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Volume 12 Issue 14l

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@ Aerospace Publishing Ltd 1986
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EarU Surfcrc
fo-Air tlissl
The development of swface-to-air missiles in the years
Bomarcwas a typical product of the
tec hno logica I ex plo sion that w as
missile development in the 1950s. At
following the end of World War II has wrought a considerahle one stage, such missiles were
change upon the modern battlefield. Evading the missile thought to be capable of replacing
manned interceptors, although this
defence has become a prtme rcquirement of any modem was to prove a costly mistake for
aircraft mission. some governments.

Surface{o-air missiles (SAMs) developed from two very different World involved the use ofa pencil radar beam to track the target and a second
War II problems, On land, rt rs hardly surprising that Germany devoted beam to track the missile, Sometimes guidance instructions were pas-
enormous resources to the development of a staggering variety of sed ln coded pulses along the radar beam itsell and sometimes by a
projects, whereas the Allies ignored the potentials of the newweaponry. UHF beam linked to the missrle tracking radar,
A-fter al] it was Germany that was at the receiving end of an overwhelm- The other important innovation came with the development of the
ing assault from the air at the same time as the technology was emerging proximity fuse, much work having been done by the Germans although -:
to deai (at ieast in potential) with the threat, was the American radio proximlty fuse for gun-launched AA shels
At sea it was the Allies, and mosl speciflcally the Americans, who which pointed the way for the future.
needed a more efficient means to handle Ihe kamikaze threat than the The most important achievement of the SAM was not to become
carriage of as many 20-mm and 40-mm guns as could be crammed onto evident untrl the beginning of the 1960s, when the destruction of ai
the decks of ships. This provided the initial impetus for the immensely American Lockheed U-2 spyplane over the USSR proved that altitude
successful American naval SAM proqramme of the late I940s and early however high, was no guarantee of safety. The day of the high-flyr-rg
I950s, whrch was to become the foundation for the US Navy's fleet missile strategic bomber was done, and from that time penetration of enen-,-;
defence in the 1980s, territory had to be envisagd at lower and lower levels, The SAM hal
The first missiles were gmided by an operator using radio slgnals to made its indelible mark on the battlefield,
steer a missile visually towards the target. This CLOS (Command to Line
Of Srqht) system is still fairly important today for short-range missiles, Given theNATO designation and reporting nameSA-3'Goa', this first-
generation Soviet-built SAM has been exported to a number of countries,
although it is vulnerable to electronic countermeasures, includingFinland, a quadruplelauncher cf theFinnisharmy being seen here.
The most important method of guidance in these early missiles, and It has also been adapted by the Soviet navy, and for many years has provided
one which was to be used in some of the most widely deployed systems, fleet air defence.
LE French SAMs
French rndustry was quick to recover
fuom the ravages of World War Il.and
occupation. Indeed the French arma-
ments industry worked, albeit reluc-
tantly, on the behalf of rts conquerors
and so garned access to a certain
amount of German military technologTy.
Nevertheless, the missiie proqrammes
which eventually emerged owedmore
to native desrgn and American exam- Parca (Projectile Autoguid6e par Radio Contra Avions) was developed by a
ple than to German achievements. large consortiumwhich included the French army. Thewraparound boosters
The flrst SAM programme came ab gave Parca an appearance similar to the contemporary British systems,
out as a srde product of Matra's M.04 B Io odhou nd a n d T hu nd e r bird.
air{o-air missile. Developed from 1948
and first flying in 1950, the M 04 was
later developed into an enlarged tan-
dem-boosted canard-winqed surface-
launched system. Called the R.042, thrs
surface-to-air mrssile was developed
untrl I he m id- I 950s. Tne flrst operar ion-
al French SAM (and one of the first
West European mrssrles of this type),
the Matra R.422 first flew in November
1954 Derived lrom the R.042, the type
achreved IOC (lnitlal Operational
Capability) in late l95B but by that The Matra422, the end result of an evolutionfrom Matra's early air-to-air
time France (then a full member of missileprogramme, was avictim of theNATO decision to adopt and co-
NATO) had come to an agreement produce theAmerican desigmedHAWK svstem(HAWK being an acronym tor
with West Germany, Belgium, the Homing AII the Way Killer).
Netherlands and Italy to adopt and co-
produce the American HAWK system. much more compact package on the 5,48 m ( 17 ft I 1.75 in) with boosters;
The Matra missile was cancelled. ground The tapered cylindrical body span 1 60 m (5 ft 3 1n)
R.422 was tandem-boosted, wrth cruci- had rectangular crucrform fins and Launchweight: I 100 kq (2,425 Ib)
form wing on both stages, and de- delta crucrform control surfaces farth- Performance: operatinqranqe 32 km
sigmed to deal with bombers travelling er forward. More than 120 missiles (20 miles); maxlmum altitude 20000 m
at up to Mach 2 and at altrtudes of be were fired between 1954 and 1958, at (65,615 ft)
tween 3OO0 and 20000 m (9 845 and ranges such as Colomb-B6char in Warhead: probably contrnuous rod
65,615 f0. The guidance was simrlar to Algeria, and from that Iatter year a HE wrth a proximrty fuse
the radio command system used inthe number equrpped a srnqle regdment of
Amerrcan Nike Ajax system. the army until 1962, when the first
At the same time, the French army HAWKs entered sewrce.
was part of a large industrial team de- Mention should also be made of the
veloping a different missile also using SNCASE SE.4300 which was the flrst AMatra R.422 is prepared for firing
Nike Ajax style radro command gur gmided missile in France to reach flight at an Algerian range in I 9 55. I t was
dance, Parca, an acronym dertved trials. It was used as a test vehrcle for very much a missile of the time, with
from Projectile Autoguid6e par Radro SAM components, and as a training guidance similar to the pioneering
Contra Avrons (radio-controlled anti mrssile for personnel of all three ser- American Nike-Ajax. In common
aircraft mrssrle) was an rmp r essive sys- VlCES withmostSAMs of the same
tem of srmilar srze to the R.422 and generation, the Matra R.422 was a
having some commonality in gnridance Specification substantial piece of equipment,
hardware. Unlike the Matra desiqn, Parca designed to handle the classic l,950s
boost was from four swept-fin wrap- Type: medrum-range land-based SAM threatof bombers flying athigh
around soird rockets, makrng lor a Dimensions: length 5.00 m ( LO ft 5 in) or speed and altitude.



Developed as a commercial proposL-
tion by Contraves and Oerlikon, this
overall Swiss prolect was astonishingly
farseeing for rts trme, First steps were
taken as early as 1947, when plans
were set in motion to produce a liquid-
propellant beam-riding gmided missrle
that would be as portable as an aver-
age healry artillery battery The flrst
flights were made in 1950, and exten-
sive trial firings of thrs rnrtial version
were made rn France and Switzerland
over the next two years, and the sys- An improved version, designated wrnJ.: .'. =r: i=s.;=: -: sl de fore and The Swiss-developed RSC and RSD
^r+ .J
d -r^-^ .* -- :^ *
tem was put on the markei as the RSC- RSD-58, of increased performance but --:--.: -. ::-jrj: r-uJy Whr.le tn serjes ofmissiles were among the
50 the first SAM system to be offered with the same dimensions, followed. fltgh: i: ::::-a::ia:: -:: :rim changes mostadvanced of allearlySAMs, a
for general sale, This was accompanied into sewice by as ri;ei -.'.'^< ::::'-::,:i The tapered batch being tested in the early J950s
in 1953, a batch of 25 missrles was re-
a training missile (with a parachute cyitlil:a- :--ss--: ;.':s Jtasiructed by the US Air Force. The last of the
evaluated by the USAF at Holloman covery system instead of a warhead) foCn irgr:,- ." :-,-S :, :-:: :,'-::, -Flaldtte. serjes, flreRSD 58, had a 50 per cent
AFB, New Mexico. These weapons designated RSC-57. Ar: F.Sl-:: i::::-.- ::::-s.:i :f a increase in performance without any
were of the RSC-SI type (the two flgure The RS series missiles were all li- battet . :: ::--=: : -: . j. : j: ;:' - j t<j.J increase in overall dimensions.
number rndicating the year in which quid-fuelled beam-riding mrssiles with radar. l=::-- :==:. :"...-...-:--'-:..: :l
development was completed) and cruciform delta winqs and small tail radar ar.i :-: .,',--. :- ;-' .=*-.::.-::: Dimensions: Iength 6. l0 m (19 ft B 1n);
.., ^;.-
were given the US desrgnation MX- control surfaces, Propelled by a nitric ,
^-'^^Ll^Uls ^-
' :-r-.
-. ii
'- -=: i :._. diameter4O0 mm (15 75 in); span
r868 acid/kerosene sustainer that gave :nnlo ha:'-:=- 135m(4ft5.Irn)
The frrst sales were made to the approximately 1000-kg (2,205-]b) wrth all the :-=: ssi:. 1-,'.:- i-r:-.' Launchweight:460 kg (l 014 lb)
Swiss armed forces in 1954, others thrust for 30 seconds (RSC-57) or 45 unlIS. Performance: operatinq range 30 km
being sold to ltaly (where the Italian seconds (RSD-58) the misstles i:E 6 mrles); maximum altitude 20000 n:
subsidiary of Contraves manufactured achieved a maximum speed at burnout Specification .43 615 ft)
them as the MTG-CI-56, -57 and -58) of Mach LB in the earlier model and RSD-58 Warhead: 40-kg (BB-1b) HE with
and to Japan Mach 2,4 in the 1958 version The ;:::i:mity fuse

The Rise
The US Navy spearheaded the
oI rhe SAM
development of SAMs as a The tJS Army funded
result of its experience of Japanese kamikaze attacks d.uring the Nike proiectwhich
wortdwar ll.-other services and other natii"i iitlo*.a
nonewithmorededicationthanthesovietunion,which ?!"Yif,Ll[{F,?ru*,,
iro.' ba;ktoir;;iai
seernedprepared topay any price fopossess a neffective orderof development)
anti-aircraft system. Aiax,.Hercules and

After World War II only the US Navy had a flrm The trouble wlth enormous weapon systems
and aggressive SAM (surfaceto-arr missile) rs that they tend to be permanent, They are
programme. Triggered off by the terrible feet- costly to build, almost impossible to alter, and
rng of helplessness in the face ol kamtkaze can critically lnfluence the next generation,
attack, the US Navy SAMs were taking shape in Thus, with 40 battalions deploying over 16,000
several forms. Boosted off ship launchers by Ajax missiles, the next generation also had to
rockets, they subsequently streaked into the be a Nike, and it was no easy task to develop
sky propelled either by an internal rocket or an the Nike Hercules SAM so that rt fitted more or
rnternal ramjet, with various forms of radar grui- less into the same bases, The guidance radars,
dance. however, had to be replaced by far more
The US Army had little need to think about powerful ones matched to the impresslve flight
SAMs in World War II, but ln eariy 1945 it did performance of the fearsome Hercules missile,
start funding a project, called Nike I after a which could knock down targets 45720 m
Greek goddess (pronounced Nikey). It did thls (i50,000 ft) up at a range of 'more than 87 miles'
largeiy because the SAM expertise of the US (140 km).
Navy worrled the US Army that the rival ser- A broadly simtlar, but much cheaper, SAM
vice might even grab the plum job of SAM was put into mass production by the USSR, The F.G, Powers, who subsequently stood tnal :_
defence of the United Statesl On reflection it V750 system, called SA-2 'Guidehne' by NATO the USSR Meanwhile the US technical press
would have made more sense for the US Armv used a missrle midway between A;ax and Her- almost all followed 'the party line' in den_t ::;
to concern itself with mobrle SAM systems thai cules in size, made srnce 1955 in numbers that any Soviet SAM could bring doum a J-i
could move wlth its troops, Instead it de- which seem to Western nations to be astrono- Powers' aircraft, it was sald, had su_ffereo =
veloped Nike I, later called Nike Ajax, as a mic. The V750 system uses rather sophistr,
colossal system involving thousands of tons of cated radars to steer the missile to the same TheRAF's Bloodhound missiles havenow been
equipment distributed around giant fixed srtes, point in the sky as the radar centre ofthe target, withdrawn from Germany and deployed along the
many of the items being underground thoush British east coast. The SAMs adopted by all three
and in the absence of countermeasures the British services during the I 950s proved
completely unhardened against nuclear missile is effective. OnI May Ig60 a single dis agree ably costly, partly because production
bombs, round destroyed the Lockheed U-2 of CIA pilot totals were so low.

Great carewas takento avoid hitting flameout and been forced to gltde down to a oulbreak ol war rn Korea in Jun^ 1950 pur a
much lower level, bringing it wrthtn range of huge spur to al1 delence programmes), and
civilian targets during the 1972 bombing of work went ahead on three large and costly
Hanoi. This involved early model B-52s' the Soviet defences, Thrs was pure wishful
thrnklng by the Pentagon, though the motive SAM programmes All were more or lcss stmt-
without modernized ECM, flYing was obscure. Perhaps it drd not want to think lar in basic size and technology, but one was for
unmanoeuvrinq direct bomb runs and the Soviets capable of burldrng effective the army, one lor the Royal Navy and one for
presenting SA-2s with the verytarget they weapons, which is a very dangerous attitudeL the RAF, The shipboard weapon the Seaslug,
were built to engage. However, intensive The magazrne Avjation Week even appeared was smallest, with a body diameter of 406 mm
US suppression of SAM sites and flights by to take pride 1n the thought that the U-2 had (16 rn) It also drlfered rn rrding a radar beam to
ECM aircraft resulted in only two per cent spent years cruising iar abc're :he reach of its target, and an odd feature was that it was
of the missiles finding their target. Soviei SAll s-,.s:errs Tccal" sLich nonsense has blasted off its launcher by four large solid
been fcrc:::e:- a:-i :re :a:. -:a: ar SA-2 des- motors with flat noses arranged round the front
troyed lre --2 -. , - ::-r-:l-'-.i: :::-s-ng herght of the mlssrle. Though massive and cumber-
has lono i::=: a:::c :: some by comparison with today's SAMs, Sea
slug was so well-engineered it soon achieved
an SSKP (srngle-shot krll probabilrty) of 92 per
cen:. .r,rhen other SAMs were unable to reach
:i per cent.
A cumbersome weapon that works is better
:nan a neat one that does not and this also
a.cphes to the army SAM, the Thunderbird.
3rrgrnally codenamed 'Red Shoes', it grew into
army and q;-:-<',' := - :rrghty system needing large numbers of
areas. These. a:-:. -:-= :::n vehicles and ground tnstallations, Every-
led SA-3 'Goa (a-s, .:,-:g. however, was air-mobile and most could
'Ganef (a mass--,-= :: paradropped The Thunderbtrd Mk I had
amphrbtous AF-,-s. se:rr-active homing guidance using a pulseci
completely sucaass--.-
: r' re:-rlluminatino radar, The Thunderbtrd Mk
A N or th Vietnamese SA- 2 battery with five tremendous nur-:.-=: : .rough no bigger, had much hrgher flrgh,
launchers visible is photographed from an RF- I0 I, cost ::ricrmance with a ranqe out to 75 km (47
25 miles northwest of Hanoi in / 966. ?he site rs ::---:s) and the CW (continuous-wave) radar
210 mx135 m(700 ftx450 ft).AssoonastheNorth :'.'- nuch more accurare ouidance agatrs'
Vietnamese learned of the restrictions imposed on ,e';el targets or in the face of enemy jam-
US pilots, they deployed tfterrmtssjles ne ar paddy -: .-,'

dykes and built-up areas. r:,-:-J

In the same way the RAF missile, the Duncan Sandys, announced that all future air rivals has kept HAWK right in the forefront for
Bloodhound (original codename'Red Duster') defence would be by SAMs, and that therefore over 30 years, Today, over 40,000 missiles later,
was deveioped in two marks, the Mk 2 havlng all manned fighters were being cancelledl improved versions are still in production, and
greater speed and ranqe, and superior CW Though much smaller than the Soviet SAMs, some nations, such asJapan, are stlll deploying
radar homing gurdance, Deployed ln multiple these three British systems were costly, a iact fresh launchers.
groups from more or less fixed sites, the not heJped by the modest production totals, In HAWK succeeded by being big and costly,
Bloodhound has served the RAF (and export an effort to provide simpler and cheaper de- but not too big and costly, The grandiose plans
customers) very well indeed, and is still in use. fence Shorts at Belfast developed the smaller of the US Air Force, however, almost serve as
The planned Bloodhound Mk 3, however, and more prrmitive Seacat late in the decade, an object lesson in how not to do it, A year after
under flrll development from the mid-1950s as By settrng its sights low, in more senses than World War II the USAAF, as it then was, laun-
'B1ue Envoy', was cancelled in 1961, with no- one, Shorts quickly created a system costing
thing to repiace it. What makes this much har- less than one{enth as much as Seaslug, yet
der to understand rs that just four years earirer, which could offer protection against fairly close
rn April 1957, the then Minister of Defence, or low-flying attackers to all ships doum to the
size of FPBs. The mrssile itself was small
enough for the launchers to be loaded by hand,
and customers were offered a choice of plain
manual command guidance, using binoculars
and a joystrck, or various nrght and bad-weath-
er radar hnks, As a result Seacat sold like hot
The same could be said ol the HAWK (from
Homing A11 the Way Killer), development of
which began for the US Army ln 1954, Com-
pared with Seacat the HAWK system was a
monster, and more than 25 times as expensive;
but it was iar better than anything else and soon
sold to the USA's alhes all over the world, The
missile itself weighs about 626 kg (l 380 lb) a
bit blq for manual reloading, but absence of

AnEgyptianSA-2, modified from the Soviet The Hercules could destroy enemy aircraft over
original, is launched during an air defence 130 km (80 miles) away, flying at I 50,000 ft.
exercise in March 1986, 26 years after it made its Despite this, US sources refused to admit that the
spectacular combat debut. On the right is the 'Fan Soviets could do the same, and the fact that an SA-2
Song' radar, modified to allow optical guidance. had destroyedGary Powers'U-2was hotly denied.
The Rise of the SAM
described in thts study Bomarc matured as big
as a flghter, and its price was in fact several
times greater than that of a North American
F-86, Prompted by Duncan Sandys'pohcy tn
the UK, the Canadians scrapped their out-
standing Avro Arrow interceptors, dealtng
their aerospace industry a blow from whrch it
has never recovered, and bought Bomarcs
which sat on their expensive launchers for just
l0 years, They were scrapped rri their turn (to
be replaced by the McDonnell F-l0l Voodoo
interceptor bought secondhand from the
USAF, the final touch of irony being that the
F-101 had been reiected rn 1953 when the
Arrow design weni ahead).
Perhaps even stranger is the story of what in
the mrd-1950s were called merely 'antls'. At
that time the possibility of building ICBMs (in-
tercontinental ballistic missiles) wrth city-des-
troying warheads had just become apparent. It
was natural to try to develop an anti-ICBM mis-
sile, but the problems were gigantic. Through-
out the I950s and 1960s the US Army and a hosi
ol scientific and industrial contractors toiled to
create a working ABM (anti ballistic missile)
system. At lasi, after expenditure greater than
on any other weapon, the first ABM site was
built and declared operational on 1 October
1975, On 2 October 1975 the whole site was
officrally deactivated, and it has remained de-
serted ever since The only nation that dog-
gedly pursued ABM proQlrammes through io
combat duty was, naturally, the USSR Where^
weapons are concerned, roubles are never of
gan, to reach 8BS km (550 miles) at 152400 m any consequence, and the vast system known
NorthVietnamese SA'2s are seen from a US
aircraft, this timewith their transporters (sguares (5OO 000 ft); and MX-795 wrth Generai Electric in the West simply as ABM- 1B 'Galosh' became
mark the missiles; the trucks are circled)' agarn lor BBS km (550 mrles) at 152400 m operational in 1968 after 12 years ol effort. The
(500 000 ft) MX-795 (Thumper) was termin- sysiem includes radars described as 'like three
ched three SAM programmes: MX-606 with ated, and Boeing and the Mrchigan Aeronauttc- football flelds lined up end-to end and stand-
Boeing, to reach out 56 km (35 miles) at 18290 m al Research Center produced Bomarc' corning ing on their sides', The missile itseif rs as brg as
(60 000 ft); MX-794 with ihe Universrty of Mtcht- the name from their own name and rnitials As a Peacekeeper ICBMI Perhaps more ihan any
other single weapon, this grgantic system
r:.i:,r:u: :i:.r,ir,:::i underscores the Soviet determination to de-
:::::i..: ploy every ktnd of armament it considers tt
needs, no matter what the cost,
The only remotely comparable weapon sys-
tem now pianned in the West is the SDI
(Strateqrc Defense Inrtrative). It remains to be
seen whether the USA, with or wrthout help
lrom others, will show the same singieminded
determination as the Soviets.

A.bove: SeenhereinFrench service, HAWK has

enjoyed immense success in the export market
because ofits cos t-effectiveness. Some 40,000
::rissjles have b een manuf actured. I mproved
t'ersions continue to be developed and fresh
:aunchers are being dePloYed'

I e ! t : Whatever their theoretical performance,

* :=--;=--_-.'' :-,-.-_ - ezpenstve missiles met with consumer resistance,
--- *.i, i * s. S nort Brothers in Belfast developed Sea Cat and
: :s -'ar d-based c ounter par t, Tiger C at, seen here'

ffi fh.rnaerbird Early Surface-to-Air Missiles
In 1959 the Bntish armys flrst surface-
to-air mrssile regiment became oper-
ational. It was equipped with a bulky
but mobile SAM system designated
Thunderbird Mk I which had begun
life 10 years earlier when Eng[sh E]ec-
trLc Avtalron recerved rhe prrmo con-
tract to develop a SAM system,
Curtously, the missile was desiqned
without any reference to earher British
work the Brakenrne m s-
sile which had been developed on a Above : T h e E nglish E lectric
shoestring budget from 1943 and might Thunderbird was the first SAM to be
well have evolved into a usable operationally deployed by the British
weapon but for indequate fundrng and Army. I n spite of the wraparound
the iragmenlation of rhe desrgn ream boosters, which reduced the length
after the end of World War IL of the missile, Thunderbird was, like
The Thunderbrrd Mk I had fixed its conbmporarie' a somewhat
cruciform wings with the leadrng bulky system although nominally
edqes swept back at 45', and pivoted mobile.
rnversely tapered cruciform tail sur-
faces indexed in line with the wings Right:Very similar in appearance to
The first test vehicles had a Naprer the Royal Air Force's Bloodhound,
hquid-propellant sustainer, but this T hunele rbir d w as als o bou ght in
was superseded by an IMi solid-prop- sma// nilnbarlby S au di Ar abi a and
ellant motor with consequent advan- was ordered by};iby4G.lthough the
tages in storage, handling, and re- order was cancel/ed blrsoJ,enej
[ability, Four Bnsto]-Aerojet wrap- Gaddafi followingft r's coup d-Emt{h
around boost motors were htted to 1969). -

generate the very high thrust neces-

sary to accelerate the missile at a high until1976. The system did not attract
angTle ofelevatron into the control ofthe extensive export orders in 1966 Saudi
gurdance radar folhe semr-active Arabra invested in a number of Thun-
radar homing, An operational battery derbrrd Mk 1 systems including some
comprrsed up to half-a-dozen flring ex-British army weapons which were
troops each with three launchers and eventually replaced by HAWK SAMs,
one BTH Stingray target illuminatingr and an order for Thunderbrrd Mk 2s
radar. The battery command inciuded from the kingdom of Libya was cancel-
the Tactical Control Radar and Height- led by Colonel Gaddafi after his coup
flnding Radar, d etat,
From 1956 work began on an Im
proved model the Thunderbird Mk 2, Specification
whrch entered serv-ce rn 1963 fited Thunderbird
wrth a higher impulse boost and sus- Type: Iong-range land-based SAM
tainer motors, it represented a con- Dimensions: length 6.35 m (20 ft 10 in);
siderable improvement over its pre- drameter 527 mm (20 75 in); span
decessor. Its Ferranti Firelight X-band 163m(5ft4rn)
continuous-wave Doppler target-rllu- Range: 75 km (46,75 miles)
minat ng radar enable r' lo home tn on Launch weight: classifled
targets flying at 1ow altitude and could Warhead: continuous-rod HE with
withstand interference from electronic proxrmity fuse
countermeasures. The system had an
added advantaqe in being'air-port- Although a large system,
able in Armstrong Whrtworth Arqosy Thunderbirdwas afu-portable in the
aircraft Arm s tr ong -W hitwor th Ar gosie s of
The Thunderblrd Mk 2 had a ser- the Royal Air F orce. I t remained in
vrce Lle o[ some l3 years servirg in service until the mid- I I 7 0 s, when it
the Britrsh Army of the Rhine with the was replaced by the much shorter-
36th Heavy Resiment, Royal Artillery rangedRapier system.

ffi tritish Aerospace Dynamics Seaslug

Allhough'he Royal Navy had used rn R
qrLded anri aircraft rockels in he ear- F* -

gnrided missrles remarned lust studies,
I was no1 unlil 1962 w'lh lhe commis-
sioning of HMS Devonshire, the flrst of
the 'County class gurded-missile des-
troyers, that the UK went to sea with an
effective missile system. .:,:ir,!-::+irtr::::::r,tr:+irri,lde*=it*li "i .:rii
The Seaslug, result of a rather prot- :;,
racted development proq[amme last-
ing from 1949 to 1962, is a large missile The Seaslug is a beam-riding mis- DA (drrect action, or impact) and prox Fittedto HMS Devonshire rn J 962,
designed to counter the classic 1950s sile, targrets flrst being detected by rmity fuses, and the missrle has a Seaslug was the first effective guided
threat of high flying bombers travell- long-ranqe Type 965 surveillance secondary surface-to-surface capac SAM to be adopted by the RoyalNavy
ing at Mach O.B. Fired lrom a twrn laun- radar and Type 277 herght-frnding itv. and tinally went towar,20 years later
cher the missile comprises a cylLn- radar. Target co ordinates are fed tnto The Seaslug Mk 2 was announced in at the end ofits service life, aboard
dncal body wrth mid-set rectangnlar the Type 901 missile trackinq and illu- 196 l, but once agarn development was HMS Glamorgan an d HMS Antrim m
cruciform wings tarl-mounted rec- minating radar, which launches the slow. Nevertheless, thougth few exter- the Falklands.
tangular cruciform control surfaces missile when lhe target LS -n range nal changes were made the update
and an ICI sol.d-luel rocket sustainer, gathers it into the centre of the pencil considerably enhanced performance
aided by four blunt nosed solid-prop- radar beam, and passes coded gui- in terms of qreater speed ranqe, re- Seaslug Mk 2 better capabilities
ellant boosters wrapped around the dance instructions along the beam sistance to ECM and Enridance accura- against low-flying and surface targets
nose, The 135'kg (297-lb) warhead has both cy Upgraded electronrcs gave the than its predecessor, The new missrle

British Aerospace Dynamics Seaslug (continued)

as fitted to the second group of four


3ounty class destroyers, plans to re

.rcflt the first four comrng to nothinqt.
The Seaslug went to war lor the first
lme 20 years after tts service lntroduc-
lon, the Mk Z-armed destroYers HMS
Glamorgan and HMS Antrim PlaYtng
an rmportant part rn the South Atlantlc
campaign of l9B2 atthough more mod
ern missrles obviously achteved more
aqarnst the Argenttne air force's 1ow-
level attacks
The only svstems lemdlnlnq ooe'-
tlonal are the Mk 2s aboard HMS Ftfu
and Glamorgan, and the Chilean Pral
(ex-HMS Norfolk) and Almirante
Cochrane (ex-Antrtm). The Paklstani
narry's Babur (ex London) was fitted
with Seaslug Mk I but plans to remove
or replace the system are thought to be
in hand.

Type: medium/long-range area-
defence ship-borne SAM
Dimensions: lenqth (Mk 1) 5.99 m (19 ft
B in) or (Mk 2) 6. I0 m (20 ft 0 in);
diameter4O9 mm(16 1 in); span 1.45 m ,SeasluErsawactionfor the first time in the Falklands, being usedby HMS
(4 ft 9 in) maximum altitude at least 15240 m
(50,000 ft) Glamorgan and (seen here during the campaign) HMS Antrim. A fthough much
Launch weight: not disclosed improved at low level, the essentially 1950s mlss/e could not measure up to
Performance:ranqe (Mk 1) 45 km (28 Warheaci: 135-kq (297-lb) rrlwith
tmpact and ProxlPilYluses the low- leve I target of the 1 I B0 s.
miles) or (Mk 2) 58 km (36 mtles);

ffi Ha-r'Guild'
Unaccountably ignored in the r4est
since it first aooeared 1n -'olic the
the Pen-
ioui.L -ssr" iitt"o sNAo II O!yleportlng
taoon and orven 'L-
ri--" C"ild; ';rould be considered a
n onu,';-,4 acitevement of weaoons
.l^-.-ropment. Although nol seen unlil
,"n'e neO Square October Revoiution
parade rn November 1960, it has been '1::::''iliili'
estrmated that the SA-1 entered oper-
ational service in i954, just after the
privately developed RSC series de-
veloped in Switzerland and contem- The SA- t has only been seen on its
porary with the Amerrcan Nike Ajax transporter during parades, and has
system. Given the apparent sophistica- not been supplied to Soviet client
tion ofthe detection and guidance sys- s. W es te r n pe r f orm anc e
s ta te
tems associated with 'Guild', develop- estimates are lower than untrl it is now thought no longrer to be in Dimensions: length 12 0 m (39 ft 4.4 in);
ment must have started almost im- contemporary NATO systems, service. although some may remaln rn drameter 700 mm (27.56 in); span 2.8 m
mediately after the end of Worid War possibly because'Guild' does not reserve. The SA-l was never ex- lJ It L.a [t)
II. The tapered cylindrrcal missile had appear tohave abooster motor. ported Launchweight: 3200 kq (7,055 lb)
cruciform cropped delta fins wtth ele- Performance:range 32 kn (20 miles)
vons, and all-moving cr*cLform crop given the NATO reporting name 'Yo Specification according lo a British MoD estin-ate in
ped delta foreplanes. Yo', and was of extreme complexity for SA-I'Guild' 1976; maximum altitude not known
In spite of being an extremely large its time, It has s1x rotating antennae Type: medrum-ranqe land-based SAM Warhead: HE
piece of equipment, with room for coverinqr arcs of 70" in both aztmuth
plenty of propellant (thought to be li- and elevation, By use offlapping beam
quid although when rt first appeared techniques (as used on the 'Fan Sonq'
Western sources were convinced it radar of the SA-l s much more widely
was solid), the 'Gulld' has been cre- known successor, the SA-2 'Guideline')
dited with quite poor performance by 'Yo-Yo' was reportedly capable of
Western standards, It is not thought to tracking up to 30 targets at once, and
have a separate boost motor (which has a peak power of at Ieast 2 mega-
would account for the low Western watts When one realtzes that this
performance estimates) although the approaches the power of the Wests
missile has never been seen on any Ballistic Missile Early Warningt System
kind of launchinq system; indeed it has radars it is understandable that the
never been seen on anythinq but Pentagon classed the 'Guiid' and its
transporters towed by ZIL-151 trac radar as a strategic defence system.
tors, From a peak in the early 1960s of
More recent photognaphs ol SA-1 many hundreds of batteries, the num-
during Moscow parades of the 1970s ber of 'Guilds' in service has declined
have shown the missile with what
appears to be a nose radar, possiblY Seen during the May Day Parade of
the receiver for semi-active radar 1 968, the SA- 1'Guild' was the first
homing giuidance, although there is maj or surface- to- air weapon system
space enough for an active system. If builtby theSoviets to become known
so, it would make the missile auton- in theWest.Itwas a technological
omous in the final phase of its approach tour de force, especially in the power
to the target. and complexity of its radar guidance
The main ground based radar was system.

t Hn-z'Guidetine'
Early Surface-to-Air Missiles
Unhke the SA-1, the SA-2'Guideline' up to srx targets at a time, and in all
seems to have been desrgned from the versions can track-while-scan (track-
outset as a mobile system, although as inq targets and passing data to the fire-
such rt is very bulky and the complete control computer while simultaneously
system werghs over 100 tons, lt f,rst scanning and trytng lo acqulre new
entered service in about 1956, and targets) Once launched, the SA-2 is
srnce that time has been used in com- powered by its solid-fuel booster away
bat more than any other SAM, and has from the battery where the liquid-fuel
seen continuous updating and im- sustainer cuts in. Control siqnals are
provement. transmltted along a narrow line-of-
Like many other systems of the sight UHF radio beam, whrch must be
1950s, 'Quideline' appears to have prcked up by the missile within sx
been designed to counter fast high- seconds or it will go ballistic and lose
flyins aircraft, Just how high flying was any chance of hitting the target
not known, until in 1960 an American The SA-2 eventually shot down six
Lockheed U-2 reconnaissance aircraft U-2s (one each over the USSR and
piloted by Francrs Gary Powers was Cuba, and four over China), The type
brought down from what the CIA first saw major combat use in 1965
which operated the aircraft had beinq flred by India in the war aqainst
thought was a safe heiqht, The shock- Pakistan reducing the efflclency of beinq known as the V750 VK. Inciden- AnSA-2 U 750 as itis known to the
ing fact that the missile was capable of Pakrstanr air attacks althouqh only one tally the ease with which the lsraeiis Soviets) of thePVO (Air Defence of
shooting down aircraft at the highest aircraft was damaged by an SA-2. In evaded the SA-2s fired at them durinq the Homeland) is launched during an
altitude forced drastic evolution upon the same year North Vietnam laun- the 'Sx Day War'and the 'War of Attri- exercise during the early 1960s. It
the developmenl of atr tactics. ched the flrst of more than 9,000 mis- tion' led to a sense of false security was anSA-2which ended theeraof
Origrnally the missile was a shapely stles agalnst the might of the USA. In- about Soviet SAMs before the Yom the high-flying bomberwhen the
design with cruciform rectangular itially fairly acculate. the SA-2 was Qra- Kippur War, when the much more Lockhee d U - 2 s pyp lane flown by
nose surfaces, much larger cropped dually reduced in effdctivgngss by US advanced 5A-6 proved a nasty shock, Gary Powers was shot down in I I 60.
delta wings towards the tatl and small counlermeasures. The weapon never- Combat experience durrng the SA-
powered control fins mounted at the theless remained a threat, althbuqh in 2's lonq lifetime has seen modificatrons
reari all these surfaces were indexed December 1972, when iaced with'the to the fusrng gn-udance and warhead,
in line. The nitric acid/kerosene-po- krnd of larget rr had been desrgned to the addition of radar (those used in the Launch weight: 2300 kq (5,07I lb)
wered missrle was boosted by a tan- destroy (when the Boeinq B-52s bomb- Y::qr Kippur' War of 1973 were re- Performance: operatlng range 35-
dem-mounted solid-propellant first inq Hanoi durinq 'Linebacker II'were portetllo have been fltted with termrn- 50 km (21,75-31, I miles) accordinq to
stage, which was itself fltted with large ordered to fly straight bomb runs) the al guidanio). and, above all, enhance- subtype; maximum speed at burn-out
delta wings. Later models featured SA-2 achieved only about 2 Per cent menr oI ECCI\4. Tne SA 2 remains in Mach 3-3.5; operating altitude hmits
delta nose surfaces, and a model first success, ser,iice ir
diminLshing nun-bers with 1500 m (4,920 ft) in later models to
seen in 1967 had a large white-painted The other major war zone which has 'he and has been suoplied to
USSR. 28000 m (91,865 ft)
nosecone thought to cover a nucleat seen extensive use of SA-2s is the Mtd- mosl Soviet clrenr sla es as wqll 35 16 Warhead: 130-kg (286-1b) HE with
warhead in place of the original HE dle East, where rhe EqYPLiars were China, Albania and Egypt. proximity (and/or radio command or
type. even less successful than the North -1TI1ct) fuse
The 'Guideline' is radto command- Vietnamese, This may have been due Specification
gnrlded, Each SA-2 battery ol six single to the fact that the Israel deployed SA-2'Guideline'
Iaunchers is iinked to a 'Spoon Rest' smaller, faster low-flYinq aircraft, Type: medium./lonq ranqe land-based
early warning radar and the regLmen which are not what the 'Guideline was semi-mobrle SAM Certainly the sui-tace-to-air riussile to
tal Ievel 'Side Net' herght-findlng designed to engage, It was durtnq the Dimensions: length l0 80 m (35 ft ftaye seen most actioh tI79 SA-2
radar. These systems acqutre and 1967 war when Israeli ground forces 5 2 in) but varyrng in some subtypes; 'Guideline' has been in .Soviet service
rdentrfy targets, and transmit the in- captured a number of SA-2 sites, that 1t diameter (missrie) 500 mm (19.69 in) since the late I 950s. I t is nominaW a
formation to the batterys own 'Fan was learned that the Soviet desiqna- and (booster) 660 mm (25.98 in); span mobile system, although compar€ic] -.
Song'radar usually by radio or land tion for the system was V75SM, the mls (missile) 1.70 m (5 ft 6 9 in) and to modern types that mobility is
Iine. 'Fan Songf is capable of tracking sile itself (ln the captued version) (booster) 2.20 m (7 ft 2 6 in) distinctly ponderous.

GermanWonder Wectpons
Twentieth-century warfare has proved a fertile ground for scientific and
technological development - the need to survive providing an even greater
incentive than profit-with the greatest evolution occurring during the twoWorld
Wars. World War II saw the genesis of many of the systems which dominate warfare
today. ')(
When in the early months of World War II, a thus not covered by the 1919 treaty) as a means
speech grven by Adolf Hrtler threatened his of gettrng around ihe ban. It was not easy, as
enemies with 'new and secret weapons' then large-scale rocketry was in its infancy, and by
being developed, to the Allied man in the the time it had become practicable the treaty
street it seemed another fltght of the German had long been put aside (alihough not forgotten
dictator's fancy, The professionals took the
threat more seriousiy, and by 1943 such targets
as the Wehrmacht Research Establishment at
in Germany), Nevertheless the pioneering
work had been done, and far in advance of that
in any other country.
Peenemirnde became the subject of massive it was fortunate for the Ailies that the very
bombing attack. The introduction of large num- real achievements of German science and en
bers ofjet aircraft to the skies over Europe and gineering were not matched by German indus-
the appearance of the V-l and V-2 (Vergelt- try Indeed, it is the very number of projects
ungswaffen, or vengteance weapons) tt be- belng worked on in the last years of the war
came clear to everyone that for once Hrtler had that point to the reasons for Germany's lailure to
spoken the truth, Even so, tt was not until after capitalize on iis research led 1n so many fields.
the end of the war, when Allied scientific inves- In ihe completely war-oriented economies of
tlgation teams unearthed details of myriad sec- the UK and USA, there was usually some ktnd of
ret projects, ihat the staggering variety and central authority keeptng a rvatchful eye upon
scope ol German weapons research became weapons developmenl ,n diverse fields. It was
apparent, From small arms and gnrided antt often qurckly noltced when designers or fac-
tank missiles through underwater warfare to tories were working along parailel lines, or had
gurded anti aircraft, balhstrc and inter con- come up with genurnely new ideas, In the f,rst
tinental missiles, German scientists and en- case resources would be pooled, or a less
gineers had probed the limits of available tech- promising line of research aborted wtth mlnt-
nology and in most instances pushed far for- mum waste ol time and money. ln the second The Elsass radio command system used a
ward, case, if a real need for the weapon was clear Mannheim radar for target tracking, a Rheingold
The initial impetus behind the development ihe manufacturer could be allocated test factli- radar for missile tracking, and a Kehlheim radio
ties and be given access to specialist advice Iink for comm and transmrssion.
of German rocketry was the Treaty of Versail-
les, which ended World War l, German indus- (which often took the form of the men who Rheintochter I on its launcher displays many of the
Trv was not allowed 'o nLanufaclure heavy arttt- would use the equrpment tn battle), features cotnmon to today's missiles, with
lery, so the Rejcirswehr looked to the long- By contrast, the German approach reflected cruciform wings and nose-mounted control
ra-"re bombardmenL rockel (whtch had not the multiple structure of the Nazi staie, with surfaces. The two-stage mjssjle used so.lid
even been conceived in World War I and was entireiy separate party and national admtnis- propellant.

28 t0
Early Surface-to-Air Missiles

H ensche I's H s l.l 7 Schmetterling

(butterfly) is seen in launch
configuration with a pair of strap-on
so lid - p r opeI lan t boo s te r r o c ke ts j

being fitted to the winged missile. ::::iri iir'€fl l{i*s=r:r!

The pointed nose was intended to
house a Fox radio proximity fuse.

trations, For example, the armed forces, the

Nazr party, the individual services and the SS
all maintained their own intelligence networks,
which rarely shared their knowledge, and on
occasion activeiy opposed one another, In the
field of weapons research no central organiz-
ing body existed, and the services each main-
tained their own research projects and estab- affecting the mrsdirection of the Nazi war effort, scripted into the services,
lishments. Naturally, these were kept as secret In 1941, with most of Europe under Axis It was not until 1943, with regular British,
as possible from their rivals. In addition to this, domination, and the German army's Panzers 1,OOO-bomber night raids and the ever increas-
the manufacturers had their own pet ideas, spearrnginto the heartofEuropean Russia, the ing force oi USAAF day bombers appearrng
whrch olten occupied the valuable time of de- German high command made a consclous de- over Germany, that the nature of the threat
sign and engineering staff, and duplicated cision that research and development of defen- became obvious to a Nazi leadership rapidly
efforts being made elsewhere. On top of all sive weaponry Was unnecessary as the war losing any grasp of reahty rt may once have
these handicaps, the allocation of factory space was going so well, Anythtng which was not possessed, The revelation that the UK had far
and raw materiai depended upon caiching the likely to be in productron withrn a year was to more advanced radar equipment than Ger-
aitention of as hrgh-ranklng a party official as be cancelled. Many promisrng programmes many (revealed when an Avro Lancaster
possible, If the idea took the fancy of the Fiihrer suffered, but none more than these concerned equipped wrth H2S blind-bombing radar
himseif then the most outlandish of schemes with air defence of the Reich, Irreplaceable crashed near Rotterdam) led to Hitler calling a
had a chance to propser research teams were broken up, with highly- conference which was instructed to close the
Organlzational chaos was not the only factor quahfied scientists and engineers being con- gap, Commissions were set up, surviving mem-

ENZIAN Surface - fo - Air T'lissile

compressed a r bottle lprov drng

pneumdt c control prpes I Stofl(hydrogen peroxlde) tank
pneumat c power for fuel
pumps and control surfaces)
radio control equipmenl 450'kg (992 b) h gh exp os ve
combust on chamber e evon control rnkag-^ warhead

kerosene tank

nose cone (containlng hom ng

system and prox mity fuse)

rocket nozzle

wooden w nespar

wooden bulkhead

so id prope lant booster rocket

ta I surface
German Wonder WeaPons My€ trtrr ffi

bers of research teams were reca]led and

funding was found, What could not be regained
were the two lost years, and this was to prove
fata1. By the end of 1944 Hitler had issued a
directive seeking to 'strengthen the firepower
ol the anLr-aircraft defence in every concelv- JTDVO_rcbe
able way', but with the Ailies potsed on Ger-
many's Eastern and Western borders ri was too
@Nrlot o{pAnM @D
little too late,
It was this 1944 directive which was to prove
the ioundation of much post-war surface-to-air
missile development, Many of the systems
which appeared in the last year of the war
seem crude by modern standards, but given
the contempoiary level of technological de-
velopment they represented almost as great-a wASSERFALL (e2)-
leapas the dev-elofment of the aeroplane itse]f C,UIDED ANTI'AIRCPAIT ROCKET
Among the designs (many of whrch exlsted
solely on paper) were soiid- and ]lquid-fuelled
subsonic bnd supersonic guided missiles; sub-
matine-, ship- and man-portabie systems; un-
gnrided barrage rockets; radro and radar com-
mand gurdance; television, active radar,. seml-
on Daoer, and the semt-active radar homer had Wasserfall was by far the most ambitious of the
active iadar, passive radar and infra-red hom- German sur{ace-to-air missile programmes, with a
ing systems; and a bewildering array of acous- an alatming tendency to Iock onto the illuminat-
designed performancewhich would have been
tic, rnfra-red televlsion and electro-magnetlc ing radar r-ather than the target Several dlffe- elfectiveevenin 1960.
proximity fuses, rent proximity fuses were considered for the
Most ol the missiles for which these new 450-kg (992-1b) warhead which Enzian was to
guidance systems were deveioped-were carrvlo Mach 0,66 and an altitude of 15850 m
winged subsonic or irans-sonic types Enzian (52,000 ft). A supersonic version was being missiie. Guidance once again was by radto
(gentian) desrgned by Dr Wurster of Messer- considered at the war's end. command, optical tracking being aiQed by
The Henschel Hs 117 Schmetterling (butter- flares attached to the missrle. The speciflcation
ictrmrtt AG started life with the Luftwaffe de-
fly) was smaller, with a 25-kg (55-1b) warload called for a high subsonic speed, and a ceiling
signation FR (Flak Rakete) I, and was elgep- ft) The l50-ks (331-1b) war-
tronaliy powerful, Winged, and powered by a Nb homing system was carried, guidance of 6000 m (19,685
belng by radio control all the way to the target head was fitted with the Kranich acoustic prox-
bi-profetlant llquid fuelled sustainer, Enzian imity fuse (probably the best of all such sys-
wai assrsted on take-off by iour wrap-around The Foxradro proxrmity fuse (also rntended for
Enzian) would have been carried had the mts- tems developed in Germany, wtth a response
solid-fuelted boosters. Guidance was initially
slle been more successful in trials Effective range of approximately 7 tn/23 fl)
by radro command, the operator trackrng the
misslle io within homing range ol the target range was to be about 16 km (10 mrles) with a
either opticaliy or by radar, Three different ceiling of 10670 m (35 000 ft). Propulsion was by The engineers atMessetschmitt solved the
homrng- systems were to be developed, a liquid-fuelled rocket sustainer, boosted on problem of boosting the very large Enzian by
although only the lnfra-red system designated take-off by a pair of strap on solid-fuel rockets means of wrap-around solid propellant rockets'
Unlke Enzian and the Hs I17, Rheintochter The alternative, a tandem rocket, would have
Madrid was produced with any degree of suc-
(Rhine maiden) was a two-stage soiid-fueiled made the systemvery unwieldy on the ground.
cess, The acoustic system remained a design

Early Surface-to-Air Missiles

Wasserfali (waterfail) was a much more Many other projects reached the develop- One of the more interesting German surface-to-air
ambitious weapon, conceived tb counter ment stage, including free-flying barrage missiles was the Bachem Natter (adder), which
targets flying at 885 km/h (550 mph) at heights types such as Taifun (30 hquid-fuelled 1O-cm/ replaced the complex guidance systems of other
of up to 19800 m (65,000 ft). Developed at 3.94-in diameter rockets per projector) and missileswith a pilot, who baled out after attacking
Peenemirnde, Wasserfall resembled a scaled Fohn (35 sprn-stabihzed 7.3-crn/287-in dia- enemy aircraftwith a battery of 73-mm rockets in
down A-4 (V'2) rocket and used much of the meter missiies per launcher) both of which the nose. This example was captured in Bavaria.
technology developed for that weapon, The were designed to use modrfied Flak 88 mounts,
missile was supposed to be supersonic, By contrast, Fheger Faust (flyrng fist) was a
although it did not achieve the speed ofsound nine-barrel man-portable rocket-launcher de- weapons, and the low-flying fighter-bombers
in early trials, and so probably did not reach srgned for use aqainst low-flying aircraft. Stan- so essential to maintaining air superiority over
the designed range of 48 km (30 miles), It was dard 20-mm cannon shells were fitted to small the battleflelds of North West Europe would
radio command guided, and was to have been solld-propellant sticks and clipJoaded into the have faced a questionable future indeed,
proximity fused, although which of the many shoulder launcher. When the trigger was pul- There can have been few decrsions more cost-
such fuses being developed was never de- led, five rockets were fired, followed a tenth of ly than that by Hrtler and his advisers in the
cided, a second later by the other four. The interval summer ol 194i.
was designed to mintmize the mutual interfer-
ence of the miniature rocket exhausts. Several
'':::',. thousand of these srmple weapons were to be
built in the last months of the war, but therr
extreme rarity would indicate that such plans
came to very little,
In retrospect, rt was fortunate for the Allies
that the German secret weapon proqrammes
were so confused and subject to delay. Had the
two-year hiatus not occurred, Allied bombers
over Germany ln 1944 could have been
assailed by effective ground-launched

Enzian Swould have been a trans-sonicmrssrTe,

with a more powerfulmotor and sweptwings
designed to carry the weapon beyond Mach I .

In commonwith a number of
missiles, Enzian was launched off a
modifiedFlak 88 gun mount. The
system could have been relatively
mobile had itever become
o p er ation a l, alt h ou gh d e pendenc e
upon large fixed radar systems for
guidance may have hampered that

Essentially a medium altitude partner
ro the SA-2 'Gurdeline', the
cne of the same qeneration, being tn
troduced in 1961, Considerabiy smal-
ler than 'Guideline', the 'Goa' is more -F
manoeuvrable, but tn eariY models
used a simrlar radio command-gui-
dance system, and shared the larger Above: Both stages of the SA-3 are
missile's vulnerability to electronic solid propellant rockets, unlike
countermeasures. Ltke the SA-2, the preceding systems. Even though
'Goa' uses a solid-fuel booster but the much shorter than SA- I and SA-2,
second staqe sustainer is also of the 'Goa' is still a substantial piece of
soiid type, unlike the hqurd-propellant equipment, weighing in at 636 kg
( 1 ,402 Lb) andwith a length at launch
sustarner of the earlier missile.
SA-3 missiles are normally carrted of some6.7 m(22 ft).
rn pairs on their launch rails on the
back of the same ZIL- I 57 tractors used Right: SA-3 'Goa' has been used in
to tow the much larger SA-1 and SA 2 both mobile and static versions, the
trailers. When used for base defence, former being less common toda7 as
the 'Goa' is fired lrom a power-rotated more modern systems enter service'
twrn iauncher at an elevatlon of 75' I n the airfield defence role,'Goa' is
More recently, the SA-3 has been seen mountedon a powered twin
on tnple launchers rn Yugoslavta and launcher which can elevate to 75'
a quad launcher has been introduced and which is fixed in Place.
to the air-defence forces of the War-
saw Pact. targe-s olI ol orouno cluner' Laler
Atthough technically a mobile sys- models may have optrcal tracktnqt
tem the SA-3 is somewhat cumber- equlpment fitted to the radar system
some rn comparison wtth more recent foi use in intenstve ECM envtron-
systems, but the Sovret tendency to re- ments. The missrle itself is radio com-
tain tn servtce systems that work mand-qurded but maY have been
reasonably well has seen the 'Goa' fitted with semi-actlve radar homing
transferred from the army to the atr- for guidance in the terminal phase of
defence forces, by whom the tYPe is the attack.
used for short-range defence of The SA-3 flrst saw actron durinQl the
arrfields. 'War olAttrition in the Middle East, but
The radar systems associated with Israeli countermeasures developed to
the 'Goa include 'Flat Face' earlY deal with the SA-2 were found to be
warningt and target-acquisition radar effective against the smaller misstie,
which has a ranqe ofsome 250 km (155 Nevertheless the 'SA-3'was the most
miles), and the B5-km (S3-mile) range numerous Arab SAM of the 1973 'Yom
'Low Blow' targtet-tracking and missiie Kippur'war, although it was overshad-
gurdance radar which can track up to owed by the much more effective 54-6
s1x targets at once and gnride up to two 'Gainful'. It has been suppited to most
missiles to each targtet. Low Blow' is Soviet client states, as well as to coun-
optimrzed for tarqtet detectlon at 1ow tries such as Peru, Uetanda and lndta
level and rs reported to be able to ptck The 'Goa has also been taken to sea by
the Sovlet na\y as the SA-N-I and tn
thrs form has become one of the prin-
More recently, SA-3s have been fitted crpal anti-aircraft defences of the
to quadruple launchers in the Sovret fl^oL
11.8 ln); diameter (missrle) 450 mm 30 km (l1.2- lB.6 miles) accordtngto
vaiious air defences of the nations of model; speed at burn-out Mach 3 5;
Specification (17.72 in) and (booster) 600 mm
the W arc aw P act. I n common with
SA-3'Goa' (23.62 rn); span (missile) ]t22 m(4 lI operating altrtude limits 1500-
mostSoviet systems,'Goa' has been
Type: medium ranqle land-based 0.3 in) and (booster) 1.50 m (4 ft I 1, I in) 13000+ m(4 920'42,650+ f0
the subject of continuous updating,
semi-mobile SAM Launchweight: 636 kq (1,402 lb) Warhead: 60-kg ( l32Jb) HE with
lo make an essentially crude system proxrmity fuse
suitable for the modern battlefield. Dimensions: lenqth 6 70 m (21 ft Performance: operatinq ranqe 18-


elevator functton, Because the Bomarc system, but was assigned to Atr De- mounted 15876-kq (35 000 lb) thrust
Developed for the US Air Force, the Aerojet-General LR59-AJ-13 acrd,{P-4
XF-99 Bomarc was a pilotless intercep- was intended for long-ranqte area de- fense Command and initrally could be
fence, rt was apparent that semi-active launched from rts shelter wrthin 2 mi rocket motor and after a few moments
tor of aeroplane conflguration bullt to the two ramjets carried on pylons be-
withstand vefiical iaunch and speeds hominq would be inadequate so the nutes ot SAGI BUIC acqL'rrng a
Bomarc became the flrst actlve-hom- target, a time later reduced to about 30 neath the body were lit. Burninq B0-
of up to Mach 4. The tips of rts wlngs octane Qrasoline, the Marquardt RJ43-
pivoted to act as ailerons, the pivoted ing SAM (carrying its own radar) to be seconds.
deotoved or ac ive 5ervlce flA The missile was launched without MA-3 ramlets each developed 4536 kq
top of the fin served as a rudder, and pre-proqrammed guidance by a tail- (10,000 lb) ofthrust, and once they had
powered slab tailplanes provrded the Bomarc was not -ntended as d moblle

Bomarc (continued) Early Surface-to-Air Missiles
:rt in the aerodynamic controls be- deplcyei to defend McGuire, Suffolk the Royal Canadian Air Force. Initiai
:ame operative, After reachinq some Cc-u::ry Otis. Dow and Langley AFBs, IM-99B dellveries were made to the
-9812m (65,000ft) in an inverted Hol";ever. work had already com- USAF rn 1961, the first unit (at Kinche-
:limb, the mrssile half-roiled and menced on an improved version, the loe AFB) becoming operational in June
:ssumed a positive-q trajectory and, Bomarc B otherwise known as the IM- of that year Some 349 missiles were
wrthin t6hr (10 miles) of the
-,',.hen 998 (CIM-108 from 1962) which had manufactured by Boeinq rn 1961-5. The
:dget, the Westinqhouse radar rn the managred its first test flring in May 1959. Bomarc was desiqned to carry a nuc-
3omarcs nose took control, removrng The Aerojet-General hquid-propellant Iear or HE warhead. The last Bomarc
-he missile from SAGE control and booster was replaced in this model by squadrons were decommissioned rn
rocking onto the target. The DPN-34 a jettrsonable Thiokol M51 solid-prop- 1972.
ladar then active-homed the mssile ellant model (22680-kq/5O,OO0-]b thrust
lver its last stage. In October 1957 a for 30 seconds), which reduced the Specification
Bomarc was launched from Patrick reaction trme between the missile unit IM-99Bomarc
AFB, Florida, under control of the berng alerted and Bomarc being flred Type: long-range land-based
SAGE centre at Kingston, New York, from 2 minutes to a matter of seconds interceptor missile
and successfully intercepted an X-10 Range was substantially increased by Dimensions: length (lM-99A) 13.80 m
flying at Mach 1.6 at an altitude of extra tankaqe for the two 6350-kg (45 ft 3 in) or (lM-99B) 13,30 m (43 ft
14630 m (48,000 ft), A year later two (14,000-1b) thrust RJ43-MA-7s, enabl- 9 in); diameter 890 mm (2 ft 11 in); span
Bomarcs were launched and control- rng a missile to defend an area of 554(lBft2in)
led by a SAGE centre 2400 km (1,500 approximately mitlion km2 (500,000
1,3 Launch weight: (iM-99A) about
miles) from the firingrpoint and tracked sq miles), The IM-998 had a number of 6804 ks (15,000 lb) or (lM-99B) 7258 kq
down a brace of targret drones i60 lrn teething troubles, but demonstrated tts (i6,000 lb)
(100 mrles) out to sea within seconds of capabrlity in l96l by intercepting a Range: (lM-99A) 370 km (230 miles) or
each other, one of the unarmed mis- Regn-rlus 2 supersonic tarQtet drone at a (lM-g98) 709 km (440 miles)
siles actually managrng to ram its heiqht of 30500 m (100,000 ft), 7lB km Warhead: nuclear or HE
tarqet, (446 miles) from rts launching site, The
The initial production version, the type's had the world's frrst production Bomarcwas avery long-range SAM
Bomarc A by that time desrgnated IM- pulse-Doppler radar, the Westingt- which some people believed could
99A (CIM-10A from 1962), entered house DPN-53. r end er m anne d interce p tor s
operatronal service in December 1960: The Canadran government cancel- obsolete. The Canadians cancelled
total production was 366 missiles, and Ied its Avro Arrow interceptor in 1959 their very promising Avro Arrow
one or two 28-missile squadtons were and elected to purchase the IM-99B for fighter in favour of Bomarc.

€ iirL" Ajax
Nike was the ancient Greek goddess
of vlctory and it was an appropnale
choice of name for the missile system
iF t
which became the world's flrst oper te*" **
ational qnrided SAM, It achieved thts
status just before Christmas 1953 near
Washington DC. Its qarqantuan steel Above: A slender and elegant
and concrete emplacement was a far missile, Aj ax was propelled by a
cry from later mobile systems. The sys- solid-fuel, three-finned j ettisonable
tem was rapidly rendered obsolete, baoster and a liquid propellant
bLt .l WaS nevertheless an lmpress-ve suslarner. Speed at burnoutwas
technological achievement, Mach 2.3 and it carried avariety of
Nike Ajax was designed to protect warheads containing shrapnel,
the continental USA from bomber optimized for use against aircraft.
attack and no requirement for mobile
operational use was envisaqed when it was Mach 2.3 and three different-
was deveioped as the SAM-A-7, iater sized warheads were provided, each
Ml and MIM-3. Althouqh not actually surrounded by 6.35-mm (0,25-1n) metal
hardened aqainst nuclear attack, the cubes, the opiimum srze discovered
launch srtes were constructed with for aerral shrapnel
much of thek facilities underground. Ajax was widely exported rnstalla-
From 1956 the Western Electric (BTL) tions belng delivered to ITos malor
acquisition radar was linked to the West European armed forces plus
Semi-Automattc Ground Envrronment Japan, Taiwan and Turkey in 1958 the
(SAGE) network which was supposed US Army had 40 battalions operatrng
'o track every rnrruder and assrgr ir a the system, each of 36 or 48 launchers.
specifrc SAM or interceptor arrcraft, Nearly all these sltes were later con-
The acquisition radar passed the verted to Nike Hercules. Some 16 000
target to a target{racking radar which missrle were produced
provided target data for a computer
which launched the command-Qtuided Specification
missrle into the beam of a mrssrle- Nike Ajax
tracking radar. Maintaining one beam Type: Iong-rangre land based SAM
on the missiie and one on the target, Dimensions: Iength l0 62 m (34 ft
the computer drove the beams to a l0 in); drameter30S mm(12 in); span
coincidence point at a predicted fu- 1.22 m (4 ft O in)
ture target posrtron and commanded Launch weight: with booster I I 14 kg
the missile's warhead to explode when (22,455]b)
the missile was just below the target's Range: 40 km (25 miles)
nose Warheads: 5 4-, Bi.2 and 55.3-kq (12-,
Nike Ajax was a slender missile, 179- and 122-lb) HE fragmentationwlth
wrth cruciform delta flns and control- command detonation
led by four cruciform foreplanes. It
was powered by a Beil Aircraft liquid- Ajax was theworld's first operational
propellant sustainer developing SAM, first deployed in a colossal
1179kq (2,6001b) of thrust for 2l concrete and steel emPlacement
seconds, plus a Hercules Powder outside Washington in I 953.
Company solid-propellant three Designed purely to defend the
flnned jettisonable booster providing continental USA {rom bomber attack,
26762k9 (59,000 Ib) of thrust for 2 5 there was no requirementfor the
seconds. Tl-e sp^--6 oL buJnoul ooinl system to be mobile.


Nike Hercules
The Nike Ajax programme was on so
largre a scale that the decision to re-
place it could not be undertaken light-
Iy, yet as early as 1951 it was recogt-
nized that the system would be unwiel-
dy and complex, The SAM-A-2S Nike
Hercules successor system had thus to
be gnafted on to the existinqr one and
=.=.=:e:]=+4_"+:i,E!!-.f :.j.:t ,f
be compatible with its radar, compu-
ters and assocrated equipment, West- Above: Hercules demonstrated its
ern Electric, the prime contractor for ability in spectacular style in I 960
Nike Ajax, successfully integrated the when one missile intercePted
much superior Hercules missile with another at a closing speed of over
the Ajax's infrastructure, and by the MachT atanaltitudeof 30600 m
sunmer of 1958 the Ajax batteries de- (I 00,000 ft). N either sPeed nor
fending New York, Chicago and the altitude would save an aircraft from
capital had been converted to Her- Hercules.
cules, The missile. was later desigp-
nated IvI6 and then MIM-I4. tapered cylindrical body with saw-
Hercules had dramatically im- toothed 1ow-aspecLratio delta winqs tn
proved performance (derived larqely cruciform confignrration along virtually
from the use of a Radford ArsenaV the fulllength of the body. Control was
Borg-Warner solid-propellant boos- effected by traihng-edge elevons.
ter, each of whose four tubes had per- Command Qnidance was used, and the
formance equal to the sinqle-tube alternative HE or nuclear warheads
booster of the Ajax), making it no lon- were command-detonated.
qer feasrble for an aircraft to avoid des- 1963 was the hiqh point for the Her-
truction simply by flyrng at very high cules in the US Army with 134 batter-
altltude, Able to destroy tarqets at alti- ies in service, The system was ex-
tude of 45720 m (150,000 ft) and with a pofied to Belgium, Denmark, West
burn-out speed of Mach 3.65 (Mach Geimany, Greece, ltaly, Japan, the
3.35 in early missiles), the Hercules at Netherlands, Norway, South Korea,
the time of its introduction seemed to and Turkey, A 48-launcher battalion
place a question mark over the value of deployed to Taiwan in 1958 was hand-
manned bombers. Tied in with the ed over to the Chinese Nationalist
General Electric HIPAR (HI-Power army, In Japan, the non-nuclear ver-
Acqursitlon Radar). Hercules demons- sion was manufactured under licence
trated its ability in spectacular fashion by Mitsubishi, which was still buildinq
during 1960 when such a missile laun- Hercules missiles in the late 1970s de-
ched from the Whlte Sands Missile spite the complete obsolescence of
Ranqe, New Mexico, intercepted the system. Total productron of Her-
another Hercules 48 km (30 miles) cules exceeded 25,000, The last Her-
from the launch site, 30.6 km (19 miles) cules missiles were withdrawn from
above the Earth at a closing speed of active servrce in the USA in 1974,
Mach 7. Earlier in the same year, a although several batteries were re-
Hercules had successfully destroyed tained for training.
an incoming Corporal ballistic missile,
Against low-flying targets the Her- Specification
cules was considerably less effective, Nike Hercules
but it did have a complementary sur Type: lonq-range land-based SAM
face{o-surface ability. In 1961 experi- Dimensions: length wrth booster 12.50
ments were conducted with a Nike or 12,65 m(41 ft0 inor4l fl6 in);
Hercules fired from a prototype diameter BO0 mm (31.5 in); span 1.BB m
mobrle battlefleld transporter/laun- (6 ft 2 in)
cher, paving the way for later-qenera- Launch weight: 4845 ks ( 10,7 10 ]b) or
tion wcapons of far greater tactical 4,720 kg(10,450lb)
mobility, Range: 140 km (87 miles)
The missile itself was based on a Warhead: nuclear or HE

Right:Hercules was dePloYedon a

Below : Aj ax was deployed at great large scale ; the US Army fielded I 34
expense, butwas knownto be an batteries by 1963, and itwas adopted
unwieldy system even as by mostNATO powers aswellas
deploymen t pr ocee d e d. H er cu le s Taiwan and J apan where it was
was a much superior missile manufactured under licence. This
designed to be grafted on to the example is operated by the Belgian
existing Aiax launching sites. armedforces,

Nike Zeus
Early Surface-to-Air Missiles

-:-substantial improvement over E::- -:-:j :::;e r3icr ro gude rts 'bus to
::-les, the XLIM-49A Nike Zeus 'r;.. -:e p,:-:-: 3- -::lerceptlon
::signed to deal wlth a fat more ::-- Zei-s-.';- tested aqiainst Atlas RVs in
-:nQnng targetr intercontinental b.l's- -3:l i:r: President Eisenhower had
.: missiles, By l 955 elforts we'e i-r.- j:: beer advrsed that the computer sys-
-,','ay to
stretch the Nike system tc neei ierrs ,Iiere too slow to cope wrth the
ls new enemy, the larqest part oi:i:e incredrbiy complex targetinEt prob-
scheme bernq the RCA/Sperry/Gener- lems presented by a mass ICBM
-.1 Elec'ric ZAR iZeus Acqutstirc,-. attack, and that a new high-accelera-
?,adar), which was the shape and tron mrssile would have to be de-
aLrnost the size ofthe Great Pyrarud. It veloped to deal with RVs which pene-
nounted a Luneberg Iens receiver ae- trated the main defences, He thus can-
ial which weighed over 1,000 tons but celled plans for operattonal deploy-
:ould not distinguish betlveen re-entry ment of Zeus, and it was not until 1963
vehicles (RVs) and decoys. To solve that the Kennedy administratron autho-
rhrs problem, the world's first Discri rized the development ofa new system
mination Radar was developed to feed called Nike Xwith newradars andthe
data to target- and missile-trackingl exoatmospheric XLIM-49A SPartan
radar which were upgraded versions and endoatmospheric Spnnt misstles.
of those used tn the ensting NI1<e sys-
tems. To enable it to intercept tarqets Specification
on ICBM tralectories hundreds of Nike Zeus
mrles above the surface the com- Type: very{onq-ranqe land-based Above: Nike Zeus was the last of the Below: In I960 Zeus was tested
mand-gn-uded missile had a Thiokol anti-ICBM missrle Nike system SAMs andwas intended against incoming AUas re-entry
tandem booster of unprecedented Dimensions: length with booster to deal not with enerny aircraft but vehicles, but pessimistic advice from
power, producing an enormous 19.28 m (63 ft 3 in); diameter 1,52 m (5 ft I ntercontinental B allistic Missiles hrs advr'sersfta d persuaded
204120k9 (450,000 lb) of thrust, Zeus 0 in); span 2.489 m (B ft 2 in) (lCBMs).ltwas propelled by a President Eisenhower to cancel
was based aerodynamically on the Launchweight: 18144 kq (40,000 lb) T hio ko I boos ter of unprece den te d operational deployment leaving the
Hercules, and was meant to carry a Range: 402* km (250+ miles) power generating 204, I 20 kg Soviet Union as the only power to
thermonuclear warhead fitted with a Warhead: thermonuclear (450,000 lb)ofthrust. pr oduce anti- bal/tstjc mtssiles.

ffi USA

ln t95B the US Army identified a need equipment and a dozen XMIM-464 winqs trailed by rectanenrlar cruciform Specification
for a mobile all-weather battlefield air- Mauler missrles, and able to fire accur- control surfaces, indexed in line with Mauler
defence missile system able to inter- ately while movinq, The unit was sup- the winqs), and the decision made to Type: battlefleld air-defence SAM
rept a variety of possible targets ]n- posed to be light enough to be carried accept a far less capable system whrch Dimensions: length LB3 m (6 ft 0 tn);
cluding missiles, rockets and tactical by a transport aircraft and even to be was more easily obtainable, Plans for diameter 127 mm (5 in); span 330 mm
parachute dropped In Iact. in an ama- an XRIM-46A Sea Mauler navalversion (13 in)
arrcraft, Almost 100 companies were
rnvited to a meetinq and 31 design zingly retrograde step, the ambitious also came to naught Subsequently the Launchweight: 54 4 kq (120 lb)
proposals were flnally submitted, Con- specifications were finally dropped af- US Army made to with Chaparral, Range: B km (5 miles)
vair-Pomona won the contract to pro- ter the missile had reached the hard- spent over $1 billion on the unsuccess- Warhead:HE
duce a system mounted on a standard ware stage (cylindrical body with aft- ful Roland and is now lookinq at
chassrs containing all the fire-control mounted 10w-aspect-ratio cruciform Rapier

Proiect 'Bumblebee
MostUS Navy shipJaunchedanti-aircraftmissiles ate descendedfromaseries
;;;'p;;,th" a"iaoiie"t it *nicn dags from the end of world war II. An
;;t.;i;;i;slviiniiiiiiiiigraiie aesrsped to prevent tJtg Naw suffering '
missile ptogrammes
pt;j;;i;B;;6rct""' i"t'lo become one of the most influential
of alltime.

Today almost forgotten, the 'Bumblebee' re- APUIHU, the Applied Physrcs Laboratory of
search and development proqramme was one the Tohns Hopkins Universily at Baltimore
of the biggest and most far-reaching in history' Maryland. Here Dr Merle Tuve was charged
Started in"lg++ it eventually ied to large fami- with'buildlng up a team able to manage.the
lies of surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) which 'BumblebeeFroject'. Starting with a staff of 11'

protected US and friendly warships. against air this was soon to employ as many thousand, as
ittack for 30 years, are still in production.and wel] as tens of thousands in lndustrial firms USS Long Beach the first tJS Navy cruiser to be
will arm (for example) Australian warships possessing the right skills ln advanced tech- designe-d from the outset to operate guided-
ordered in 1986 and on which construction has noloqies. ln every respect the work thrust mr'ss]let was tlr e first nuclear powered surface
ahea-d beyond the lrontiers of previous know- combatAnt in the world . I t was originally equipped
not even begun! with both Tatos and Terrier missiles (both being
During World War II the USA showed almost ledge,
blooded off the coast of Vietnam).
no interdst in developing SAMs The need was Inter-service dvalry
not for defensive missiles but offensive ones paper studles (and there would have been
Then, suddenly the US and Allied ships clos- The US Navy was right to try to do the job
orooerlv, but it caused terribie trouble with the computer srmulations, had such things been
ino rn on Tapaniound themselves under terrify- invehted) the work swrftly progressed to in-
in6 attack from kamikaze suicide aircraft' i-iual US'nrmy. The US Navy's 'very aggressive
Drooram' wai fouqht by the US Army Air Force volve actual test hardware, Some of it was even
Alinost overnight work began on two gnrided Expansion oI the Naval made in the API,, though most was contracted
missiles to protect the ships, These became bt e"uery opportunity,
Ordnance Station at Inyokern was bad to industry.
KAN-1 Little Joe and KAY-I Lark, both sub- The questions needing answers were
sonic rockets steered by radio command, later enoush, but when General H.H Arnold
t.ui"5O in November 1945 ol the planned $50 numerous. The BuOrd (Bureau of Ordnance)
l,arks also having semr-active radar homilg wanted SAMs far better in concept than i,ittle
too hte for the war, they did at least succeed in million missile test range at Point Mugm, Cali-
fornia, he descrtbed it as 'a deflnite danger Ioe and Lark, which were rather crude sub-
destroying Grumman Wildcat and Grumman ionic alumrnrum and mtld-steel-sheet beasts
Hellcat targets, signal'; the USAAF fought the request for the
$5"0 milhon On top of the intense tnter-service with poor power of manoeuvre and an effective
As early as August 1944 the US Navy'-recog- rang-e no greater than the existtng l27-mm (5-
nized thai what are today called SAMs were rivairv was the fact the US Navy was monopo-
golng to need a massive research and de- hzrno the talented people who could work on in) quns, Shrp radars, especially with aerials
ieloiment effort, much bigger than one. it missiles, A RIM-24 Tartar missile is launched from a
coulb conveniently carry on 'in house'. The The baslc brief handed to Dr Tuve was 'How nuclear-powered guided missile cruiser of the
aiternatives were giant contracts with industry do vou best defend large surface warships 'California' class. This development of the Terrier
or with technicaf leaders in the academic against air attack?' Ihis question was so vast has semi-active radar homing, and is still in
uid fat reachlng lt was not surprising that the service with many navies nearly 35 years after the
world, and the choice feli on the latter' The need for such amissr?e was expressed.
Navy Bureau of Ordnance picked the famed early contracts soon multiplied, and from mere

28 18

Early Surface-to-Air Missiles



The orlginal ball-park fignrres assumed were Seen being launched from the 'Leahy' class cruiser
that, to meet the US Navy requirement, the USS England (CG- 22), Terrier could be
missile should have an effectlve range of distingruished fromTartar by the long booster
motorwhichgave the missile amuch longer range
320 km (20 mites) at 2900 km,/h (1 800 mph) and than its contemporary and a much higher speed at
this in turn led to a rough launch weight ol burnout.
907 kq (2 0001b) wlth a 'payload' ol 272kq
(600 Ib) which proved impossibie to attain. By
spring 1945 contracts had been let with M,W. tapered, pornted wings amidshrps, Iooklng like
Kellogg Company and Allegany Bailistics for small editions of those of Talos, and these small
large solid rocket motors, and with Bendix for wings and the rather quick burnout of the sus-
the fuel metering system for an advanced su- tainer motor meant that manoeuvrability de-
personic ramjet, By late 1949 detailed en- teriorated at distances beyond about 19,3 km
gineering design was in progress of the firsi (12 miles), Nevertheless it was a workable sys-
Terrier, the first ship-launched surface'to- air
missile to enter operational service, was two SAMs, together with the associated shlp tem, which completed sea trials from the bat-
devel1ped usingTalos technologv. Some 8,000 handling gear and large radars, The bigger of tleship USS Missrssppt in 1954 and finally be-
rounds of thk beam-riding missile were the two was the SAM-N-6 Talos, with an tnteg- came operational (the flrst shrp{o-air missile tn
produced, and a 1-kiloton nuclear-armed version ral ramjet burning kerosene or kerosene/naph- the world) in 1956, aboard the cruisers USS
remains in service in a number of the Standard tha and fed by a nose tnlet looking like an Boston and Canberra and the destroyer USS
SM-Z armedvessels to this daY. Cyatt. From it stemmed the neat Tartar, which
advanced MiG-21. Radio aerials round the
nose picked up radar signals reflected from has no boost motor and whrch is sti1l belng
mounted high above the sea, could see ior the target and homed the misslle under the adopted for new ships despite rts 4O-year
scores of mlles. Missiles cou]d be made super- control of four moving winqs arranged round ancestry.
sonic, and they ought to be able to outman- the body amidships. Complete with its enor- The ultimate SAM to be developed in the
mous tandem boost rocket even'the first Talos 'Bumblebee Project' was not unnaturally the
oeuvre any manned aircraft. Thus the basic
task soon resolved rtself into propulsion and weighed nearly 2722 kg (6 000 1b), but it went SAM-N-8, given the odd name of Typhon. Thts
gn:idance, though it also embraced structures, four times as far as the 32 lan (20 mlles) stipu- rs described separately, Almost inevitably, the
flight-controt actuation and dynamics, and lated, It led to a large family of later Talos \phon (a missile with capabrirty far exceed-
even the design of the magazines, loading sys- missiles, as described separately. ing anythrng possesssed by any ship of the US
tems and launchers in the shlps. The scope of The initial all-rocket SAM was the SAM-N-7 Navy today) is now almost forgotten, So, too, is
'Bumblebee' was so large that soon hundreds Terrier. Thrs was naturally much more slender, the biggest of all the 'Bumblebee' offspring, the
of industrral and scientific contractors were in- and shorter-ranged, The first Tactical Pro- XSSM-N-4 Triton. This was basically a scaled-
volved. They were collectively known as Sec- totype was assembled in November 1949 and up Talos, with a body of 1 52-m (60-in) diameter
tion T, and this led to the missiles that finally fired at the Navai Ordnance Test Station, Chna and 13.7 m (45 ft) 1ong, When cancelled in 1955
resulted all being given names beginning with Lake, on 16 February 1950. A-fter a masslve this amazing cruise missile even had inertial
development programme this led to the BW-l guidance with a map-matching system like that
this letter Terrier, Talos, Tartar, Triton and
Typhon, production missile ol late 1953. It had sharply used todayl

€ fi"to,
The US Navy's interest in developing
SAMs stemmed from its disagreeable
experrence of Japanese karnikaze
attacks in the last 12 months of World ,E:
War IL The SAM-N-6 Talos was one of
a series of missiles which originated in
I i
a research proeEamme bearing the
codename 'Bumblebee', After Pro-
longed development, the cylindrical
missile (wrth pivotlng crucdorm wtngs
and fixed cructform tail surfaces) en-
tered sewice in 1958, saw action dur- Above: Taloswas the area defence
ing the Vietnam War and was still component of the'?'serjes missiles
being used in the early 1980s, although developed under the ausPices of
only as a supersonic target for other Proiect 'Bumblebee'. A large, ramjet-
missiles. powered vehicle, i t w as orig inallY
Talos was fired from a stabilized de s ignated SAM -N - 6 ( later to
twin launcher, powered for the first 2.2 becomeRIM-8).
seconds of flight by a Kellogg/Alle-
gany Ballistics Laboratory solid-prop- its filst live round at sea on February 24
ellant booster which set records dur- i959. In 1962 the tYPe was redesig-
inq the 1950s, After bumout, this sepa- nated RIM-8. Several Talos-armed
rated by air drag. The integral Bendix vessels were rn action off Vietnam: USS
ramjet burned a mrxture of naptha and Long Beach shot down two North Viet-
kerosene expelled by nitroqen into a namese MiGs at extreme range In
rurbrne pump and combustion section: 1968, Initially a pulse homing system
a pitot head in the nose fed data to vary (RIM-8F). rhe Talos was modLfled dur-
the fuel flow to maintain a corstant mis- rng the mid-1960s lo conllnuous wave
sile speed of Mach 2.5 despite varia- operation (RIM-8E, RIM-8G and RIM-
trons in drag. The mrssile was gathered 8j), A number were converted to
in the SPG-56's tracking beam and RGM-8H surface-to-surface anti-radar
controlled vra the beam-riding receiv- missiles, and during the 1970s older
er untrl it closed with the target. At this models were altered to MQM-8G Van-
point the shipboard SPG-49 target-illu- dal targets used to simulale anti-shlp
6 in); diameter 762 mm (30 in); span USS Long Beach shot down two North
minating radar prcked up the tarqet missiles.
and the Talos homed semi-actively on 2.90 m (9 ft 6 in) Vietnamese MiG - I 7 s at extremely
the target reflections picked up by the Specification Launchweight: (missile) 1590 kg long range during 1968, and
four probe aerials positioned around RIM-8J Talos (3,505 lb) and (totalround) 3540 kg attacked enemy aircraft on five other
its nose, Type: long-rangte ship-borne area- (7,805 rb) occasions with falos missi/es. Tlese
clefence SAM Range:about 120 km (75 miles) mssrTes are seen here on the
Talos achieved operational status in
i95B when the SAM-N-6B was fitted to Dimensions: lenqth (missile) 6.78 m Warhead: nuclear or HEwitha convertedWorldWar II cruiser USS
the cruiser USS Galveston, which fired (22 ft 3 in) and (total round) 9.91 m (32 ft proximityfuse Little Rock.

ffi fivpnon
The series of missiles spawned by the (Mach 5 compared with Mach 2.5) but
Bumblebee' programme (Talos, Tar- the missile weighed only half as much
tar and Terrier) required the attention and its warhead was reduced Pro-
of a dedicated guidance beam gener- pofilonately to 68 kg (150 lb) givtng a
ator throughout their flight, and no in- iethal radius of 15 2 m (50 ft). The for'
crease in rate of fire was possible if the mer flew at Mach 1.25 to Mach 4 and
syslem was faced with a sdrula-jon had a ranqe simtlar to that of the Tartar
aitack. To overcome this problem it Design was simrlar to that of the earlier
was decided to develop a combination types, with a lettisonable solid-prop-
of command and terminal gnridance ellant booster behind the mrssile prop-
which after a 2O-year programme has er, which was powered bY a Bendix
eventuaily become AEGIS Another inteqsal ramjet in the cylindrical body
consideratton was the sheer cost of with a central shock-cone ln the nose
shipboard electromcs, which was be- The aerodynamic surfaces were diffe-
gnnning to dictate the overall cost of rent however, being cruciform lonqt
warships. An area-defence ship cap- chord wrngs of low aspect ratio fltted
able of engTaginq a multitude of incom with tip extensions for control.
ing missiles might replace several ves- Typhon sounded extremely lm-
sels fitted with earlier systems. This presslve, but so too had the first three
spurred the development of the SAM- T' missiles. In service ali had proved
N-8 Typhon in the i950s. disappointingly unreliable: a 1962 sur-
Typhon's unified weaPon-control vey of six Tartar-armed ships found
system was to incorporate a Westinq- they averaqed only 30 per cent readi-
house fixed-array multi-element lrack- ness compared with the theoretrcal 90
ing and qudance radar to provlde the per cent. By this time the US Narry had
high power necessary for target ac- spent a rorlune on missrle shtp con-
quisition and rliumination for long- sirr,rction (approximate)y $6.5 bLll'onl
range interception plus the beam aqdl- and the wrsdom of embarkinq on a Typhon programme Secretary of De- Typhonwas to have beenthe
ity required to engage multlPle fourth 'T' type system was questioned fense McNamara cancelhnqT tt in De- ultimate member of the'T' series of
tarqets. The active radar homtng What was the point of develoPtng an cember 1963 Much of the budqet allo- navalSAMs spawned bY the
increased raid-handling capabrlity cated for Typhon went rnstead towards 'Bumblebee' project, but the failings
Typhon was expected to tackle such
targets as very-high-altitude bombers, when the existinqt systems were still 1-.e t.fyrng the taul s o' tne exis iro mts of the eartier missiles led toTyphon's
unable to deal with therr suPPosed srles cancellation, the money being spent
or missiles approachtnqr at Mach 3, or
targets? Furthermore, there was un- on rectifying the problems of its
free-fall bombs, or rockets travelltng at predecessors.
Mach 4 as well as surface targets the ease at the 'egqs in one basket' nature Specification
size of a cruiser. Two models were of Typhon: was it desirable to concen- RIM-SOATyphon
olanred, a medium-ranoe RIM-SSA trate so high a proportion of a surface Type: very long-range shtp-borne
lorce s atr detence tn asingle svstem tn area-defence SAM Launch weight: about 9072 kg
and a long-ranqe RIM-SOA. ooth wtt-
optionai nuclear or conventional war- d s-ngle sh'P: r|,,"a" roservat'ons Dimensions: length (misstle) 8.53 m (20,000 tb)
combinedwith the inadequacies of the (28 ft 0 in) and (wrth booster) 14 02 m Range: 322 km (200 miles) at Mach 5
heads. The latter had about twice the
'T' senes so far, combined to ktll the (46 ft 0 1n) Warhead: nuclear or HE
range of Talos and was much faster

Armed Forces of the World

Although one of the ,,',., :- :s: :a --:- es ln North

Afrlcaasa resultof rts c'-s:--::s - :'r.a,salsoone
of the smallest in tern s := :::- .::^ ,3.55 million)
as the major paft of rts ,ari .'.. s z' i n nature. This
combination should nare J .:::ec armed forces
sized merely for defens:ve r..r'ccses. However, the
political aspirations of is teacer, Colonel Oadhafi,
have turned the country nio a malor centre for
terrorism and unrest in the Middle East and Africa.
Libyan troops, tanks, aircraft and agents pro-
vocateurs have been directly involved in the recent
Chadian civil war, the '1 978 border war between
Tanzania and Uganda, the brief but bloody border
war with Egypt in 1977 and the various internal
struggles in Sudan, Tunisia, Egypt, Morocco and
Lebanon. ln addition, provocative actions against
American military aircraft and ships in the interna-
tional waters and airspace over the Gulf of Sirte
resulted in the now-famous air battle of 19 August
1981 when two Soviet-supplied Sukhoi Su-22 'Fit-
ter-J' ground-attack fighters challenged two US
Navy carrier-based Grumman F-144 Tomcats and
were shot down for their troubles. These actions,
and the vast amount of armaments purchased in
recent years, have earned Libya the distrust of prac- Artillery: (towed) 1 05-mm (4.1 3-in) M 1 01 howitzer. Under the idiosyncraticregime of Colonel
tically all her near neighbours and have resulted in 1 22-mm (4. B-i n) D-30 howitzer, 1 22-mm D-74 g u n, Qadhafi, Libya has earned the complete mktrust
the country being almost permanently in a state of '1
30-mm (5.1-in) M46 gun, 1 52-mm (6-in) D-20 gun/ of her neighbours and worldwide notoilety.
iVeverffre]ess, sfi e is wealthy and has little trouble
tension as diverse internal uprisings by political howitzer, '1 55-mm (6.1 -in) M 1 1 4 howitzer, and '1 B0-
procuring weapons. This British- built FAC was
opponents of Oadhafi are put down with ruthless mm (7.09-in) S-23 gun;
recently overhauled in ltaly.
efficiency by his intelligence and security units. The (self-propelled) 1 22-mm ISU-1 22 SP gun,'1 22-
killing of the regime's opponents has also spread to mm 251 SP howitzer, 152-mm ISU-I 52 SP gun,
the streets of a number of European cities. 152-mm 2S3 SP howitzer, '1 52-mm DANA SP gun,
1 55-mm Palmaria SP gun, and l 55-mm M1 09 SP

The Army howitzer;

The 58,000-man Libyan army has only two major (MRLs) 107-mm (4.2-in)Type 63,122-mmBM-21 ,
units, which have a varying number of smaller 122-mm RM70, 130-mm M51 , and 300-mm (1 '1 .B-
formations placed under command as required. A in) Astros Il;
full listing is: (mortars) B'1 -mm (3.2-in) M 1, B2-mm M37, 1 20-
mm (4.7-in) M43, 160-mm (6.3-in) M43, 160-mm
one mechanized divisional HO, M 160. and 240-mm (9.45-in) M240; and
20 tank battalions, (SSMs) FROG-7 and'Scud-B' ;
30 mechanized infantry battalions, Anti-armour weapons: RPG-7 rocket-launchers ;
one national guard brigade, 73-mm (2.87-in) SPG-g, B2-mm (3.2-in) B-10, 106-
two speclalforces brigades (with '1 0 battalions), mm (4.1 7-in) M40A1 and 1 07-mm B-1 '1 recoilless
1 0 f ield artillery battalions, rif les; Vigilant,'Sagger' (including BRDM-2
two air-defence artillery battalions, installations),'Spigot' and Milan ATGWs; Vosper Thornycroft delivered the frigateDat
two air-defence SAM regiments, Anti-air weapons: (towed) 1 4.5-mm (0.57-in) ZPU- Assawari fo.Lrbya in 1973 and shehadanextensive
nine air-defence SAM battalions, and 1, 2 and 4, 23-mm ZtJ-23, 40-mm Bofors Ll1 0, 40- refi t at G e noa, I taly, I 0 ye ars I ater. The L iby an navy
two surface-to-su rface missile brigades. mm Breda L/70 and 57-mm 5-60 guns; continues to expand rapidly.
(self-propelled) 23-mm ZSU-23-4 and 30-mm
For use in its African adventures the army can call M53/59 guns; and vided by six newly-built Soviet'Foxtrot'class diesel-
upon the paramilitary lslamic Pan-African League of (SAMs) SA-4'Ganef ', 54-6'Gainf u l', SA-7'G rail', electric submarines delivered from 1976 onwards,
some 7,000 men organized into one armoured, one SA-B 'Gecko', SA-9 'Gaskin', SA-13 'Gopher' and whilst coastal and covert operations are handled by
mechanlzed infantry and one para-commando bri- Crotale;and at least six two-man Yugoslav-built 'Mala' class
gade. This force uses equipment such as tanks, Small arms: 9-mm Beretta M951 pistol; 9-mm midget submarines.
APCs and artillery from the large reserve stocks Beretta M12 and 9-mm Sterling 134 SMGs; 5.56- The surface f leet has only one major combatant,
available. mm M 1 64 1,7 .62-mm FN-FAL, 7.62-mm BM-59, the Vosper Thornycroft frigate Daf Assawari, which
The equipment used by the army is a mixture of 7 .62-mm AK-47 and 7.62-mm AKM rif les; andT .62- has recently been ref itted in ltaly to carry four Oto-
Eastern and Western types characterized in the mm FN-MAG,-l .62-mm RPD,7.62-mm RPK,7.62- mat long-range SSMs and an Albatros quadruple
main by its modernity. Western countrles which mm PK, 12.7-mm DshK and 0.5-in Brownings MGs. SAM launcher. The main missile punch, however, is
have supplied Libya in return for oil and large cash provided by the light forces, which have four Soviet
payments over the years include Brazil, France and Of the 2,500 MBTs held in the Libyan inventory, 'Nanuchka' class (each with four SS-N-28 'Styx'
Italy, altnough it
s known that samples o+ the some 1,400 (as well as considerable amounts of SSMs) and four ltalian 'Assad' class (each with four
weapons supplied have been passed to the USSR, other equipment) are held in vast war reserve stocks Otomat SSMs) missile corvettes, 10 French 'La
Libya's other major arms supplier, for testing. A full located in interior desert areas. To use these Combattante llG' class (each with four Otomat
list of the weaponry currently in service is: weapons there are only 40,000 men in the People's SSMs), three British 'Susa' class (each with 16
Militia. The supposition thus raised is that these SS.'1 2 wire-guided missiles) and 12 Soviet'Osa ll'
Armou r : T-34l85, T-54, T-55, f -62, f -7 2 and I -1 4 weapons could be a Soviet prepositioned stockpile (each with four SS-N-2B 'Styx' SSMs) missile craft.
MBTs; Shorland internal securityvehicles; EE-3 for use in a wide-ranging confllct. These are assisted by the gun-armed corvette lob-
Jararaca reconnaissance vehicles; BRDM-1, ruk and some 22 large patrol and fast attack craft,
BRDM-2, Saladin Mk 2 and EE-9 Cascavel armoured The Navy some of which are seconded to the customs ser-
cars; and BM P-1 , BTR-50, BTR-60, 0T-62, 0T-64, The 6,500-strong Libyan navy is similar to the vice.
EE-1 1 Urutu, Chaimite, Saracen, M113A1 and Fiat army in having the best from both East and West. For amphibious warfare work there is a single
661 4 APCs; The major open-water offensive capabllity is pro- naval infantry battalion, although some army units
Armed Forces of the World
are believed to be also trained in assault landings,
These use two French 'PS700' class LSTs, three
guet Mirage F.1EDs and six F.1BDs, 140 Mikoyan-
Gurevich MiG-23 'Flogger-Es' and 14 'Flogger-Cs',
Libya I
spatiale SA.342 Gazelles, The sixth squadrons is of
regimental size and flies some 30 Mi-24 'Hind-D'
Soviet 'Polnochny-C' class LSMs and up to 50 Tur- 50 MiG-25 'Foxbat-As' and five 'Foxbat-Cs'and 55 gunships in the anti-armour/ground support role.
kish-built'C1 07' class LCTs. MiG-21'Fishbed-Js'. Ground-attack and counter-air The last two squadrons are tasked exclusively with
A limited mine countermeasures and minelaying missions are handled by six iquadrons and an OCU naval support duties f lylng 12 Mr14'Haze-A' ASW
capability is provided by seven Soviet 'Natya' class with around 1B MiG-23 'Flogger-Fs', some 100 and eight A6rospatiale SA.321 Super Frelon ASW/
ocean-going minesweepers. In the laying role they sukhoi Su-20/22 'Fitter E/F/Js',. 30 SOKO J1-A-E SAR helicopters respectively from the naval air sta-
are joined by two roll-on/roll-off ferries, the Gnatand Jastrebs and the remnants of 14 Mirage F.1AD- tion at Misratah.
El-Timsah, and the four'Assad' class corvettes. lt is 200s, 53 Mirage 5Ds, 32 Mirage SDEs and 15 Mir- A significant training programme has been initi-
now fairly certain that the Gnatwas solely responsi- age 5DDS supplied by France. A single reconnaiss- ated with four squadrons for the rapid build-up of
ble for the recent minelaying in the Red Sea which ance unit flies the survivors of '1 0 Mirages 5DRs, indigenous flying personnel numbers in the air
caused severe damage to a number of merchant although the Soviets are believed to have supplied a force, and to provide such training for subversive
ships including several from Libya's major ally, the small number of MiG-25 'Foxbat-B' photo-recon- elements like the PLO, The units fly some 230 ltalian
USSR. There are also some dozen auxiliary vessels naissance and 'Foxbat-D' Elint aircraft for mutual SlAl-Marchetti SF.260WL and SF.260ML primary
of various types, plus the LSD-type logistic support use in the region. and basic piston-engined trainers, 60 Yugoslav
ship Zeltin, which is used mainly as a HO ship and During the 1977 border war with Egypt some SOKO G2-A-E Galeb and 160 Czech Aero L-392O
tender for the light forces. aerial combat was undertaken without much suc- basic and advanced jet trainers, and 20 Mi-2 'Hop-
cess, and a number of alrcraft were lost in dogfights lite' helicopters. Many of these aircraft can also
The Air Force and to Egyptian air force counter-air strikes on the double in the light attack/COIN roles, and have been
The Libyan air force (Al Ouwwat Alijawwiya Al Mirage bases. used as such in limited local wars where sophisti-
Libiyya) has (like the army) much of its firstline The territorial expansion plans by Oadhafi, and his cated air defences are unlikely to be encountered.
equipment in store as a result mainly of aircrew meddling in neighbours' affairs are reflected in the The air force also operates its own air-defence
shortages or lack of spares, Flying a mix of Soviet 10 squadrons of fixed-wing transports and helicop- network with three brigades and two battalions of
and French combat aircraft, the 8.500-man service ters. The two heavy-lift fixed-wing units fly five SA-2 'Guidelines', SA-3 'Goas' and Crotales. The
uses pilots and groundcrew from Pakistan, Syria, Antonov An-26 'Curl', seven Lockheed C-130H Her- recent delivery of several battalions of the ultra-long-
North Korea, the PLO, the mercenary market and cules, 20 Aeritalia G.222L, nine llyushin ll-76 'Can- range SA-5 'Gammon' by the Soviets (to cover the
the USSR in an effort to overcome its personnel did', two Canadair CL-44, eight Fokker F,27-600 Egyptian border and the Gulf of Sirte) is believed to
shortcomings. Friendship and 10 Let L-410UVP Turbolet trans- be a political gesture to the Libyans, and the
A single squadron with seven TupolevTu-22 'Blin- ports, (There are another '1 1 'Candids' in Libyan weapons may well be used in further stage-man-
der-A' bombers and two 'Blinder-C' conversion airline service, and these are also regularly used on aged incidents with the Americans.
trainers provides the nation's medlum attack poten- military duties.) Five of the helicopter squadrons use
tial, and has seen action in several of Libya's African mainly transport types including 19 ltalian-built Oil revenue can buy expensive aircraftbut cannot
conflicts. Sufficient 'Blinders' are b.eljeved to be in Boeing-Vertol CN-47C Chinooks, 20 or so Mil Mi-B create air crew, andmuch of Libya's ultra-modern
store to create a second squadron if required. 'Hip-Cs', two Agusta-Bell AB.212s, five Agusta-Bell air force is grounded for lack of men or spares.
The interceptor force has three squadrons and an A8.206s, 10 A6rospatiale SA.31 6 Alouette llls, nine Mercenaries, Syrians and Pakistanis supplement
OCU which has access to some 40 Dassault-Bre- Agusta-Bell AB.47s and a few newly-arrived 46ro- Libyan pilots flying aircraft like this Sukhoi Su- 17.

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