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HISTORY (851)

Aims:
1. To provide accurate knowledge of significant 6. To foster a sense of historical continuity.
events and personalities of the period under study, 7. To encourage diminution of prejudices and to
in sequence and in context. develop a more international approach to world
2. To familiarize candidates with factual evidence history.
upon which explanations or judgements about the 8. To develop the ability to express views and
period must be founded. arguments clearly using correct terminology of the
3. To develop an understanding of the existence of subject.
problems and relevance of evidence of 9. To familiarise candidates with various types of
explanations. historical evidence and to provide some awareness
4. To develop the capacity to marshal facts and of the problems involved in evaluating different
evaluate evidence and to discuss issues from a kinds of source materials.
historical point of view.
5. To develop the capacity to read historical views in
the light of new evidence or new interpretation of
evidence.
CLASS XI
There will be two papers in the subject 2. Emergence of the colonial economy.
Paper I: Theory 3 hours ------ 80 marks (i) Development of the means of transport and
Paper II: Project Work -------20 marks communication.
Transportation: a brief look at the
PAPER I (THEORY) – 80 Marks
development of the railways – other means
Part I (20 marks) will consist of compulsory short can simply be mentioned.
answer questions testing fundamental factual (ii) Disruption of traditional economy: British
knowledge and understanding of the entire syllabus. revenue policy: impact on peasants and
Part II (60 marks) will be divided into two sections, artisans; poverty and famines.
Section A and Section B, each consisting of five A general account of the impact of the British
questions. Each question shall carry 12 marks. rule on peasants and artisans. Revenue
Candidates will be required to attempt two questions policy: the Permanent Settlement and
from each Section and one question from either Ryotwari Settlement should be done in some
Section A or Section B. A total of five questions will be detail.
attempted from Part II
(iii) Development of modern industries.
SECTION A
An account of the growth of large scale
INDIAN HISTORY machine based industries in western India.
1. Growth of Nationalism (iv) Colonial Forest Policy - impact on local
(i) Swadeshi Movement communities.
Partition of Bengal and anti-Partition The Forest Acts of 1865 and 1894 to be
Movement, leading to the Swadeshi and studied critically.
Boycott Movement. 3. Social and Religious Movements
(ii) Revolutionary Nationalism (i) Impact of the modern ideas in Europe on
The growth of revolutionary activities should Indian administrators.
explain what led to the development and The characteristics of modern thought
concentrate on some well-known (liberalism, utilitarianism) to be very briefly
organizations: Abhinav Bharat, Yugantar, explained as a background to British policy.
Anushilan Samiti.

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(ii) Reform Movements – Brahmo Samaj, Arya deadline by the Congress; the main points of
Samaj, Aligarh Movement. the Poorna Swaraj Resolution.
A critical look at each of the above (iv) Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-1934).
movements.
A general account of the development of the
(iii) Struggle against caste – Jyotiba Phule, Movement and different strands within the
Narayan Guru, Veerasalingam. Movement; main features of the Gandhi-Irwin
A brief outline of their contributions. Pact. The 1st and 2nd Round Table
(iv) The Women’s Question Conferences can be put very briefly in context.
The resumption of the Movement, the Poona
The following Acts to be studied: Abolition of
Pact (in the context of the Communal Award)
Sati 1829, Widow Remarriage 1856,
Female Infanticide Prevention Act, 1870, Age should be touched upon.
of Consent, 1891. These have to be read
critically to evaluate their impact on women. SECTION B

4. Protest Movements against Colonial Rule. WORLD HISTORY


A brief account of the Indigo Uprising (1859), 6. Impact of industrialization in Europe during the late
Deccan riots (1875), Munda Uprising (1899- 19th and early 20th centuries.
1900) and the response of the colonial authority. Demographic change, urbanisation, growth of
5. Gandhian Nationalism classes.
(i) The launching of the passive resistance (i) Workers’ Movements
movement by Gandhi; background and main Trade Union and Socialist Movements in
features of the movement. Germany.
A general background of the development of (ii) Suffragette Movement
Gandhian ideas of non-violence and Focus on Britain and WPSU: an account of
satyagraha in South Africa. Brief summaries demand for women’s right to vote until the
of the three localised satyagrahas: election of 1919.
Champaran, Ahmedabad, and Kheda district.
7. World War I: Events leading to it; major changes
(ii) Agitation against the Rowlatt Act, Jalianwala in warfare and strategy; peace settlements.
Bagh (1919), Khilafat and Non-Cooperation
Movement (1919-1922). An outline of the main events from 1908 to 1914:
the Moroccan crisis, the annexation of Bosnia-
The reasons behind the Rowlatt Act and its Herzegovina. The main interests of the big
main terms to be studied in brief. A general powers in the Balkans should be briefly touched
account of the satyagraha against the Act, upon, particularly Russia and Austria-Hungary,
leading to Jalianwala Bagh and the aftermath. as well as the growth of Balkan nationalism and
The launching of the Khilafat and the Non- the two Balkan Wars; the assassination at
Cooperation Movements; why Gandhi Sarajevo and how it developed into a major
decided to support Khilafat. There should be European War.
a connected chronological account of the Introduction of new technologies and strategies:
movement and its suspension after Chauri trench warfare, use of gas, tanks, air warfare and
Chaura. submarines with one example for each.
(iii) Simon Commission: its boycott and the Reasons for US’s entry into the War and a brief
demand for Dominion Status by 1929; Lahore account of its contribution.
session and declaration of 'Poorna Swaraj' as
the Congress objective. A brief explanation of the various causes for the
defeat of the Central Powers.
The reasons for sending the Commission in
1927 as well as its boycott should be briefly League of Nations – membership, failure of
explained. A general account of the agitation collective security (Manchuria & Abyssinia).
against the Commission as well as a very brief Changes in the map of Europe after the Paris
account of the Nehru Report. The Lahore Peace Settlements.
Session should be set against the expiry of the
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8. The Great Depression Escalation of the campaign against the
Jews should be done in some detail, till
Causes: A short account of the Wall Street Crash
the "Final Solution". Reasons why his
and its impact on the economy. Impact on
policies were accepted among different
Germany, Britain, France, USA & Japan.
groups.
9. Rise of Dictatorships
(iv) Japan (1919-41)
(i) Communism: Russia (1917-1939)
Reasons for militarism in the 1930s;
The Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 - a brief expansion into China. Events leading to the
account of events in 1917: March Revolution attack on Pearl Harbour.
and its results; explanation of why the
The political, economic and ideological
Provisional Government fell from power
reasons for the rise of militarism and
leading up to the November Revolution.
expansion into China should be explained
Lenin: a background of consolidation of the (emphasis should be laid on the reasons for
Bolshevik state. the attack on Manchuria and a brief account
Stalin: Stalin vs. Trotsky; Single party state of it). The subsequent developments should be
under Stalin: the collectivisation of studied chronologically, emphasizing the
agriculture, the FYPs (only first two should declaration of a “New Order in East Asia”
be done) and the purges. and the 1937 invasion of China. Reasons for
the alliances with Italy and Germany should
(ii) Fascism: Italy (1922-39) be briefly explained, leading to the attack on
(a) Post-War discontent and the rise to power Pearl Harbour.
of Benito Mussolini.
PAPER II (PROJECT WORK)
Conditions which gave rise to Fascism; a - 20 MARKS
brief chronological account of the events
Candidates will be required to undertake one project
which brought Mussolini to power from
which may be any one of the following:
the election of 1921 to the march on
Rome in October 1922. (i) A case study.
(b) Main features of Mussolini's domestic (ii) A field visit/ investigation.
policy.
(iii) A local history
Critical appraisal of Mussolini’s policies
(iv) Interview/oral evidence
(particularly his economic policy).
(v) Book review/ film review/ posters/ newspapers/
(iii) Nazism: Germany (1933-39)
advertisements/ cartoons and art
(a) Rise of Hitler to power and factors
The project must not be based primarily on the
assisting his rise.
syllabus; students must be encouraged to produce
Weaknesses of the Weimar Republic as a original, creative and insightful perspectives on an
background to the rise of Nazism; events allied aspect of the topic.
from 1932 onwards leading to Hitler
For example, if the theme is economic development in
becoming Chancellor of Germany in
India, the project could be on a 5-year plan. However,
1933; the reasons for his popularity
it would have to give the historical perspective and
among different groups should be
impact.
explained.
(b) The Nazi State: from 1933 onwards.
Outline of the changes made by Hitler in
government, the cultural life and
education, army (the Night of the Long
Knives), the economy and religious life.

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The written outcome of the project, in the form of EVALUATION CRITERIA:
a 2000-word essay, should be structured as given
below: Mark allocation for the Project will be as follows:
A. The research question S. Assessment Criteria Marks
B. Abstract: it must contain the following No. objective
information:- 1. Process Candidates 5
 Reason for choosing the topic. should be able
 Methods and material to be used in the to:
investigation. Identify the
 Hypothesis: the conclusion the student is topic, Plan and
hoping to draw. detail a research
C. Main essay: it must follow the structure given project.
below:- Select and use
 Background and context – to be discussed appropriate
very briefly. research
 Explanation of the theme and specific issue of methods.
the research question in the context of the 2. Understanding, Candidates 5
background given above. application of should be able
 Interpretation, Analysis and Critical knowledge and to:
Evaluation of a range of evidence: the Analysis
research material gathered by the student Explain issues
and themes
 Conclusion – whether hypothesis stands or clearly and in
not. context.
 Bibliography – a list of all material referred to
in the essay, including print, electronic, oral & Interpret, analyse
audio-visual material, referenced correctly, in and evaluate
a standard format critically a range
of evidence to
 Appendix – optional, only if it is crucial for
the better understanding of the project essay. present reasoned,
substantiated
List of Suggested Projects arguments/
1. Tilak statements.
2. Rabindranath Tagore 3. Presentation Overall format, 5
3. Bhagat Singh/ Chandrasekhar Azad/ Lala Lajpat referencing
Rai (footnotes &/or
4. Growth of Indian political organizations in the late bibliography),
19th - early 20th centuries. within word
5. Change in British policy after 1857. limit of 2000
words, title page,
6. Industrialisation - Impact of the growth of header/footer,
industries on the life style of the people. etc.
7. Birth of totalitarian ideologies - Fascism
Communism. 4. Viva Range of 5
questions based
8. Strands in the early 20th Century - military and
on the project
economic rivalries.
only.
9. League of Nations – Peacekeeping actions with
regard to Collective Security and Weaknesses. TOTAL 20
10. The 1920s Cultural Movement - Jazz Age.
11. Changes in nature of warfare – late 19th and early
20th century conflicts, World War I.

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GUIDELINES FOR TEACHERS: 5. The students should be guided on doing the
1. It must be emphasized that the process of doing research and looking at different types of
the project is as important as the finished product. evidence.
2. Once the project/projects are chosen, there should 6. Books and suitable reference materials could be
be a process of brainstorming to encourage suggested and even put up on the library notice
students to make out a draft/structure for the board for guidance of the students.
project before embarking on research. 7. Internet sites could be suggested, but care must be
3. During the brainstorming/discussion, the teacher taken in selecting, using and citing these sites.
should discuss the assessment criteria with the 8. Students must be cautioned against plagiarism and
students. be penalized for the same.
4. The teacher should discuss the draft with the 9. Marks must be awarded for content and originality
student with regard to the central question and the and not for decorative elements and
type of sources to be used. embellishments.
10. Projects must be the original work of the student.

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CLASS XII
There will be two papers in the subject movement, its repression and a brief
Paper I: Theory 3 hours ------ 80 marks analysis of its significance is needed.
Paper II: Project Work --------20 marks (iv) Subhash Chandra Bose and the INA.
Subhash Chandra Bose’s background in the
PAPER I (THEORY) – 80 Marks context of the freedom struggle: his escape
Part I (20 marks) will consist of compulsory short and years in Germany should be touched
answer questions testing fundamental factual upon; role in the national movement and his
knowledge and understanding of the entire syllabus. differences with Gandhi. Background to the
formation of the IIL and INA; Bose’s revival
Part II (60 marks) will be divided into two sections, of the INA should be emphasized, a brief
Section A and Section B, each consisting of five account of its operations, eventual defeat
questions. Each question shall carry 12 marks. and significance.
Candidates will be required to attempt two questions
from each Section and one question from either (v) Transfer of power (1945-1947): changed
Section A or Section B. A total of five questions will attitude of British Government; the Cabinet
be attempted from Part II. Mission Plan proposals; Congress and
League reaction; Direct Action by League;
SECTION A communal riots; Attlee's declaration of
1947; the Mountbatten Plan; partition and
INDIAN HISTORY independence.

1. Towards Independence and Partition: the Last Changes in the attitude of the British
government after World War II – Wavell
Phase (1935-1947).
Plan and its failure: Cabinet Mission –
(i) Important political developments: growth of major provisions. Election to the
socialist ideas, trade union activities, Kisan Constituent Assembly and the results –
Sabha movement; growth of communalism controversy between Congress and League
(Hindu & Muslim). over the question of grouping – Muslim
These developments can be done briefly. League’s Direct Action and boycott of the
(ii) Working of provincial autonomy: Congress Constituent Assembly – communal riots.
and other ministries. League’s decision to join the Interim
Government.
Provincial Autonomy should be explained
briefly. A critical account of the election of 1947: Attlee’s Declaration of 20th February
1937 and the working of the Congress and 1947; Mountbatten Plan – main features:
other ministries. acceptance of the Plan by major political
parties; modifications in the Indian
(iii) National Movement during the Second Independence Act. Reasons why the
World War: The outbreak of World War II Congress accepted partition.
and the resignation of the Congress
ministries, Lahore Session of the Muslim 2. Establishment and development of Indian
League in 1940 and the deadlock up to the democracy (1947 – 1984)
August Offer (1940). Failure of the Cripps (i) 1947 – 1967
Mission; Quit India resolution; arrest of
Congress leaders; violent public reaction; The following should be discussed:
Government repression of revolt of 1942. (a) The refugee problem, the transfer of
Why the Cripps Mission was sent to India assets and the river waters dispute.
should be explained along with its (b) Origin of the Kashmir problem. The role
proposals. Reasons for the rejection of its of Sardar Patel in reorganisation and
proposals should lead directly to the Quit integration of princely states with special
India resolution. A compact account of the reference to Junagarh and Hyderabad.

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(c) The foundation of Indian Democracy: War events); Impact of the end of Cold War
significance of the first general election – shift in focus.
based on universal adult suffrage (1952): (ii) Pakistan (1948-49, 1965, 1971)
role of political parties, preparation,
process, result and impact of the Indo-Pak wars: causes and consequences.
elections. (iii) China
(d) The linguistic reorganisation of states: Tibet issue: Chinese takeover and asylum of
movement for linguistic reorganisation – the Dalai Lama in India. Indo-China War
case study of Andhra; redrawing of the (1962): causes and consequences.
map of India on the basis of linguistic 4. Social Developments
identity.
(i) Women’s Movements
(ii) 1967 – 1977
Towards Equality Report (1974) – The status of
Importance of the election of 1967: the women, Anti-Dowry Movement and struggle
factionalism in the Congress (Syndicate vs. against domestic violence to be studied with
Indira Gandhi) and emergence of Opposition reference to the Report.
political parties and their main leaders.
(ii) Demand for Autonomy (North East)
Naxal Movement: causes of its rise;
ideological basis (Eighth Historic Centre-State issues: identification of the
Document) origin (1967), main leaders North Eastern states and reasons for their
(Charu Majumdar and Kanu Sanyal); areas demand for autonomy. Assam’s agitation for
where they operated; government measures more autonomy and the Centre’s response to
against it; decline in the 1970’s and its be done in detail; Mizoram and Nagaland to
impact. be touched upon.
JP Movement (1974-75): main features SECTION B
(causes, origin, course, leadership), WORLD HISTORY
significance and impact.
5. World War II
Emergency (1975-76): reasons for
(i) Factors leading to the War: aggressive
imposition, suspension of democratic rights,
policy of Germany and Italy; Anglo-French
its impact and withdrawal.
appeasement policies.
(iii) 1977 – 1984
Should be discussed in some detail, showing
(a) The Janata Government (1977 – 1979). how these aggressive policies made war
Restoration of democracy: formation, more likely and worldwide in scope.
programme and its implementation; Appeasement: why Britain and France
reasons for its breakup. chose to follow this policy and how it
(b) Return of Congress to power (1979 – brought war closer.
1984). (ii) Course of the War: Europe, Africa and Far
Centre-State relations to be studied East. American entry and contribution.
with reference to Punjab: separatist Main theatres of the War should be done
demands and the Centre’s response. separately in chronological order; the main
3. India’s Foreign Policy battles should be done in greater detail; El
(i) Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) Alamein, Stalingrad, Midway, the
Normandy landings and the policy of
Reasons for following a non-aligned policy
"island hopping" in the Pacific. The US
in the context of the Cold War to be
contribution should be done separately for
discussed.
Europe and the Pacific.
Aims - Panchsheel
(iii) Reasons for the defeat of the Axis Powers.
Establishment and growth – Bandung and
Belgrade conferences; Cold War and NAM Each of the reasons for the defeat of the
in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s (broad Axis should be explained.
outlines of trends during significant Cold

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6. De-colonisation – in Asia (China), Africa crisis in east-west relations; detente
(Ghana & Kenya). (1970s).
(i) China: civil war and the establishment of the Each of the events referred to above should
People's Republic in 1949; Mao Tse Tung; be done in some detail; the two phases of the
agrarian and industrial policy; political and Vietnam War, the French and the US
economic developments; contribution of involvement after the Tonkin Gulf incident.
Mao. In the 1960-62 period, the U-2 affair and the
An outline of the post-war struggle between Berlin Wall incident should be mentioned;
the KMT and CCP and the victory of the the Cuban Missile crisis should be done in
Communists. The causes of Communist detail – the easing of tension can be done as
victory should be stated and briefly a result of the crisis. Only the outline of the
explained. A short background of the reasons for détente and how it worked
problems facing the Communists in 1949: in should be done.
agriculture, the gradual process from land (iii) Breakup of the USSR & changes in Eastern
distribution to collective farms should be Europe – USSR, Germany, Poland,
outlined; in industry, the Five Year Plan Czechoslovakia.
and Soviet help. The 100 Flowers Reasons for collapse of USSR: economic
Campaign should be covered in brief. The failure; Gorbachev’s policies (Glasnost and
Great Leap Forward should be covered in Perestroika).
more detail, particularly the development of
commune and assessment of the GLF. Fall of communism in East Europe in the
Finally, a brief outline of the Cultural following countries to be touched upon:
Revolution and its impact on China. Poland, Germany and Czechoslovakia.
Estimate of Mao should be short and to the 8. Protest Movements
point. Civil Rights Movement, anti-Apartheid
(ii) Ghana: democracy, dictatorship and military Movement; Feminist Movement.
government. (i) Racial problems and civil rights in USA:
Brief background to independence, Racial discrimination, change in the
Nkrumah’s role, reasons for his overthrow; government’s attitude, campaign for equal
coup of 1966. rights (Dr. Martin Luther King’s role).
(iii) Kenya: conflict and independence. (ii) Anti-Apartheid Movement in South Africa:
Background: conflict over independence main features of Apartheid, opposition to
and role of Kenyatta. Apartheid (Dr Nelson Mandela’s role),
transition to black majority rule and the end
7. Cold War 1945-91– origin, course, end and of Apartheid.
impact:
(iii) Feminist Movement in USA: Equal Pay Act
(i) Causes of the Cold War. End of wartime of 1963 – its implications for American
unity; Yalta and Potsdam Conference; rift women, successive measures taken by
widens - Soviet expansion in Eastern Johnson (Civil Rights Act of 1964), role of
Europe (1945-1947). National Organisation for Women (NOW)
The main points raised at the two post-War and its campaign for the Equal Rights
Conferences as well as the major points of Amendment (ERA).
differences should be explained. A general 9. Middle East: Israeli-Palestine conflict (1917-
account of the Soviet expansion in East 1993).
Europe until 1947 and the major causes of
the Cold War should be done in this context. (i) Post War conflict in Palestine after World
(ii) The Cold War and rival Alliances: Truman War I, till the formation of the state of
Doctrine; Marshall Plan; communist coup Israel.
in Czechoslovakia; Berlin Blockade; A brief background of Arab nationalism and
NATO; division of Germany; “thaw” in the Zionism in the late 19th century. Impact of
Cold War- how partial was it? Warsaw Pact World War I: the conflicting promises made
(1953-1959); the Vietnam War (1964-75);

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to the Arabs and the Jews: Husain- The written outcome of the project, in the form of
MacMahon correspondence, the Sykes- a 2000-word essay, should be structured as given
Picot Agreement and the Balfour below:
Declaration. All these need to be
understood clearly. A general outline of A. The research question
events from 1919 to the Arab Revolt of the B. Abstract: it must contain the following
late 1930s (the increased immigration of information:-
Jews under the mandate and the resultant  Reason for choosing the topic
conflict). The impact of World War II and
the intensification of the conflict against  Methods and material to be used in the
Britain’s decision to withdraw – the UNO’s investigation
plan. Creation of Israel and the War of  Hypothesis: the conclusion the student is
Liberation (a chronological account should hoping to draw.
suffice here). C. Main essay: it must follow the structure given
(ii) The Arab-Israeli Wars from 1948 to Camp below:-
David Accord.  Background and context – to be discussed
The following conflicts should be studied – very briefly
(1948-1949), the Suez Crisis (1956), the Six  Explanation of the theme and specific issue
Day War (1967), the Yom Kippur War of the research question in the context of the
(1973), Sadat and the Camp David Accord background given above
(1979). For each of these events, the causes
and results should be studied in detail.  Interpretation, Analysis and Critical
Events to be covered briefly. Evaluation of a range of evidence: the
research material gathered by the student
(iii) Israel PLO Peace Accord (1993).
 Conclusion – whether hypothesis stands or
Change in attitude of Israel and PLO not
leading to the Peace Accord: its main
features.  Bibliography – a list of all material referred
to in the essay, including print, electronic,
PAPER II (PROJECT WORK) oral & audio-visual material, referenced
- 20 MARKS correctly, in a standard format
 Appendix – optional, only if it is crucial for
Candidates will be required to undertake one the better understanding of the project essay.
project which may be any one of the following:
List of suggested Projects:
1. A case study.
1. Martin Luther King.
2. A field visit/ investigation. 2. The West Asian radical organisations –
3. A local history. ideologies, methodologies, acts and impact.
4. Interview/oral evidence. 3. Protests Movements – a detailed study on any
one – political ideologies, civil rights, women,
5. Book review/ film review/ posters/ newspapers/ workers, caste, environment.
advertisements/ cartoons and art. 4. Nelson Mandela.
The project must not be based primarily on the 5. Karl Marx – Wealth of Nations – Its influence on
syllabus; students must be encouraged to produce the Russian Revolution.
original, creative and insightful perspectives on an 6. Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist
allied aspect of the topic. Revolution.
For example, if the theme is economic development 7. Collapse of the Russian and Chinese
in India, the project could be on a 5-year plan. Communism.
However, it would have to give the historical 8. Strands in the late 20th Century - military and
perspective and impact. economic organisations.

27
9. UN – Peacekeeping actions and Weaknesses.  Conclusion – whether hypothesis stands
10. The Cultural Movement (1968). or not.
11. Trends in India’s Foreign Policy – dynamics and  Bibliography – a list of all material
the changing trends. referred to in the essay, including print,
electronic, oral & audio-visual material,
12. Theatres of World War II - changes in warfare. referenced correctly, in a standard
Some of the suggested projects have been format.
exemplified in greater detail below:  Appendix – optional, only if it is crucial
1. Martin Luther King for the better understanding of the
project essay.
A. The research question – How far was Martin
Luther King successful in the achievement 2. The West Asian radical organisations –
of his aims through non-violent ideologies, methodologies, acts and impact.
methods? A. The research question – What methods were
B. Abstract: it must contain the following used in the period 1948-1979 by the PLO to
information:- achieve a homeland for Palestinians and
with what effect?
(i) Reason for choosing the topic – to
understand the value of no-violence as B. Abstract: it must contain the following
an effective means of protest. information:-
(ii) Material and methods to be used in the (i) Reason for choosing the topic – to
investigation – Materials: may include understand the impact of radical
books, magazine articles (both print and political organizations on the search for
electronic), Martin Luther King’s peace in West Asia.
famous speech, films like Mississippi (ii) Methods and material to be used in the
Burning. Method: reading/ viewing, investigation – Materials: may include
taking notes for analysis, and books, magazine articles (both print and
evaluation. electronic), films like Chronicle of A
(iii) Hypothesis: the conclusion the student Disappearance (1996). Method: reading/
is hoping to draw. viewing, taking notes for analysis, and
evaluation.
C. Main essay: it must follow the structure
given below: (iii) Hypothesis: the conclusion the student
is hoping to draw.
 Background and context – Martin
Luther King’s personal background and C. Main essay: it must follow the structure
his involvement in the civil rights given below:-
movement.  Background and context – to be
 Explanation of the theme and specific discussed very briefly: West Asia, the
issue of the research question in the settlement of Jews in Israel, the question
context of the background given above of Palestinians and the Birth of the PLO.
– the different aspects of the research  Explanation of the theme and specific
question must be dealt with individually issue of the research question in the
and in detail: Martin Luther King’s context of the background given above
aims, methods used by him, how far – the different aspects of the research
successful. question must be dealt with individually
 Interpretation, Analysis and Critical and in detail: the role played by the PLO,
Evaluation of a range of evidence: the its impact, its success/ failures.
research material gathered by the  Interpretation, Analysis and Critical
student – the various research material Evaluation of a range of evidence: the
may be analysed and interpreted by the research material gathered by the
student to fit his/ her hypothesis; may student – the various research material
also include comparison of the different may be analysed and interpreted by the
sources to evaluate their usefulness. student to fit his/ her hypothesis; may

28
also include comparison of the different  Interpretation, Analysis and Critical
sources to evaluate their usefulness. Evaluation of a range of evidence: the
research material gathered by the
 Conclusion – whether hypothesis stands
student – the various research material
or not.
may be analysed and interpreted by the
 Bibliography – a list of all material student to fit his/ her hypothesis; may
referred to in the essay, including print, also include comparison of the different
electronic, oral & audio-visual material, sources to evaluate their usefulness.
referenced correctly, in a standard
 Conclusion – whether hypothesis stands
format.
or not.
 Appendix – optional, only if it is crucial
 Bibliography – a list of all material
for the better understanding of the
referred to in the essay, including print,
project essay.
electronic, oral & audio-visual material,
3. Protests Movements – a detailed study on any referenced correctly, in a standard
one – political ideologies, civil rights, women, format.
workers, caste, environment.
 Appendix – optional, only if it is crucial
A. The research question – What impact did the for the better understanding of the
Greenpeace movement have on the general project essay.
improvement of the world environment in
the 1970s and 1980s? The Project will be assessed by the teacher and a
B. Abstract: it must contain the following Visiting Examiner appointed locally and
information:- approved by the Council.
(i) Reason for choosing the topic – to
understand the connection between Assessment of Project Work will be done as
global politics and environmental issues follows:
(ii) Methods and material to be used in the 1. Internal Evaluation by Teacher 10 Marks
investigation – Materials: may include
books, magazine articles (both print and 2. Evaluation by Visiting Examiner 10 Marks
electronic), films like Free Willy (1993) 20
and Soylent Green (1973) TOTAL Marks
(iii) Hypothesis: the conclusion the student
is hoping to draw – that people have
become much more conscious of the Internal Evaluation by the Teacher:
importance of the natural environment.
S. Assessment Criteria Marks
C. Main essay: it must follow the structure No. objective
given below:-
 Background and context – How the 1. Process Candidate should 3
Greenpeace movement was born and the be able to:
context of world politics at that time that Identify the
adversely affected the environment. topic. Plan and
 Explanation of the theme and specific detail a research
issue of the research question in the project.
context of the background given above -
the different aspects of the research Select and use
question must be dealt with individually appropriate
and in detail: Aims of the Greenpeace research
movement, its organization and methods.
structure, its activities in the 1970s and
1980s; its relationship and issues/
conflicts with national governments.

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2. Understanding, Candidate should 4 3. Viva Range of 3
application of be able to: questions based
knowledge and on the project
Explain issues and
Analysis only.
themes clearly and
in context. TOTAL 10
Interpret, analyse
and evaluate
critically a range of GUIDELINES FOR TEACHERS:
evidence to present 1. It must be emphasised that the process of doing
reasoned, the project is as important as the finished
substantiated product.
arguments/
statement. 2. Once the project/projects are chosen, there
should be a process of brainstorming to
3. Presentation Overall format, 3 encourage students to make out a draft/structure
referencing for the project before embarking on research.
(footnotes &/or
bibliography), 3. During the brainstorming/discussion, the teacher
within word limit of should discuss the assessment criteria with the
2000 words, title students.
page, header/footer, 4. The teacher should discuss the draft with the
etc. student with regard to the central question and
the type of sources to be used.
TOTAL 10
5. The students should be guided on doing the
research and looking at different types of
Evaluation by Visiting Examiner:
evidence.
S. Assessment Criteria Marks
6. Books and suitable reference materials could be
No. objective
suggested and even put up on the library notice
1. Choice of Overall format, 4 board for guidance of the students.
Technique/ referencing
7. Internet sites could be suggested, but care must
Detailed (footnotes &/or
be taken in selecting, using and citing these sites.
procedure bibliography),
& title page, 8. Students must be cautioned against plagiarism
Presentation header/footer, and be penalized for the same.
etc.
9. Marks must be awarded for content and
2. Analysis Candidates 3 originality and not for decorative elements and
and should be able embellishments.
evaluation to:
10. Projects must be the original work of the student.
Interpret,
analyze and
evaluate
critically a range
of evidence to
present
reasoned,
substantiated
arguments/
statement.

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