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ABSTRACT

A physical modelling of low-energy dynamic compaction (DC) on fine, dry loose sand based on image processing

(PIV method) was undertaken. Tamping was executed by rising and dropping semi-cylindrical steel tampers of known

diameters and weights on the surface of sand deposit. The effective factors of DC and the deformation pattern of sand

after tamper drops were investigated using the PIV method. The displacement field of soil mass was investigated. Strain

elements were obtained from displacement patches in the ground. The changes in relative density due to impacts at

different depths were evaluated using total volumetric strains. A normalized relation between the influence depth and

DC parameters was presented for low-energy DC design. This relation may be used to predict the influence depth

of improvement. By deriving crater depth versus drop number curves, the influence value of each impact on the increase

of improvement depth was defined.

Nowadays, expanding cities confront the problem of properties of the soil and the reduction of the settlement

scarcity of suitable land to accommodate the growth of of deposit caused by structures. The depth and degree of

their industries and infrastructures. In many parts of the the ground improvement by using this technique are a

world, this problem results to the unavoidable use of poor function of the energy imparted to the soil by the falling

grounds, often with inadequate bearing capacity properties. mass. Mayne et al., (1984) reported a depth of improvement

In such cases, to optimize or improve the performance of of up to 33 m.

the ground, special foundations such as piles are often used. However, the effectiveness of this technique in improving

Other times, the soil is removed and replaced with a material soil stiffness to a significant depth is countered by the

of acceptable engineering properties. However, both effects of induced ground vibrations on nearby structures,

procedures can be costly at times. which may further exacerbate as the energy per blow

One option to ground improvement is the improvement increases.

of the engineering properties of the existing ground itself. In cases when the ground to be modified consists of

Different ground improvement techniques have already been a layer of loose material with depth of only a few meters,

developed and are widely carried out for this purpose. or when only a small increase in bearing capacity is required,

Dynamic compaction (DC) is among the most field-proven ground improvement to great depths may not be necessary.

and commonly used of these techniques, especially for As such, a low-energy dynamic compaction method has

reclaimed areas in coastal regions. This technique has found been developed to provide a rapid, economic and efficient

application to a wide range of soil types. ground improvement system. Since the energy per blow

Dynamic compaction uses a heavy tamper which is is less than in conventional dynamic compaction, the

repeatedly raised and dropped with a single cable on a consequential risk of damage to the nearby existing

pre-designed impact grid at 4 to 15 m spacing. The mass infrastructure is potentially reduced.

of the tampers generally ranges from 5 to 35 ton, and drop Dynamic compaction has been an important soil

heights range from 10 to 35 m. These impacts produce improvement process for many years. Menard and Broise

sufficient compaction effort to reduce void space and (1975) provided the basis for this method. The depth of

increase the density of deposit. This leads to the increase influence dmax to impact energy for various soil types is

given by:

ii) Ph.D. Student, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

The manuscript was received for review on January 7, 2008.

22 HAJIALILUE - BONAB AND REZAEI

modelling and the measurement of tamper volume.

where W is the dropped weight in tons, and H is the height Accurate measurement of soil deformation is

of drop in meters. The value of empirical coefficient n fundamental to the success of geotechnical modelling. One

ranges from 0.35 to 0.6 depending on soil type. Despite of the methods that have received a great attention in recent

of the extensive application of Eq. (1) in the design of DC, years because of numerous benefits is the use of digital

this approach is seen to over-simplify the problem. In images. The current practice involves the tracking of the

practice, the depth of compacted soil may be influenced movement of a grid of target markers embedded in an

by many other factors such as the total energy applied, exposed plane of soil through a sequence of digital images.

shape and base area of the tamper and grid spacing. A texture-driven technique for non-contact measurement

Current practice for the determination of optimum field of soil deformation in physical models provides the improved

operation parameters for DC technique relies mainly on precision and accuracy, comparable to instrumentation,

field pilot tests and past experiences based on case histories. whilst removing the need for intrusive target markers

In many cases, post-improvement penetration resistance (White et al., 2002, 2003). This system combines digital

measurements based on field trials are compared against photography, close-range photogrammetry and image

design penetration resistance values to determine the field analysis by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to allow the

DC operational parameters and level of treatment required. soil displacements to be detected at high precision. The

Considering the fact that real field tests can be very application of PIV to the measurement of displacements

expensive, the application of physical and numerical models in soils has shown great promise wherein thousands of

is seen useful in the investigation of compaction mechanism measurement points can be observed in a single field of

and wave propagation in soil. Laboratory dynamic view. Assuming a patch size greater than 16 x 16 pixels,

compaction tests have been carried out by a number of GeoPIV developed in conjunction with White et al. (2002)

researchers. Ellis (1986) performed dynamic compaction has a precision in excess of 1/50th of a pixel in image-

tests in a metal drum, on dry and saturated sand, clay, and space.

fly ash specimens. On the other hand, Poran and Rodriguez In this research, an attempt to study the effective factors

(1992) introduced dimensionless relations to the design of of low-energy DC and deformation pattern of soil after

DC based on laboratory tests. They built a cubic steel compaction was carried out using physical modelling based

tank with dimensions of 1.22 × 1.22 × 1.22 m to conduct on PIV method. This is an innovative manner to see the

laboratory dynamic compaction model tests on Boston dry deformation in soil due to dynamic compaction with very

sand specimens. Three circular flat-based tampers with good precision. With the aid of PIV, displacement fields

diameters of 102 mm, 152 mm and 229 mm were used. of soil mass were investigated and generated strain and

The influence zones resulting from the densification were change in relative density due to impacts in different depths

determined by using a portable nuclear instrument in the were evaluated using physical modelling of loose sand.

sand specimens. Results of their test revealed that the The different parameters that were considered in this study

influence zone has a bowl shape, with a width at the top include the improvement depth, DC characteristics (energy

equal to three times the diameter of the tamper and a depth intensity, base area of tamper, drop height, momentum),

equal to four times the diameter of the tamper. Oshima induced crater depth and volume. Further more, design

and Takada (1998) studied the effect of the momentum graphs are presented in this paper. As a small scale physical

of tamping and presented some graphs for estimation of modelling the experimental results should be scaled to

the improvement depth during dynamic compaction using prototype conditions. In order to eliminate the scale effect,

data obtained from site tests and centrifuge model tests. the influence depth and total specific energy were normalized

In the abovementioned studies, the displacement patterns by tamper diameter. This type of normalization was

of soil were obtained using very limited number of performed successfully by Poran et al. (1992).

measurements. Parameters like stress, strain or penetration

resistance were measured sparsely in the soil deposit by CHARACTERISTICS OF PHYSICAL MODEL

instrumentation. Test Boxes

Few physical modelling of low-energy DC were carried A rigid wooden box with dimension of 700 × 470 ×

out in the course of the development of DC technique. 830 mm was used as container for physical models of the

Merrifield and Davies (2000) conducted field measurement sand medium. To examine the rigidity of the box, two trial

and centrifuge test in order to study the efficiency of the tests were carried out wherein several displacement gauges

low-energy dynamic compaction process and the were installed on the lateral surfaces of the box. No

development of a novel technique of real-time monitoring considerable deformation due to lateral pressure of soil

to demonstrate soil improvement in quantitative engineering and impacts was observed on these tests. In order to avoid

units during the process. Feng et al. (2000) studied the the boundary effect on wave reflection, 50 mm layers of

LOW - ENERGY DYNAMIC COMPACTION 23

Ionolite (damping fiber) was used on the three (3) vertical Two special projectors in both sides of the camera at 45

walls and on the floor of the box. A thin protective layer degree angle placed at a level higher than the optical axis

was then laid over the damping fiber. A 20 mm thick of the camera were used to eliminate optical effects of

transparent Perspex was erected in the front side of the the environment on the viewing window and to avoid errors

box in order to monitor the ground displacements. Seventy caused by random variation of pixel intensities (see Fig. 1b).

(70) reference black dots/points of known real-space location The great number of measurements (approximately 1,200

were created on the inside face of the observation window. patches from soil plane using 72 pixels of patch size) makes

These points were used to optimize the photogrammetric it possible to investigate the displacement and deformation

transformation parameters. A black dot on a white of the soil precisely. Having obtained the displacement

background provides a high contrast control marker that vector field, strains at different points can be evaluated,

can be located in image-space using a centroiding method. enabling to study the effects of different factors on the

pattern of soil improvement.

Test material

This study was conducted using fine, dry sand obtained Impact procedure of model surface

from north east of Tabriz (Ana Khatoun) in the north west Tamping was executed by the raising and dropping of

of Iran. Grain size distribution curve of sand is shown in the semi-cylindrical steel tampers of known diameters and

Fig. 1a. According to the unified soil classification system weights on the surface of sand deposit (Fig. 2). Because

(USCS), this sand is poorly graded (SP). Table 1 represents of axi-symmetry, only half of the soil mass and the tamper

the properties of this sand (ASTM [D854-92, D4254-91]). were modeled. One difficult part of the test was the dropping

Because of inter-grain color variation, the captured image of the tamper just tangentially to the viewing window. This

patches of the chosen sand contain a wide spectrum of

intensity values. By having good spatial brightness

frequency, a well-textured image for PIV analysis can be

provided.

Dry sand pluviation technique was used to prepare loose

dry specimens of model ground with an initial depth of

50 cm. In order to obtain homogeneous models in desired

relative density, a constant drop height of sand particles

was obtained by lifting the container at a constant speed

equal to the rate of increase in the thickness of the sand

specimen. A thin layer of colored sand was poured in front

of viewing window at certain depths for a better optical

observation of the soil deformation field and as a point

of comparison for test results. After the sand pluviation, (a)

the average relative density of model was determined for

each test by the measurement of weight and volume of

the model ground.

After each impact on model surface, a digital image

was captured using a Canon G6 digital camera with an

image resolution of 3072 x 2304 pixels. All controls such

as focus, gain and shutter speed was adopted automatically.

(b)

of test set-up

24 HAJIALILUE - BONAB AND REZAEI

is essential because the primary aim of the test was to Table 2 Properties of used tampers

observe the soil deformation of central plan below the

tamper after compaction. If the tamper drops at some distance

from the viewing window, the observed soil deformation

will be different from the central plan.

In order to perform accurate impact, a simple system

was devised. Two 6.1 mm diameter holes were made on

the gravity center of each quadrant of tampers. Cylindrical METHODS OF THE TEST

bars of 6.0 mm diameter were used as guides to impose After each impact on model surface, a digital image

the exact location of drop. The tampers were made to pass of the deformed soil mass was captured and the frequent

through the bars and the effect of friction during dropping images were processed with the GeoPIV software (White

was minimized by greasing the bar guides. These guides et al., 2004). The displacement vectors of each patch between

were fixed by a cubic of wood in the bottom of the test each pair of images were then obtained. Cumulative

box. A beam with two holes was made in order to ensure measurement of displacement vectors creates the

the position of the guides on top. The distance and location displacement vector field. In each analysis, some irregular

of guide bars were ensured to pass through the two holes vectors (wild vectors) would appear due to imaging noises

on the tampers. This beam was located on top of two and software errors. These wild vectors were omitted for

50 × 50 × 50 mm wooden seats. These seats are jointed each test. The resulting displacement vectors in image space

to graded piers which were erected on the test box. In order measured in unit pixels were converted to object-space

to carry out drops with different heights, a series of holes measurement units (e.g. mm) using a constant image scale

in variable heights of piers (0.2 to 1.0 m with 0.05 m step) factor. An example of mesh generation, resulting

were made. The seats can be fixed at different location. displacement vectors and the corresponding strains in soil

Exact setting of drop height was carried out by a screw mass in colored scale is shown in Fig. 3.

on the gravity center of the tamper (having 0.5 mm pitch). Strain elements were derived from the displacements

Tamper weight was regulated by the addition or reduction of patches. In order to extract the strain from displacement

of knots on the gravity center of the tamper. This screw vectors in plane strain condition, one way is to consider

was used for adding pieces of tampers to each other to triangular plane elements and to calculate the strain in two

obtain different weights and to simplify the raising of the directions. However, in our experimental models, the plane

tamper by hand (Fig. 2). In total, seven (7) tampers were strain condition cannot be applied because the model is

used. Table 2 presents the properties of each of these tampers. axi-symmetric. Instead, in order to calculate the strain,

LOW - ENERGY DYNAMIC COMPACTION 25

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

Fig. 3 a) Mesh generation; b) Soil condition after dynamic compaction; c) Resulting displacement vectors,

and; d) Occurring strains obtained from displacement vectors

Fig. 4 General view of elements

in the direction of the viewing window is triangular (see (3)

Fig. 4a), and the 3-D form of the elements is as shown where Ri is radial distance of gravity center of element

in Fig. 4c. Using PIV method, the 3 joints displacement from center line of tamper and θ is the selected radial

of triangular side of these elements due to each impact angle of element. In this research, θ was equal to π/12

can be measured. Knowing these displacements, the area for all tests.

before each impact (Si) and after impact (Si+1) can be For each element, R can be considered constant and

calculated. Given the axi-symmetric condition, the volume the volume change of each element will depend only to

of the elements after and before each impact is the triangular area before and after each impact. The

expressed by: horizontal, vertical and volumetric strain can be defined

26 HAJIALILUE - BONAB AND REZAEI

for each element in the area of the viewing window. Since in which the relative density of different depth under tamper

the weight of elements is constant during test and initial centre for various number of drops were given.

volume and density of element are known, the change of

element density due to each impact can be determined as Tests characteristics

follows: In this investigation, 13 tests with various values of

(4) affective factors on dynamic compaction were carried out.

Table 3 gives the characteristics of tests and prepared models.

Knowing the density of element and having γd min and Tests 4 and 5 were performed with the same properties

γ d max, the relative density after each impact can be computed. in order to know if the tests are repeatable or not. Resulting

This helps to plot the contours of Dr in viewing area (see vectors for both tests have good agreements, confirming

Fig. 5a). Figure 5b gives another result of this calculation that the test is repeatable.

(a) (b)

Fig. 5 a) Distribution of relative density variations in the observed plane of soil; b) Variation of relative density versus depth below

the center of tamper for different number of impacts

LOW - ENERGY DYNAMIC COMPACTION 27

(a) (b)

Fig. 6 a) General shape of occurring displacement after 10th impact for vertical lines of soil; b) general shape of occurring displacement

after 10th impact for horizontal lines of soil

TEST RESULTS

General pattern of soil deformation

Knowing the displacement vectors of soil patches, the

soil deformation pattern can be observed and the effective

parameters of DC can be investigated. The deformation

of different points in the ground after each impact for all

tests was plotted. Figure 6a shows the general shape of

occurring displacement after 10th impact.

A sickle-shape curve characterizes the soil displacement

profile along the vertical line of the ground. The curves

become flatter as they go farther away of the impact centre.

On the other hand, it was observed that the displacement

(a) of soil mass in any horizontal depth has a bell-shape

curve or a Gaussian distribution curve (see Fig. 6b). The

direction of displacement vectors with respect to the

horizontal plane (angle θ) can be used as a criterion to

compare deformation patterns at other points of the soil

media. Figure 7a shows the angle of displacement vectors

plotted against the normalized distance from tamper central

line for various depths after 12 impacts (related to Test

13). As observed, the displacement vectors under center

line of tamper were almost vertical (θ≈90). The angle of

vectors decreases as it goes far away from the center

line. At lower depths however, after a distance of about

Χ/D= 1, the angle of vectors increases again. With increase

of depth, the curvature of the curves decreases (increase

in curvature radius) and in deeper depths, the shape of

(b) curves takes a constant decreasing form. In other words,

with increase of depth, the location of minimum angle

Fig. 7 a), b). Angle of displacement vectors versus X/D curve for also moves away from the center.

n=12

28 HAJIALILUE - BONAB AND REZAEI

Fig. 8 Angle of displacement vectors versus Y/D curve for n=12 Fig. 10 Fitted curve and correlation coefficients

Fig. 9 Contours of 1.5% volumetric strains for different drop Fig. 11 Normalized influence depth versus drop numbers for

numbers Test 1, 2, 3, 4

The displacement vector angle versus normalized influence depth of each test, the 1.5% volumetric strain

distance from center for Tests 13 and 8 after the 12th drop contours of tests after each drop were plotted using PIV

are shown in Fig. 7b. This shows the effect of applied analysis. As an example, Figure 9 shows the volumetric

energy for the same tamper area. It is observed that the strain contours for various drops related to Test 13.

values of angle of vectors in the same depth for Test 13 In order to reduce the scale effects, the method proposed

(larger applied energy) are greater in comparison by Poran et al. (1992) was applied. In this method, the

with Test 8. improvement depth (DI) was scaled to tamper diameter

The relationship of the angle of vectors versus depth (D) and a normalized total specific energy index,

for various distance of impact center is shown in Fig. 8. N.W.H/A.DI, was considered in which N represents the

In the said figure, the resulting curves for Test 4 after the number of drops, W is the weight of the tamper in mega

12th drop is shown. After comparing the results of other grams, A is the base area of the tamper in m2 and H is

tests, the minimum value of angle was found to appear the drop height in meters. The total specific energy represents

at a distance of about 1 to 1.5 times of the tamper diameter. the accumulative energy per unit area delivered by all N

Furthermore, it was also observed that the location of the impacts in a particular test normalized by the depth of

minimum value of vector angle moves downwards with influence (DI) of the respective density counter, in units

increasing distance from the center. of stress. Model dimensions effects are generally minimized

whit this rational normalization which results in a common

Influence Depth parametric ranges for the model study and field DC

In this research, a volumetric strain of 1.5% was chosen construction.

as criterion for influence depth. In order to evaluate the The abovementioned method was applied to all tests

LOW - ENERGY DYNAMIC COMPACTION 29

of this research and the result for the non-dimensional were determined using image processing in order to measure

equation is shown in Fig.10. Based from the figure, a the crater volume. In all of the tests, the crater dimensions

logarithmic relation between DI/D and N.W.H/A.DI is (depth and diameter) were measured precisely after each

observed. Using this graph, an estimation of the influence drop. The depth of crater with respect to drop number for

depth based on DC parameters is possible. The equation Tests 1, 2 and 3 are shown in Fig. 12a. The results show

presented in this research would be suitable for the estimation that for the same tamper diameter, the crater depth increases

of influence depth when the applied energy intensity is by the energy level of the compaction. By derivation of

limited to the values of our tests, i.e. low energy intensity. crater depth versus drop number curves, the influence of

Based on the obtained equation, increasing the applied impact on the increase of improvement depth was

energy and momentum will effectuate to a corresponding investigated. Figure 12b shows this curve for Tests 13 as

increase in influence depth. The relation of normalized an example. It was found out that after the 8th drop, the

influence depth versus the number of drop for the Tests influence of impact on improvement depth was reduced

1 to 4 (same tamper diameter) is shown in Fig. 11. and that after 15th drop, this influence was almost negligible.

From this observation, it can be said that the main portion

Crater Properties of improvement depth in granular soils is effectuated by

Upon impact, the tamper partially penetrated into the the initial impacts and preceding impacts only increase the

soil medium. The tamper was then carefully retrieved by density of the improved ground. This inference can also

hand and raised up to a predefined height for the next be observed in the volumetric strains contours after each

impact. A crater appeared after the removal of the tamper. impact as seen in Fig. 9.

The point coordinates of the cross section of the crater A logarithmic curve can be fitted for each test results.

It is found that the general shape of resulting curves for

all tests are very similar to decreasing rate of influence

depth change with respect to drop number. It is then possible

to use the crater depth (Dc) as an index for improving

depth. The results show a linear relationship between the

normalized crater depth and normalized influence depth

for each test (Fig. 13). From this figure, an average linear

relationship for all tests can be obtained and can be

expressed mathematically as:

on crater depth, results of two series of tests (6, 7, 8 and

10, 12, 13) are presented in Fig. 14. The results show that

(a) with the same applied energy and momentum, an apparent

increase in depth of the crater with increase in

(b)

Fig. 12 a) Crater depth versus drop number for tests 1, and 2; Fig. 13 Normalized crater depth versus normalized influence depth

b) Derivation of crater depth versus drop number for

tests 13

30 HAJIALILUE - BONAB AND REZAEI

(a)

(a)

(b)

8; b) Normalized depth of crater versus drop number for

tests 10, 12 and 13

observed.

(b)

The craters created by various tampers have a bowl

shape as depicted in Fig. 15b. Note that the heave around Fig. 15 a) Volume of crater versus number of drop curves for tests

8 and 13; b) Parameters used for calculating crater volume

the craters was absent in these tests. The crater volume was

and general view of generated crater.

calculated in cylindrical coordinates, r and z as follows:

rdzdrdθ (5) For the medium with the same initial density, larger

crater indicates a higher increase in density and thus a

The parameter r1 is defined in Fig. 15b. The relation higher efficiency of dynamic compaction. For the same

z=ƒ(r) represents the variation of magnitude of depression initial relative density, the volume of the crater in all tests

in the radial (r) direction and was obtained from image increases with increase in drop height (i.e. increase in

processing analysis (see Fig. 15b). The crater volume related compaction energy).

to Tests 8 and 13 which have the same tamper diameter

but different energy intensity versus drop number, is Efficiency of impact pressure

compared in Fig. 15a. It can be observed that the rate of In order to study the efficiency of impact pressure

change of crater volume is logarithmic with respect to (W/A) in DC, three physical models were prepared (Models

number of drops. 9, 10, 11). In these tests, the applied energy (W.H) and

LOW - ENERGY DYNAMIC COMPACTION 31

(a) (a)

(b) (b)

Fig. 16 a) Influence depth versus drop number for tests 9, 10 and Fig. 17 a), b) Normalized influence depth versus number of drop

11; b) Volume of crater versus total applied energy for tests

10, 12 and 13

the base area of tampers were made uniform. Figure 16a the normalized influence depth with respect to drop number

shows the influence depth versus number of drops while for these tests. Applied energy and momentum were same

Fig. 16b shows the volume of crater versus total applied for all tests of each series. It is found that the ratio of

energy for these tests. It is found that for constant energy, improvement depth to tamper diameter is greater for the

a greater improvement and influence depth can be achieved test that have greater applied energy intensity.

with greater impact pressure in comparison with low impact In order to closely investigate this phenomenon, the

pressure. It can be concluded that the influence of tamper displacement field of these tests in viewing plane was

mass is more significant than the drop height. In other compared. It is observed that for higher energy intensity,

words, the influence of momentum is greater than the larger displacements occur at shallow depth beneath the

influence of applied energy. The test with maximum tamper compared with other tests. The displacements

momentum of tamper creates a larger crater and so greater decreased significantly in deeper depths compared with

improvement is achieved. other tests of lower energy intensity. It can be concluded

that when the area of tamper decreases, the energy intensity

Efficiency of tamper diameter increases. Furthermore, it can also be said that most of

Efficiency of tamper base area was investigated using the applied energy is consumed to create large deformations

the results of two series of tests (Tests 10, 12, 13 with in soil mass beneath the tamper. As the impact area decreases

an applied energy of 11.65N-m and Tests 6, 7, 8 with an and the stress bulb become smaller, the influence radius

applied energy of 4.73 N-m). For each series, the same consequently decreases. The generated strains in the soil

total energy was applied with different energy intensity plan show that the decrease of tamper base area causes

per unit area. Three tampers with diameters 7.5 cm, 10 an increase in stress and an improvement of depth of about

cm, 12 cm were used. Figure 17a, b shows a graph of 1.2-1.4 times the diameter of tamper.

32 HAJIALILUE - BONAB AND REZAEI

The application of PIV to the measurement of Engineering Circular No. 1, Publication No. FHW A-SA-95-037,

displacements and deformation pattern of soil in physical Federal Highway Administration, Office of Engineering, Office of

modelling of dynamic compaction shows great promise. Technology Application, Washington, DC, 97 pp.

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was investigated and the generated strain and change in to dynamic compaction,” Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE,

relative density due to impacts in different depths were Vol. 110, No. GT6, pp. 757-773.

evaluated. Using PIV method, displacement field shapes 5) Menard, L. and Broise,Y., (1975): “Theoretical and Practical Aspects

can be formulated using parameters related to dynamic of Dynamic Consolidation,” Geotechnique, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 3-18.

compaction and target depth. 6) Merrifield, C.M. and Davies, M.C.R. (2000): “A study of low-energy

It is found that the main portion of improvement depth dynamic compaction: field trials and centrifuge modeling,”

in granular soils can be obtained in the initial impacts and Geotechnique, Vol. 50, No. 6, pp. 675-681.

preceding impacts have little influence but to increase the 7) Oshima, A. and Takada, N. (1994): “Effect of ram momentum on

density of the ground. For the same initial relative density, compaction by heavy tamping,” International Conference on Soil

the depths of the crater in all tests increase with increase Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, 13(3), pp. 1141-1144.

in drop height. For constant energy and tamper diameter, 8) Oshima, A. and Takada, N. (1998): “Evaluation of compacted area

the DC with greater impact pressure causes greater influence of heavy tamping by cone point resistance,” Balkema, Rotterdam,

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For constant energy and momentum, the DC with greater pp. 796-802.

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Decrease of tamper base area causes an increase in stress 11) Take, W.A. (2003): “The influence of seasonal moisture cycles on

and degree of improvement to depth of about 1.2-1.4 times clay slopes,” PhD dissertation, University of Cambridge.

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consigned to cause large deformations in soil mass. Finally, deformation in geotechnical models using digital images and PIV

a linear relationship between crater depth and influenced analysis,” Proc. 10th Int. Conf. on Computer Methods and

depth was obtained. Advances in Geomechanics. Tucson, Arizona. pub., Balkema,

Rotterdam, pp. 997-1002.

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