leisurely general raider warning, the first confirmation of minds of ship owners in the Indian Ocean: he: ra:=
: =:e through the mynad islands of Indonesia, von Miiller's whereabouts. While the latter on Madras sent shockwaves across India. ana
,-::,ng boti ship and crew to peak efficiency, realized that to dally would be disastrous, he 'Emden'came to be usedin the localTamil d:zie::
r: :h6y passed Celebes on 23 August they iook the Bntrsh Kabrnga, sparing her to trans- to me an' an ingenious pers on'.


Emden's Epic Raid
laden atmosphere inside the ship's holds was
inadvertently detonated in a shattering explo-
sion, This brought the Clan Matheson Io Ihe
scene to offer assistance this ship and her valu-
able piece-goods cargo also beinq lost as a
conseguence. Wrth ample radio evidence of
Britrsh, French and Japanese crursers on her
Iratl, Emden was now obhged to vacate the
iucrative Calcutta approaches, heading south
eastward toward Rangoon. The movement had
been antrcipated and the raider found the area
clear of shipping, though the radio traffic was
ever more threatening, Von Muller therefore
turned to the west, again nairowly missing the
Hampshire as he set out across the Bay of
At about 22.00 on 22 September Emden
bo1d1y appeared off Madras, approaching to
wrthin 3000m (3,300 yards) to bombard and
destroy the extensive tank storage iacilrtres of
the Burmah O11 Compnay. Dazzling the port
battery with his searchlights, von Miiller got off
125 rounds in short order and was away, The
material gain was small compared wrth the westward for a coaling rendezvous in the Nico 09.30 hrs, I 0 November J914: Emden slosingr
effect on British morale. bars. batUe with tlre Sydney cou Id be watched from the
Heading southward, lhe Emden cheekrly A raider bereft of facilitres needs to avoid roof of thewirelesssladon on theislandandvon
looked in to the French ports of Pondicheri and damage at all costs, and von Miiller's next step Miicke decided to seize the schooner anchored
offshore and escapewith the landing party.
Cuddalore, rounded Ceylon and arrived at the seems almost foolhardy. Intelligence indrcated
trafflc focal point south of Cap Conmorin just an old French cruiser at Penang and resolving
ahead of the chase, Half a dozen prizes were to attack her Emden, with her fourth 'funnel' The Emden rounded the northern tip of
iaken, one (the Brrtrsh Buresk) being taken ngged, entered through the outer anchorge at Sumatra and ran southward along the island's
along for her cargo of first-quahty steaming flrst liqht on 28 October. What she found was coast. Alhed efforts to catch her were diluted
coal. the lrttle Russian cruiser Zhemchug which, by necessary operations against the Konigs-
Expecting von Milller to double back to the totally surprlsed, was overwhelmed at close berg, off the African coast and the need to
lndies the Allies sent cruisers to the area but range by a harl of gunflre and torpedoes. cover vast movement oftroops by sea, Having
,vere frustrated as the German moved south to Understandably, von Miiller pulled out raprdly peeped briefly and unrewardingly rnto the
Drego Garcia for a period of self maintenance, but, two hours out, stopped an inward bound Sunda Strait, von Miiller resolved to complete
Following thrs, the Emden returned to claim British Glen liner, His action was rnterrupted by
another seven victims before finally heading a small French destroyer, the 300-ton Mous-
quel which, with more courage than tactical
Having spread fear and confusion along the Indian sense, bore siraight in. Her two torpedoes
coasl, Emden ra ided Penang at dawn on 2 8
October 1914. Sporting a fake fourth funnel to
were cool1y avoided by the German, which
make her resembleHM,S Yarmouth sfte entered shattered her with i2 close range salvoes. 1&r

harbour flying the British flag. When she reached Even here, however von Mirller stopped to trF
Zhemchung, downwent thefalse colours, upwent rescue her survivors, many ofwhom were sev-
the German ensign and Emden opened fire. In just erely injured
I 5 minutes the Russian cruiser exploded and sank.


Eri- .
Light Cnrisers of World War I

-r,chanQle his area to the Red Sea approaches

Jn hrs way he made a fateful decision to detour
=nd destroy the important Brltish Cable and
statlon in the Cocos-Keelings
Warning broadcast
This move had iong been anticipated and an
Jert staff rapidly saw through the German's
,cur-funnel drsgurse when she approached
:arly on 9 November and broadcast a powerful
-.-;armng en clair, To avoid posstble bloodshed
-:rough shelling, von Miiller put a SO-strong
-andrng party ashore but these were almost
:nmed-iaiely-marooned when the Emden sud-
ienlv qot under way. A Brltlsh cruiser had
::en sichted, She was, in facL, the Australan
-c2 mm (6-tn) shrp HMAS Sydney whrch
:bserving radio silence, had bee! just below
:e horrzon, covering a convoy Besides her Von Miicke brought the landing party to
:-eavier main battery, the newcomer was clean K apitilnleutnant H ellmuth von M ilcke, Miiller's
'Nimber One', was a resourceful extrovertwhose C onstantinople where they were received by
-:d had at least a 4-kt speed advantage which eoic iournev back toGermany made a dramatic AdmiralWilhelm Souchon. They had sailed across
:-er captain, Glossop, used to full advantage to the Indian Ocean, evading the Royal Navy,
iostscript [o tne sinking of the Emden. /t was hjs
r.ctate the range and the course ofthe action. idea to iig a fourth funnel on the ship to give her a survived Turkish double- dealing and fou gh t off
The German policy of lighter-calibre but fas- silhouette resembling that of H MS Yarmouth. Arab brigands in a battle in the desert.
worked to
=r-firing gun sometimes, as here,
:-eir disadvantage. Despite accurate return
:e the heavier vessel's salvoes soon began to
.=11. The Emden's rangefinder was destroyed
=:rd her steering
gear damaged, the latter
!roblem betng compounded by loss t speed
-':ilowing the t,cpphng of two funnels The for-
::ast went by the board and the ship began to
sustained below the pro-
-rod from damage
:ctive deck. In the iightly-protected gun posi-
---ns, the carnaqe caused by lragments and
:.asl was appalhng and, aller ]00 mtnutes ol
:-:peless aition, von Miiller ran his wrecked
::mmand onto the reef of North Keeling Near-
--; half hrs crew was dead and most of the
r:mainder wounded, while the Australian had
.:ifered only sirght damagte and four falal
:-ualties in drsposrng of thrs most successful of
:-: German raiders, She had caused ihe Brittsh This is the end: shot to pieces by Sydney s hear:er
;eat material damage, but this was of little broadsides, Emden was run ashore on North
-:sequence compared with the associated Keeling Island; over 60 per cent of her creu;
- .ruption to movements and tylng down of becaie casualties. In her raiding career she tac
:,:ch Allied naval strength in her covered30,000 miles, sunk 16Britr'sh shlps i;tC-
-: crehension, inflicted damage to the tune of aboutt5,0AA.0{t -
some 1 5 times the cost of building Emden

E*r- JSA

'St Louis' class

The 'St Louis' class concentrate{
their arm ament in a centr al bdtte ry ;
12 <6-in guns each side, protected by
4-inKrupp armour. Apar.tfrom ihe
ammunition hoists to tltb fore and aft
turrets, the rcst of tle hull was
unarmoured. H orj.iontal protection
was provided by a 3-in armoured ...
deck. ..'/


Until rendered obsolete by the intro- ence whatsoever on the six 'Denver' common marn battery of 14 152-mm Specification
duction of the battle-cruiser, the class colonial cruisers (Nos i4-i9) that (6-in) guns, Where the British policy 'St Louis' ciass
armoured crurser looked set to be an followed in 1901-3, It was, therefore, a was to work in a shallow 102-mm (4-in) Displacement: 9,700 tons standard
rmportant feature of the US fleet, initial- considerable chanqe of policy that belt over the grealest possible length Dimensions: Ienqrth 123.0 m (426 5 ft);
ly indeed takinq the state names re- suddenly produced the three'St Louis' and protect otherwise only the two beam 20. I m (66,0 ft); drauqht 6,9 m
sewed at that time for capital ships. class ships (USS Cftarleston, Mil- level casemales rhe Americans car- (22.5fi)
Since 1892 the fleet had, by policy, waukee and Sf .Lours) which though ried on the central battery idea from Propulsion: two sels ol I nple-
burlt almost entirely 'frrst class bat- they took the next pendants (20 22) the 'Californias', encasing it in 102-mm expansion steam engdnes deliveringt
tleships and flrst-ciass cruisers', so had nothing else in common steel with a short extension both for- 24,000 rhp (17895 kW) to two shafts
second- and third-class cruisers were In lB99 the British had effectively ward and aft to cover the machinery Speed:22 kts
produced in only small numbers rn the introduced the armoured crurser by spaces. Predrctabiy. lhe na\ry consl Armament: 14 single 152-mm (6-in)
1890s for coastal defence and to main- addinq a belt to the design of the 'Di- dered them underarmed but, though and 18 single 76-mm (3 in) guns
tain a presence at the few American adem' class protected cruisers then they also carried lght horizontal pro- Armour:76-mm (3-in) deckand 102-
colonial possessions. Following the just completed, In a neat reversal of tection, thef primary drawback was in mm(4 in)belt
',',ar ot lB9B wrln Spain and the acquisr- this move the Americans created a therr being no faster than armoured Complement: 668
iion of more- foreign territory, two diminutive of the 'California' (later 'San cruisers, As their economy was not
Eiswick cruisers were taken over from Drego') class armoured cruisers and of seen as a virtue they were to langruish
Brazilian account, but the workmanlike a size with the contemporary British alonqwiih them. The Milwaukeewasa
desiqn ofthese little shrps had no influ 'Monmouths'wrth whom they shared a war loss.


Ferhaps surprisingiy the US Navy in the warlkely to be fought by 20th- and Germany made qood use of hqht scrapped with the 1940s. The ships
launched no crulsers between 1907 century USA, cruisers rather than through a per- were the USS Cmcmnafi, Concotd,
aad 1920, By the time that isolationism Thus, the only likely role for the cerved need, a new class of l0 cruisers Detroit, Marblehead, Memphis, Mil-
:ad turned to active involvement in the cruiser to a nation lacking a real had been authorized in 1916, classified waukee, Omaha, Raleigh, Richmond
in 1917, the maritime threat from emprre was that of scoutinq for the as 'scouts' despite being half as larqe and Trenton
3ermany was primarily through her main body of the fleet. The UK had aqain as any light cruiser in Europe.
s-.:bmarines rather than her battlefleet, introduced the steam turbine-driven The 'Omaha' class ships (CL 4 13) Specification
ld it was on building destroyers that hght cruiser wrth HMS AmeLhysl, com- were not, however to be completed 'Omaha'class
-SA concentrated. Even so, the gap in pleted in 1904, and the possibilities until after the war, They were interest- Displacement: 7,050 tons standard
:ruser constructron is drfficult to jus- posed by this new form of compact but rng vessels with the large number of Dimensions: lenqth 169.3 (555.5 ft);
.-ry. powerful machinery led the US Navy to bollers for their 34 kts in two groups, beam 16 B m (55.25 ft); draught 4.5 m
A long series of armoured cruisers, build the three 3,7501on 'Chesters' (CL resulting in two distinctrve pairs of fun- (14 75 ft)
powerful enough to rank as third class 1-3), all launched in 1907, to evaluate nels, giving them the appearance of Propulsion: four sets ofqeared
battleships had been rendered rude- reclprocatrng macn.nery agalnst overgrown flushdecked destroyers. twbines delivering 90,000 shp
1_,'obsolescent in 1906 by the introduc- direct-drive and geared turbines The Their oriqinai elqht 152-mm (6-in) quns (67105 kW) to fourshafts
::on of the battie-cruiser, Further, US Narry, however, did not (and in- (including some in the last casemates Speed:33,5 kts
,rhrle the Civil War had demonstrated deed does not) like small ships and the recorded) were augmented by two Armament:two twin and erght single
:ne value of both the blockade-runner American crurser thus langnrished for twin turrets at a late stage, All went 152-mm (6-in) and four single 76-mm
and commerce raider, the fast cruiser lack of a raison d'6tre through World War II, emerging with (3-1n) enrns and l0 533-mm (2]-in)
iescendent of the latter had no place Probably more because both the UK varying degrees of modrfication, to be torpedo tubes
The'Omaha' class cruisers were
built to complement the proposed
3 5 - l<t battle-cruisers of the I I I 6
prog:ramme. The desigm was
modified after the US Navyworked ir
with the Royal N avy in I I I 7 - 8 ; extra
gruns and torpedoeswere added,
which meant more crew and a rather

Armed Forces of :h,e World

Brazil is the largest country of South America and
the fifth largest in the world. lt has a growing popula-
tion and a complex topography with vast impenet-
rable and partly unexplored jungles forming effec-
tive barriers between rt and all lts near neighbours
but Uruquay. To co-ordinate the defence of the
country there ls no centralized mtnistry of defence,
but instead separate army, navy and air force minis-
tries, a fact which reflects the bltter interservice
rivalries that have been found over the years. This
manifests itself most visibly in the division of the
country into geographic regions for military admin s-
tration and operational reasons. The army recog
nizes 1 1 such regions, the navy seven distrjcts, and
the air force six regional commands. Few if any of
these reglons, dtstricts and commands actually
colncide. The services also maintain their own sys-
tems of training establishments, although a conces-
sion to un ty was made when a tri service senior
officers staff college was set up in Rio de Janeiro.

The Army
The Brazilian army comprises some '1 83,000 men
of whom the majorty (132,000) are one-year con-
scr pts. The army rs divided tnto four armies which
have control over a total of eight divisronaL headquar-
ters. These compr se the following un ts:

one armoured brigade,

six armoured cavalry brigades,
cne armoured infantry brigade
e ght mechanized infantry brigades,
21 motorized infantry brigades,
iwo paratroop brigades (each of three battalrons),
'wo independent in'antry brigades,
sx independent jungle infantry battallons,
rne special forces battalion,
rne air-defence artillery brigade.
10 independent air-defence artillery groups,
i 0 f ield artillery regiments,
:lght coastal artillery groups, and Above: Brazil has a flourishing armaments
34 engineer battalions. industry and is now one oI the world's leading
exporters of wheeled AFVs. The X I A seen here
There are also 1,1'1 5.000 trained first-lrne and wis anearly effort: are-buildingof eldeily M3Aj
Stuart light tanks.
225,000 partially-trained second-line reserv sts
:vailable for call-up during a conflict.
Theequ pmentused bythearmyis increasinglyof (MRLs) 108-mm \4.25-in) FGTl0BR, 127-mm (5-
nd genous design, with at least 40 per cent of the in), 180-mm (7 1 in) and 300-mm (1 1 .8'in)
lountry's total military requirements met from ts ASTROS ll;and
fwn resources. A viable AFV modern zation and (mortars) 60-mm, 81-mm (3.2-in) and 120 mm
ranufacturing industry sprang up ln the 1 960s and (4.72:n) lmbel,8l-mm M1, B'1-mm M29 and '1 07-
s today about to start product on of two orig nal mm (4.2-in) M2;
\lBT designs, the EE-Tl Osorio and the MB-3 Anti-armour: SS.1 1, Cobra andTOWATGWs; 60-
Tamoio. ln the wheeled AFV field Engesa has the mm (2.36-in) M9A1 and 89 mm (3 5-in) M20
EE-3 Jararaca, EE-9 Cascavel and EE-1'1 Urutu rocket-launchers; 57-mm M'1 B and 1 06-mm
series, and has become one of the world's leading 14.17 -inj M40A'1 recoilless rif les,
exporters of such vehicles wtlh customers in North Air defence: (towed) 35-mm GDF-002, 4O-mm
Afflca, West Africa, the Middle East and the Far Bofors L/60,40-mm Bofors L/70,40-mm Bofors
East. There is also a highly successful infantry L/70 BOFl,4O-mm Bofors M1, 57-mm,9O-mm
weapons manutacturing industry but, apart frorn (3.54-in) M117and90 mmM'l '1 Bguns;and
Av bras and rts multiple rocket-launcher (MRL) pro- (SAM) Roland ll;
jects, field artillery has strll to be imported. A f ull list Smallarms: 0 45-in M191'1 Colt, 9-mm M973, 9-
of the equipment used includes: mrn Beretta M92 and 7.62-mm Mauser pistols;
0.45-in lNA,0 45-in M341,9-mm Beretta M'1 2,
Artillery: (towed) 75-mm (2.95 in) M1 16 pack 9-mm MPKand9-mm Uru SMGs;7 62-mm FAL,
howitzer, 1 05-mm (4.1 3-jn) M'1 01 howitzer, 1 05- f .62-mrn G3,7.62-mm Para-FAL, f .62-mm
mm M102 howltzer, '1 05-mm M56 pack howitzer, Mosque-FAL,7 mm Mauser M'l 908 and 5.56-
An Engesa EE-9 Cascavel demonsfra ies :: a - : : ; a
105-mm FH 1B howitzer, and 1 55-mm (6.'1-in) mm HK33 rifles, 7.62-mm Madsen, 7-mm
ve r tic al w heel tr av e I allow e d by wa /k-: g : e :--:

M'1 1 4 howitzer; Hotchkrss, 7.62-mn.l FN IVAG, and 0 3-in and 0.5- rear suspension . Its 90'mm main arfi.a-: =: : :::
(coastal) 57-mm, 152-mm (6-in)Vickers Mk V and in Brown ng MGs. fire HEAT, HESH and smoke shell, 44 routds t'e::,:
305-mrn (12-in)guns; carried. The EE-9 has been widely expor:ec' :i tr -s
(self-propelled) 105-mm M7 and 105-mm M'l 0B A number of light aircraft are used by the artillery in sewice in Latin America, West AJrica a::c '::e
SP howitzers; a.d enqinee' rnits fo'ooservalion ourooses. MiddleEast.
Armed Forces of the World
Rio Grande do Norte (ex-USSStrong)was sold to
Brazil in I973 and is seen here on joint Brazilian/US
exercrses. ^Sfie ca rries oneWestlandWasp

The Navy
ln contrast with the arrny, the Brazilian navy is
predominantly a regular force with only 2,200 con-
scripts amongst its 41,500 personnel. A continuous
modernization programme has ensured that the
ships in service are up to date, and the surface fleet
is built around a light ASW carrier, the Minas Gerais.
The sub-surface element is centred on three British-
built 'Oberon' class submarines backed by four old
US 'Guppy ll/lll' fleet submarine conversions. The
latter are to be partially replaced by two West Ger-
man 'Type 209' submarines currently under con-
struction. For these and the 'Oberons' a quantity of
British Tigerf ish heavyweight torpedoes have been
purchased. The '1 0 World War ll era destroyers cur-
rently in service are to be replaced by a locally built
f rigate design, the f irst two of which were laid down
ln '1 983. For operations in the Amazon basin and the
Mato Grosso there are two flotillas equipped with
river patrol craft and monitors. A complete f leet list

Aircraft-carrier : M nas G e rai s;


Submarines: th ree'Oberon', two'G uppy l', twoI

'Guppy lll' and two 'Type 209' (building); The Air Force squadrons each (plus six independent squadrons),
Destroyers : f ive'Allen M. Sum ner', two'Gearing' The 45,O0O-strong Brazilian air force (FOrga Aerea the heavy-lift component comprises two squadrons
andthree'Fletcher'; Brasileira) is split into five commands. The Air-De- with nine Lockheed C-1 30E/H Hercules and a third
Frigates: six 'Niteroi' and two (plus up to 10) 'V2B' f ence Command comprises only a single interceptor with two KC-l 30H transport-tankers for inflight-re-
class building; group of two squadrons linked into a nationwide fuelling of the F-5E force. The remainaing squadrons
Patrol craft/monitors: 21 plus two building; early-warning radar network. The group has a total fly some 167 medium and light transports, of which
Mine warfare vessels: slx cciastal minesweepers; of 13 single-seat Dassault-Breguet Mirage lll EBR the most important are the 50 C-95, 20 C-95A and 20
Amphibious warfare vessels: two LSTs, three (locally known as F1O3E) and one two-seat Mirage C-95B Bandeirantes, 19 C-1 15s (de Havilland Cana-
LCUs, three LCMs and 28 EDVPs; lll DBR (F103D) fighters with R.530 AAMs The da DHC-5 Caribous) and l2 C-91s (BAe 74Bs). The
Supportvessels: eight survey ships, seven survey Tactical Command has eight groups in total, with Training Command has six schools and a radio
launches, one submarine rescue ship, one repair two squadrons flying 32 Northrop F-SE Tigers and calibration squadron with some 280 aircraft and heli-
ship, four transports, four tankers, two hospital four F-5B trainers in the close-support fighter-bom- copters in its inventory. Most of the 130 Aerotec
ships and 1 1 training vessels; and ber role, f ive squadrons with around 100 EMBRAER T-23 Uirapuru and Neiva T-25 Universal piston-en-
Miscellaneous vessels : 70. AT-264 Xavante (licence-built Aermacchi M.8.326) gine fixed-wing trainers obtained in the 1960s and
jet COIN/advanced trainer aircraft, two reconnaiss- 1970s are being replaced by about 100 Aerotec
For shipboard operations and liaison duties there ance/survey squadrons with eight EM BRAER RC-95 YTA-1 7 Tangaras and 1 20 EMBRAER T-27 Tucanos.

is a 700-man naval air arm (the F6rqa Aeronaval da Bandeirante and 'l 1 RT-26 aircraft, four composite For the future a joint development programme
Marinha do Brasil) which, because of inter-service hellcopter/fixed-wing liaison squadrons, and one with ltaly has resulted in the AMX light tactical
rivalry with the air force, is allowed to operate only transport helicopter squadron. The Maritime Com- fiqhter-bomber. The first of 79 for the Brazilian air
rotary-wing aircraft in its four squadrons. One mand has three joint patrol/SAR squadrons flying force are due to enter service in 1 987. For this and
squadron has 13 American- and ltalian-built Sikorsky Lockheed RC-130E Hercules, P-95 (EMB-1 1 1) Ban- other fighter aircraft a locally-designed AAM, the
SH-3D Sea Kinq ASW helicopters, the second nine deirantes, C-95s and Bell UH-1 H/SH-1 H helicopters. MAA-1 Piranha, is due to enter service shortly.
Westland HAS.Mk 21 Lynx ASWsurface strike heli- It also includes the ASW squadron for the navy's The Brazilian air torce is diuided into five
copters, the third eight Westland HAS.Mk 1 Wasp carrier. commands: Air Defence, Tactical, Transport,
and nine 46rospatiale Ecureuil AS.350 utility heli- For all the military's lnternal and external com- Maritime and Training. Tactical Command has I00
copters, and the fourth 1 6 Bell Model 2068 JetRan- munications and transport flights there is the Trans- of these AT- 2 6A Xavantes (Aermacchi M.8.32 6s,
gers for training. The fixed-wing component aboard port Command. Divided into six groups of two Iicence- built by EM B RAE R ).
the carrier is provided by the air force with a slngle
squadron of elght Grumman S-2E Tracker ASW air-
craft and eight Grumman S-2A Tracker transport,
communications and training aircraft.
For amphibious operations there is a 14,500-man
marine corps (the Corpo de Fuzileiros Navale) which
has an amphibious assault division (comprising an
artillery group, a command battalion, three marine
infantry rifle battalions. an engineer battalion and a
service battalion), a Reinforcement Command (with
the Toneleros special operations battalion, an inter-
nal security anti-guerrilla infantry battalion, a medical
battalion, a service battalion, a transport battalion
and an engineer battalion) and 10 regional marine
infantry groups for the defence of naval installations.
The equipment used includes some 30 M41C light
tanks, LWP-7 amphibious APCs, EE-9 armoured
cars, M113 Mod and EE-1 1 APCs, CAMANF amphi-
b;ous trucks, 105-mm M102 howitzers, 108-mm
:C-- 08R MRLs. 60- and B 1-mm mortars, 7 .62-mm
f 3 '= :s 3--T Beretta SMGs. and 0.3-in and 0.5-in
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