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It
Shotgluatsare wvivalled as close combat weapons, but
although they saw sewice in the trenches during WorId War I
it was not utrtil Brtfish troolts used them in Malaya during the
1950s that thefu tnze military value began to be appreciated.
Today their potential is at last being developed, and pu4tose-
built conbat shotguts are enteringsewice.
The shotgun has for long been regarded as an 'unmrlrtary' weapon that The PancorJackhammer maywellpointtheway to future combat shotguns,
for ill-deflned reasons should have no place rn mrlitary activities, That borrowing from current assault rifle technology to provide a more
attitude has been proved wrong many tlmes over the last century, and battleworthy weapon. The I l-round, quick-change magazine is also more
practical than previous methods of charging one'spiece.
things have finally reached the state where a properly conceived and
designed combat shotgrr-rn rs in the offing. This change of thought has great accuracy. Thus their weapons have to do their own aiming by
been produced by experiences gained over two world wars, numerous spreading multiple projectiles over an area,
'small wars' and a great deal of gn-ierrilla activtty, but rt rs still a change not We are witnessing a stage of transitton in small-arms design, More
readrly accepted by some military minds. and more military planners are realizing that the combat shotqun is
For many forms of combat the shotgun is a weapon beyond compari- necessary, and in this study are contarned some of the weapons that
son. Jungle and trench warfare (and other such fighting where ranges point the way ahead, Also included are the many sporting weapons that
are short and targets fleetrng) require a personal weapon that can flre have indicated the trends that true combat shotgms must inevitably
numerous effective projectiles over an area, and this the shotgmn does to follow, Even a short perusal of the weapons included here will make one
perfection. At ionger ranqes the shotgun becomes less effrcient, but wonder why it has taken the shotgun so long to be an accepted weapon
technology has now reached the stage where shotgn-rn projectiles such of war,
as the flechette have much greater useful ranges than simple round shot.
While shotguns have longbeenusedin combat(and are Likely to become ever
As infantry combat ranQres seemingly become shorter, the shotgun type
moreusefulin that role now that the attentionof small-arms designers has
of weapon becomes all the more attractive and at long last rt has been beenfixed on them), it is in police and paramilitary hands thatthey have seen
accepted that in action most soldiers cannot aim their weapons with any most action, as here in Miami in the early J,980s.

#
a#
dr

@ffi
BEtG UI\,1

Browning Automatic series


make the Browninq Automatrc an
established military weapon. The Brtt-
Left: A British soldier of the I 8th ish army used Greener GP guns and
Independent Brigade on patrol in the Brownrng Automatics throughout that
j ungle during the Malayan long campaign, often (but not always)
Emergency carries a Browning 45, with the iong sporting barrel cut back
which provided formidable short- to as shofi a lenqth as possible. Most
rangefirepower. guns used by the British were i2
gauge weapons wlth five-round maga-
zrnes and fired commercial heaw shot
cartrrdges.
It was not long before the British
relearned the old lesson that the auto-
matic shotqun is an almost-perfect
weapon for the close-quarter combat
of jungle warfare. As an ambush or
Any description of the Browntng auto- counter-ambush gun the Browninqf
maLic shorgn-Lns as combat weapons IS Automatic was ideal and could be
beset by the difficulty that there has used to fire off flve rounds in as few as
never been a purpose-produced millt- three seconds. At the time lrttle publtc-
ary version of these designs. The first ily was given to the combat use oi
Browning Automatic (actually semi- these shotguns (Remingrton Model
automatic or self-loading) shotgnrn was B70Rs were also employed) but many
conceived as early as LB9B, but it was soldiers who served in Malaya durinqr
left to the Belgian Fabrique Nationale the Emergency probabiy carried a
(FN) to start production and many gnrns Browninq Automatic at some time or
still in use are Belgian-produced. They another.
were all primarily sportinq weapons After 1960 the Brrtish army set aside
but rt was not lonq before many ended its Browninqs for more conventional
in military hands, often as security weapons but doubtless some are sttl
gmard weapons or for simiiar duties. retained for 'special purposes'. De-
John M. Browninq also negotiated a sprte the type's Malayan popularit,\
production licence with the American soldiers found that the weapon was
Remington concern and many Re slow to reload and took some lookinq:
mington gnrns used by the US Army after, especially when shortened bar-
::Sli4l*,i: and others durrng World War II were rels imposed excessive flring loads o:-
in fact Browning Automatics (typical the selfJoadrng components
being the Remington Model llA and Brownings popped up again during:
Model I2). the Rhodesian anti-qmerrilla/freedon:-
After Worid War iI sportinqt Brown- flghter campargns, and the gnrn is strll a
ings were widely used as mtlitary widely used 'small campaiqn weapol
weapons in such localities as Central But there is strll no sign of a comba.
and South America but lt took the version of the BrowningrAutomatic, de-
Malayan Emergency of 1948 to 1960 to spire a brief flurry of desrgn actrvlr,'
during the 1960s. 'Military' Browning
Automatics continue to be primanl_.'
sportrngt weapons.

Specification
Browning Automatic (standard modei'
Calibre: 12 gauge
Weight: Ioaded 4. 1 kg 19 lb)
Lengrth: barrel7l I mm (28 in)
Feed: S-rou nd I u bula r magazrne

The Browning Automatic shotguns


were notproduced as dedicated
military we apons, but proved tough
enough for the rigours of service life.
They were useful weapons in terrain
which favoured the ambusher; in an
emergency they could fire five
rounds in thtee seconds.

FN Riot Shotqun
As its name rmplies, the Fabrique 1970 and was based on the widely- they require only a mrnimum of care
Nationale Riot Shotgnrn is primarily a used FN automatic spofitng gnrn of the and maintenance,
police and paramilitary weapon, In de- period. It was at one time available in FN even decided to retain the ori-
sigTn terms it is a reiatively unremark- three interchanqeabie barrel Iengrths. giinal five-round tubular magazine and
able design a manual p.'mp acTron The first models had rear and fore has thus never introduced the exten-
shotgun wlth a tubular magazine hold- sights, but on later production models sion magfazrnes used on many oth,er
ingr five rounds, FN rs no stranger to these have been removed and the contemporary paramilitary shotguns,
shotqun design, for it was among the siandard barrel length is now 500 mm mainly to maintain an overall hiqh de-
first to produce the many John M. (19.7 in) Rubber butt pads and sltng grree of reliability, lnstead FN decided
Browning automatic shotgun desigms swivels are fltted as standard. to retain the simple manual action,
in the 1920s, and ever since that time The main difference between the each'pump' ejecting a spent case and
the company has been in the forefront Rrot Shotgn-rn and the FN sporting mod-
of world manufacture of these els is that the riot version is much more Right: Shotgun ammunition comes in
weapons Many of FNs desrgns are rugrged than the ctvtlian shotquns. For a bewilderingvariety of forms, which
intended for sportrng purposes, but it instance there is a bolt that runs right diffe r e n t cou ntr ie s u Iy
n h e I pfu I
takes little to transform a spofiing shot- through the stock to strenqrthen the divide into different categories. On
gun into a law-enforcement weapon component and all metalwork has the Left is a conventional birdshot
and FN has never been slow to under- been 'beefed up' to withstand ihe round for the FN shotgun; in the
take the transformatlon, rigours of hard use, The rnetal surfaces centre a flechette round; and on the
The Riot Shotgun first appeared in have also been specially plated so that right a brenecke rifled slug.

afta
FN Riot Shotqnrn (continued)

loadrng another At one ttme there was


an attempt to introduce a fully-automa-
trc version of the Riot Shotgun, but this
model was produced as a prototype
orrl) and had a stx-ro*nd ragazine.
FN has produced its Rrot Shotgun tn
a form surtable for firing full-caltbre
slugs. bu' lne majoriry ol q,ms 'n use
are used to fire L2-qauqe shot only: in
fact there has never been a Riot Shot-
gun in any other calibre. The type is
used by the Belgran poltce and some
paramilitary unrts, and it has been sold
to some overseas police forces It is a
very reliable and rugged weapon and
ls more than adequate for its intended
paramilitary role.

Specification
FN Riot Shotgnrn
Calibre: l2 qauge
Weight: 2 95 kq (6.5 lb)
Lenqths:overal]970 mm(38 19 in);
barrel50O mm (19.7 tn)
Feed: 5-round tubular magaz' n^

Pump-action shotguns like the FN


are used by police forces all over the
world. They are reliable weaPons
with high short-range hit probability,
and do not produce stray bullets
which are still lethal to bystanders
hundreds ofyards away.

freretta RS200 and RS202P


Armi Beretta SpA is one of the most Right: The R5202-M 1 is the folding
respected names in small-arms design stockversion of fhe successfujRS
and manufacture and is no stranger to 20 2P 1 2 -gauge shotgun. Loading is
shotgun production. The company fol- marginally easier than on the
lowed the move towards manufactur- originalweapon and the bolt
ing robust shotquns for police and pa- mechanism has been altered.
ramrlitary purposes and introduced its
12-gauge Beretta RS200 (Police Model) Below: This R5202-M2 has a
manual pump-action shotgun. As wtth perforated barrel j acket, which
all other Beretta weapons, thls is a makes for easier handling of a gun
well-designed and superbly-flntshed witha hot barrel from repeated
'r/eapon that has been surtably strenq- firing. Beretta provide a v ariable
thened lor the rough handling tt can choke unit to give a choice of spread
expect. pattems.
Be'e la .nrroduced no tnnovattors
with the RS2O0 other than a special
safety sliding-block breech locking
device that prevents flring before
lockrnq is complete. The hammer also
has a special safety lug feature and
there is a bolt catch that enables a
cartridge to be safely removed from
the chamber without having to flre it
Another feature of the RS200 is that it
can be used to flre small tear gas car
iridges (to a range of about 100 m/109
yards) as well as the usual shot or slug
loadrngs.
Though now out of production, the
RS200 1s used by many police and
other forces. It was replaced by ihe
RS202P which differs mainly in the
ioading procedure, which was made
much easier, and in sliqht vanations to
the bolt mechanrsm. With the introduc-
tion of the RS202P came two variants,
The frrst was introduced to reduce the
overall length of the weapon for stow-
aqe and handling this RS202-M1 has a
skeieton-type folding butt that can be sY{ffi .dtt# @qW st*tr@i,ar*:q**,Prffi
stowed alongside the left-hand side of
the body. Tne spcond vorrdnr carries
over this folding butt but in addttion
has a varrable choke device over the
muzzle (to vary the spread ofshot) and
a perforated barrel jacket to make
handling easier: it is impossible to hold
the barrel once it gets hot, To assist
raprd aimingr special sights have been The original RS200 has six 12-gauge shells which it carries in the magazine, pius a.seventh which can be
fitted to this second vartant, which is chamb6red. The inertia-operated fuing pin on the R5200 prevents the gun from firing unless the bolt is fully |ocked

/ a:
Beretta RS200 aad RS202P (continued)

known as the RS202P-M2. Specification


The RS202P shotgn.ms have followed RS2OO
the overall acceptance of the RS200 Calibre: 12 gauge
but sales have not been remarkable, Weight: about 3 kq (6,6 Ib)
mainly because they seem to lack the Lenqths:overall 1030 mm (40,55 in);
aesthetic appeal of some of the more barrel520 mm (20.47 in)
modern designs, The RS200 has for Feed: 5- to 6-round magazrne
some time been out of productron and
the RS202P is apparently being pro-
duced to order only, For all this they This close-up of the receiver of the
are both reliable and well-made guns Beretta R5200 shows its loading gate
that seem set to remain rn use for many (bottom) and shiny ejection port. The
years to come, Beretta has several safety devices.

SPAS Model 12
The SPAS Model 12 (SPAS standing for
Special-Purpose Automatic Shotqnrn)
is one of the most interesting and in-
fluential shotgun designs to appear for
a long time, It was designed, and ts
produced by Luigi Franchi SpA, a firm
which has produced sporting shotguns
for many years, When the demand for
a combat shot-finng weapon became
apparent, the Franchi team decrded to
deslgrn a new weapon using a novel
approach it decided to build a true
combat weapon, not a conversion ofan
existing sporting model, and the result
is the SPAS Model II
Like its later version, the Model 12,
ihe Model 11 rs a formidable piece of
krt. It is a long and heavy weapon that is
so robust it can be used as a club It has
a drstinctrve appearancet there ts no
:rthodox butt, but rather a fixed
skeleton metal butt (Model l1) or a
-:ldrng stock (Model l2). The mechan
-sm at flrst sight appears to be a bulky
:ranual pump action, but is in fact a
.,:mi-aulomatrc or tuily automarLc sys
:.m, the flrrng mode can be selected
cr shdrng the fore-grrp backwards
-.-.d forwards Tne tubular magaz.ne Model 12 can be There rs a prstol grip, forces, and some have appeared on Many military and police shotguns
*nder the short barrel can accommo the muzzle can be fltted with a shot- the civrl market Many of these have are modified sportingweapons, bui
jate up to seven rounds These rounds spreadrng choke device and another been snapped up by shotgun enthu Luigi Franchi SpA have designed the
:an vary from light btrd shot to hea\ry muzzle attachment rs a qrenade laun- siasts, but in many countries the shod SPAS I 1 and 12 ascombatweapons
retal slugs that can penetrate steel cher. Small tear qas and CS projectiles barrel breaks legal requlattons and so from the outset. This formidable
plate can also be fired Srgrhts are provided needs a barrel extensron semi-automatic shotgun can even be
The rest of the SPAS is well pro- but the spread of shot from a normal set to full automatic, firing four
'.'-ded wrth novel features The varrant l2-gauqre cartridge rs such that at 40 m Specification rounds a second.
:rost likely to be encountered is the (/7 yaros) rhe snot pellets cover a c.r- SPASModel 12
lvlodel 12, whrch has a bulky front cle wrth a diameter of 900 mm (35.4 in) Calibre: 12 gauge
:andgmard and a folding stock. The so aiming is not terribly important at Weisht:4 2 kg (9.26 lb) With its phosphated black external
siock has a plece of curved metal such ranqes. Lenglhs: overall (butt extended) metal parts and skeleton butt, the
rrlder the 'butt plate'that loops around The SPAS is a true combat shotgun 930 mm (36.6 in) or (butt folded) Franchi looks every inch a combat
:re forearm and allows the weapon to and in the hands of a fully-trarned op- 710 mm(27.95 in); barrel460 mm weapon while retaining the aesthetic
be held and flred in one hand although erative can be a formidable weapon. (18. I I in) appeal of Italian gun designs. At
anyone flrrng the weapon in such a The Model 12 has been sold to several Feed: 7-round ruoular nag"zine 40 m the spread of shot reaches a
'.',iay will soon learn what a handful the military and paramilitary armed Rate of fire: automatic, cychc 240 rpm diameter of 0.9 m.

c'7, A
Towmrds the U$trfummtre hffieeppotr?
The introduction o{ the Franchi SPAS I 2 revalutionized the
shatgunworld.Here at iastwas a military shotgundeslgned as
sueh from the autset, not another civilian weapon with minar
alterations. But this remarkableweapon is now being
develaped further, with box magazines and 'buJJpud'desr'grns
undergaing trials"

.^,'ren Luigi Franchi SpA started the developnrent of what became the SPAS
;irdel 12,-rt probably had lrttle idea of what irnpact the product would make on
-.^: combal shotgun scene. The comparry no doubt hoped lor an enthuslastc
'-reonse, but the result was a vrrtual revoluton. The SPAS rendered nearly al1
.-;;.;;b;. tHorgrn d"tlg* of.iol"t" ovemight by ts very combination of
-- u:rcr or or reil.ar10r-3t c fi e -eeclor, lc'erdl vtrrv nq^ rm--- on Ane of the earliesl combaf slro{gurs desrgned as such which may have
: -'l! :seven roJ-ds plJs a poterLiol e\llJ n In' ^^droe ' '- ocsS b c influenced Franchiwas the lligh Standard Madel 108. This particular .r/eaa.:.
- -lie-handed operation and its bverali rugged construction. ln all aspects the was acquired by theAr7entine navy, daubtless for use in the vicious interta.
. t: S Vlociel
'l
2 was one of the very f lrst true combat shotgu ns, not a conveTslon struggle which was tct ]ead to tiousands 'disappearing' undet the juntas.
treathed-on' version of an extsttng sport ng weapon
:'rlelspe"i of tt.,t SpnS Models 'l i ahct t z
"was
the r ab lity to,s\,vitch f rom lassed ar,r.,ay, but not before one ingenious des gn feature was rntrcc-':::. -'
: -r: e-shdt pump action to gas oper"ted automatic tself-loadrng) Jire The ldea was the use of 'cc,ded' box magazines for varlous types of arrmL1 , -^
..:i tnat foi modt applicatrons:"oiol
the slrde-act on r,ecnanism would be rnore than Franchi desrgners wanted lo use a fully-automatic ftre mode on :1:- -:
. r -ot( out I tne neecl 'oi '"-tro6-111 ros. \oc I o'ic^ Do( lal- i 4 weapon but they realized that attempting to fire heavy shot or sli:g ::t - -i :
OoL -r nlefna beLJrlV OOF TIO')) Trorp'apd rr'(O,O r- p Odr''c, O1 f ulNrautomat r: coLrld result ln unmanaceab e recoilforces. Th.Ls tne n-' j. . - :'
' ., ai'C .'Q l'lr QOr lO' O' ^P -ponr ldl O rne i614513r. --' 'PAS vvouid be oaded on y nto specral box riagaz nes with an operatrng c;i . -.
-: riguns are designed to fire a wrde range of amrnun tion f rom tire rioi
- control s Je As the magar ne rn;as loadecl the cut-outwould operate a lever - .-- -.
-..r"tlons or lioht*birdshol used to d sperse crowds relatt'.rely harmlessly rlqht system that wo"uld prevent full automatic frre and allow semr-a,t;n -. -
: ro the heav-v shot and sluo oad,ncrs useo for real y seTious combat. l-lowever, this rdea was not carried over to the next weapon tr: :--: -

::.oerience wrth the ModeLi I 1 anci l2 ed to some rethln<lng; by the Fr-anchl whtch was a rework of the SPAS Model 12 to accommodate cei:lr:- -
.'-l,qn tei*lt some aspects of the SPAS had provided food f6r thorght One maqaz nes to speed reloaciinq. Thrs n turn led to the SPAS 15.
- ^Of l^^ras\o FAAlp.n. l'e-DASV de 2 b . b'?io In appearance the 1 2-gauge SPAS-1 5 is fairly conventional but t o.:: -: -
o. LSCe"a^tydn'. lrF"l\'.qgeogu^ o 1 'o o-l'o 5 L 10 round box maqazine. The bullpup coniiguration has bcen abandcr:-: :
-tn'y' ror coTnfort, espec ally for extended per cds. 1t
w,hen I has to be carr eci keep the weapon shori and handy there is a fold ng skeleton stoc.l --- -.
. 'isc iather complicaled to handle and rrrhal really rnatters in cor-:i:ai s iiai ts OLtr oi ,.O' ;.( wetDO^ )T.CtS'nDlcror C^ o -slfa'JnL'O,v.'.
-.:l1ar magazrnelakes t me to reLoad. So, good as the SPAS Modc I1 ancl2 earlier models and yet rt s possible to use the SPAS-15 a-s a pump-: - -
'' '^e o1u< o-ma \ ' Ao' occ. fo ^e d'rl, nq ood d glas operaled sem:lauiornatrc a fuil automatic mode has not b'eerr - : : :':
I ne of the first rethrnrs was along the lrnes of a 'bullpup'configuration w,tn a '' L.o- *O.1,..,- tot lheF.anCni desgr,erjseo-O Nd. ,, .
,:iachable box magazine behind the pistol group. Th s layout malces any foi'ces can be kept under pract cal control. The SPAS- I 5 can fti'e a w,i: . :-
':aron much shorier (and thus hand;er to carry and stow) but it has one ammunitlon types lncluding all the usual shot and slug loads c.r'
:':wback, and that is n connection w th spent case electron On a convenlionai rubber prolectr es and cther rict-control munrtions.
' .,r,1 !^- cn--r Ca-f dqo o,. ojeq On pu. i 4r pno-On'Or\r'o'd Or tO
, Er lcll nandcd f ircrs, but on a bullpup weapon the eiection port is so far back
. -at any spent case wil usua ly :ttLLe the l:it handed f rei- n the side of the face r-rancnr s.f'l{.r, a ccmpace .nrodejpf ffteSFA,Ss eries, exemplifies mosl cr':.:.
--:;onlywaytoovercometf-r. ii"prlCu.lut,l.."tiefr handedverslonsanclfor features oJ rhe mode.rn coml]at shofgun. ^Shorl, rugged and easy ta ds: ::
.-:rny' ilrocuTer.ent agencies th,rl s not on. Thls the i-ranch bullpup project eonsned siraees, ffte sJloCgun ls a salterb clos e'ra-nge weapon.

'b. w'w
1*


>K weutev Greener GP
The Webley Greener GP shotgun is
hardly modern weapon, for the first of
a
the type appeared around the turn of
the century. The series is still in use
and is included here as an exampie of
shotgun designs from an earlier era
although many of them have been re-
placed by more modern designs with
semi-automatrc mechamsms and mul-
tr-round maqazines
The Greener GP is a single-shot
weapon that has to be hand-loaded for
every shot in place of the usual break-
open shotgun mechanism the Greener
uses a variatron of the Martini fallinq
block action that was in use before the
Lee-Enfield bolt-action rifle was
accepted for British service in the
1890s. On this action a lever behrnd the
triggrer is pulled down to open the fall-
inq block, Thrs ejects any spent car-
tndge and a fresh cartridEre rs insefied
along a groove to guide it into the
magazine. Lifting the iever closes the
block and cocks the weapon ready to
flre. This action is simple to use and
can be operated quite rapidly for ejec-
tton and ioading, but its marn attributes
are its strength, simplicity and safety, It
rarely wears out and keeps workingr hands The GP Mk II was (and still is) their barrels considerably shortened Chambering a round into the Webley
reliably. When allied to a weapon as chambered for the orthodox 12-gauge by hacksaws. In this form they were Greener reminds one of Rorkes Drift:
slrong as rhe Greener this operaring cartridge, The Greener GP may be used for some time but these sawn-off it is a sing Ie- shot weapon employing
system produces a shotgun that is rdeal found with barrels of varying lengths weapons are no longer official (nor a falling block mechanism similar to
ior greneral police and other such uses, including 710 mm (27.95 in), 760 mm were they at the time) and will not be thaton the Martini-Henry.ln police
and this goes a long way to explarn (29.9 rn), 810 mm (31.89 in) and 860 mm found in police or other official hands and paramilitary hands since the
.,,'hy Greeners can still be encoun- (33.80 in), These make the Greener GP Greener GPs are strll used by some turn of the century, it is a sturdy if
:ered. acceptable for pohce use but in the overseas pohce and paramilitary cumbersome weapon.
There have been three main marks past the overall length has proved too forces and there is no sren yet that they
:f Greener GP T\ro the GP Mk I aild long for combat use. Thus when com- will wear out in the near future Calibre: 12 qaugre
GP Mk III, are now rarely encountered bat shotEnrns have been required in a Weight: 2.95 kg
-:r they were chambered for special- hurry, as happened during the Specification Lengrths:overall 1130 mm (44,48 in);
--.--loaded police cartridgres that are Malayan Emergency of the late 1940s, Webley Greener GP Mk II (71O-mm barrel7l0 mm (27.95 in)
:-:-,v rarely found except in collector's Greeners were seized in vices to have barrel) Feed: single shot

>K vikins Arms SoS


-:e pace of small arms design in re-
:eili years has been such that the re-
-a,:vely recent 'all-inline' assault rifle
iesrgn has become so established that
: -""vhole generatron of recruits has
::en trarned with them and many have
:-e-,er fired a conventionally-stocked
: le or shotgun Thus when many sol-
i-ers are introduced to orthodox
-.';eapons such as the usual run of com-
:at shotguns they are somewhat at a
-:ss as to how to aim and handle them
-,i'iih
this in mind Vikrng Arms Limited
:: Harrogate has devised the Viking
Arms SOS shotgun which is so
arranged that it has the now accepted
-:-line layout: the butt actionandbar-
:el are all rn one straight line with the
::a. srghrs raLsed above rhe receLver
and the fore srght raised on a post over
:le muzzle
The SOS is in fact a conventional
manual pump-action l2-gauge shotgun
stocked to produce the in-line con-
iguration. It has a wooden butt and a
pLstol grip rn exactly the same way as a
modern assault rifle, and the srmple
sights are ratsed above rhe recerver rn forces under control and muzzle Jump budgets and some sales have been T he Viking Arms SOS slolgrun is
such a manner that the rear sight hous- is minimrzed made to lorces in Europe and else- representative of the trend towards
ing can be used as a carrying handle The SOS uses a manual slide pump where. Other sales have been made to militarization which has swept
ior the weapon again exactly as on an acro- alhed ro a rubular magazrne ctvilian shotgun enthusiasts and to through the shotgun world in the
established service rrfle such as the holding seven rounds. These may be satisfy their more orthodox shooting wake of the Franchi. Apart from the
American M16 series Thus a newly- of the shot or sluq variety. requirements rt is possrble that a butt M 1 6 - s ty le car rying hand le- cum- s ig ht
rrarned soldier encountering the SOS Where the SOS appears to have the stock of more conventlonal form may housing, it is otherwise a
ior the flrst time will be quite familiar edg^ 6n many ol r-s -onlampo.rarres s be produced for the SOS conventional 1 2-gauge shotgun.
i\rrth its general handling. His reaction that although it is well made and robust
:o the firing recoil after handhng a vir- it is reiatively rnexpensive. It is also Specification
rually recoilless 5 56-mm (O 219-in) rifle easy to maintain. The SOS has there- SOS
is another matter, even though the tn- fore appealed to many police forces Calibre: 12 qauqe Length: barrel616 mm (24.25 in)
line conflguration helps to keep recoLl who have to operate on limited Weisht: 3 37 kq (7.43 lb) Feed: 7-round tuoula r magazi-e

),726
Combat Sccrfterguns in Acfion
Shotguns first saw military service in the Philippine j ungle at
the turn of the century, and itis in such terrain that shotguns
have been mostwidely used. The advantages are obvious:
rnassive sft o rt-range firepower can be directed without
careful aiming to hit a target obscured by tropical vegetation.

The flrst use of the shotgun rn 20th century


counter-insurgency campargns in Asia occur-
red durtng the Moro Insurrection in the Phrlip
pines, starting rn l9O0 The US Army found ltself
fighting tough Moslem guerrillas, frequently so
drugged that they drd not even feel the rmpact
of the soldier's Krag-Jorgensen rifles, The
fiqhtlng on the trails of Samar and Mindanao While the shotgun generally relies on
was a series of fleetrng encounters, and the US its spread of shot to Warantee a hit. :i
Army needed a weapon that allowed quick should not be forgotten that, for an
reaction: the shotgun was the obvious answer, Am eric an mid-W e s t er n f arm boy.
The US military adopted the l2-gauge flve- knocking the bottoms outof dixie
shot Winchester MIB97 slide (pump) action cups with slug rounds at 100 yards k
just another way of spending the
shotgun, with its srngle barrel shortened to
afternoon, and yesterday's {arm-
50,8 cm (20 ln) to make it handier in ciose ter-
hand is today's recruit. Here a US
rain and to keep it from catching on vines and Marine takes careful aim with a
branches, The shotgun proved a popular and Remington870.
effective weapon and a useful supplement to
the service rifles,
Given the shotgun's success in the Phrlip-
prnes, it was not surprising that the US Army
again re-adopted the weapon when the USA
entered World War I The MI897 Winchester
was adopted as the standard 'trench broom'
modrfled so that rt could mount a bayonet, It
was supplemented by the l2-gauge five-shot
Remington MlO, About 40,000 shotguns were
procured, many seeing action in France. j
a p aradoxical
spaces fias
World War II again brought the US Army countetpartin thewide open spaces
back to the jungle, thrs time rn the Pacrflc, ef the sea.As an example, when the
a
US Coast Guard intercepts drug
Agarn the service reached ior the Winchester smugglers, boarding parties coulci
M1897. It was further modrfied, with a take- well have to defend themselves at
down feature, a Parkerized finrsh, and a stron close range once aboard a suspecl
ger stock, Supplemented by more recent Win- boat-

=+=-'i.r
Combat Scatterguns in Action

ffi t6
-lg
\*& lr.i
s.,
q'

;f ,;
ri. 94;F .- &tt
i&'d: ;ffiia
*e
:

chester Remrngton, Stevens and lthaca mod British army and its Commonwealth alhes. The US forces used sholgunsin sm all numbers during
els (the Remington M]] 'riot gun also saw British army had used shotguns in Burma dur- the Pacific campaign. The density of this jungle on
,-.-idespread use), US Army shotguns were ing World War II and in other campatqns, Guadalcanalgives an idea of whyweaponswith a
range of under I 00 yards were used effectively.
:sed for junqle fighting guardrng prisoners, although never in the same numbers as the US
-ld clearing out strongpoints. These same Army, In 1948, when the Communist insurgen-
.', eapons were also used in Korea, cy started in Malaya, the Brltish found that the used not the British made Lee Enfield rifle:
The use of the shotgun then spread to the most troublesome guerrillas were those who and Sten sub machine ouns that had been tn

tF €:i-

l" :

[{''=
!
Combat Shotgn:ns
,Shofguns, when suitably modified, make fine VI P
protection weapons. T he Presidential pr o te ction
unit of the US secret service uses these modified
l 2 - gauge Remington M ode l 87 0 s.

serted into Malaya for use agarns..:-.


Japanese, but those who used shotguns T:-=
same advantages that ied the Amencans .-
adopt the shotgun in the Phihpprnes (plus ::e
Iact LhaL, as a local weapon, many grerr.--:.:
were famiiiar wrth rts use) brought home :c .::
British that the shotgun would be an eflec.r'.':
weapon to adopt rn the jungle.
The Special Air Service, re-formed as sp.-
cialized counter-insurgency rnfantry in Mala-,-=
became the foremost users of shotguns rn :-:
British forces. A 1952 British study shorn ed ::-
in the conditions of lungle war, a shotgun ha:
greater chance of hrtting a fleeting targei :ir::
any other infantry weapon, After a great ie a
experimentaiion and use of fleld expeci:e:.:
the British standardized the Browning A5 s=: .
automatic shotgun, The British preferrej
semi-automatic design because it olfere:
rapid second-shot capability.
The instant-reaction capabilrty of the
Green Beret Ambush gun appealed to the SAS. Sergeant Bob
bull of the SAS tracked down Ah Tuck a
A staff sergeant ofthe Green Berets opens fire on Viet Cong ambushers with an rilla leader who always kept his Sten gun c::.:
Ithaca 37 l2-grauge shotgmn while leading a Montagnard patrol in the Central ed and loaded. Hunter and hunted flnali1,- :-=
Highlands of South Vietnam, 1964. His captain holds an M l4 rifl e and the tribal in a 'quick draw' situation that was more ',-,---:
soldiers following sport M I carbines which are better suited to their stature. Note West than Far East, At a range of some l8 l.'..,
the wrist bands worn by the Special Forces, which were ceremonially presented yards) Ah Tuck never got a round off rn his --.
by Montagtnard sorcerers to bind these American advisers to the tribe. US
experience revealed No. 4 shot to have the right balance of spread and
showdown Turnbull showed the effectrve:=.:
penetration for close combat in tropical junqie. oi the shotgur in anotner encoun eT on d -:. : .

*,
i

!
Combat Scatterguns in Action

Winchester tlodel l2 l2-Souge 23li- n shotshel in chamber

TheWinchester Model I2 is an improvedversion


heat-treated stee recelver lloll a5semb y
of the grrandfather of all
fighting shotguns, the
Winchester Model I897. In almost 90 years of
combat use, the'CombatTrombone' has changed
very littlein its basic design, improvements being
confined to materials used in manufacture and to h,utlstock
details of the mechanism. The main external
change has been the loss of avisible hammer.

magazrne sprlng

buttstocL boll hammer spr ng 2314 in shot shel tn rnagazlne

s ide bar (left one onlv shown)

reco i pad

:ack, dropping a guerrilla with his shotgun


',',-hrle the officer next to him was strl1 slipping
:-s safety catch,
The Britrsh l2-gauge rounds used in Malaya
'.-;ere loaded with nine buckshot, The Brittsh
-::rd that although the full force of a shell was
:.,:remely effectrve, guerrillas htt by just one
s:r.. were incapacitated. He would then have
- be carried by his comrades, leaving a trail
:-a: could be followed and makrng the group Below: First used in cambat against Moro
Above: ln complete contrast to the oldWinchester,
=:andon its mrssion the ltalian-made FranchiSPAS l2 is as up-to-date tribesmen in the Philippines, theWinchester
The American involvement in Vietnam saw as they come. The hookon the folding butt is Model I897 soon found adherents world-wide.
-:-e most widespread use of shotguns in any designed towrap round theforearmwhile firing This particularweaponwas acquired by the Royal
::-rdern conflict The US Marines started the gun one-handed (although evenwith this Irish Constabulary, and may well have been in use
,:Jiring them in i965. Unlike the Britrsh, who support it is quite a handful!). during the 19 1 6 Easter Rising.

2730
Combat Shotgn:ns

s ide bar extension (wrapped


magaz ne Teta ner
around magaz ne)

maqaztne carl

tubu ar magazine
fore-end

preferred semi-automatic shotguns, the Amer- 1 Pumping the sl de


rcans stayed with the pump-action types they dlsengages the bolt, wh ch
nad used since 1900, Whlle this was reportedly also claws out the cartrldge
in the chamber. Winchester
because they were considered more reliable
'vhen dirty than semrautomatic weapons, the have utrlized the force of
the recoil to make thls a
iact that Americans were used to pump-action particularly smooth action
shotguns and that the military had always used
:hem certainly played a role, The favourite 2 When the sljde is f ully
nilitary shotgun was the Ithaca M37, If the trtg- back, the she I carrier
Jer was held back, it would fire as fast as you drops, unblocking the
:ouid work the pump action, The other stan mouth of the tubu ar
magazine. A shell is f ed into
Card military shotgnrn, the Remington 870, lack-
the carrier, whi e the old
:d this feature, the Remington M10 shotgun she sejectedfromthe
=rd Mll 'riot gun'were also used, along with election port.
:1e Winchester M1897 and M1912. While ex-
:ellent weapons, the older Winchester de 3 Pushing the s ide
s-Jns were considered too delicate for Vtet- forw,ards ralses the shel
carrier, simultaneously
: am conditions
clos ng the magaztne and
Ammunition shortcomings feeding the fresh shel into
the chamber. When fully
The ammunition of choice, as in Majaya, was forward, the bolt rotates,
buckshot, However, the terrain rn the area of Locking n place with f our
South Vietnam where the US Marines were l ugs.
leployed was not jungle. Where there were
ew engagements at longer than 69-m (75-
-,
ard) range in Malaya, the US Marines found
j]emselves firing at targets farther away than
-.:lose the Brrtish would have had to hit in
I.lalaya. While ihe buckshot shells could easily
-.:,I at 27 m (30 yards) and wound at 55 m (60
.-ards), the spread pattern made it possrble to
r:-rss a man-size target at anythrng more than
::int blank range.
One attempt to make US shotguns more
-=:hal was the flechette load for shotgun shells,
;-nned 25,4-mm (1-in) flechette (penetrating
;:cjectiles with a low mass, but high veloctty)
,".-ere introduced to Vretnam as filhngs for the
:eehive' artrllery shells intended for self-de-
:::.ice use by howltzers in danger of belng
:','errun by massed rnfantry attacks, Flechet-
packed into shotgnrn shells, had a velocity
=s,
:- m (2 000 ft) per second and could pene-
310
:a:e a flak jacket at 437 m (400 yards). What
-:-:y could not penetrate was undergrowth, so
::rse bush would shield a target from a
-::hette shell.
Shotguns were also useful for irregular
l'!odern combat shotguns have until recently been
:cnversions of sporting or police weapons. As
s::ch they are usually available in a variety of
s:rles, and the Mossberg 500 family shown here is
: ady typical. Variations include finish, magazine
s:ze and sights (rifie sights indicating choked
;arrels).
Combat Scatterguns in Action

rroops, Even those without much marks-


manship training or fire discipline can at least
point a shotgnrn at the enemy and fire. At the
range of most jungle encounters, something
should hit, Most Asian farmers are hkely to
hrow how to use shotguns, The British used

L
aborlgrnal trackers rn Malaya and lban tribal &
trackers in Borneo, and these were mainly ''.:si#*l

armed with shotguns, The British-formed


Home Guard units in Malaya (a key element in
the ultimate victory as it involved the populace
tn defeating the guerrrllas) made heavy use of
shotguns. Thrs Britrsh experience 1ed to the
widespread adoption of the shotgun by vrllage
defence forces, South Vretnamese army re-
gional forces and irregmlar units in Vietnam.
I:ater in the war, it was proposed to equip the
village defence forces wrth riot-type shotguns,
Over I00,000 Savage, Ithaca, Remington and
Winchester weapons were delivered but the
uncrated weapons, stored in Saigon, were cap-
tured at the end of the war,
The'Bloop gun'
The most widespread'shotgun' used in Viet-
nam was not a shotgun at all, but rather the US
M79 40-mm grenade{auncher, Found in each Above: The modern shotgun can fire a very wide
US Army rifle squad, the 'Bloop gmn' replaced range of ammunition. The varieties shown include
'he rifle grenade, firing a high explosrve gre- birdshot, buckshot, solid rifled slugs (which can
stop an elephant or a car at close range), solid
rade up Io 274 m (300 yards), Because of the shot, and a special penetrator CSgrasshell.
:agmentatron radius of the grenade, it had a
ninimum range under which it would not ex-
plode to avoid killlng the gunner himself.
Iherefore, for close ranqe use, two shells, one
Below:While the military use of shotguns is likely
:cntaining 27 buckshot and the other contarn- to increase, it is inparamilitary and law
rg 45 flechettes, were developed for the M79. enforcement hands that it is most often seen today.
','.hen close-range action was anticipated, as
Tiisgasmasked police officer stands guard
-,',-hen clearing buridings or bunkers, the M79
during a siegewhich took place inCleveland,
J;nner would quickly load a shotgmn round, Ohio.
lee Vietnam tableau in the Imperial War
l'l,-rseum in London shows this taking place.
The US military shotguns were used for the
.:aditional tasks of patrolling, guard, and
:ench-clearing, They were aiso used for seif-
prctection. Helicopter pilots hked to use shot
;-rs because they were more effective than a
rs:ol and could be fired from a hovering helr
lrpter or moving vehicle.
Cne occasion when the shotgun's rapid rate
:- :ire and quick reaction saved a helicocpter
--.-J of wounded was during the bitter close-
:=rge flghting around Hiep Duc during Opera-
-:r'Frederick Hill' on 18 Augmst 1969. Wound-
=j iroopers of the Americal Division were
-:Lng loaded onto a 'dust-off medical evacua-
-:n Bell UH-l helicopter flown by Warrant
l:Lcer 2 Steven Hrll the l76th Aviatron
of Com
!^rry Out of the smoke and dust emerged a
l.:rth Vietnamese reqular, armed with an AK
=- and grenades, He raised his Kalashnikov at
:e same time as Hrll grabbed for his shotgun,
he got the first round oflthrough the cock-
=:.C-window,
:-- The North Vretnamese was de
:aprtated by the blast,
Since Vretnam, the US Army strll retains an
-:-.erest in shotguns, The 12-gauge Mossberg
l"l-00 pump shotgun is currently being pro
:.-rred, A current pro;ect is the Heckler & Koch
l.cse Assault Weapon (CAW) which would
=:.omatical1y frre 19.S-mm belted shotshells.
- :us design was based on the lessons of Malaya
Vietnam and emphasizes reliabrlity, raprd-
=C ci fire,
,.. fast reloadabilrty, large magazine Above:The SouthAfricanpolice have been seen
using shotguns more often than most of late.
:apacity, maximum hrt probabilrty, and hrgh Whatever the rights and wrongs of a political case,
s-rgle round lethality. Whrle this remarkable theshotgun allows smallnumbers of security men
r;eapon is still under development, the day of to control large crowds on the edge of riot. Used
:re shotgun rn counter-insurgency conflict is by inj udiciously, however, such weapons can
:_l means over ex acer bate dis tur b ances.
Combat Shotgru-ns

i
i;
;--,-,

6 _;l

:.,t,,,:,dGdls:*i#iii*9ii:i9i9*"

ffiffiffiffiffiffi

.\-bove : A Special Weapons And T actics (SWAT) Right: Not only the law enforcer makes use of ffie
:eam moves in to end a hostage cnsisr'n.Los shotgun. In Britain in particular it is the most
-inge/es. While the military value of the shotgun is readily available firearm, and a double- barrelled
::sing, it is law enforcement andparamilitary sportinggun in the hands of acriminalmakes a
agencies who currently find its performance ideal uiciousweapon (particularly with a sawn-aft
:cr use inside buildings. barrel).

.:;cze: Theend result of a SWAT team actioninOklahoma. The shotgun complements the high-powered
::-'le,n sucft cases, being particularly effective indoors and at close proximitywhere its shortrange
;ea"Jy decreases the danger for passers-by.
%i H*i tt and Wesson Shotguns
Smith and Wesson is well known for its
ranqe of pistols, but the company has
also produced shotquns for many
years mainly lor the police market
Typical ofsuch police weapons are the
pump actron Smith and Wesson Model
912 and Model 3000 (the latter is strll in
production). In recent years Smith and
Wesson has been researchrng the fu-
ture shotgun market, and has as a re-
sult designed the Smith and Wesson
AS (Assault Shotgun) series of combat
shotguns
The AS shotguns are simrlar in con-
cept to the weapons of the US Army's
CAWS programme Although still in
the development staqe the AS is to be
available in three versions The AS-1 is
a semi-automatic weapon the AS-2 is
also a semi-automatic version with a
three-round burst capability, and the
AS-3 is a fully automatic weapon cap-
able of multiple-round burst flring, In
overall rppearance rhe lhree versrons
are similar, and all resemble an assault
rifle of the Ml6 variety, Thus they all
have all-in-hne confrgnrrations and all
use detachable l0 round box maga-
zines located rn lrcnr of rhe rrrgger
position, which is complete wrth a prs-
tol grip As always with such weapons,
ihe siqrhts are raised above the receiv-
er, this time on a lonq rib. necessary The muzzle is fitted with a thing is for sure by the time the CAWS The Smith and Wesson Model 3000
The AS series can all flre l2-qauqe compensator to reduce barrel Jump programme is completed the result (rf series was desiErn ed specifically for
shot or slug cartddges, but the new on firing and also to reduce flnngr flash. any) will be expensive and by then the po lice and military s e cur ity wor k.
CAWS ammunitron is an optron. The It would appear that with the AS AS serres will probably be in produc- TheAS series, a prototype of which is
mechanism has a rotary lockrng bolt series Smith and Wesson are setting its tlon at a more attractive price than seen ftere, ate combat weapons pure
-,vlth no fewer than 12locking lugrs, Alu- cap at the military rather than police most competitors andsimple.
nrnium lorgings are used for the re- market. In Amedcan seruice terms the
:erver housing and hrgrh-impact plas- AS arrives on the scene durrnq the Specification
r:s are used for much of the furniture. CAWS programme ior whtch the AS Lengrths: (overall) 1054 mm (41.5 rn)
le weapon can be easily stripped lor candrdates appear to have already Calibre: l2 gauge barrei 476 mm (18 74 rn)
:leanrng or maintenance, and the bar- been selected, so it remains to be seen Weights: empty 4. 42 kg (9,7 4 lb), Feed: l0-round box magazine
::l can also be changed qurckly when how Smith and Wesson fares, One loaded 5.69 kq (12 54 lb) Rate offire: AS-3, cyclic 375 rpm

ffi USA

Mossberg 500 series


3 F Mossberq and Sons Inc. is a rela-
: -.-e newcomer to combat as opposed
: sporting shotgnrns, for its first such
r, eapon the Mossberg Model 500,
:ppeared rn i961. This was an attempt
-: break rnto the police shotgun mar-
<3i then domrnated by the many
:s,ablished 'big names. After a while
i,lossbergs made their market break-
:rough and the Model 500 is still the
lf,mpanys'base' product
The Model 500 is a manual sltde-
, -'ron I 2-gaLqe weapor. The recetvet
:ody is forged from higrh-grade alumi-
:.um and the steel bolt locks into a
barrel extension to take the f,rinq ioads
:-i the receiver. Most components
s;ch extractors and action slides
as the
are doubled'to produce strength and
:e[abrlity and this makes the Model
-CO a very robust weapon despite its
,:rn'' overail pnce These pornts have
rade the Model 500 and its derivatrves
',..idely-used police weapons, but
Ir4ossberg has also produced combat the normal hardwood frxed compo- entrrely enclosed ln a strong thermo- Although produced by a much
-.'ers10ns. nent. The Model 500 ATP-BSP has sold plastic materral so there are few com- younger company thanmany of its
One is the Model ATP-BSP. Thts ts weil but is now due to be repiaced by ponents to catch on clothinq or any- competitots, the Mossberg 500
rasrcally a police Model 500 wrth a an updated combat model. thrng else. This is partly negated by series soon found success. Latest
:on-reflectlve flnish and extra atten This is the Model 500 Bullpup 12, As the all-in-irne bullpup layout that drc- models appearvery different, but
:,cn given to the protectrve flnrsh of its name implies, thrs is a'bullpup'de- tates that the rear and fore sights have the gunmechanism itself is hardly
:r.rery component. A bayonet mount is sign with a pistol grip assembly placed to strck up on posts but these can be altered.
;"ov ded and there is even pio,Lston for-ward of the recerver This makes folded down when not required
rr mounting a telescoprc stqht for use the weapon considerably shorter than The Bullpup 12 can be manufac- Specification
,';hen flringrslugts, although this feature its conventional equivalent and thus tured 'from new', but Mossberq pro Bullpup 12
;. culd appear to be httle used. A perfo- much easrer lo honole ano stow in con- duces a kit to convert exrstrnq Model Calibre: L2 gauge
:ated handgmard may be frtted over flned spaces, a considerable selling 50Os to Lhe revLseo configurarior. Weisht:3.85 kq (8.49 ib)
::e barrel and as with most of the point for many police and military au- Lengths: (overall) 784 mm (30.87 in);
iviodel 500 ranqre an up-and-over fold- thorities On the Bullpup l2 the receiv- barrel S0B mm (20 rn)
-:qf metai stock may be used in place of er and much of the weapon body is Feed: 6- or B-round ruoular maqaz.re

2134
itt""" Combat Shotgruns
3Z M and P
=
-: the USA the shotgun is a well-estab-
--shed police and penal establishment
'reapon, to the extent that many shot-
;:ln manufacturers frnd it well worth
..reir whrle 'o produce weapons tai-
-:red to individual police department
speciflcatrons. Some of these police
',';eapons come very ciose to military
:cecrficarrons. and such a weapon rs
.re lthaca LAPD shotgun a weapon
cased on the Ithaca DS. In its turn the
lvlodel DS is based on a very well-
:stablished design known as the ltha-
ca 37 M and P, very robust and well-
:rade weapons that have been pro- D9-r79lop9!_frop s lightweight design datingfromWorldWar I, thelthaca3T was one of tfiesfan dard military sftorEruru
juced wuh policing requlrements .n of WorldWarll.TheM andP (MilitaryandPolice) modelis availablewithbothfive- andeight-round magazines.
lncl.
The Modei 37 series has been
around for some trme: during World
,Var II it was one of the shotquns
selected by the US Army for military
-se. It was used duringr that perlod for
;:eneral shotgun purposes rncludrngt
:-ot control guard duties and even
skeet and sport shootinq for offlcer re-
:reatron, and was then available in
rree barrel lengths. The current Mod-
:1 M and P modeis are not drsslmrlar to
.re World War 1l versions, but are now
rade that much more rugEred.
The current Model 37 M and P 12-
;auge shotguns are produced with a The eight-shotModel37 M and P is available only with a 508-mm (20-in) barrel, although a shorter barrel can be
:ange of optLons avarlable, They may fitted to the five-shotversion.The DS (Deer Slayer) is an especially accurate model, fittedwith rifle-type sights.
be fltted wrth a flve- or eight-round
-.:bular maqazrne, and the two barrel Wlth the Model LAPD the Model DS reports mention their use by the British i016 mm (40 in); barrel 4. ::-
I :: : , !
-engths are 474 mm (18.5 rn) and is taken one staqe further. Produced SAS (18 5 or 20 rn)
508 mm (20 rn) Both are used to flre the for the Los Angeles Police Department AIi the weapons in the Model 37 M Feed:5 orB-round -ucLl.-' :-.-:= -:
:sual range of lZ-gauge shot car- (hence LAPD) this model has a rubber and P rangre have Parkerrzed finishes
:ndges using a cyhnder choke barrel butt pad special sights, slinq swivels to reduce wear and the need for con-
'.';hereas the Model DS (DeerSlayer and a carrying strap It has a 470-mm stant cleanlng. The more highly finished
::om he Ilnaca Irademark;hasaprecr- (18 S-in) barrel, a flve-round tubular appearance of this Ithaca 37 DS
s,on-bored cylindrical barrel that can magazine and, like all the other models Specification Police Special atfesfs to jts orjll::-
be used to frre healry slugs, The Model in the Model 37 M and P range, uses a ModelPandM role as a civilian hunting weapc:.
lS has a 508-mm (20-in) barrel only robust manual shde pump action. Calibre: 12 gauge JVevertfteiess, j ts \ightvieighi
rld sights are provided. The optron ol Some of these weapons are used by Weishr: 2 94 kq (6.48 lb) or 3.06 kq accuracy and reliable action :nake ::
::r,e- or eight-round magazrne s car the 'special forces'ofseveral nations as (6,745 rb) effective as a paramilitary anc -a;r
r-ed over. they are ideal combat shotqnrns, Some Lengrths: overall (508-mm barrel) enforcement arm
HF
tr=:::=:= Ithaca Mag- I0 Roadblocker
For the Americans the motor car has
become such a feature ofeveryday life
thal it now appears thal even crime
cannot be committed without the
assistance of the internal combustlon
engine, To counter this use of auto-
mobiles most American police forces
employ various methods of preventingt
car occupants from continuingt their
uniawful activities, methods that vary
foom Teflon-coated bullets to crack en-
gine cylinder blocks to heavy shotqun
projectiles that can penetrate vehicle
bodres and hit occupants. One such
hear,ry shotgun rs the Ithaca Mag-10
Roadbiocker.
The Roadblocker is a l0-gauqe shot-
Normally this heavy carrloge
gn-rn.
which is as much as half as Powerful
again as the l2-qauge tYPe, ts used
only by the most ardent of bigt qame
hunters It produces a powerful recoll,
but when heavy cartridqe loadtngs or
solid sluqs are used the lO-gauge shot-
gun becomes a truly formidable piece
of short-ranqe weaponry, tdeal for
counterinq criminals in sPeeding
motor cars The heavy shot or sluqi pro
lectiles can easily pass through most a In tests, solid rifled slugs from a 10'
:rdinary vehrcle bodies or wind- Roadblocker is not a comfortable task heavy load of lO-qauge cartridqe
A tubular magazine holds only three could cut through heavy foliage far gauge fired at cars frotn 25 m (27
screens and still retatn enough power
o wreak haroc to lhe Interioi cartndges. The barrel may be left tn a more effectively than even a heaw 12- yards) to the rear have passed
The Roadblocker rs a semi-automa- plarn form or tt may be covered bY a gauge load, and the effect on a human through the whole vehicle and
:-c shotgun that parttally overcomes ventilated rib. In both cases all metal- target can be left to the imagrination. A cracked the engine block.
-' e heavy recott problem by'ncorpol - work is Parkertzed to reduce the need weapon Iike the Roadblocker could
aiLng a patented 'Countercoil' compen- for constant cleaning. also be used to disable the Iight miht- Specification
sator that absorbs some of the recoil Weapons such as the roadblocker ary vehrcles in special forces opera- Roadblocker
-:rces and prolongs them over a shon may be an extreme method of tions The matn drawback would Calibre: I0 gauoe
apprehending criminals but they can appear to be the wetght of the weapon Weight:4.87 kq (10 74 Ib)
-rterval to make the recotl felt by the barrel 558 mm (21,97 in)
1er mote acceptablet there is also a aisb have a combat role. In jungle war- Lengrth:
:rbber butt pad. Even so flrinq the fare counter ambush situatrons the Feed: 3 rolnd lubllar magazlne

itt *"" stakeout


= In the USA the police term stakeout ts
usually employed to denote an under-
cover or clandestlne operation, usually
circumstances there is a more man-
aqeable 20 gauge version. At the close
ranges envlsaqed for the Stakeout a
with the butt stock replaced by a ptstol
grip similar to that of the Stakeout In all
other respects the Handgrrip is exactly
in plain clothes In such operations the 20-qauge cartndqe can be just as the.same as the Model 37 M and P
shotgun has found a niche as a power- effectrve as the l2-gauge type. Only shotguns and carries over the same
ful close-range weapon for offenslve shotloading cartridges are fired from maqrazine capacity and barrel length
and defensive purposes, and some the Stakeout as the recoil from flrtngt options. The overall length of the
manufacturers have seen fit to develop heavy slugs would make the QIun too Handgrip makes it generally unsuit-
specral models for this undercover drfflcult to handle. able for the clandestine role of the
role. Such a modei rs the lthaca Stake- The 2O-qaugte Stakeout has a blued Stakeout but rt can be easily carried
out, a weapon unlikelY to be encoun- finish butthe 12 gauge versionmaybe and stowed within the conflnes of
tered tn a milttary combat role but very obtained in erther a Parkerized or a police vehicles. The Handqrip is used
surtable for ctvtl and military police spectacuiar chrome-plated ftnish to frre shot cartndges only.
use. placing the latter well out of most milit-
The lthaca Stakeout is a short ary speciflcations. Even so many miltt- Specification
weapon without a stock, even a foldtng ary as well as civil police forces have Stakeout
one. It has been designed to be as added the Slakeout to tneir armouries Calibre: 12 or 20 qauge
as possibie to enable lt to be There rs another lthaca model simi Weisht: (12 sause) 2 26 ks (4 98 lb) or
aled under clothing or in a brtef lar in concept and employment to the t20 gauga; - 58 ko t 3 48 lb)
case or similar innocuous contalner' To Stakeout but known as the Handgrip, Length: barrel 336 mm (13.23 tn)
nold ln^ wedpon a pisrol grip ts oro- Thrs is in effect a standard Model 37 Feed: 5-ro rnd lub-la- magazine
vided, and the usual pump-action fore-
grip is retarned, a smail strap beinqt
provtdeo ro make Ihtr loregrip more
positive The Stakeout is based on the
Model 37 M and P but is Produced tn
two calibres. One rs the usual 12
gauge, but sinie it is felt that this could
prove to be a bit of a handful 1n some

Left:Notably compact and Wht, the


I th aca S takeout giv es the s ecurity
agent or bodyguard enormous
firepow er, being a der iv ative of the
Model3T M andP which retains the
five-shot mag azine. I t is available in
both 1 2- or Zj-gauge and in a
number of finishes. So/id s/ugs are
not recommended for use in these
weapons, as the recoil could make IJnlike the Stakeout, the Handgrip Model37 is basically a standard Model3T
handling a little tricky. M and P with a pistol grip.I t is designed for use within vehicles.
ffi tltrincrrester shotguns Combat Shotgruns
The US Repeatinq Arms Company,
usually known as Winchester, is best
known for its rifles, but also produces
shotguns for the sportinq market and
also for police and paramilitary Lrse In
the past Winchester shotgurs were
produced in a wide variety of modeis
including the Winchester Model 12
used during World War II and some of
the few box-magazine combat shot-
gmns ever produced, but current mod-
els are limited to a few manual slide-
actron models.
The basic Winchestbr shotgn-ur mod-
el is a lZ-gauge desiqn knorm as the
Defender and produced primarily for
police employment, although it has
been found in mrlitary hands. Overall
the Defender is a conventional desiqn
but the action is compact and as always
-,vith Winchester weapons the stan-
iard of manufacture and finish rs frrst-
class, Operating the slide action opens
and closes a rotary bolt that provides a US Repeating Arms Company (otherwise known as Winchester) Model I 200
very positive and safe lock, and the slide-action shotgrunshave4ST-mm (18-in) barrels and are finished in a
,:nlockrng is recoil-assisted to speed satinized chrome which minimizes reflected light and resists corrosion.
ihe overall action considerably, plac-
ing the weapon almost into the semr- ter also has all its external metal parts Specification
'luromarrc class. The tubular magazrne chrome-plated. The result is a striking- Defender
extends to just under the muzzle and looking weapon but one which would Calibre: 12 gaugre
:an hold slx or seven cadridges, de- seem to have some eye-catching Weight:3.06 kq (6 74 lb) or (staintess
pending on whether they are normal drawbacks in combat situations. steel models) 3. 17 kq (6.99 Ib)
shot cartridges or the Ionger hear,ry However, this model has been sold, Length: barrel 457 mm (lB in)
slug type. The flmsh is usually blued or usually to paramilitary forces such as Feed: 6' or 7-round ubuldr maqaztne
f

Parkerized. but there is a versron pro- coastQuards who use shotguns to arm or (stainless steel models) 5- or 6-
duced specially for police use, a1l the boarding parties, round tubular magtazine
metalwork berng stainless steel, This
'rersion may be fitted with rifle{ype
stghts for flring slugs, and the maga-
zine is slightly shorter than that of the
siandard Defender. Sling swivels are
:lso provided.
Perhaps the most unusual ofthe cur-
::nt Winchester shotguns rs one pro-
iuced specially for use by navai or
rarine forces This rs based on the
lefender but is more akrn to the stain
-:ss steel police modei for it has been
resigned to be corrosion-resistant, Al1
-,'.'eaponsin a naval environment are
.':bject to the effects of corrosive salts
-rd stainless steel is proof agalnst
-:iny of them To ensure virtually com-
:-3ie protection the'marine' Winches- Above : I n future, British police r.
=,
we ll follow this Winche s te r ar=. e
Right and below: Winchester has American model. with fireproo: =
produced the Defender in three overalls, bulletproof ve s t an ci
relatedversions, all available in visored he Imet Shotgun-armec'
butted ot pistol grip form. The police policemen are now seen on the
n odel is built from starh/ess sleel, streets of London when Scotlanc.
and has a smaller magazine capacity Yard's specialist weapons offi cer s
'jan the standard Defender. areonduty.

...::-.

il

S!*t€: Fol!.€

',..r-&l;$kq€:j$q*
ry] fr"*ir,gton Model 870 Mark I
It rs very probable that over the years Remington shotguns have a long
more Remingtton shotguns have been history of combat usage, but the
'.sed for combat purposes than anY Model870 was notofficially adopted
cther make. The hst of Remington quns until the mid- I I 60 s, when the U nited
is such that even a listtng would prob States Marine Cotps took the
ably cover a page, so onlY one combat weapon towar in the jungles of
model will be considered. This is the Vietnam. I t has also been widely
Remington Model870 modifled for use adopted as a police weapon.
by the US Marines and known as the
Shotgun, l2-gauge, Remington, Model maqazine but the end of the Vietnam
870, Mark I War terminated the scheme at the adv-
The Model 870 has been one ofthe anced development stage.
most wrdely used of all shoiguns for
some time It has been Produced ln Specification
basrc models such as the Model 870R Mode1870 Mark I
(Riot) and Model B70P (Police), but Calibre: l2 gauge
there have been many other types and Weisht: 3 6 kq (7.94 lb)
an equally larqJe number of conver Lengrths: (overall) 1060 mm (41.73 in)
srons and adaptations. The Model 870 barrel 533 mm (2I in)
is a slide-action weapon, and when the Feed: 7 rou no tubu'ar mogazi ne
US Marine Corps conducted ProsPec
:rve combat shotgnrn trials durlngr 1966 Below: Such is the usefulness of the
i decrded that, for reasons of reltabtltty shotgun in the jungle, that the British
r combat, such a weapon would be Army madeextensive use of the
',relerdble To one ol -he manY seni- we apon in counter- terrorist
r.rtomatlc actions available, and the operations in Malaya, both against
l',{odel 870 was the USMC's matn Communists and during the
:roice. After a few modifrcatrons to suit I ndonesian confrontation. T he fully-
.:e USMC's requirements exactlY, the stocked Remington 870 is one
l.'iodel 870 Mark 1 was placed tn pro- actually used in the Far East; the
irction and has remained ln USMC other is a folding stocked riot gun
.:rvtce ever since with extended magazine.
The Model B7O Mark I has a seven-
:::nd tubular maqazine and is used to
-:: a wide ranqe of ammunltlon from
-,::rt shot to flechettes. The gun has
:-ary 'extras to suit the US Marines
..:ch as sling swivels) and the maga-
--:e extension hotding bracket has a
-:: to mount a bayonet (of the same
..!e as that used on the MLOA1 rlfle)
,:-: ventitated hand-quard over the
::rel and the rubber butt Pads found
,:. rnany civilian' Model BTOs are not
'::d to the Mark 1 as they were not
i::med necessary for combat use.
lle US Marines have used thelr
l.l:del 870 Mark Is qurte often slnce
':.. . r/eye rnlloduced Tho weapon is
:-: 3ne that is usually carried duringt
-rgre-scale amphibrous operatlons
:... the US Mannes have manY other
:: rbat tasks includinqtforminq board-
,l
oartles during acttons such as that
::ried out durtng the almost forgotten
l.laTaguez incrdent of May 1975. The
=:-rs were used widely during the
.,:,nam War (often by SEAL teams)
there is no reason to suppose that
=i
:-: US Marines have now forglotten
::r; to use shotquns
At one polnt there was a Project to
r:rvert the Model 870 Mark i to
-r.ommodate a 10- or 2O-round box

€ f"n"o, Jackhammer
ie Pancor Jackhammer is a verY re- an angled groove on the magazlne to settes', are delivered pre-loaded and to fail free.
-
:ent arrival on the combat shotgiun start the rotatton to the next round. sealed rn plastic film colour-coded to The Pancor Jackhammer is sttll tn
operattng mechan- Once forward the barrel ts Pushed siqmfy the iype of cartndge enclosed the advanced development stage, and
s:ene but rt uses an
ba.P oy d sorlnq ard the Thrs seahng film has to be removed rt is very possible that some alteratlons
-sm that has been around for some magdzlne
to the mechanism and./or appearance
,me. The weapon has many origrtnal rotation rs completed. (This system before loadrnq. It is not possrble to load
was used on the Wortd War I WebleY- single cartrrdQres, althouqh stnqle- may be made before full production
-:atures not the least of whrch beinqt gets under way, In the meantlme the
-;at it can frre on full automatic and it Fosbery revolver.) Once the barrel round flre can be selected.
also uses a pre loaded rotary maga- has returned the weapon is ready for The sights are contalned in a chan- Jacknamme' apoears to be a verY tn-
-re the next shot. On iull automatrc the cyc- nei on the assembly that acts as a car ia"astrng and prors nc deston.
The Jackhammer possesses an un- Itc tote ot frre rs 240 tounos pcr n inute ryrng handle This extends for almost
-;ual appearance and has a bullPuP' and barrel jump ls parttally offset by a the entlre lenqith Frrinq the Jackham-
downward angled muzzle compensa- mer 1s not the problem for left handed Specification
r. .hgl-rdlron w.rh the I olarv magazlne
:laced behind'the tnqqer. The pre- tor that doubles as a flash ellmLnator firers that bulipup layout weapons Jackhammer
The Jackhammer makes much use usually are, for no spent cartridge Calibre: 12 grauge
--raded plastrc magazine holds 10 Weisht: loaded 4.57 ks ( 10 ]b)
r:unds and is chpped into the weapon ol tough pJas tcs tlrouohoul its con' cases are ejected: they rematn rn the
struction In fact only the barrel, return rotary magazine that can be discarded Lengths: (overall) 762 mm (30 tn);
:efore the fore-end of the stock is barrel 457 mm ( lB tn)
rcved to and fro to cock the weapon. spring magazrne rotatlon mechanism once all rounds have been fired. When
and muzzle flash elimtnator are steel. rne magaziro rs emoly a rela.ning Feed: .0-rour^d rotary maga-ire
Jr flrLnq the barrel moves forward As
offire: cyclic 240 rpm
Coes so a gas-operated stud moves in The magaztnes known as 'ammo cas- catch opens and allows the component Rate

r-38
Close-Assauff Weqpon Sgstems
Theefficacyof the shotgunin close-
quarter combat has led to the US Joint
Services Sm all Arms Program issuing a
specification for a C lose Assa u/f
W e apon Sys tem. M any author itie s s ee
tftr as a viable small-arm system for the
future.
:v the late 1970s the US Army had ceen icrced
l accept the fact that no matter hcw gocd ihe
:aining of the average soldier beiore he goes
'::o action, combat stresses render him unable
.: fire a service rifle accuraiely Ths sLmple
::ct was no revelation to most mililal-r- aui5ot The OlinlHeckler & Koch entrant into the Close ACAWS buckshot shell is broken down into its
-.-es although few were able ic dc anithing Assault Weapon System competition is fired. The constituent parts. One of the results of British
--cout it (other than impose yet mcre -rarnng), CAWS is more akin to modern assault rifles than to analysis of shotgun performance in Malaya was the
:rt in 1979 the US Army deternrnei :c see current shotgun designs, which is not really realization that a hit by a single shot, out of the
',';nat could be done to rectfy:he na:-er. surprising in a weapon designed for the front line. eight or so per shell, could incapacitate a man.
The US Army's approach was :o de-';elop a
',';eapon thaL does noL regutre accLrra:e aJnrng fired from a single cartridge at hrgh velocity, the human frame rs best left undescrrbed.
,: hrt a combat-type target Tnts icrm of and is no newcomer to warfare, Flechettes The AAI CAWS weapon is a fairly conve:-
',',
eapon did not require much deve:cpment for were fired from shotguns in Vietnam, and they tional gas-operated design that can be fueci ::-
-: has been around for years: ti Ls caLled the have been a recurrent feature of American fu1ly automatic yet is contractually obirgec ::
srotgmn, However, the US Army wan:ed some- ammunition developmeni since World War 11. have no more recoil than a normal shotgiui- -.
ring slightly more certain of efiective target For the CAWS programme flecheltes are fired has a lZ-round detachable box magazine --
:ngagement at combat ranges than a simple from l2-gauge brass or plastic cartrtdge cases optrcal srght and uses some MI6 compone:-=
.cattergun. Thus the Close-Assault Weapon 76,2 mm (3 1n) long. AAI uses eight flechettes to In contrast the Olin/Heckler und Koch s.*:-
System (CAWS) was born, the latest in a long a loadinq; the Olin cartridge uses 20. Both load- mrssion resembles a 'space age' weapon, ::: -.
-ne of similar projects. ings have to be effecitve up to 150 m (164 is an adaptation of the Heckler und Koch C- -
CAWS is not just a weapon progiramme but yards), Standard l2-gauge shot cartridges are rifle, originally designed to flre case-ess
:rore of an ammunition approach as the combat also fired from the CAWS weapons and oiher ammunition, Unlike the rrfle much olthe bcd-.- -s
.:lotgun rs now well esiablished, \,rhrat has ammunition (such as armour-piercing, high ex- steel, but the fore end rs high impact p.as:-:
:een done by the US Army Joint Small Arms plosive and rrot-control munitions) are under wrth a small optical sight set over the body- ::=
?rogram [SSAP), sponsors for CAWS, ts to development, lO-round magazlne is located behlnd ihe :-;-
With both types of flechette ammunitron the ger, The West German milrtary authori:ies -=
=pproach two commercral organizations and taking great interest rn CAWS with a r-.e;,' .-
:et them to develop the ammunrtion and propellant pushes forward a plastic piston to
eapons. These organizations are the AAI
-,',
eiect a pusher plate supporting the flechette possible adoption of the resultant weapol ::-l
Jorporation of Baltimore and a consortrum ol tails, each having a smal1 plastic drag cone. ammunition.
:e American Olln Industrtes and the West The pusher plate soon falls away to allow the
lerman Heckler und Koch, drag cones to stabrlize the flechettes in fltght. The O lin/ H eckler & Koch C lose As sault W e apo n
With both the approach has been to develop Accuracy rs such that a CAWS cartridge can System displays afamily resemblance to the
-echette ammunition, The flechette is one of a
put its entire flechette load into a 914-mm (36- revolutionary G I I rifle, although the outer case js
:-usier of small arrowlike finned prolectiles in) circle at 50 m (55 yards). The effect ofthis on steel rather than plastic.
FN Riot Shotgun (continued)

T he unus ua I P ancor J ac khammer


uses an acdon sr'm ilat to that of the
W ebley -F o s bery s e If- 1o ading
revolver of World W ar I. When firing,
the recoil forces the action back,
engaging a groove in the cylinder
which turns it and presents a new
shell for firing. Because the used
shells remain in the cylinder, the
Jackhammer avoids the problems
associated with bullpup designs, in
particular the ejection of cartridges
close to a shooter's face. On full
automatic, the I 0- shell magazine can
be emptied in ZVsseconds. The
Cutts-style compensator on the
muzzle brake holds theweapon
down when firing at that rate.

usA
ffi
Savage Model 77E
-
The Savage Model 77E is another shot-
gun wrth a long history, It was original-
stock and rubber butt pad to surt the
stature of South East Asian users was
then controversral M16,\1 rtfle Ex
perience showed that ln order to be
thrs armoury for although the weapon
worked well in South East Asia Amer-
ly known as the Model 520 and was in placed back rnto productron. This was fully effective at close quarters the ican troops dis[ked the short stock and
production during World War I, when the Model 77E, Model 77E had to be fired as rapidly as the limited magrazine capacity Thus
it was acquired by the US Army for The l2-gauge Model 77E is flnished possrble every time it was used. This Model 77Es were handed over to local
trench fightingr Later produced for to mihtary speciflcations but is other- qave rise to the battle phenomenon friendly forces or placed back rnto
sportrng uses in a form known as the wise sinilar ro the earl,e. spor'ino known as 'rolhng burst'. However, the store Many are still to be found here
Model 620, it went out of productron Model 520, It is an orthodox and sturdy restricted capacity of the magazine li- and there in the hands of various
entirely in 1932 and was then resur- manual pump-action weapon with a mileo -his ractrc ard l"oops caltytng armed forces, both regular and irregnr-
rected during World War II as a stan- tubular magazine holdinq flve rounds the Model 77E took every opportunity lar.
iard US Army liot gun', complete with and it can be easily broken down into to keep the magazine fully topped up
bayonet and sling two basic halves for stowaqe and car Standard shot and flechettes were the Specification
After 1945 most of the Model 520/ riagre. Although originally intended for usual combat loads. Model77E
32Os went back rnto storage, only to be Vietnamese forces Modei 77Es were The Model 77E proved the efficien- Calibre: L2 gauge
iragged out agaln when the Vietnam soon in use with the US Army and US cy of the shotgun tn modern warfare to Weight:3.08 kq(6 B lb)
:onllict flared. They were then issued Marines who used them to such good the extent that shotguns are once more Lengrths: (overall) 978 mm (38 5 in),
:: local armed forces for qeneral guard effect that subsequent combat analy a firmly established part of the Amer- barrel505 mm (19,9 in)
ard other dutres and the demand was ses showed that more casualties were ican armed forces armoury. However, Feed: 5-ro,nd lubula' nagazrne
=:ch that a revrsed version with a short inflicted by the Model 77E than the the Model 77E is now no longer part of

SOUTHAFR|CA
=
:€ Armsel Striker
-le Armsel Striker is a semi-automatrc l2-gauge ammunrtion ranginq from
-2-gauge shotqnrn that has only recent bird shot (often used in South Africa to
--; appeared on the market so recently drsperse crowds) to heavy metal slugs.
.:ai few specif,cations are available. It The weapon may be flred wrth the butt
's rn indigenors South African desigm folded, although flring the heavier
rcw being made by Reunert Technol- loads without using the butt could
:;y Systems near Johannesburg but prove somewhat too lively for comfort
::rginally created by Armsei) in- The sights are very simple, for the
:rded for uses ranginqf from crvilian Striker is obviously not meant as any-
s:li-protectron to full milrtary combat thinq other than a very short-rangre
applications. weapon for clearinq crowds or
The Strrker's main feature is its L2' perhaps rn close-quarter combat in
r:und rotary magazine This is a burlt-up areas, It could also prove to be
sirrng-wound desiqn loaded with car very useful in bush warfare where in-
rdges through a trap on the right rear fantry engagements and ambushes
:: rhe drurr. lhe magazrne sprrng ls are often at very close ranqes as a
:elsroned by a key at the front of the consequence ofthe overall lack ofvisi-
::agazine Once the weapon is loaded bility resulting from the prevalent short
:re pull of the trigger fires a round and scrub vegetation
rotates the next round into line with the Development of the Striker is said to
rnng being impossible to flre the
p1n, it be complete and rhe weapon is now jn
r. eapon until the firing pin is exactly in production As yet there is no indica-
,:ne with the next cartridge, The recoil tion that it has been accepted for
; claimed to be less than that of a police or military use, but consrderrng
rcrmal shotgun, although exactly why the circumstances that trouble South
:ris should be is not clear for the barrel African society rt wrll be very surprrs-
'< certainly shorter than those of most ing tf it does not find some form of
:ther similar weapons, It is possible off,cral acceptance in the very near
.iat the recoil is masked by the fact future
lat the Striker has a foregrip under
re barrel and a pistol grip; there rs Specifi cation: not avallable
:jso a metal stock that can be folded up
::d over the barrel, The barrel has a Itwould be surprising if a nation in
perforated metal sleeve to dissrpate arms /rke Soutft Africa did not come
:-eat produced by prolonged firingr up with some interesting small arms
ald to prevent the hot barrel beingr developments. T he semi- automatic
.ruched by the frrer's hand for the Armsel striker is a case in point, its
:aprd firinqr of the full 12 rounds would I2-shot rotary magazine giving
:ertainly produce a very hot barrel considerably more firepower than
The Striker can fire a wide ranqe of conventional guns.
Armed Forces of the ii,'cr-l

Venezudq
Amer ca, and rs the world's th rd largest o r exilorter.
Thus a fair amount of money is avai able to equ p the
lefence forces. The majority of the population is
:oncentrated in the main urban centres. and much
rf the country s essentially uninhabited. The presr-
ient is the cornmander- n-chlef of the armed forces,
,vhich are sp it into the three trad tional servtces
3rmy, navy and air force) plus a fourth, called the
:uerzas Armadas de Co Ooerac 6n, whlch rs a
-ational para-m tary po ce crgan zatlon <non/n
.:ml officiallv as the Nal one C-:,C
The Army
Venezuela is divided into f ve i .i -
, ie nominai army divis on atta.-:: ::
-c an armoured or'qade a
,ie light tank battalions) anC a :--:.':::
.,vo battalions).
orn-'.''-'- - ---
.^
The 27,50O-strong regular Armour The armed forces have benefitted from
-g units: a: -' Venezuela's massive oil revenues and are
equipped with relatively modern equipmer.:,
- Federacionrs one of a six-strong class ofVospe:-
, ^e armoured brigade (wlth four ta. < :..,: : -: a'-,'
^e cavalry regiment (horsed), |,^ ' T hornycroft F ast Attack C raft, armed w i th a :c ::.
SSMs and a 7 6-mm Compact Gun.
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:

. o independent mechan zedrn'e'--'. aa-.-.a -' : 6 cac<


-3 paratroop brigade (with two b:: -: : -: Tnere is also a smal ar-y a\ ot oi : :
' n'antrybrigadeb{wil1d ro.o c-' Servicio de Avracl6n del Ejercito Venezc :- , ..-
'

:nd 13 infantry rifle batta ions) ''3 .:^< testrovef has two squadrons: a transport unit ,r' :- ' I ' .- -
' .: towed artlllery groups, ar - wrng aircraft (of which the four lA Ara'.:: . - :
- -: self-propelled artrliery g roup, -rS.:nd Aer La ;a G222s are the rrosl i* porr"' .' . :

: -: rangerbngade (with six battal cns .


-- 3 2--rand copter unlt wlth some 20 Be I helicopte:s ,'
. -' - - -

: -: air-defenceart llerygroup, ano ,^---^- ^ - \,,/1 types.


' .: enqineer battalions. ,c-^-"^
I ti-armou r: 4.1 7- n)
The Navy
>:rprisingly, Venzuela was the first Sc.t- --:'- ir defence: [rke its sister services, the 4,250-sr.c-; =-=
.^ country to seek weapons frcrr .S s:--aas zuelan navy s endowed wlth relatve \ ^-:::'-
:wing World War I , and thls trend cor: ^-:: equrpment. The submarlne force is the n : - ,"=
-= medium tank battalions now use Frencn +,1"').- sve aTrl. and has two West German'-r,':= l-..
. 'lBTs which are due for modern zat on i :^: In common with many of the world's navies,
: -. near f uture, wh lst the s ngle I ght tank bar.la :' Venezuela has diesel-electric submarines bu:i: ::
-.-s AMX-13FL-10 tanks p us a numDef .' West Germany. S-32 Caribe, commissioned tn
- :rred scout cars. The ful I st of equ pmenl .tsec 1977, is fittedwith a snort andvery high-capac::','
-: -AS :
batteries, giving an endurance of 50 days.

"*

C i,qgi.r
:.:!+?+" -
and an American 'Guppy ll'fleet submanne conver- man marine corps which has four rif le battalions, an Venezuela's air force is small but the most modern
sion. The surface strike and coastal protection roles artillery group with 1B M 1O'1 105-mm howitzers, an inLatinAmerica, and has recently embarked on a
are undertaken by six 'Lupo' class frigates recently amphibious assaultcompanywith 1 1 LVTP-7 amphl- maj or re-equipment programme. D assault Mir age
procured from ltaly and armed with Otomat SSMs. bious APCs and an anti-aircraft company with six 5s (seen above) have now been supplemented by
There are no other major surface combatants in the self-propelled M42 twin 40-mm guns. There are also General Dynamics F- I6s: the first Fighting Falcons
to be supplied to aSouthAmericancountry.
navy apart from a recently modernlzed amphibious around 30 EE-1 1 Urutu and 10 Transportpanzer 1
warfare group of five LSTs together with several wheeled APCs. Smal arms are the same as those
smaller landing craft. There ls, however, a Coast used by the army.
Guard (CG) which is under nava control and which ance and interdiction missions. These squadrons fly
has a force of ex-navy ships. The main units are two The National guard a total of 12 BAe Canberra B.Mk B2s, five B(l)Mk
refurbished light frigates and six gun- or missile- The National Guard has a strength of 20,000 di- B2s, one PR.Mk 83 and two T,Mk B4s. A single
armed fast attack craft. A full listing of the ships vided into static and mobile detachments each COIN squadron flies 15 Rockwell OV-10E Broncos.
available to the fleet include: equivalent to an army battalion. They have a com- An expansion of this capabllity has been initiated
plete range of light infantry weapons up to the size with an order placed in Argentina Ior 24 of its FMA
Submarines: two'Type 209'and one'Guppy ll'; of 60-mm mortars. The armoured element compris- Pucar5 ground-attack aircraft.
Frigates: six'Lupo class' and two'Almirante es 25 U R-41 6 wheeled APCs and '1 5 Shorland inter- To deliver the paratroops and support the army in
Clemente' class (CG); nal secu rity vehicles. There are also some 43 coastal the field there are two transport squadrons wrth a
Fast attack craft: six'Constitucion' class (CG, two patrol craft of up to 70ton displacement, and an air total of five Lockheed C-l 30H Hercules, seven Fair-
armed with Otomat SSMs); section which flies a mix of four fixed-wing aircraft child C-123A Providers, eight Aeritalia G222s and a
Amphibious warfare vessels: f ive LSTs, two and six helicopters. few remaining Douglas C-47 Dakotas. The air force
LCUsandl2LCVPs also has a paratroop battalion of its own, which can
Support vessels: two transports, one survey ship, The Air Force be used with the army's paratroop brigade or for air
two survey launches and two patrol tugs (CG); Although the 4,750-man Venezuelan air force force-originated missions. A specialist VIP/Pres-
and (Fuerza A6rea Venezolana) is small,it has recently idential unit is also present with three jet airliners, a
Miscellaneous vessels: one tug, one sailtraining started a major re-equipment programme to main- Cessna 500 and two Bell UH-1 H helicopters. Two
ship and three others. tain its positlon as one of the most modern air arms liaison/utility/communications squadrons fly a total
in South America. The pride and joy of the service of 20 fixed-wing and 17 rotary-wing aircraft. For rhe
The 3,SOO-strong naval air arm (Servicio de Avia- must be the first General Dynamics F-1 6 Fighting straightforward rotary lift and SAR role there is a
ci6n de la Marina Venezolana) comprises an ASW Falcons to be sold to a South American country. One single helicopter squadron with 10 Bell UH-'1 H/Ds,
squadron with six Grumman S-2E Trackers, an squadron of 16 F-16As and eight F-1 6Bs f lies in the two Bell 214STs and two Bell 412s. Trarninq for
ASWsurface strike helicopter squadron with 12 interceptor role together with a mixed squadron these squadrons and the front-line units is carled
Agusta-Bell AB.212ASW helicopters for the 'Lupo' f lying the survivors of 10 Dassault-Breguet Mirage out at the Escuela de Aviacion Militar with some 23
class f rigates, a maritime patrol squadron with three lllEVs, two Mirage 5DVs and four Mirage 5Vs deli- Beech T-34 Mentors and 20 Rockwell T-2D Buck-
CASA 212MPs, and a transport/communications vered ln the early 1970s. There are also two f ighter- eyes. About half of the latter can also be used ln the
fixed-wing squadron with nine aircraft (of which the bomber squadrons with a total of 29 Canadair-built light attack role if required. A complete re-equip-
two CASA 212 and one DHC-7 Dash 7 transport are Northrop F-5A single-seaters and six F-58 two-sea- ment of the training fleet was scheduled for the
the most mportant). ters. Surprisinglythere is also a light bomberforce of early '1 980s, but a deal for the BAe Hawk jet trainer
For the amphibious warfare f leet there is a 4,250- two squadrons for use in the strategic, reconnaiss- fell through because of the 1982 Falklands war.