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7.

Tensile Testing II

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


Question

“What is a good material for elastic energy


storage?

2
Learning objectives
• Describe the complete stress-strain curve
for a uni-axial tensile test
• Explain and calculate MOR and toughness
from a tensile test
• Describe necking, work hardening and
hardness testing

3
The Complete Stress-Strain Curve

• Schematic
diagram showing
the tensile
sample
geometry
associate with
the various
regimes of
deformation in a
ductile material

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


MOR

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


Modulus of Resilience
• Measure of the Elastic energy storage
• Equal to the area under the stress-strain curve at
yield point (MOR on preceding graph, Ur Callister)

eY
s y2
MOR = Ur = ò s de @ s y ´ e =
1
0 2 2E

Notes: 1) Units for Ur are Energy per unit volume: Pa or J/m3; 2) sYS
and sY are used interchangeably for Yield Stress

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


MOR/Ur Data for Selected Materials

Stored energy increases with:


1. Increasing yield stress
2. Decreasing elastic modulus
Toughness

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


Toughness
• Area under the stress-strain

s y + s UTS
Toughness @ ´e f
2

• Measure of energy required for failure


Toughness increases with:
1. Increasing yield stress and UTS
2. Increasing strain to failure, ef.

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


Toughness

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


Heterogeneous Yielding in Steel (Fe-C alloys)

• Yielding (plastic
deformation) does not
occur uniformly over
the length of the
specimen
• Yielding is highly
localized - it occurs by
a “deformation band”
spreading throughout
the specimen

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


Example of Luders band in Steel
Plastic

Elastic

Plastic

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


Elastic recovery after plastic
deformation
• As Elastic deformation
continues to
accumulate after the
onset of plastic
deformation, the
material will undergo
elastic recovery when
the load (stress) is
released
• *must be accounted
for when designing
the geometry of dies
used to produce
plastically formed
parts – e.g.
automotive body
panels
APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip
True stress and strain

Versus nominal stress and strain

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


F
Starting sample

di
Under load

Ai

l0
li

A0
d0
F
APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip
True Stress - True Strain
• Engineering • True
F F
s Eng = sT 
Ao Ai
where Ai is instantaneous area

Dl l
e Eng = e T  ln( i )
lo lo
where li is instantaneous length

Note: 1) both “engineering” quantities are less than the corresponding “true”
equivalents and so they are conservative; 2) the subscript is often dropped from
the Engineering quantities as they are the most commonly used.

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


True strain

dl
de T 
l
li
dl li
eT = ò l
= ln( )
lo
l0

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


True Strain
Plastic deformation is a constant volume process (note: Elastic
deformation is generally not Poisson’s n<0.5)
F
Ao l o  Ai l i
di
substituting
F Fl i Ai
sT   l0
Ai Ao l o li

li li - lo + lo
= = e Eng +1 =1+ e Eng A0
lo lo d0
F
finally
eT = ln(1+ eEng ) = ln(1+ e )
APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip
True Stress
F

di

Ai
s T = s Eng (1+ e Eng ) = s (1+ e ) li l0

A0
d0
F
Note: both this expression and the one on the preceding page are
only valid up to the onset of necking
APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip
Necking
Localization of deformation into a
small section of the gauge length

F
Aolo  Ai li
di

Ai Aolo  Ai li
li l0

A0
d0
F
APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip
True Stress - True Strain Curves

“plastic” characteristics are important in fabrication problems


APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip
Work Hardening Equation

In many metals the work hardening portion of the stress-strain plot may be described
(approximated) using the following expression:

s T  Ke Tn
where

K – strength coefficient
n - work hardening exponent

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


Work Hardening Equation
To determine K and n : plot log (sT) vs. log(eT)

logs T   logK   n log e T  


From work hardening equation: n is the slope of a plot of log(sT) vs. log(eT) plot.

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


Hardness Testing
• Simple and
inexpensive
• Nondestructive*
• Estimate of yield
stress, tensile stress
• Many standards
– Rockwell
– Brinell
– etc.
*The surface is damaged
APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip
Hardness Testing
• Hardness values are
relative values
• Exercise care when
comparing values
from different
techniques

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


Different Hardness Tests

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


Rockwell Hardness Test

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


Comparison between scales

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


Relationship between hardness and tensile strength

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


Question

“What is a good material for elastic energy


storage?

30
Learning objectives
• Describe the complete stress-strain curve
for a uni-axial tensile test
• Explain and calculate MOR and toughness
from a tensile test
• Describe necking, work hardening and
hardness testing

31
Example problem
6.2FE A cylindrical specimen of brass that has a
diameter of 20 mm, a tensile modulus of 110
GPa, and a Poisson’s ratio of 0.35 is pulled in
tension with force of 40,000 N. If the
deformation is totally elastic, what is the strain
experienced by the specimen?

(A) 0.00116 (C) 0.00463


(B) 0.00029 (D) 0.01350

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip