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The world's most comprehensive encyclopedia or the *t*Tu'r%gry zoth century

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The Z4-Hour

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c: Space

, S n::::-Ballistic
Missile Systenrs

A fully illustrated Eride to Strategic Weapons 0f the Future

Volume 12 Issue 143

Published by
Orbis Publishing Ltd
@ Aerospace Publishing Ltd 1986
Editorial Offices
War ,Vachine
Aerospace Puolishrng LiC
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Managing Editor: Stan Morse

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The arms race has been with us for many years in one form The USSR, in spite of
or anothe4 hut the amoutt of scientifrc, technologtical and claims to the contrary,
is whole-hearted in its
engrineering tesource devoted to evet more effective military space effort.
methods of d.estnzction has never been greater than it is Here adevelopment
modelof amanned
today, Weapons are being developed that even 20 years ago spacefighter is
wotild have seemed to be in the rcalms of science fiction. recovered.

Since the early 1980s the number of strateqic weapon systems revealed own 'Star Wars' programme, much of whose technology has already
to be either deployed or under development has risen sharply, The been developed and is in the process of being tested. For instance, by
USSR has begmn deployment of a new greneration of mobile ICBMS, 1981 the highly secret ABM test site at Sary-Shagan near the Sino-Soviet
cruise missile and strategrc bombers, whilst the USA has begun the border had tested a massive iodine laser weapon over 30 times against
process of countering these systems by investigatrng the technology real re-entry vehicles, A similar R&D site for a particle beam weapon
needed for modernizing its own strategic forces. Of these by far the most was detected near the Soviet town of Semrpalatinsk in the mid-1970s,
important and expenslve programme rs the futurrstrc Strategic Defense and thrs prototype weapon is currently invoived in open-air testing
lnrtrative (SDI) whrch is designed to provide the research inlormation against airborne targets,
and prototype hardware required for a ground- and space-based anti- In the light of this, the other nuclear powers are embarking on their
balhstrc missile (ABM) layered network to cover the USA and perhaps own nuclear force upgrading programmes so that they can at least
Europe. The technologres for what is more commonly known as the 'Star maintain credible deterrents for the years ahead,
Wars' concept includes those associated with high-powered lasers,
particle beam weapons and advanced gun types, together with their Typicalof the enhancementwhich has come to manyweapon systems over
lftelast decades, the Pershing battlefield supportmissile has been developed
associated targeting systems. When the US programme is debated, it is into aweapon ofremarkable accuracy, capable ofdestroyinghard targets of
often conveniently forgotten that the Soviets are already well into their military importance {ar beyond the edge of the battlefield.
NORAD: The z6'.Hour Sentinel
TheNorthAmericanAerospaceDefenseCommand is taskedwith theproteclio-n of -
ii" iiiiiaStites andCanidafrom attackby air. As originally envisaged, hig.h-level
subsonic bombers were the perceived threat, but the quantum leap in missile
technolory has demanded a very different capability'

J,rrently undergolng a malor upgradrng-, the lites did provide a patchy upgrading Many of
li:rthAmencan Aerospace Defense Com- the ground-based radars, however, were also
:and (NORAD) was created in 1957 to defend technologically backward, especially those
-re conttnental USA and Canada against the forming the ltne stretching along the arctic cir-
,rreat of Soviet strategic bombers armed with cie from Alaska eastward to Greenland, Ice
-ree-iall nuclear bombs, Duringthe 1970s much land and Scotland (the Distant Early Warning,
:f NORAD's equipment was allowed to be- or DEW, line, which was origrnally intended to
come obsolete and the rationale for NORAD's detect over{he-pole attacks by Sovret bom-
existence to become reduced in priority as the bers). With the advent of new terrain-followlng
Pentagon saw llttle point in defending agatnst a^ radars for aircralt and missiles the DEW line
ptrmaiy threat whrch had switched from one of had become vulnerable to lowlevel strikes
irrcrafi to one of the ballistrc misslle By iune -The beneath the radars' coveraQle - _
1980, when the infamous double false missile catalyst for the revival of NORAD ln the
launch alert occurred, it was found by investi- 1980s have been threefold rn nature They are
qators that the lack of resources had carried President Reagan's strategic modernization
over into NORAD's missile warning role, programme, the Strategic Defense Initiative
Tasked not only with detecting a missile attack (SOt) anO the new Soviet capability for low-
on the USA, NORAD's heavily armoured com- Level bomber and cruise missile attack.
mand and control complex at Cheyenne Moun Although the SDI is aimed at developing a
tain must also provide the US National Com- sophisticated layered defence against Soviet
mand Authorrties (NCA) with data on the num- ICBM and SLBM attack, rt will not detect or
bers, origin and probable targetting of the in- destroy the low-level Soviet bombers or cruise
comrng warheads in order that the NCA can mrssrles, which still remain the responsibility of
select the appropriate counterattack option NORAD itself,
from the Srnqtle lntegrated Operational Plan As a consequence virtually every NORAD
(SIOP) of enemy targets to be hit command, control, communications and warn
' ing network is the centre of a major moderniza-
Speciflcally, the investigators found
mid--1985 NORAD had only a trmited capability tion programme. A total of 340 or so manned
to perform these tasks, The supercomputgrs inter-ceptor aircraft located at 29 alert bases tn One of the responses to an incoming missile attack
used to evaluate the raw radar and satelltte the USA Canada and Alaska are being up- was to havebeen the use ofground based
information could not cope with the ever-in- graded as fast as possible, By late l9BO the interceptor missiles of phenomenal performance,
force wrll comprise some 18 squadrons (five such ai the point defence Sprint system, one of the
creasing warning, tracking and threat assess- components of the abortive Sentinel project'
ment demands piaced on them by the lncreas-- with the McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle, two
ing Soviet use- of MIRVs, decoys and chaff wrth the McDonneil Douglas CF 18 Hornet, The Convair (GeneralDynamics) F-106 remains in
penetratron aids. Moreover, the geosynchro- iour with the Convair F-106 Delta Dart and service in declining numbers with the US Air
nous-orbit early warning satellites of the I960s seven with the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phan- National Guard. For many years the mainstay of
and 1970s were now vulnerable to enemy elec- tom) though the two latter types are to be re- the IIS air defence, theF-106 was one of the few
tronic jammrng and ASAT (anti-satellrte) placed by General Dynamics F-16 Fighting aircraft to have been armed with nuclear air-to'air
weaponry, although their slow replacement by Fatcons or successor aircraft by the early missiles, in the shape of the unguided Genie and
1990s, If required rn a cnsis, additional aircraft the AIM-26A Super Falcon.
newjam-resistant and nuclear hardened satel-
. j: .. .,....t.i. ,r :l

.::r ,j l.::riii ..jj: :.'S

r r";,---\"\-.

t'3, ;
Strategic Weapons of the Future

can be drawn from the USAF, US Navy and US Above: The modernization of NORADiasseen tie Below: The upgrading of North American air
Marine Corps assets based in the USA. introduction of large numbers of modern fighters defence has seen the original DEW (Distant Early
to cope with the threat of the new generation of Warning) Iine thoroughly modernized, with the
Low-level penetration threat by Soviet bom jssjles. 1 950s and 1960s technolary radar stations
S oviet bomber s and long-range cruise m
bers and cruise missiles is to be countered by The Canadian Armed Forces have procured the superseded by automated, computerized (and in
tire frelding of up to eight Over The Horizon McDonnell Douglas CF- l8 as their main air some cases un manned) stations embodying the
Backscatter radar sites to cover the western, defence aircraft. latest technolory.
eastern and southern coasts, while the arctic
circle approaches will be the responsibtlity of
a new DEW line to be called the North Warn-
ing System (NWS) whrch is currently being
built with 13 minlmally attended 370-km (230-
mile) range FPS-117 'Seek Igloo' automated
radars (11 ofthem in Canada) and 39 unman-
ned short-range 'gap-flller radars. These sys-
tems would be supplemented in wartime by up

Below: Heart of the extremely complex range of

detection systems, aircraft andmlssiles lftatls
North American Aerospace Defense Command
lies deep within Cheyenne Mountain in Wyoming,
where the command and control complex is also
:ffiffim*' ::

I.*: rn-o'illl1 ':, 12



Above: I n the event of an attack, the command and Below: Each E-3 is much more than an aeilalradar
:- ralf of the erght Boeing E-3 Sentry AWACs station, being equipped to petform all the
for use control functions of NORAD would be enhanced by
-lcra{t currently assigned to NORAD Control the transfer north of up to four Boeing E-3 AWACS command and control functions of a ground-based
,';.1 its seven Regional Operations aircraft, which would be integrated into the new command post. On board, some of the crew would
len:res (ROCCs) that cover North Amerrca as
NWS (NorthWarning System)which is replacing act as figh[er contro]lers, vectoring defending
.-i:cormands of the main complex theDEWiine. aircraft onto targets.
Abroad, NORAD's Ballistrc Missile Early
-;--rnlng System (BMEWS) radars are also
:=:rg upgraded with new computer and o,ther
=,ec:onics to operate in a MIRV warhead en-
-,-r:nment, whrist at home new 'Pave Paws'
S- BM-detection radars are providing im-
:::ved coverage ofthe approaches to tt19 Vpl
i-,- replacing older coastal sites Any SLBMs
-a'urched lrom the lower arcttc circle are now
,:e responsibllrty ol ihe phased-array P,eri-
:-e:er Acquisitlon Radar Characterization Sys-
.e:l (PARbS) located near Colcrete, North
lakoia. This is a legacy of the US Army's can-
::rled SentineVSafeguard ABM system.
Jhe increased milrtary importance of space
-,';as also recogntzed in September 1985 by the
:leation of the US Space Command at Colora-
i: Springs to work with NORAD Made,up of
.:e USRf Space Command, the US Navy Space
O:mmand and the US Army Space Command'
-r: US Space Command has as ils main oper-
a::ona1 responsrbilities the day-to-day manage-
rent of the national space-based missile warn-
rg and sensor satellites, the running of any
Soiace Shuttle mrlitary missions and the control
:r- ;he F-1S-based ASAT mlssiles when these
are eventually dePloYed.
Satelhte programmes linked to the new com-
::and include the Delense Support Program
IDSP) Block 647 early warning network, the

t Strategic Weapons of the Future
The Ballistic EarlyWarning system is the heart of
US anti-ballistic missile defence, with older radars
1 (now being updated) atFylingdales, Thule and
,i CIear. Muchmore advanced detection systems,
utilizing phased arrays, are being deployed, such
as Cobra Dane (seen here) in Alaska.
t new Milstar communications system, the
National Command Authorities Defense Satel-
lite Communications System (DSCS) networks,
I the new generation of Defense Meteorological
Satellrte Program (DMSP) satellites, and the
18-satellrte NAVSTAR Global Positionino
Satellite (GPS) network used to carry the Inte'-
grated Operational Nuclear Detection System
(IONDS) to detect and assess nuclear detona-
tions to terminal users in near real time, For the
future the 'Teal Ruby' satellite-based radar is
being developed as the forerunner of a possi-
b1e space based radar network to monitor
round-the-clock positions of enemy ships and
In the longer term it rs hiqhly probable that
the Space Command and NORAD wilt be jolnt-
ly responsible for command control and
targeting of any weaponry developed from the
SDI work, but this.will not be untri some time in
the early part of next century.

Right: Pave Paws is a system of smaller phased

array radars designed to detect incoming
subm arine- Iaunched ballistic mis siles. U nlike
ICBM attack, SLBMs potentially come in from any
direction, so the system must cover the coasts.

Below: The McDonnell Douglas F- I5 is the

backbone of current NORAD fighfer assefs,
coming into service with Air ForceReserye unjfs as
well as in front-line squadrons. These aircraft over
the Rockies are from 3l }th FIS (Fighter Interceptor
S quadron) of M cC hord AF B, W ash ing ton S tate.

,aa:.|::,r ': ::::::::.:.:.:: ::

: -:::..4.:.r
iftCVf-gIB pershing II battlefield support missile system
-: l97B the advanced develoPment The Pershrng II's RADAG termrnal-
quidance system dePends on an all-
nrooramme of the MGM-3lB Pershing
il sy:stem *as successfully completed ireather radar correlation untt in its
Thri mrssile is a modular moderniza- ceramic nose cone to compare returns
tion of the solid-propellant Pershing Ia tiom an area (rnitiallv of 906 km2/350 sq
with considerably enhanced accuracy miles) surrounding the tarqet with a
and range. Achrevrng inlt;al ooeratlon- nre-stored onboard radar profile map
al capabrtLty rn late ,984. a rotal of I0B bf th" sa-" region, Several such cor-
launCners have been oeployed by lhe relations are made during the descent
US Armv in West GermanY as Part of phase to update the RV's rnertial gui-
the NATO theatre nuclear forces mod- dance svstem and so generate course
ernization proqramme, The launchers correcrions 10 ensure lne besl CEP
are centred in a brigade ofthree batta- value attainable. Values of between 20
lions, each of which has four firinq bat- and 45 m (66 and l4B ft) have been
teries that are further subdivided tnto achieved during the trials Phase
three firing platoons with three mobile
launchers apiece, In peacetime one Specification
platoon oi each banalron Ls on qutck Mctvt-3ls Pershins II
reacLron alert ai all time, whilst in war- Dimensions:lenqth 10 50 m (34 45 ft);
time all the batteries would disperse diameter 1,00 m (3,28 ft)
into the heavily wooded areas where a Weisht: 7439 kq (16,400 ]b)
launcher requires only a I B3-m (6-it) Warhead: 5/50-kiloton selectable yield
diameter clear space above the mis- WBS nuclear
sile for a successful launch After a Range: 1399 km (B0B miles)
launch the umt would quickly relocate CEP: see text
to another area and set up again for the Launch: wheeled M656 truck and
despatch of the next mrssrle. A further trarler combination
training battaiion with eiqht firing pla Guidance: inertral wlth RADAG
toons lS locared rn the USA. terminalhoming

Left: A Pershing I I launcher is Above: An earlY Pershing Il is

as semble d fr om its tr ave I ling Iaunched from CaPe Canaveral. Now
configuration. The Pershing force in fully deployed inWestGermanY, the
Germany is centred around the highly accurate sYstem Poses a
of three b a ttalions ; w ith
b r ig ade considerable threat to Soviet
three Launchers per firing platoon, command and control centres far
and three platoons in each of the behind the Central Front, being
batteries of the battalion, the brigade capable of reaching targets deep
has afiring strengthof 108 launchers. within the USSR itself.

E fro"t*"ll B- IB and Northrop Advanced, Technology Bomber (ATB)

Resurrected bY the Reagan admrms weil-defended areas until well into the
tration (from the cancelled B- 1A super- next centurv. It will also be capable of
somc strategrc bomber project) as part the secondary missions of ASW patrol,
of the strategtc forces modernization lono.ranqe rantime parrol and aer'al
plan the vartable-geomerry Rockwell mrnelayinq The ajrlrame itsell Ls mado
B-IB was chosen t' Oclobe' I98 I for principally of alumlnium and titanium
100 arrcratt p"oducrton run to meel an alloys'and is hardened to withstand
lnilral in-servlce date ol '986 !rve I6 n,lcieur blast and overpressures The
aircraft squadrons are berng formed radat cross-section has been reduced
with supporting inflight-refuelllng lo onlv tO m' (t07.6sq fl),ruh ch con-
tankers at-four Strateqdc Air Command oiui"i'"r"""Ainqly well ro Lhe I0O m
bases to replace elderly BoeinS B-5?G i t,076.+ sq ft) oi the B-52.
and B-52H Stratofortresses. The B- LB is The rapldcenenl lor'ntr 3-1S 1n lhe
able to carry in its three weapons bays lowlevei penetration role during the
varvino combtna ttons of nuclea r atr-'o earlv 1990i is the Northrop Advanced
rrriace mrss les, nucleat free-iall Technologry Bomber (ATB), of which
bombs or conventional ordnance and verv ltttle Intormatlon has been re-
additronal fuel tanks. lt has an exten- l-oaseo Usrnq d w de val-ely o1 S'edlth
sive ECM suite (the ALQ-16L system), technoloqfes the ATB is expecled to
expendabie infra-red and chaff coun- be smaller than the B- 1B and will have
temeasures radar warning recetver/ an advanced metal load-beanng struc-
locatron systems and radar absorbent ture covered with a radar-absorbiug
'stealth' matertals which will allow it to material without flat or sharpiy angled
is loadedupwthsRAM nucleat missiles. The B-lB
A rotarymissile dispenser
penetrate (at iow-level and hrgh sub- radar reflected surfaces, A htghly spe- jssi/es
present and pre- ciahzed ECM and emtssion-suppres- has anbsbnishing weapons load, capable of carrying 24 of the m
-enemy both
ionic speeds) it"riiiy rtiiiir.a to tneaoeins B_52 with a capacity of eisht), in addition to
dicted defences untrl well into sron sutte is also under development to
reduce to an absolute minimum the the I 4 that can be carried externally-
the I990s, and to operate aglainst iess

machine's detectability by ESM sys-
tems It is expected that 132 ATBs will
eventually be funded under the likeiy
servrce desigTnation B-2.

Type: multi-seat strateqic bomber
Powerplant: four 13608-kg (30, 000-lb)
thrust General Electdc F I 0 I -GE- 102
augrmented turbofans
Performance: maximum speed (clean)
at high level Mach 1,25; low level
penetration speed more than 965 km/h
(600 mph) at 61 m 1200 ft): maximum
uruefuelled ranqe approxtmately 6475
nautical miles ( 12000 km/7,455 miles)
Weights: empty 78019 kg (172,000 1b);
maxrmum take-off 2 16367 kq
(477,000 rb)
Dimensions: span, spread 41 67 m
( 136, 71 ft) and swept 23, 84 m (78.22 ft);
lenq1h44,B1 m(147,01 ft); heisht
10.36 m (33.99 ft)
Armament:up to 29030 kq (64 O0O Ib) RoL[-outofthe firstB-lB.The contrastwiththe aged desigaoftheB-52 is considerable, the almost sinuous curves o!
ofnuclear or conventional weanons the more modern machine providing one-tenth the radar cross section of its predecessor.

€ ivrcvl-Il8A Peacekeeper heavy ICBM update

The saga of the MGM- I18A very hard civil and military leadership used for penetration aids of varrous
Peacekeeper continues as the US Con- bunkers and the fourth-generation types. An au'omatrc retarge-ing capa-
gness tries as hard as it can to block the Soviet ICBM silos. bility allows for the reprogramming of
deployment of the missile, At present The payload to be carned is now target information to compensate for
the plan rs to base the first 10 (ofup to a known to be 10 Mk 21 (formerly ABRV) missiles which are destroyed in their
possrble 100 mrssiles) during 1986 in MIRVs, each of which has a 300-kiloton silos by an enemy attack or which mal-
ibrmer Minuteman III silos near the yield WB7 warhead which can, if re- functron in flight,
F.E.Warren AFB, Wyoming. The silos quired, be upgraded to 47S-kiloton
will be modernized with updated yield. The warheads can be indi- Specification
shock rsolation and new command, vidually fused for one of five actuation MGM- I l8A Peacekeeper
control and communications faciltttes, modes depending upon the target Dimensions: Ienqlh 21,60 m (70 87 ft);
but not hardened further. The solid- type to be engaged: these modes are a diameter 2,34 m (7.67 ft)
propellant Peacekeeper is needed to high-altitude airburst, a medium-alti- Weisht: 87545 kg (193,000 lb)
replace the obsolete Titan II heavy tude airburst, a low-altitude airburst, a Warhead: l0 3OO-kiloton MIRVs
ICBM force which is currently beins proxrmity surface burst and a contact Range: 14001 km (8,700 miles)
dismantled, and is meant to threaten all surface burst, The drspensing MIRV CEP: 60 to 90 m (65 to 100 yards)
types of Soviet hardened targets such bus has room for 12 warheads without Launch: silo with cold-launch system
as superhard launch-control centres, stacking but the spare capacity is Guidance: inertial

Above: Peacekeeper is cold

Iaunched, the missile being popped
out of its silo u nder gas pressure
before the first stage igmites. To
ensure a tight fit in the silo, the
missile is surrounded by a gas seal,
which drops away once outof the

Left: MGM- I l8A Peacekeeper re-

entry vehicles pass through a cloud
layer over their target at the
Kwajalein missile range, more than
4,000 nautical miles from the
mis sile's launch at Vandenburg AF B,


US ABM radar system

-:e main element of istheprovided
-:iM defence nehvork
::v bv radar systems. The flrst to be
:rploved was the Ballistic Missile Ear-
tv'Wirninq Svstem (BMEws) wlth
'ir-.e ooe-rat,onal siles at Thule
Greenland (FPS-49 and FPS-50
radars) al Clear Alaska 1FPS-S0 and
FPS-92 radars) and al FYlrngdales
Moor, England (FPS-49 and FPS-50
radars), Operatronal since 1962, the
BMEWS siies are used in conlunction
wlih lvvo EW (early warning) satellltes !

in ihe western hemrsphere and one In

the eastern hemisphere to provide the
imtral means of detectinq iCBM laun-
ches, The radars have ranges in the
order of 4830 km (3,000 miles),
The launch of SLBMs against the
USA will be covered bY the new'Pave
Paws' network of four FPS-115 radars
whrch have replaced all but one ofthe
sLx Svstem 474N FSS-7 coastal radar
and tfie ageLng FPS-85 radar at MIamI'
Florida, whlclLis ctherwise assigned to
the USAF's 'spacetrack' project The
four phased-arraY 'Pave Paws'sites are
at Oiis AFB, Beale AFB, Robins AFB
and Schleicher County near Goodfel-
low AFB, Texas. Additional SLBM
coverage to the nofih is Provided bY
the Perimeter Acquisition Radar Char-
acterization System (PARCS) in North
Al1 spaceborne objects are tracked
Specification Thule, on the extreme northwest coast of Greenland, has been animportant
by Sysiem 496L, oPeratlng under the radai station since the 1950s. The ANIFPS 50 static radars utilize antennas
'soaCetrack codename and using the FPS-1 l5
Tvoe: lorq-range SLBM detection and 122 *1iio ttiiide and 50 m ( I 6 4 f t) high to scan for tarsets, in conj unction
fi,s-Bs at Eshn AFB, rhe BMEWS with dome-mounted AN/FPS 49 dish-type radars.
radars, FSR-Z passive optical sensors, Lri'ckrnq radaruslnq two 30-m (98 43-ft ) thi.e

FPS-17 and FPS-79 tracking radar at circulaiplanar phased arraYs

Pirinclik, Turkey, and the 'Cobra Dane' Capability: able to detect and
and SPQ-11 'Cobra Judy' intelliqence- discrimin-ate SLBMs at a range of 3,400
qathertngr trackinq radars at Shemya miles (5,470 km), andto provide early
APg in the Aleutians and aboard the warning, launch, positron, velocity and
USS Observailon 1s1aad respectively lmpact data on targets
Defence against cruise missile and
bomber attack remalns the PrimarY Specification
responsibility of the Distant Early FPS-49
WairLinq (DEW) hne stretchinq from Type: lonq-ranqe earlY warning and
Alaska io Greenland across the nofih- tr-a-cking radar using a 25-m (82-ft)
ern reaches of Canada Now down to diameter parabollc reflector in a dome
31 FPS-19 and FPS-30 radars (21 in Capability: able to detect multiple
Canada, four in Greenland, two in lce- tarqels and to track warheads at a
land and one in Scotland), this network ranqe up to 4830 km (3.000 miles)
is to be rePlaced bY the North Warn-
inq Svstem INWS) wjlh l3 MinlmallY Rioht:The bomber threatwas soon
Atiended Radar (MAR) FPS-117 srLes oiershadowed by the raPid
and 39 unmanned gaP-filler short- ev olu tion of the I CBM. Fy lingd ale s
ranoe sites, To cover the rest of the Moor was one of thtee ballistic
aon-roaches lo rhe USA eight Over the miss ile w arning s tations. N ow the
Horizon-Backscatter (OTH-B) radar subject of a maior uPdate, the
are being built to provide an all-alti- BMEWS s tations w or k in conj unction
tude coverge at ranqtes varying liom with anetworkof EW satellites'
9OO km to g6oo tm (560 to 2,360 miles)
from American coasts,

Type: long-range surveillance radar
using a 30-m (98,43-ft) diameter
crrcular pianar Phased arraY
Caoabilitv:ranqe rn the space r racking
mobe 458'65 km (28,500 miles) and able
to track 100 tarqets simultaneously (20
of them followed PreciselY), in the
earlvwarningmode the radar can
cover a corridor 8045 km (5 000 miles)
bv 3220 km t2.000 mLles; and able to
rrack 2OO tarqers rn near-real lime

The AN I F PS long- r ange Phased

arrav radar atEglin AFB in Florida is
the main comPonent in the
Spacetrack sistem. but has also been
iiteqrated into theSLBM detection
net.\r'thich takes up about 20 per cent
of the scannet's caPacitY.

The ?{ilifcrizstton of Space
Ane of the ynost basic principles of miiltary philosophy is to'take tlze high ground', Belaw: Following the disaster which overtook the
US Space Slrutt le programme in the J anuary I 9 86
giving your troops an advantage over the enemlr. To the mOdern military mind, it Challenger explosion. tie subseguen I suspension
has been ohvious {r6m the start that space is.the new high gtound, and'ta that end ol Shuttle lainchesftas forcdd flre USAF to fall back
mititary involvement inspaceresea rch has been considerable,' on ihe Tjtao launchers kept in reserve, and to
propase madilying s ur plus Titan I CBMs.

lr,luch has been said recentiy about lhe mllitar'

r:,a+,ion ol space by {he American 'Star Walsl
programme and al}it enlails, The'sad fuct re-
nalns that desprte all thrs thetoric suct a:pro-,,
cess actually started,the day that the Soviets
:aunched their Sputnik I satellite back rn 195?
- 1p respec'r\e superpower ohoLo-reconna,ss-
:nce and .Eirnt satellite ne{works which
:.;clved from thai day now monitor the forces
:::d validate ihe claims of iis rival,wlth almosl
rinerving accuracy- lo produce what has tn
eifect become an overall slabthzinq lnfluence
cn world ev€nts and on the straiegic issues
-:.rhich conditioh such events,
First priority
In a global war, however, the pnQrity for
each side would become the need to destroY
lhese prying eyes as quickly as possible so thal
militarv intentlons would nol, be assessed i:re- +j--
icre thelr could take effect. Thus ln the 1960s ffit
both the Soviets and the Ameiicanit embarked
on the development first''ol surtable ground-
based tracktnq systems to walch lhe skies fct
sa.tellite orbiis. and then olthe means to desttoy
them. The US armed forces l.eaned towards the
-Lse of whol rs known ds d d-lect ascenl an'.
satellite (ASAT) weapbn which ts lired undel:
radar guidance straight at a target and'then
uses a command'detonated riuclear warhead'
-r,'rth ils prompl radration and resuitant EMF to
destrey or disable the satellite
Two systems were developed to deploy-
ment status. The first was baseci on the US
Army's DM-]SB series Nike Zeus ABM and
codenamed Proqramme 505, Deployed at the
Kvraialern Atoll test site in the Pacific, il em-
ployed a new DM-l55 series Nlke Zeus missiler
-,,r,rhich carried . hiqh krlolon yteld-thermonuc-
lear warhead e iniercept satellttes out to a
maximum orb of around 555 km (345 miles)
By late 1963 ;.r rnstaliation wilh one DM-15S
always on operationa] aleri had been com-
- However, ,from mid-]966 Proqramme :505

was siowly phased out because olthe availabil-

rty ol the U-SAF's direct-ascent ASAT Program
437 at Johnson Island,'1150 km (715 mlles) south
oi Honoluiu. Thls used two LV-2D Thor 1RBM
conversions on launch pads and each armed
'r,;ith a l,4^megaton yteld W49 thermonuelear
warhead wlth a satellrte-killinet dislance qf
8 km (5 miles). Capeble ol attacking targets out
to 1300 km (808 miles) orbitaldlstance and wtth
a horrzontal ranqe oi some 2780km (1 725
miles), the Thors remained the sole American
ASAT asset,until mrd-1970, when ihe program-
file was reduced to a 30-day stand-by status.
The project was fina]1y lerminated in 1972 after
a hurricane hit the island and devastated the
Two years before the Americans first,set up
an operaiional ASAT system in 1966, the
Soviets created a speclal ASAT branch ol the
PVO.Strany air defenqe {brce knQwn as the
PKO (Protivo Kosmicheskaya Oborona, or
Aqarnst Cosmtc Attack), By 1966 the Soviels
"vere assessed as havinq a direct-ascent
'leapon possibly based on a development ver-
Ser/at:e :,, .,:, i :.rnal lir nen Cr',: gre;Si(liin l,,'r't- -
I a
Inq1ne."s ri:1:;,,-',, t':; '.lle Vou.jht ASAT' ,v-'apl-
::ilrturci le !',iirt,a.irl.- 'ia i'.,,io ci Eaqla::
b:.:ieci itt .he ll:r,,'.. i-- 'i i..te 3rl.ii ol tiie cLecacle allcr ihLr ca:r1lf1ar':lal !nai corltiol .')i ihe l--::
Space Coi]trlalci
By 1tJ80 fhe Sitr,.;ets hai. resu"rned ihe ii oii':tl
/iS1-\l ies11n! aqrain I.llowlnqJ a ihree--\reir-i
i-rlaius flylng the flr:sl pl:ot.-riyl:e ol a new inierr: -
ceptcrl r-sing an ilr. Qiuidance systen uls'lead oi
ihe nioie norxaL radar 'Ihis v'ieapoil demons-
ir.ated ihe capacltY ior m.specting a t,rlQlet be
lore actually aiiacklng. Amerlcan inteiLlgei:rce
also inC1cai.-:cl inal':he Sorrleis had bi:rtuqhl in:cr
serrrice i; ne'rv i:ltleci-asc.-n', ASILT trveap':n
armed i,vrit a nucleal waiitead anrJ tire alrihl'7
io desiioy prevtot.Lsly sa{e hrqrh-orbti gi;'33yi1
chlonous conrnr:nicalrt-,n, eariy \Aia:lrirlnef aro-
:,lini s.iieliites
- ": , . ;

't): i O

slcles, l.lie sulterpo-,"\-e.ts also lleEan io exp-;lo,.

thel: irantlec space i:ir:oEial.nmes iolt rilililai',', 1'fle Scvteis ceveloped a si:ecLalize'j. inrl.r
i-illi 'ier:siol li tl.reii -qai'/tr.i silace staiiorr"rhici:
',.,"as i1o-r.u'l'. an serlr:l:".1 occe.:;ions d-lil'tng] tit:
.).. 'l
Cc-,sm.cs sprrce lilk i:,p ir iurre 1382 '"'''a,
ri:lerpleiea b!' .lr'rneiican ln:ellllrence .rq=r-
cres as the ir"st '.estrng i,rf a space slailorL i--
ielce sr-sien a::i:iteC uitlh srnali i11'gLlidecl l*
lel:cerltrr ,intss:les to preleni pcssible Arnal
ican tnieriererrce r,rrtin Scviel sa'Lellties or sl:;:::
,, lili:r i:.'** l::t: e;f;l lj:;."-rh*ri 51;;ri-e: B*hvr",:5,1 "i--f ;il l*i:ijFr.r-i:r:':j. *jfr i*,1 fi :-ae::f:rise :riaiir:ns in a v;alt scenarro Cl the Arneric.
. r t:ri,' a'tt.'?rj'tjil::i i:';::irJal-r,l:r.r;'-'zifJ.i i;l
ij;i i:r:: {.1r jj ::;!.:i. ir.] ':!trl te,:'.i i-n * ;.lir;.ii +.* t]+l *1;sesier', ior:
i..' L. oo, .o. ,S-
.' | | :. : a :t :.: ilr].] tZ,':,: i ;i,,lr-l i-.f tr li i ll ; j j-] -it :!' hi; .::lJ::-r,lj:;.,};!l-l.lj r:;;1-.:rr:r!'l i,lt.':;.1r:{i.'e more comntcniy known as iire Space Sh ;'.,..:
: . .;t tt;. ; . . .. ,'. l,.'
.ii:ll;r ie cii 'le was lru.rli duiincl ihe l97Cs els a i\iA-qA Err.l.-
.;,-: .l:.t':i;i.],L:t.,:t-:lrl,izl"..',:1i ij.ii.i,'il l-i*j-i li r :l;l a.lil.-'r.l: i' ri!.:l{:.1 ir:?;iJ? t"
::r[]:rl,il;-l' heavil-r sLrbsidtzeC, by ihe l\rnerican rntlti;r:

r1lr'.:tq4.' -,rl::i i;ij'*t€

d1 r *.:i.:l

1i:$ g6ii.
:ri:;+.$ ii'
',Jr...f"+r .i
i.!ii :,Al .'

- :::1j i.Il
::.r.+i,li.. ',:li;:i**
::.' :.r' ,{tr:i !i: .:;.,;
-1r.,,Lr : i:iiji-r., -::_: .,i::t
. :i.r :. .- :l.l#J-,r: .: 'r*:5i
: ir i :r t' r'!i :.:hs
il-l#*;:: r.

' ::r cne-thrrC of its ilignB schedLilr-:'.i ic; irii:ll

tlrirposes befor:e ihe lanuary 1980 Clhailer'
=:'drsaster ancl v'rrth ihe :;pecrai Varder-b:rg
-: B inilitary space port lor rt just abou.t tc be
-,r,:ri:]eled Presiclent Reagran also chcse the
r - S ioi use as the space test be o for rnucl-i of
---. :echnol.o,qy ic be denrred fr:crn his Strategic
,+iense initiaiive (SDI) plans |lot to be out
,::ne by the Shuttle (anci desprte lhe vehement
:ripaqra.irda aimed at rts use for military p'.tr
.,:--se-s) the Sc-,viets ale knovrn ic be developing
- srmilar spacecralt plus a smailer manned
a F, n- i ... is.,L.-nore' Jrr d( h.

-'itier ts to ha-le severai mt11ta.ry roles

.rLr'ludlng ihose ol a mobile space stalion de
:rLce fiqihter and a manned AS,AT system This
-ra1ly vaiirdates ihe Soviet 1964 deiti-ution oithe
-cie of the Pl(O, which siateC lhat it urill be
1 .-aL,L I / I n -p-ti-- -r cr- a: ;nd r':-l . ..e
.rt .tl.Onl''6f rLm l, .lL.urrf OrOY p:Ctol
'-re.;';s ic atlack enemy space systems. Cou-
:-..-ocl vrrith ihls rs the Soviets owri prodigicus
Leseaich and derreloprnent into the Lechnoloqy
elvisar-3ed l'or ii're Arrerican SDI programme. :.i a:r:l ee.d t ccf ln okl gy
i he Sovrets are kno-,.rrn tc have an operalion-
.-rpariicle bearn lt&D facLlhty ai Semipalatinsi<
,:rnq po1^ier gerrerated by a small n';clear ex-
tricsion They also harre a conveniional I-IE-
!N-wer:ed iodrne pulse laser rnstalla.tion ai the
rBi',4 test srte al Sary Shagan near the Soviet-
jrro border, This lalter has nor,rr been joined by
:evetal air defence test lasers and an A.S,A.T'- A.h r:ve : T h e $ 5,5.# .h*.s,ha d an opera $ona J an li-
',-ra-r:able 1a.ser riteaporr Yet anotli-or laser of the sa leJJJfe irr dercep tar s v s tem fu ased a,t Tyir r ata.i't?.
:leciron beam pumped carbon d.roxide gas- sinrc I 57 I " tlapa,{:fa r:.i;-eacAlngr tai geis rr; o,:"br fs
:';;rramic type has been identlhed at an insialla- aut tts (i1CA irrn (,3" J 00 rniln:sj, i( eJesf:'oys ofJrer
.icn neal: Ivloscov'i ibr ASA'| use ',rrrhrist prog- .rAl^!lrlJb h\/ fi:a4rr.. ,,'., rT;1i,. "',!."! j,",fl ,.!'.;t t.i
. arilmes rnvclvlng research on radio-fieqnen- ,i:eJJefs"

-. ;:;,:;..:i'. '!.i :: '.

!"'i:"i '
- : t',-:-ji.
... .:,.. , ljliijtl

..i.i, 'l.ii+, .._,,..,:..:*:;i

'i:f:,r r*li:
rl ;:.: :ij,:ji:'l
1:::;i ji'

.'a' :,!:ii::r'

. .,
r i:::.iit:.:i:.. .'.,''
' 'r'
-:'l:r:::::.i i
':l.i.i:i:i ir::lt::r:'
The Militarization of SPace

:,sionals o inrerfere wt'h or to destroll elec-

-..ontd components of ICBMs or satellites, and
:n kineticjenergy weapons using the high-
-soeed coliision of small mass with a
target have
eiso been identifled. By the 1960s the Soviets
aad already developed an experimental gun
assembly that could shoot streams of high-den-
srtv metals such as tunelsten or molybdenum at
25'km (15 5 miles) per second ln air and over
60 km (3? 3 miles) per second in a vacuum By
the 1900 Amertcan intelliqence expects that
many of the research programmes will have
t"=uit.d in o}:erational systems both on the
ground and on space-based satellites' space
Jtations and spacepiane fi.ghters, whilstthe SDI
rs not expecied tb result ln any deployable
systems (if at att) before the turn of the century
Above: The S ary Shagan proving ground by Lake
Balkhash in Kaiakhsian is one of the sites where
directed enerw r4reapons sqch a s high-powered
lasers and paiiiclebeams are being developed'

Lett:The shuttie deploys a ]ang duration satellite

on the end of its remotb manipulator arm ' Such .-
systems are de signed to remainin operationuntil
ietrieval by another shutue mission up to ayear
later. The ihuttle is the onJy means a! doing this
and returning it undamaged to earthfor analyiis'

Below and bottom: Before and afbr shots o{ a Titan

I booster during thefirst laser lethality test
conducted for [he Strategic Defense Initialive' The
laser (the most power{ul continuous wave system
ou fsrde /ie USSR ) was the MidJ nfra Red Adv ance d
Chemical Laser (MIRACL), whichwas in operation
for several seconds.

Left :T he space'based Hypervelocity Laul che\ er

Railgun, IAunches projectiles by means .of an-
eleitro-maEnetic Zccelerator at velocities of up to
29000 hn/i (1 8,000 mph). {Jsing'Smart' warheads,
hrgets could be destroyedby kineticenerry
US Anti-Bcillisfic l,lissile Susfems
At fir-st glance, the task of intercepting ballistic mis sile
warheads in flight would seem to prdsent almost
nsurmountaple problems, given the shortwarning time and
Lhe speed of the target; yet ii is a challenge upon wltich
enormous resources have been expended.
-:e first U^S attempts al creat,ng an anLi.ballisric missle (ABM) programme
3:gan n 1954 when both the US Air Force and US Armv combined wit[ civilian
-anuracturers to nvest;qate the possibil,ties. Tne USAF teamed with Conva,r
:^C RCA to develop the Wizard, us,ng concepts such as electronic scanning
-adars that were re_aily too advanced for the
time. Th us the project was cancelled
^ favour of the US Army's effort with Western Ejectric dnd'Bell Laboratories,
.',nose N:ke Zeus project was showino more prom se.
640-nm (400-mile) range weapon was to be deployed in the defence of
iS citres and military targets under the control of several'different radar types
rsed for target detecton, tracking and rriss'le quidance. UnlortunatelV Lhe
'nechan.caily-sleered radar (MSRt svstem had a limited capacity ro nandlb tne
iarge number of incoming targets envisaqed, whilst the missile itself was
slif iciently slow to need launcnbn initial tarqet deteclion, with tne resull tnatits
guidance rada.s could not take advantage oflhe natural filterinq out bv the upper
atmosphere .of booster debris and pe-netration aids shieldin! the actual war-
reads in their exo-atn ospner'c approach.
By the early to m;d- 1960s the US Army's ABM interest had shifted to rhe Nike
X project, which was aimed at.developing protection for high-value targets such
as command centres and ma.jor industriaiized cities. New-phased-ar6y radars
,vere 9eveloped to handle Lhe large lumbers of targets, togetner witn a 37-km
23.13-mile) range high-acceleration rnterceptor ri;ssile dalled the Snrint to
cvercometheendo-atmosphericlimitationsof theNikeZers.Lateralonq-ranqe
perimeter Acquisition
Radar (PAR) was added to serve the definitive i+O-tm
490-mile) range Nike X exo-atmospheric missile designated Spartan.
rne dec,s,on to deploy the whole system, now codenamed Sentinel, was
:aken n 1967 with [ne aim more to delend against a possible Chinese iCBM
strike or accidental missile launch than to counier the basic Soviet ICBM threat.
I rotal of 25 launcn sites tl6witn 1OO Spartan m.ssiles each and ninewirh 1OO
Sprint missiles each) was to be built, togetner with six pAR and 17 MSR radar
nstallat:ons. However, bas ng of some of the sites near cities, coupled with
..rrited radar coverage and a vulnerab'lity to a snea< SLBM ailack, c;JSed the
orogramme lo be scaled down and redirected {rom delence o{ population
centres to defence of strategic weapon assets such as the Minutemi'n tCAM
{igl.{s Redesignated Safeguard, the new network
comprised 12 sites with 360"
VSR radar coverage, 360 Spartans equ pped with 4-megaton yield W71 tnermo-
rrclear warheads and 840 Spr'nts equipped w;th lO-kiloton yeld W66 en-
ranced-radiation fission warheads.
The lirst phase of the plan involved the construction of Lwo ABM sites at
Srand-Forks AFB, North DakoLa, and Malmstrom AFB, Montana. However, n Below: A Sprint missile is launched Above: Spartanwas the long-range
-,d-1972 when tne SALT-1 ABM rrealy was siqned between the LSSR and ihe trom themissilerange on Kwajalein com ponent of the S entinel sys tem,
-SA, the deployment on both sldes was limitet to two ABM installations with a folJ rh a successfu I interception of a being designed to intercept
.:st 100 missiles at each, one to protect the naLional capitatanO onJLo n.t".irn Polaris boos ted target whiih
'lBM incoming warheads with a large
lreld. ln July 1974 a'urlneT prolocol was siqneo between the two sr'm uJa f ed a So v iet s ubm arine nuclear blast out of atmospheie at
sJpeToowers to limil tne deployment to iust one site each. The LSA chose to launched m issile, requiring altitudesof upto 122000 m(over
lomplete the Grand Forks ICBM field-def6nce site and declared it operational in interception at very short range. 400,000 ft).

US Anti-Ballistic Missile systems
_= .li*g; rjeclsion wjJiak'en in the Ir"ght of rwo facts. The first lnvolved
- . -= ."n tloi-tr-,ut tt," sinqle sire was ex'iremely limited n iLs capabil,'ties
.r, -r.',Y.irtiuL i6riv aliuit ort, n'ore impotlanily, the second entailed the
-=i .1 :on inat explosions oi interceptor mibs les both within and outside the
. : =...)ur"'ou"ioi nuu|. the usA would cause immense damage to the,coun-
.j,. .,t;n aotmunications and electronlc systems because of the electro-
produced during the nuclear detonatlon of
^'=:^.i,. prii" irMpipt
--: ,'.::neads. "no."non
. -^l"oruntLu the emphasls was shifted from nuclear-armed weapons to
-:;;;;,j conu"ntibnir tvpe nlthough ABM deplovment on.a large,scale
..,-- l,on;bited, research and developmenl could take place on a lrmrted w'tn,
- ba-sls
I l. :rch n ssile studied was the sirgle stage high-speed Sentry,armed a
.=-.-ow-v'eld nuclear warhead ptoducng prompt radraton an0 oeslgneo to
.: -'.foui :"Iul"v in tn'e terminll phase of tnerrJl ght llthoupnlPj
: : rv o,ooloved. SentrV
""niCt"sremainS an optiOn aS part O' a tUtJre layereo,ADlvl
:. .'. ri< *'tn nonlnucleai ;nterceptors ior use outs;de the atmospnere l ne us
--^' ;;; ai;e;iv t"l1"o one suci.rla.rnched
weapon in tne,Ho,ming gY"tlqY,,E:pgtlT^"I]
the Kwajaletn Atoll tesL,slle.'n
-l: , tne relevant missile being deployed aIrom large metallic canopy, whrch upon
.- =--j..itii fne weapon in space it
j Ll'e target re-entry veh'cle'ef iectivelV destroved bV phvg;gal.l con tacl
- : -'t'r'g
--. iOi'*"uooi s also a bandidate +or tse in an anti-satelliteand(ASAT)
ABN7"R&D ;;tk ;a .;niled on pass've defences the strategic
is.'nvesligating tne poss'ble use-oI
- :''=nsJ rn;iiriiu" isbtl ptogiarrme.wrticn
: :rtromagnetrc railsolid projectlle guns

Above: Unlike Spartan, Sqrint Below : T he'warhead' of the US

operates within the atmosPhete, Armv's HOE (Homing Overla7
eno r mou s acce le t ation to Experiment)which is designed to
hypersonic speeds making warhead inlercept re-entry vehicles. The 2.1 -
interceptions down to 30,000 ft m QJtj metal ribs are wound round
(9150 m) feasible, and at ranges uP the core in flight and unfurl seconds
to 37 km (over 23 miles) from launch. before collision.

A.bove: The three-stage HOE missile Rioht: This Photo is from the video
rtB off from Kwaialein in the series of film of the successful HOE
attempts to make a direct imPact interceotion taken through a 61 -cm
h.tercept of an ICBM re-entry ielescope on Kwaj alei n' T he
( 24-in)
','ehicle. The series of flights irame shows the debris a tenth of a
succeeded in i ts aim, with the foutth second after the homing thitd stage
launch, seenhere, making an of the missile smashed directly into
::erception more than 1 60 km ( I 00 an inert ICBM re-entrY vehicle.
above the Pacific.

E Strategic Weapons of the Furure
Small Lightweight ICBM programme
-= -:abilrty of Strategic Arr Com- srle flelds
r_r .o frnd an acceptable long-term The thrrd system studied was a ma-
:::-:9f mode for the MGM-l1B jor modiflcation of the Martin Marietta
.=-::keeper ICBM resulted in the en Pershing IL to be known as the Per-
.:, -=rnq study of a possible alterna- shing III usingr additronal third and
-: the form of a small hrqhly dts- fourth stages to gtve intercontinental
:=:sable liqhtweight land based range. With the same throw-weight as
,l:l.l with a single 300/5OO-krloton the SICBM, the 13. 11-m (43 ft) Iong,
,=-j'warhead that would have a pro- I 02-m (3.33-ft) drameter missile would
=: :d CEP of between one and two
have a maxrmum range of 12875 km
that of its larger brother. At least (8,000 miles).
:::e different possibihtres have been The SICBM and Pershing II1 are also
. -i-ed to date. The first, known as the projected as having aiternate road-
l,hdgetman, was around 15.24 m (50 ft) mobile Tractor-Erector-Launcher
,-:-; had a launch weight of 9072 to (TEL) basing, Both Boerng and Gener-
::iBkq (20,000 to 30,000lb) and a al Dynamics are investigattng the pos-
:.:ge of 11265km (7,000 miies). Be sibilities, the Iater flrm developingr a
.';:en 3 000 and 4 000 missiles were specialiy armoured carner/launcher
lrrlected as being deployed in smali under the codename 'Armadillo'.
:-ast resistant sl1os spaced about The lightweight ICBM has now
3 km (1 mrles) apart over an area of evolved into an augmentatlon system
s:me l1660 km'Z (4 500 sq miies). The for Peacekeeper rather than a re-
:,--ajor problems discovered for such a placement, with an rnittal operational
sr-stem were, however, the hrgh cost capability date of 1992 The chosen de-
:rd potential difflculties with the gur- sign for production will be picked in
iance system the latter part of the decade and will
The second weapon was Boeing probably be assigned the popuiar
,-erospace's three staqe Small ICBM name Midgetman when it frnally com-
SICBM) which was to be about es into servrce,
,1 58 m (38.0 ft) lons and I 07 m (3 5 ft)
r diameter weigh some 11340 to The new small ICBM currently under
- kg (25 000 to 35,000 lb) and have
1876 research and development for the US
- 453,6-kq (1,000-lb) throw-wersrht. Air Force is shown in this cutaway
rhis version was to be deployed in drawing as it might appear when it
-cme 3 350 super hardened silos ab- enters service in the I 990s. Very
:rt 457 to 610 m (1 500 to 2,000 ft) apart Iikely to be given the popular name
rr exlstlng military bases throughout Midgetman, the small ICBM will
:.e wesretn USA or aL Mrnu eran ms- supplement MGM- I I8 Peacekeeper.

il llpot"u 'Blackjack' strategic bomber

-cr a successor to the Tupolev Tu-22M
Tl-r-26) 'Backflre' the new Tupolev
:-sign bureau rs developing a vari-
rble-geometry strategic bomber
::denamed'Blackjack' by NATO, In
-'e late l980s this is due to stafi replac-
,:g flrst elderly Myasishchev M-4
lson' and then the older variants of
.:e Tu-95 'Bear'. The primary role
-::dertaken by the new bomber will
i:: as a stand-off missile platform for
:,e AS-15 cruise missile, using a rotary
-auncher affanqement in the bomb
ray. Secondary roles will include air-
::fence penetration usrnq qravtty
,';eapons and maritime support to the
S:net navy
A productron run of at least 100 arr-
--:aft is envisaqed at a new complex
:::ently completed at the Kazan air-
l:r:ne piant, wrth the f,rst sguadron ex-
::cted to attain operational status tn
-?37. The 'Blackjack' is similar in con-
-;.ration to the Rockwell B-1, but is
:-rch rarger and fasrer. The ergine
-:,stallation comprises two parrs of
.-rgle-shaft turbofans mounted be
:,:ath the rear pafi of a massive fixed-
;,,r9 glove that houses the variable-
l:cmetry winq systems. With or wrth- -t l;.,. r

-: inflight-refuelling the'Blackjack

:.,,1 have the capability of attackinqr
'-:-ua11y any tarqet in the world from
the Soviet homeland or bases in
:,:ndly nations,
Specifi cation (provisional)
l;,pe: multi-seat strategdc bomber
i :werplant: four 22000-kg (48, 50 I -lb)
--:;t class turbofans (4,536 miles) lenqth52.O m(170.6 it) height 13.75 m Similar to the Rockwell B- I B in form,
?eformance: maximum speed Weight: ma-ximum take-off 310000 kg (4s 11 ft) although larger and of higher
--:a h/h (1,383 mph); maximum (683,422 lb) Armament: up to 16330 kq (36.000 lb) performance, the'Blackjack' is likely
, j:at - radius with maxrmum weapon Dimensions: span, spread 52.0 m of missiles and/or bombs to enter opefational service in I 987/8.
.: and no inflrght-refuelling 7300 m (170.6 ft) and swept 33.75 m (1 10.73 ft);

I ab-rs, ss-c-4 and SS-N-2I cruise missiles

Above: AtJS DePartment of Defense

imoression of the new-build Tupolev
ri-s s' B ear -H' launching an AS - I 5
Soecification tur b oi e t- powered crulse missrJe
nb- ts. ss-c-+ and SS-N-21 series shois thb weaqon to be similar in
Dimensions: sPan 3.45 m (l 32 ft) to th" BGM- l os romahawk'
It is thought to have a range of uP to
-:rg1h6.9 m(22.64 ft); diameter
' 513 rn(21 in) 3060 krn7l900 miles) and a high
Weisht: 1500 ks (3 309 lb) degree of accuracY.
War-head: 150-kiloton thermonuclear
Range: 2735 to 3060 km ( 1,700 to 1,900 Riqht: The single Sovjet 'Papa' class
rules) cr-ujse mrsstTe s ubmarine is thought
CEP: 45 m (50 Yards) to have been armed with SS -N'9 anti-
Launch: atrcraft, wheeled TEL or shjp missiles. The introduction of the
submarine SS:N-T1 has vastlv extended its
weapon range, being oPerated out oI
Guidance: inertial and terrain-
icllowinqt st andar d tor Pedo tubes.

il Houi"t tactical and short-range ballistic missile systems

I is
Whilst the Soviets have directeda very cluster-munition warhead The SS-2

skrlhrl oropdqanda campaig- agaLnst also rn service with the Syrian (one
the Amoricans lor moderntzino Lhe reoiment or l2 launchels; lraqt (one
NATO theatre intermedrate nuclear or-ioade ol -B Launchers) and Czech
forces (lNF), they have themselves AIIIIES,
embarked upon a malor reorganlza- The SS-]B/C'Scud' (Soviet desiqna-
tion of therr own INF systems tions R-17 and R-l7E respectively)
The replacement lor the FROG-7 ooerationaVtactical mrssile replace-
(soviet deslqndl'on R-75 !und-M) Lac- ment is the inertially-guided single-
iicat m,ssrle rs rhe NATO-desionared staqe SS-23 'SPider', which uses an
SS-2 i 'scarab' (Soviet name Tockha or
eig-ht-wheeled-MAZ chassis with an
oointt which was jntially oeployed Ln erivironmental protection chamber as
igZ6 insmalt numbers. Bylate r9BSthe the TE],. The missile can be fitted with
totai had grown to some 250 launchers a nucleat cnemtcal o' cluster nuni
The missile is carried within the belly tion warhead The flrst SS-23s entered
oi a derivative of the three-axle 6x6 servr.ce with the Soviet army rn early
ZIL-167 vehicle that has already been
I 9BO and, as a consequence of its new
used for the SA-8 'Gecko' SAM sYstem
(TEi') is
fhe tractor-erector-launcherjnerLLally-
First seen in public during a Red
Iullv ampntbLous and th^ quare parade in I 985, the SS-2 l
qutbeo sol'o propellan' s;ng1e-siage S
'Scarab' is a much more caPable
missrle rs moved rnto ihe verttcal post'
r eplac emen t for the unguide d
iion for launching whilst the vehicle is
FROG -7 battlefield su pport mis sile'
s'aoilrzed by to-i hydraulc jacks low-
ered lo the qror,nd lhe SS 2l can be It has been exported to SYria, Iraq
armed with a nuclear chemical or and Czechoslovakia.

i1 r;,:,, -:
-- -i a:.d short-range ballistic missile systems (continued) Strategic Weapons of the Future

' ''= -:-r of replacement

' ,.r,-: - ----= :::rauonaytactical in-
. .. -: r .'.'.')-stdge SS-IzM
-:-:::--j :-r:-erly the SS-22)
-.:.-:-i :=.xce in 1979 as a
. :-r 'i:= ,r llrlal SS-12 with re-
r - r :::----:, .-re. and improved
r':'jry By l9B4 SS l2M
' "- j --:r :::: iorward-deployed
. ,,- : ..:s i- bolh Easl Ger
- i i-: ,-=:::slovakra as counters
.: I - .'-:-;siems Eachmodifled
,, - :' : jj--:lr'l TEL has a reload
. : : - ',-- l::,: cr army's missile brr
I , . :',::'.':.:: A total of B0 of the
:..'.=, -:-r : .aunchers had been
- --: -: :: :-: new missile by late

Specification Specification Approximate equ ivalent of the US
3: t----L' 12M'Scaleboard' SS-23'Spider'
SS- Army's Pershing I a, the SS - J 2
I rr:e:s:crs: :ci known Dimensions: notknown Dimensions: not known 'Scaleboard' is ciassilled as a
;'fi: -:-,n Weight:not known Weight:not known battletield support weapon, thoug h
;'i:::--d.: -,- :r IOO-kitoton nuclear Warhead: 550 kiloton nuclear, Warhead: 200-kiloton nuclear with an estimated range of up to
'' : -- - I :: :lt'ster munition chemical or cluster munition "homicalot clustet m rnitLon BB0 km(550miles)anda
i:-- ;=s: :-:-mum 14 km (B 7 miles) Ranges: mrnimum 220 km ( 138 miles) Ranges: mrnimum BO km (50 mrles) and thermonuclear warhead of up to
:- -r i:.-ir,jm i20 km (74.6miles) and maximum BBO km (547 miles) maximum 500 km (311 miles) 550 kt it can fulfil an almost strategic
:=, ----: m(55-l L0yards) CEP:320 m (350 yards) CEP:2BO m (305 yards) role. Alternative warloads can
;::-:::';, :-:eled TEL based on the Launch: wheeled TEL based on the Launch: wheeled TEL based on the include chemical and cluster or
-a MAZ S3Tvehicle MAZ Bx8 vehrcle dispensing munitions.
I - :::.ce: -lerlral Guidance: inertial

L "iiLr," IV' class SSBN and SS-N-23 SLBM

: - ,"-:.-:ir of the Delta III' SSBN wrth Propulsion: two pressurized water- sonar, one medium frequency torpedo drameter 2,0 m (6.56 ft)
., :: l. -E SLBM at Severodvinsk was cooled reactors powering four sets of flre-control sonar, VHF/SHF/UHF Weight: not known
,- : ::r ul 1984 y,ith the completion of steam turbines drivrnq two shafts commumcations systems one ELF Warhead: seven 150-kiloton MIRVs
'= : eenth unit The follow on class Speed: 20 kts surfaced and 23.5 kts floating communications buoy, one Range: 8300 kn (5 160mrles)
-;.. Delta IV' class, whose flrst unit dived VLF towed communications antenna, CEP:560 m (610 yards)
---:ched rn the February of that Dividing depth: 400 m ( 1,315 ft) one 'Brick Group'ESMsystem one Guidance: stellar rnertial
-.: = he same shrpyard. Wrth a simi- operational and 600 m ( 1,970 ft) Per Spi-ng satellre connurrcarions
- ;r:iuciton rate to the 'Delta III a maxlmum system, and one 'Cod Eye' navrgation The launch of anSS-N-23 missile from
-'. :- :cur boats will be afloat by the Armament: 16 launch tubes for 16 SS- system a 'Delta IV' amid the Arctic pack ice.
.: r : i986, The only difference be- N 23 SLBMs, and six 533-mm (21 in) Complement: i50 as visualized by the US Department
-' :-: .ne two classes is that the lenqth bow tubes for a ma-ximum of l2 is
of D efe nse. ?ft e mtssile
., '': :rew variant has been increased torpedoes Specification (provisional) comparable to theC4Trident I,
, ; ,.'and the mrssrle tubes modrfled Electronics: one 'Snoop Tray surface ss-N-23 although thought to be much less
.:lept the more accurate SS-N-23 search radar one low frequency bow Dimensions: lenqth 13.6 m (44,62 ft) accurate.
:-:l.l ihat achreved operational capa-
:.--,' -n 1985. This rs a flfth-qeneratton
'- r=:-stage stellar inertial-guided
. : cropellant SLBM with a MIRV
".:::ad package of the type that was
-:.. .:sted on the SS-N-18 Mod 3. The
. -:::arine is assessed as beinq able to
-:,=rate under the polar ice cap, and
:. - :asily break througrh areas oi thin
.:= .: launch rts missiles, Retrofitting of
SS-N-23 into 'Delta III class boats at
'. -:-:r stdge rs possrble. Amer.can ir-
=-9ence sources are already expect-
; the flight testing of an SS-N-23 re
;:-=:ement later this decade, whilst a
--.-. flrght for the SS N-29 carned by the
-.p'oon ctass SSBN rs immi'lert.

)elta IV'class
i-rpe: nuclear powered balhstic
,.--;srle submarrne
)isplacement: 10, 100 tons surfaced
- I ll,600tonsciived
}mensions: length 157 5 m (516.7 ft);
:=am 12.0 m (39 4 ft); drauqht B 7 m
ABM systems
phased-array radars that can track
more targets w'rth greater accuracy.
Five of the sites duplicate or supple-
ment the coverage of the 'Hen House'
whiist the sixth, at Krasnoyarsk in
Siberia, closes the only gap in missile
EW coverage of the USSR.
It is also apparent that the Soviets
are developtng a mobile ABM system
which could be ready for deployment
in the early 1990s at any desired loca-
tion to provide a countrywrde ABM de-
fence network rather than one simply
for the capital and its surroundings,
The Soviets have also tested SAM air
defence radars in ABM related exer-
cises and could use their SA-5 'Gam-
mon', SA-10'Grumble' and SA-I2'GIa-
diator' SAMS to intercept some types of
strateglc missile re-entry vehicles. A
massrve research programme in ustng
advanced technology such as lasers
and particle beam weapons is also
under way for possible deployment
late in the next decade.

Dimensions:iength 19.8 m (64.96 ft);
diameter2.57 m(8,43 ft)
Weight:32700 ks (72,090 lb)
Warhead: 5-meqaton thermonuclear
Ranse: 740 km (460 miles)
Guidance: radar command

Right: An American impression of the

missile at the heart of theworld's
only operational ABM system, known
to NATO as the ABM- I'Galosh'. It is
deployed in 100 launchers around

Right : The upgrading of Moscow's

A-BM defence has seen tfte
emplacement of a new hypersonic
mk s ile type, pre sum a b ly inte nde d
fo r e nd o- a tm o s p he r ic in te rception,
in association with upgraded models
of the ABM- 1. The parallel to the
cancelled US Sentinel system is clear.

Below: The phased array radar at

Krasnoyarsk is claimed by the USA to
violate the 1972 ABM treaty in thatit
is designed for ballistic missile
d e tec ti on and tr ac king, and not
pureiy for space tracking.
I dt-z+ medium IcBM Strategic Weapons of the Future

Specifi cation (provrsional) CEP: 200 m (220 yards) The fifth generation SS -2 4 I C B M.
ss-24 Launch: silo or mobile railway-based while replacingSS-.l 1'sego mlssrie-.
Dimensions: len glh. 2L25 m (69, 72 ft) type with a cold{aunch system for in si/os. is expected to be mobile or
diameter 2.0 m (6.56 ft) rapid reload facility special trains by the end of the I 980s,
Weight: 100000 kg (220,459 lb) Guidance: stellar inertial Flight tests have been completed ar
Warhead: 10 35O-kiloton MIRVs tft e P,lesefsk les t fac iI ity, an d
Range: 10000 km (6,215 miles) deploymentof the system has beq:::.

f Ht-zs tishtweisht IcBM

::lrrerly known by the desrgnation
?L-05. this V.N Nadradze-destqned
-.,:''d-propeliant liqhtwerght ICBM en-
=:ed operational service in 19BO as the
S$25 Said by the Soviets to be a mod
':ation ofthe SS-13 'Savage', the SS-25
.:gan to replace these mrssiles in
:,:rr 60 stlos at the Yoshtar Osa missile
':1d as the initial deployment. Up to
: -l additional silo-launched SS-25s are
.: be deployed at former SS-11 'Sego'
.,:es with either a srnqle S5O-krloton
'. eld RV or three/four 1SO-kiloton yield
l.llRVs as the payload, In the mobrle
-.':rsion a total of 20 sites (each for 10
:i-road launchers based on the MAZ
.4B/791A heavy-duty wheeled truck
:rassrs) are beingT prepared at SS-20
-RBM fields. Intended to replace addi
:-cnal SS-22 launchers the sites consist
:- a number of buildings wrth sliding
:cois, concrete hard stands and en
:iosed vehicle parkinq facrlities for
srpport vehicles. The launch vehicles
tran either fire from within their own
rurldings or if time permits, depioy to
presurveyed sites many mrles away. A
:e1oad capability rs available, and rndr
,rdual mrssrle hrow-weight rs asses-
sed at up to l00O kg (2,205 lb) Fliqht
.estrng ofthe SS-25 began during t9B2
-,vith one test
on 30 May 1983 invoivrng
.he maximum four-MIRV payload.

Specifi cation (provisronal)

Dimensions: length 19 0 m (62.34 ft);
Ciameterl Tm(5.58ft)
Weisht: 37000 kq (B i,570 lb)
Warhead: three or four I 50-krloton Launch: hardened srlo or wheeled TEL Approximately the size of the US Minuteman, the SS-25 could be an improved
MIRVs or one 550-kiloton RV type wrth cold-launch system for raptd version of the first Soviet solid propellant ICBM, f/reSS-/3. Unlike the iS
Range: 9000 km (5,590 mrles) reload facrlrty missile, however, the SS-25 seemi to have been intended fuom the ouiset for
CEP: 200 m (220 yards) Guidance: stellar rnertial mobiledeployment, and two mobilebases have been built.

I Ciiinese IRBM, MRBM and ICBM update
armed nuclear warhead. four hquid-propellant rocket motors Range: 13200 km (1,988 miles)
The third missile deployed was the powering the first stage and one motor CEP: 1390 m (l,520yards)
DF-3 (T-2 or CSS-2) IRBM, which was the second. Initially tested in 1980, the Launch: pad with hot-launch system
developed at the beginning of the DF-5 also formed the basis of the hvo- Guidance: radio command and inertial
i96Os usrng technoiogTy derived from slage CZ-2 (CSL-2) and three-stage
the Soviet SS-5 'Skean' but actually fol- CZ-3 (CSL-3) boosters that are capable Specification
lowing the DF-2 onto the production of iaunchrng close-orbit and qeosyn- DF-4
line from 1970 to late 1974. Oper- chronous satellites respectively. The Dimensions: length 26,8 m (87.93ft);
ationaily deployed in 1972 it is also former has been used to launch Chi- diameter 2.46 m (8,07 ft)
flred from a fixed srte and some 70 are na's frrst photo-reconnaissance satel Weight:50000 kq (110,229 ]b)
currently beiieved o be tn servlce lites. Although rivalled in size by only Warhead: (initialversron) 3-megaton
Modifred DF-3s were used in April the Soviet SS-18 series, the CSL-3 has a thermonuclearor (laterversion) three/
1970 and March 1971 to launch Chtna's maximum throw-werght of only a four 2OO-kiloton MRVs or MIRVs
first two sateliites, meagre 2000 kq (4,405 lb), whtch is a Range: (initial version) 5000 km (3, 107
The flrst Chinese ICBM, the limited- reflection of China's relatively in- miles) or (laterversion) 6960 km (4,325
range DF-4 (T-3 or CSS-3) entered the efflcient propeilant rndustry, The oper- miies) for later version
development phase in 1967. The first ational versron ofthe DF-5 is thought to CEP: 1930 m (1,015 yards)
rounds were produced in 1973 but de- be the siiqhtly modified DF-6 (T-5 or Launch: silo wrth hotJaunch system
ployment did not stafi until 1975. Be CSS-S) to give a longer ranqie. De- Guidance: (initial version) radio
lieved to be a two-stage vanant of the ployed in central China in flve under- command and inertial or (later
DF-3, the DF-4 was slow to build, con ground missile silos, the DF-6 repre- version) inertial
sr uclion oi some 25 rounds taking unttl
r sents the cwrent state of the art in
1983. The weapon has recently been Chinese strategic missile production, Specification
the subject of a major product im- DF-S andDF-6
provement programme to upgrade its Specification Dimensions: lenqth 32,5 m ( 106,63f1);
electronics, to enhance its range and DF-2 diameter 3,35 m (10,99 ft)
targetrngr capabilitres, and to fit what Dimensions: lengrth 22.8 m (74.8 ft); weiqht:200000 kq (440,917 lb)
may be China's first attempt at a MRV diameter 1,6 m (5.25 ft) Warhead: (DF 5)4 megaton
or MIRV warhead system. The DF-4 is Weisht:26000 kq (57,319 lb) thermonuclear or (DF-6) 5-megaton
also the basis of the three-staqe Warhead: 15 kiloton fission or thermonuclear
Changzheng- I (CZ- I or Lonq March- I, conventional HE Range: (DF-S) 10000 km (6,214 miles)
Western designation CSL-I) satellite Range: 12OO km (746 mrles) or (DF-6) 13000 km (8,078 miles)
booster rocket, which was used to put CEP:2780 m (3,040 yards) CEP: 1930 m ( 1,0 15 yards)
several satellLtes into orbits up to Launch: pad with hotJaunch system Launch: silo with hot launch system
265 km (165 7 mile) hiqh durinq the Guidance: radio command and inertial Guidance: rnertial
rrid.l970s. Only 10 DF 4s are jr ser-
vrce with il Artillery Corps, based in Specification
13.8-bar (3001b/sq in) hardened con- DF-3
crete silos. Dimensions: lenqth 20 6 m (67.59f1);
The next 1CBM began development diameter 2.46 m (8.07 ft)
in 1973 as the two staqe largely ex- Weight: 27000 kq (59,524 lb)
perimental DF-s (T-4 or CSS-4) with Warhead: 200-kiloton thermonuclear


Chinese SLBM programme

Design of an lndrqenous SLBM began
rn China durinq the late 1960s by a
design team located at the Suang-
Chengzi missile test centre, The two-
stage solid-propellant missile which
resulted was given the Western de-
signation CSS-N-2, and was initially
tested aboard the sole locally-assem-
bled but Soviet-desiqned Type 200
'Golf class conventionally-powered
SSB. Fitted with two 10.6-m (34.78-ft) by
2.4-m (7.87-fI) missile tubes, the 'Golf
boat undertook its first trial launch in
the early 1980s. Although at least one of
the lYpe 07 'Han' class SSNs was also
modified during construction to carry
sx CSS-N-2 tubes, a number of prob-
lems were encountered durlng the
mrssile's protracted development,
which resulted in only a limited pro-
duction run being undertaken be-
tween 1975 and 1984.
Many of the faults were corrected in
the followrng two-staqe solid-prop-
ellant CSS-N-3, which was first test
hred jn October l9B2 from its carrying
platform, the 12-tube Type 09 'Xia'
class SSBN, two or three of which are
now in sewice, These are to be sup-
plemented in the late l9BOs by the first
of six Type 09 'Xia (Mod) class SSBNs
which are fitted with 14 tubes for the
definitrve two-stage solid-propellant
CSS-N-4, which is due to become the
standard SLBM for new-construction Dimensions: lenqth 10.0 m (32.81 ft); Specification Builtfrom designs supplied by the
SSBNs untii the mid-1990s, when a diameter 1.5 m(4 92 ft) CSS-N-4 USSR, fhe'Golf class ballistic missile
MRV- equlpped variant is expected to Weisht: 14000 kq (30 864 Ib) Dimensions: length 12.8 m (41.99 ft); submarine has been the basis of
enter service. Warhead: I -megaton thermonuclear diameter2.3 m (7.55 ft)" C hinese SLBM development.
Range: 2700 km (l 678 miles) Weisht:20000 kq (44 092 lb)
Specification CEP: 2800 m (3,060 yards) Warhead: I -megaton thermonuclear CEP: lB50 m (2,025 yards)
css-N-2 Guidance: rnertral Range: 3200 km ( I 9BB mrles) Guidance: inertral