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Volume ?

Issue Z3
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@ Aerospace Publishing Ltd i985
Editorial Oflices
War Machine
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lan Drury

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Ray Hutchins
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der of British Land Forces during the
Falklands campaign.

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fvlodern Amphibious
Vehicles Typical of most of th e am ph ibiou s
For centuries, two of the many problems facing the cargo carriers currently in
production, the PegasoVAP 3550/ I is
practitioners of warfare have been water and, winter, In this based on a4x4 trucktowhich has
cenfiiry of total war, it is natutal that efforts should have been beenfitted a boat-shaped huLL. It is
drivenbywaterjefsaf up fo5.5 kls
made to overcome the difficulty. while afloat, and canclimb a 60 per
Amphibrous vehicles of one type or another played a significant role
with the Allles during World War II, especially in the invasion of Italy, the recent years although, with under 15,000 men, this Naval Infantry force
Normandy campaign, the crossing of the Rhine and the recapture of the does not yet have the same sustarned power-projection role as the US
Netherlands. Moreover, the countless amphibious operations in the Far Marine Corps. The Soviets have, however, made far more use of hover-
East could not have been successfully carried out without the tracked craft in recent years than the Americans, and this vehicle type wouic
amphibious vehicles commonly known as the Amtracks. prove to be very useful in the Baltic area in times of crisis. The Sovte:
In the post-war perlod the US Marine Corps kept the art of amphibious army maintains many amphibious vehicles for operations in Europe.
warfare alive, and today the USA has the largest amphibious force of any Oversnow vehicles are used mainly by the USA in Ataska, the Scar:-
country in the world. The modern US Marine is not only taken ashore in dinavian countries (Sweden, Norway and Finland), and of course ihe
the iatest LVTP7A1, but also by landing crafi, helicopters and air- Soviet Union. In the West the Swedish company Htigglund and Soner
cushion vehicles. This gives the commander many more options than in leads in the design, development and productron of tracked oversncr;
the past as not only can he land troops and equrpment on the beaches, vehicles, and its new Bv 206 has already been selected by the USA as i=
but the helicopters also allow him to move men and supplies qulckly standard vehicle of this type, Other NATO countries, including the LK
inland. The 4x4 LARC (Lighter Amphibrous Resupply Cargo) carries the maintain specialized units to rerniorce Norway in time of war, and these
cargo from tlte ships offshore onto the beaches, but in the future its role units have Bv 202 tracked oversnow vehicles, to be replaced by Bv 20€s
will be carried out much quicker by the hovercralt, in the future,
Many other countries have smali marine units, normally under the
Primary exponents of amphibiouswartare, theUS MarineCorpsmay make am
operational control of the navy, and some of these in the Western sphere assault in helicopters, air cushionvehicles,landing craft, or in theLWT
have small numbers of the LVTPT armoured amphibious vehicle. (Landing Vehicle Tracked) series of armoured amphibiani. No other nation
The Soviet marines have been receiving much new equipment in h as any comp ar able c apabili ty.


;L- c'- .-
;F' :
ru iliat Type 66404 amphibious vehicle
FIAT is the largest manufacturer of
wheeled military vehicles in Italy, and
it was natural that when the ltalian
Home Office Civtl Protection and Fire
Fighting Department issued a require-
ment for an amphibious vehicle some
years ago that FIAT should tender a
vehicle, This entered production
under the designation FIAT Model
6640A, and can carry a maximum
payload on land or water of 2140 kg
(4,718 rb),
The hull of the FIAT Model 6640A is
of all-welded aluminium construction
with a maximum thickness of 4 mm
(0, 16 in), and is divided into three com-
padments: engtne at the ftont, crew in
the centre and freight at the rear, The
engine is coupled to a manual gearbox
with flve forward and one reverse gear
and a torque conveiler. The suspen-
sion, front and rear, consists of an inde-
pendent strut and link with helical
spring and rubber bump stop, with a Type 6640G's longer wheelbase and The aluminium-hulled Type 6640A is in paramilitary sewice with the ltalian
hydraulic shock absorber, Steering is more powerful engine, the latter de- home office, used for civil protection and also in the fire sewice.
power-assisted, and on land the vehi- veloping 195 hp (145 kW) and coupled
cle has a turning radrus of 7,5 m to a fully automatic gearbox with three
(24 6 ft). forward and one reverse gear, The
The crew compartment in the cen- cab is now fully enclosed and pro-
tre is provided with windows and stde- vided wrth a heater, and the vehicle is
screens, and this and the load com- propelled in the water by a single
partment to the rear cirn be covered waterjet under the hull rear.
by bows and a tarpaulin cover, When
alloat the vehicle can be powered by Specification
its wheels or a four-blade screw type FIAT Type 66404
propeller with a Kort nozzle, steering Crew: l*l
being accomplished by a rudder cou- Combatweight:6950 kq (15,322 Ib)
pled to the steering wheel. Mounted at Powerplant: one FIAT Model 8060.02
the front of the vehicle rs a wrnch with a 6-cylinder diesel deveioping 1 17 hp
maximum capacity of 3000 kq (B7kW)
(6,614 lb). Three brlge pumps are pro- Dimensions: lenqth 7,30 m (23 ft
vided as standard, one in the engine I I 4 in); width2.50 m (B ft 2.4 in); heisht
compartment (separated from the overall2,7l5 m(B ft 10,9 in)
crew compartment by a fireproof bulk- Performance: maxrmum road speed
head) and another two under the cargo 90 km/h (56 mph); maximum water
alea, speed with propeller I I km/h (6.8
Productron of the FIAT Model 6640A mph) or with wheels 5 km,ft (3, 1 mph);
has now been completed, but further range on land 750 km (466 miles),
development has resulted in the FIAT range on water with propeller 60 km
Type 6640G which was announced in (37 miles) or with wheels 30 km ( 18 The TJtpe 6640A has a cargo capacity apropeller. As with many modern
1980 and, according to FIAT, is not in miles); fording amphibious; grradient of some3000 kg(6,614 Lb)capabteof amphibians, thevehicle bears a
production. The main difference be- 50 per cent; trench not applicable; 90 kmlh (56 mph) on land; on water it resemblance to the pioneering
hveen this and the earlier vehicle ts the verticalobstacle 0.43 m (1 ft 5 in) can be manoeuvred bywheels or by American DUKW of WorldWar IL

m 8ez-+O MAV amphibious vehicle

During World War II Canada, the UK similar 4x4 hght vehicle for therr army
and the USA shipped vast quantities of under the designation P2M and subse-
military equipment to the Sovret Union, quently developed an amphibious ver-
including Ford GPA 4x4 amphibious ston of thrs under the designation P2S.
jeeps and DUKW 6xO amphibious This was not produced rn large num-
load-carriers. These were used to fer- bers and is no longer in sewice. The
ry men equipment and supplies P2M was replaced in production by
across the many rivers in eastern the P3 but the amphibious version of
Europe during the push back into Ger- this vehicle did not enter production.
many, After the end of the war the The hull of the GAZ-46 MAV is of
Soviet Union dectded to design two all-steel construction with the enqine
simrlar vehicles, the GAZ-46 MAV compartment at the very front, the pas-
being the eguivalent of the Ford GPA senger area in the centre, and a spare
and the BAV 485 the equivalent of the wheel and tyre carried horizontally on
DUKW, Inrtial production GAZ-46 the rear deck The driver and vehicle
vehtcles were built on the GAZ-67B commander have rndividual seats and
4x4 chassis which was produced dur- to their rear is a three-man bench seat,
rng World War II, while later produc- The windscreen can be folded down
tion vehrcles were based on the post- onto the bonnet, and ifrequired a tar-
war GAZ-69 4x4 500-kq (1,102-lb) liqht paulin cover can be erected over the
vehicle, which entered productron at crew area. The engine is coupled to a
the Gorki plant 1n 1952. The main role manual gearbox with three forward
of the GAZ-46 MAV, apart from its and one reverse gear and a two-speed
basic role of transportrng men and transfer case. The vehrcle is powered
light supphes across rivers and lakes, rn the water by a single three-blade
was in river reconnaissance, but from propeller mounted under the very
the late 1950s this role was taken over rear of the huli and driven from the American aid to theSovietUnion Army copied the concept post-war;
by the much more capable BRDM-I main engdne; before the vehicle enters during World War I I included large the 4x4 GAZ-46 MAV amphibious
4 x 4 ar::p:-b.cLs scout car. In the 1950s the water a tnm vare rs erected at the numbers of amphibious trucks, truck appe ared in the Late I 940 s.
i13 -.. . }::-:.r.s produced a not dis- front to stop water swampinq the en- whichwere of suchvalue that the Red
GAZ-46 MAV amphibious vehicle (continued) Modern Amphibious & Oversnow Vehicles
gine and crew compartments, The
vehicle has a maximum payload of
500 kg (1 102 Ib) and can tow a trailer
or hghr weapon (a morlar or anli-
aircraft gn-rn) of similar weight,

Crew: l+4
Combat weisht: 2480 kq (5 467 Ib)
Powerplant: one M-20 4-cylinder
petrol engrine developing 55 hp
Dimensions: length 5.06 m (16 ft 7.2 in);
width i,735 m (5 ft 8.3 in); heisht with
hood up 2,04 m (6 ft 8,3 in)
Performance: maximum road speed
90 krn/h (56 mph); maximumwater
speed 9 l:rnlh (5.6 mph); range 500 km
(31 I miles); fording amphibious;
Qrradient 60 per cent; trench not

Still in use after more than 30 years,

the G AZ - 46 amphibian is being
replaced in front-line sewice by
BRDM scoutcars.With a carrying
capacity of 500 kg ( I I 02 Ib), it should
be regarded as an amphibiousfield

ffi Fis amphibious vehicle

The PTS amphibian entered seffice The PTS has been in Egyptian sewice for some years, its amphibious carrying
with the Sovret army in the mid-1960s, capacity having been used to good effect during the Yom Kippur war of I973.
and rn comparison with the earlier K-
61 amphibian has a greatly increased
load-carryinq capability, slightly high-
er speed on both land and water, and
can also tow a trailer when afloat. The
PTS has a steel hull wrth the crew com-
partment at the very front of the hull
and the cargo area stretching back
right to the rear. The crew compart-
ment, unlike those on the earher K-61
and BAV-485, rs fully enclosed, the
two-man crew enlering na lwo circu-
lar roof hatches An NBC sysrem s pro-
vided to enable the vehicle to operate
in an NBC-contaminated area, The en-
sine is beneath the vehicle, with the
exhaust pipes on top ofthe cargo com-
partment on each side, a configuration
which rn certain conditions could per-
mit exhaust fumes to be biown back
into the cargo area, an unfortunate
situation when troops are being car-
ried. The PTS can carry a maximum of
5000k9 (11,023lb) of cargo on land
and 10000k9 (22,0461b) on water, or
up to 70 or so fully equipped troops.
Cargo and vehicles such as a Ural-
375D 6x6 4000-ks (B,B1B-lb) truck can
be loaded into the PTS via the rear
tailqrate, which has two integral loadingr
ramps The suspension of the vehicle is
of the torsion-bar type with srx dual
rubber{yred road wheels, plus a drive
sprocket at the front and an idler at the developed PKP boat shaped two- mrne-clearing system mounted in the W ate r - driv en by twin.tunne l-
rear; there are no track-return rollers. wheel trailer, which is provided with rear. In addition to being used by most mounted propellers at the rear, the
The vehicle is driven in the water by ramps to enable cargo to be loaded, members of the Warsaw Pact, the PTS large PTS is capable of carryingup to
two propellers mounted in tunnels This has two sponsons, one on each is also operated by Eqypt, Iraq and 10000 kg (22,046 lb) on water, or up
under the rear ofthe hull, and steered side: for land travel these are folded on Syna. to70 men.The crew compartment at
by two rudders, Before the vehicie en- top of the trailer but before entering the front of the vehicle is fully sealed
ters the water a trim vane is erected at the water they are swunq throuqh 180' Specification against N BC (Nuclear, Biological,
the iront to stop water swamping the and locked in positron to provide addi- PTS C hemic al) contaminants.
forward part of the vehicle, and the tional buoyancy, The trailer rs used to Crew: l+l
biiqe pumps are switched on. AII vehi- carry a 122-mm (4 B-in) D-30 howrtzer Combat weight: on land 22700 kg
cles have a front-mounted winch (to while the PTS vehrcle carries the (50,045 Ib) and on water 27700 kg
recover other vehrcles and equip truck, ammunition and crew. (6r,068 rb)
ment, or to assist in self-recovery), The latest production verston is the Powerplant: one V-54P diesel
night driving equipment, a searchlight PTS-M, which has minor dfferences developins3S0 hp (261 kW)
mounted on top of the crew compart- including increased fuel capacrty. The Dimensions: length 1i 50 m (37 ft
ment, radios and an intercom. only known variant is one used by Po- B. B Ln); tn.dth 3 30 m ( 10 ft 10 ln) heighi
The PTS can also tow the specrally land, which has a rocket-propelled 2.65m(BftB3in)
Soviet Naval lnfctnfrg
Certainly an elite amongst the Soviet armed forces, theNaval naval grinfire support when ashore, but .ln .reient Vears has .recelved some
Infantry are trained ta operatefar in advance of amajor 122-rrm (4.8-in) 2S I amphibrous seif-propelred how;izers and 122-mm (4.8-in1
BM-21 multiple rocket-launchers; air'defdnie, pr:eviously iimrted to 7.62-mm
assault, usuall5r by means af small-scale, disruptive (0.3-in) and 12.1-mm (0.5- n1 machine-guns and SA-7 man-porrable SAMs, nas
amphihious operations.along anenemy's coastalflank. . been strengthened by ZSU"23-4 seiflpiopelled anti-aircraft guns and SA-9 sur-
-ace-to-a,r m sstle systems.
The Sovjet marines do nol'have suffrcient men or equrpment to carry out
ln the Soviet Union, as in almost every other countv, the ma.rines come under sus.tai,ned lahdingsi blut would in tjme of war be used to establish a beach-6dad,
the opetational control of the navy.. ln the West it is often thought that it is anlv in the'army then acting as the follow up force lo exp,oit the beach-head thus
recent years that the Soviet marines have been established, although in fact the obtained. More recently it has been reported that each of the five infantry
first 10 companies were formed by Tsar Peter the Great. After the 1917 brigades has receiVed a helicqpter company, which would give,gieater f lexibility
revolution the marines virtually disappeared, allhough they were ceriainly eni- and allow small detaahments of be landed.inland-to stop enemy
ployed in small numbers during World War 11. ln the 1 960s the Soviet navy was reinforceme.ntS.r.eaching the beach.head atea until it had been secuied.
given a new iease of litd and in i962 Admlral of the Soviet Fleet Gorshkov ln addition 1o pr.oviding the Soviet rhatines with new equipment, the Soviet
ordered the marines' reactivat on. ndvy has been. increasing its capability to transBort the riiarihes to combat areas.
Today lhe Soviei m6rihes or, to give them their correct name, the Naval Amphibious forces now available include at least two of lJvan Rogor,,'
lniantry, are some 14,500 men strong and formed intd five infantry brigades or class,of LPD, 17 of ihe 'Ropucha' class of LST. and 14 of rhe 'Alligaror' class of
regiments. Tlre Northern, Baitic dnd Black.Sea Fleets each infantry LST. The'lvan Rogov' class ships can each lift a complete infantry battalion and
brigade, while the Pacif ic Fleel lbased at Viadivostok) has two lnfantry biigades/ some 20 tanks, rapid sh p-to-shore transport being carried out bV helicopters
regiments formed into one.marine divrsion. ln.each case the marines come {the ship has one anding pad fore and aft}, two 'Lebed' class air-cushion Vehicles
under the operational control of the respective fleet commander. and one 'Ondatra' class LCM carried rn the reaq docking bay. Equipment can also
Each naval infantry brigade/regiment normally has three infantrv battaijons be offloaded through tne bow doors. Arr-cushion v"ehicles bre atso used to
and one tank battalon plus a number of specialized companles. Each infantry transp€rt Naval 1nfan1ry qurcriy ashcre, the huge 'Aist' class craft each carrying
battalron has a battalion headquarters, an antitank platoon wilh 100-mm (3.94- four PT-76 light tanks ani 1 50 troops at a spee-d of some 60 knots. The'Le6ed:
in) T-12 towed anti-tank guns and AT-3 'Sagger'/AT-5 'Spandrel' wire-guided class craft can each carr'v twc PT-?6s, cl- ziO ronnes of cargo or 1 20 troops. while
anti,tank weapons, six 120-mm (4 72-inl towed mortars and three amphibious the smaller'Grs'class:ra:i can eacn carry 25 troops a"nd their equiiment.
rifle.companies- Each of the latter has a headquarters uniti three rifle platoons
anda machine-gun platoon, which are carried in BTR-60P BxB.armoured person-
nel carriers. in recent years the BIR-60P with its open.topped troop compart-
ment has been replaced in many units by the BTR-60PA (fully enclosed troop
comparrnent) and BTR-60P8 (fully enclosed troop compartment and turret-
rnounted machine-guns).
The tank banaiion has a headquarters platoon with one PT-76 light6mphibious
tank, and three tank companies each with one PT-76 at company headquarters
and three platoons each with three tanks; this gives the tank battalion a total of
J3 tanks. For operational use one company of PT-76 tanks would probably be
attached to the infantrv battalion. The Naval lnfantri has in rhe past relied cn

The S oviet U nion has been

B elow : Right: Like the majority of their land
alone among the major powers inits counterparts, the N aval I nfantry are
large-sca/e uSe of hovercraft, despjfe equipped with the BTR-60 APC,
the concept being ideally suitedto which has a useful amphibious
amphibious operations. The 'AiSt' capability. Propelled by a single
class can iarry up to I 50 troops and water jet at the rear af the hull, it can
twoPT-76 lighttanks. travelatupto 10 km h(6 mph).


Modern Amphibious & Oversnow Vehicles

' t:l,E
,r r.a::*


Abave: The rapid,expansion of'the Ri'gftt; IVanRogovrs l}efirsf assauJ/ .

Saviet navy h:as given the country's ship with anything like the
amphib'ious caBability 6 mug6' capahilities of a US Navy LPD. First .
neededboost, b ut as yet only small Seenin 1978. shecan accornmodateA
numbers of troops canbe blue- small battalion g5A m:en) o{infantry
water;deployed. lot anst lenglh ol' as well as 30 APCs and up to I0 tanks.
fime. , :. '.' ' :

Above : In their.maj or wartime role, untiJ regplar rein{grcements arrive Below: With fixed bayonets, a .
n4val intantry is regarded by many to
theSoviet marines plan tocome (usually tty ship).Their ewipmeni plataon leaps into action from its PTS be amongst the most ef{ective for ce s
asft ore a f selected points, to today includes both tanks and self- . tracked amphibian' Althoiugh smal! o{its size in the current Soviet armed
establish a bridgehead and to hold propelled artillery. in number!, abattafian of Soviet . forces- ..

- r .--- -:-
L [av-+ss amphibi
Following the successful use of Amer-
ican-supplied DUKW 6x6 amphibious
vehicles by the Soviet army durrng
World War II, it was decided to build a
srmilar vehicle but based on a Soviet
truck chassis. This tinally appeared in
the earJy l95Os as the BAV-4'8S, some-
times called the ZIL-485, The layout of
the BAV-4BS is similar to that of. the
Amerrcan DUKW with the engrne and
transmrssron at the front, crew seats to
the rear of the engine compartment,
and the cargo area at the rear. A max-
imum of 2500 kg (5 511 Ib) of cargo or pressure-regmlatron system is a com- Specification Derived directly from the wartime
25 fully equipped troops can be car- mon feature on Soviet wheeled BAV-485 6 x 6 DUKW provided under Lend-
ried. The crew at the front are pro- armoured vehicles and military trucks, Crew: 1+ I Lease, the BAV-485 is awatertight
vrded with a windscreen whrch can be and enables the driver to adjust the Conibat r reight: on land and on water boat-like body on aSoviet truck
folded forwards, and if required bows ground pressure to suit the ground 9650 ks (21,275 lb) cftassrs.
ald a tarpaulin cover can be erected being crossed, It is by no means a new Powerplant: one ZIL- t 23 6-cylinder
over the crew and troop compafi- idea, however, as the Americans had a petrol engine developing 1 10 hp road range 4BO lan (298 miles); fording
ments, A major rmprovement over the srmilar system on their DUKWs during (82 kW) amphibious; gradient 60 per cent;
original American DUKW is the in- World War IL Some BAV-4BSs have Dimensions: lenqth 9.54 m (31 ft 3.6 rn) vertical obstacle 0,4 m (1 ft 4 in);
stallation of a drop-down tailgate at the been observed with a 12.7-mm (0.5-in) width 2.845 m (9 fr 4 in): herghr 2,66 m trench not applicable
very rear of the cargo compartment, DShKM heavy machine-gn-rn for anti- (B ft B,7 mt
which enables light vehtcles, moftars arrcraft defence, this being mounted Performance: maximum road speed B ased upon ZI L trucks, the BAV-485
and liqht artillery weapons to be on the forward right side of the troop 60 kn/h
(37,3 mph); maximumwater largely sewes in second-line units of
loaded Very quickly. The engine rs compartment. speed l0 la-n/h (6.2 mph) maximum theWarsawPact.
coupled to a manual gearbox wtth five
forward and one reverse gear, and a
two-speed transfer case,- The main
brakes are pneumatrc, with a mecha-
nical parking brake that operates on
the rear wheels only. The BAV-4BS ls
powered in the water by a single
three-blade propeller mounted under
the rear of the hull, and before the
vehicle enters the water bilge pumps
must be switched on.
The basic BAV-485 was based on
the ZIL-151 6x6 2500-ks (5,511-1b)
truck chassis built by the Lkhachev
Motor Vehicle Plant ln Moscow be-
tween i947 and 1958. Later production
vehicles were based on the ZIL-157
6x6 2500-kg (5,511-1b) truck chassis
built at the same plant between l95B
and 1961, thrs model beingr desrgnated
the BAV-485A. The major difference
behveen the BAV-485 and the later
BAV-485A is that the former has exter-
nal air lines for the central tyre press-
ure-regmlation system while the latter
has internal air lines which are less
easily damagred. The central tyre

E ii'jor amphibious carrier

The K-61 tracked amphibious load car-
ner was developed in the period im-
mediately after World War II and can
carry a maximum payload of 3000 kq
(6,614 lb) on land and 5000 kq
(1 1,023 ]b) on water; in the troop trans-
port role it can carry a maximum of 60
fuily equipped troops. The K-61 was
flrst seen in Sovret army use in the
early 1950s, and was subsequently ex-
ported to most members of the War-
saw Pact as well as to Egrypt and Viet-
nam. Egypt used the K-61 in the 1973
Middle East conflict to carry supplies
across the Suez Canal, In Sovret front-
lrne units the K-61 . which is sometrmes
known as the GPT, has been replaced
by the more recent PTS tracked
amphibious vehicle, which has not
only a greater payload capacity but
also a higher road speed and rn-
creased operating range, crew and cargro against bad weather, The K-61 is driven in the water by two The viewfrom above displays the
The K-6i tracked amphrbious car- bows and a tarpaulin cover can be propellers mounted under the hull large capacity and the loading
ner has an all-steel hull with the engine fitted over the whole ofthe cargo area. rear, these being driven by a power ramps incorporated into the tailgate.
and crew compartment at the very The suspension on each side consisrs take-off from the matn engine, Normal load can include trucks,
front, The cargo/troop area runs almost of seven very small road wheels with In additton to.carrying troops and ailillery pieces or mortars.
the whole length of the K-61, and to the drive sprocket at the front and idler cargo, K-61 vehrcles have been used
facr.htate the loadinq of vehicles a large at the rear, and there are seven slides to carry a wide range of engrneer
tarlgate rs provided, To protect the to support the tracks as they retum. equipment and weapons such as the

K-6 1 amphibious carrier (continued) Modern Amphibious & Oversnow Vehicles
122-mm (4,8-rn) M1938 (M3O) towed East Germany has the K-6 I on its
howitzer, 76-mm (3-1n) or B5-mm (3,35- inven tory, as have mo st of the
in) anti-tank gnms, mortars, 14,5-mm Warsaw Pact na fions. /l fias seen
(0,57-rn) ZPU-2 twin and ZPU-4 quadru- combat service with E gy p t, in I 9 7 3,
ple towed anti-arrcraft guns, and light and aJso equips the Vietnanese
vehicles such as the CAZ-63, For army.
heavier equipments one K-61 wouid
carry the weapon while another fer-
ried the towing vehicle.
Dimensions: length 9, 15 m (30 ft 0.2 in);
Specification width3, 15 m (10 ft4 in); height2. 15 m
K-6t (7 ft 0,6 in)
Crew: l+l Performance: maximum land speed
Combat weight: on land 12550 kq 36 kr/h(22 mph); maxrmumwater
(27,668 lb)andonwater 14550 kg speed l0 kxn/fr (6.2 mph); maximum
(32,077Ib) range 260 krr (162 miles); fording
Powerplant: one YaAZ-M204VKr 4- amphibrous; gnadient 40 per cent;
cylinder water-cooied diesei verticalobstacle0.65 m(2 ft 1,6 in);
developlng 135 hp (100 kW) trench 3 m (9 ft l0 in)

GT-S tracked oversnow vehicle

The GT-S, sometrmes called the GAZ-
47, is believed to have been the first
tracked amphibious oversnow vehicle
to enter sewice wilh the Soviet army
aJter World War IL Durinq this conflict
the Soviet army used a number of over-
snow vehicles including several sled-
type vehicles with a propeller at the
rear. The GT-S was designed to carry
a maximum payload of 1000 kq
(2,205 ]b) and to tow a trailer (or
weapon such as a 120-mm/4.72-in mor-
tar) weighing up to 2000 kg (4,409 lb).
The engine, more commonly the
GAZ-61, is at the very front of the vehi-
cle and coupled to a manual gearbox
with four forward and one reverse
gear. Some vehrcles were fitted with
the less powerful CAZ-47. The com-
mander and driver are seated to the
immediate rear of lhe enqine, and be- One of the more interesting versions Wartime experience with tighting in vehicle. The I 000-lcg (2,205Jb)
hind them is the cargo ar6a extending of the GT-S was the LFM-RVO-GPI-66, the snow led to the development of pay load m akes the GT -S equiv alent
to the very rear of the vehicle, This on which the tracks are replaced by theGAZ-47, or GT-S oversnow toalighttruck.
cargo area is normally covered by a cylindrical steel pontoons powered by
tarpaulin cover with small windows in the main engine. This model has a longer chassis with sx rnstead of five Powerplant: one GAZ-61 d-cylinder
the sides and rear. The tracks are much higher water speed of 20 km/h road wheels, and is powered by a water-cooledpetrol engine
3O0mm (ll.Blin) wide and give a (12.4 mph), but rswholly impracticaion more powerful GAZ-7I VB water- developing85 hp (63 kW)
ground pressure of 0.24 kg/cmz (3.4 lb/ hard surfaces such as roads, g9_o]ed petrol engine developing Dimensions: lenqth 4.90 m (16 ft i in);
sq in) loaded, The suspensron is of the The GT-S has been replaced in pro- llShp (B6kW), This qives it hisher width 2,435 m (B ft 0 in); heiqht 1,96 m
torsron-bar type and consists of five duction by the GT-SM, which has a road and water speeds, and the vehi- (6 ft 5,2 in)
large rubber-tyred road wheels, the cie's wider tracks give a lower gTround Performance: maximum road speed
last road wheel on each side acting as pressure and therefore better mobility 35 kn/h (21.7 mph); maximumwater
the idler, and a drive sprocket at the across snow and swampy ground, speed 4 kn/h (2.5 mph); maximum
front; there are no track-return rollers, The GT-SM is an enlarged and more range 725 krn (450 miles); fording
As with the later oversnow vehicles, powerfulversion of theGT-s, with six Specification amphibious; gradient 60 per cent;
the GT-S ls fully amphibious without roadwheels per side instead of the GT-S trench 1.3 m (4 ft 3,2 in); vertrcal
preparation, being propelled in the five of the earHer is in Crew: 1+ l obstacle 0.6 m (l ft I 1,6 in)
water by its tracks, exlensjye Soyie t senice. combatweight: 4600 kg (10, 14l lb)

Above: Fully amphibious without

prior preparation, the GT-S has been
in service since I 955, and was
manufactured until 1970. It is being
replaced by the enlarged GT-SM.
g UlirvrnrvF amphibious truck
The Brazilian marines come under
operational control of the Brazilian
navy and have about 15,000 men orga-
nized into one amphibious drvision,
one retnforcement command and an
internal security force. Its vehrcles in-
clude ENGESA EE-}l Urutu amphi-
bious armoured personnel carriers,
EE-9 Cascavel armoured cars, LARC-
5 4x4 amphibious cargo-caffiers and
CAMANF amphibious trucks, On
order are a small number of FMC
LVTPTAl amphibious atmoured
assault vehlcles from the USA,
After the end of World War II Brazil Having used the DUKW for manY
was supplied with a number of Amer- y ears, the B r azilian replacement is
ican DUKW 6x6 amphibious vehicles, virtually identical, but with minor
but by the 1970s these were becoming modifi c ations to su it B r azilian
difficult to marntain and operate, and as mar itime r equ iremen ts. M aximum
with all petrol-engdned vehicles there water speed is 14 hnlh (8.7 mPh).
was the ever-present risk of fire, Blsellt
Vraturas e Equrpamentos Industriais of
Sao Paulo had for some time been sup-
plying the Brazilian armed forces with
equipment, including tank transpor- troop compartment towards the rear.
ters, and in the mid-1975s started de- The cargo area is provided with re-
srgn work on the CAMANF (Caminhao movable bows and a tarpaulin cover,
Anfiblo, or amphibious truck) and in and a ringr-mounted 12.7-mm (0,5-in)
the late 1970s the first batch of l5 veht- M2 HB anti-aircraft machine-gTun can
cles was delivered to the Brazllian be fitted over the right side ofthe crew
marines. The vehicle is essentially a compartment. The vehicle can carry a
6x6 version of a Ford F-7000 chassis load of 5000 kg (l 1,023 lb) on land and
fitted with a watertiqht body, Some very calm water, but tn rougher water
sources have indicated that it is almost it rs limited to 2500 kq (5,51 I lb) Before
identlcal to the origrnal American entering the water a trim vane ls Specification The 5000-kg 3-lb) payload of
( 1 1,02

body with modifications to suit the re- erected at the front of the vehicle and CAMANF the CAMANF is considerably
qurrements of the Braztlian marines, the bilge pumps are switched on, The Crew: l+2 reduced in rough water, but the bow
including a much stronger bow to en- CAMANF is propelled in the water bY Cornbat weight: 13500 kg (29,762 lb) ftasbeen sfren gthened so that
able the vehicle to operate in rougher a single propeller mounted under the Powerplant: one Detroit-Diesel Model handling in such conditions is
water and to push beached landing rear of the hull. All sx wheels are fitted 40-54N diesel engine improved.
craft back into the water. wrth a tyre pressure-regmlation system Dimensions: length 9.50 m (31 ft 2 in);
In appearance the CAMANF is that allows the commander to adjust wrdth 2.50 m (B ft 2,4 rn); height 2,65 m
almost identical to the American the tyre pressure to suit the VPe of (B ft 8,3 in) road range 430 km (267 miles); fording
DUKW desigmed in the early daYs of grround being crossed. Tyres are al1 Performance: maximum road speed amphibious; gradient 60per cent;
World War il, wrth the engtne com- 9.00x20, and a spare wheel and tYre 72 kr/h (45 mph); maximum water trench not apphcable; vertical
partment at the front and tlie crew and are carried on the rear of the vehicle. speed 14 km/h (8,7 mph); maximum obstacle 0,4 m (I ft 3.7 in)


-E Pegaso VAP 3550/1 amphibious vehicle
In Spain, as in most countries the compartrnents; if any one of these ts
marines come under the operational punCtrued the vehicle will not sink.
control of the navy, Today the Spanish The crew compartrnent 1s towards the
marines consist of a force of about front of the velucle, with the driver sea-
I2,000 men organized inlo flve garrison ted on the ]eft and the other two crew
regiments and one regiment that com- members to his nght; the top, foont and
prises two infantry, one support and sides of the crew compartment are co-
one loqistics battalion, Equipment in- vered, but the back is open, The cargo
cludes M4B tanks, LVTPT amphibrous compartrnent rs rn the centre and is
assault vehicles, i06-mm (4,17-in) re- normally fitted with removable bows
coilless nfles, 105-mm (4.13-in) OTO and a tarpaul-tn cover; there is no provi
Melara pack howitzers, 105-mm (4, 13- sion for ioadilgtwheeled vehicles, the
rn) M52 self-propelled howitzers and normal role of the vehicle being the
Pegaso VAP 3550/l amphibious vehi- carriage of bulk cargo, To the rear of
cles. The last was designed by ENASA the cab rs a hydraulic crane with an
to meet the requirements of the Span- extendrng,;rJc whrch can lift a maximum
ish navy for an amphibious wheeled load of 350 ks (7721b).
vehicle that could be launched from a The engi::e compartment is eit the
Landing Ship Tank (LST) while car- rear wrth the arr irileVair outlet louvres
ryins a payload of 3000 ks (6,614 1b), and exhaust pipe mounted above it,
reach the coast under its own power The engnne is coupled to a manual capacity of 4500 kq (9,921 Ib) for self- D esigned to o per a te from S panish
and then travel inland to a point where gearbox wrth six forward and one re- recovery operations. navy LSTs (Landing Ships Tank), the
the cargo would be unloaded with the verse gear and a two-speed transfer In addition to serving with the Span- PegasoVAP 3550/ I is powered in
assistance of an onboard crane. case, Steertng ts power-asststed on the ish navy and marines, the type has water by twowaterjets drivingthe
The VAP 3550/1 uses many of the front wheels. been exportedr seven were delivered vehicle at some 55 kts when afloat.
automotrve components from the Unlike many amphibians, which are to Mexico rn 1982, and a quantity is Standard payload is 3000 kg
Pegaso 3045 4x4 and Pegaso 3050 6x6 impelled on the water by propellers; repofied to have been supplied to (6,614 rb).
series of trucks which have been pro- the VAP 3550/1 rs powered bY two Egrypt, The Italian company Astra has a
duced in large numbers for the Span- wateiets, one mounted on each side of licence to build this vehicle. 8,6 in); width 2,50 m (B ft 2,4 in); heisht
ish army, navy, air force and marines the hull rear. and these give excellent to top ofcab 2.50 m (B ft 2.4 in)
over the last 15 years. Thts makes lor waterborne manoeuvrabilitY, The Specification Perfbrmance: maximum road sPeed
easier traininq and reduced main- vehicle is also frtted wlth two automatic Pegaso VAP 3550/l 87 km/h(54 mph); maximumwater
tenance. bilge pumps with a maximum capacity Crew: 1*2 speed 10 km/h (6.2 mph); range on
The huit of the VAP 3550/1 is of all- of3600 htres (792 Imp gal) per hour and Combatweight: 12500 kg(27,558 lb) land 800 km (497 miles); range on
weided steel construction with a max- tvvo pumps with a maximum caPacitY Powerplant: one Pegaso 9 125/5 diesel water B0 km (49,7 mlles); fording
imum thickness of 6 mm (0.24 in), and of 6000 litres (1,320 Imp gal) per hour, developins 190 hp (142 kW) amphrbious; Crradient 60 per cent;
rs d-rvided into a number of watertight while at the very foont is a wrnch with a Dimensions: length 9,058 m (29 ft trench not applicable
€ i,VtpZ armoured amphibious assault vehicle
Aiter the evaluatton of a number of Storming ashore from their LWPZ
proposals for a new armoured amphr- amphibians, theseUS Marines form
bious assault vehicle to replace the part of the largest amphibious force
LVTPS famlly, the FMC Corporation in the world. Their armoured vehicle
was awarded a development contract is an impor ta nt com ponent in U S
by the Naval Ship Systems Command power proj ect ion capabili ties.
and the first of 15 LVTPXI2 prototypes
were completed in 196?. enable up to 4536 kg (10,000 lb) ofcar-
tnals, the vehicle was standardzed as go to be carried,
the LWPT (Landing Vehicle Tracked Suspension of the LVTPT is of the
Personnel Model 7), and in 1970 FMC torsion-bar type, and consists of sx
was awarded a contraci for 942 vehr- dual rubbertyred road wheels, wlth a
cles at total value of $78.5 million, The drive sprocket at the foont and idler at
first vehicles were completed in 1971 the rear; there are no track-return rol-
and production continued until 1974. in lers. When alloat the vehicle is normal-
addrtion to the US Marine Corps, sales ly propelled by two waterjets at the
of the LVTPT and its variants were also hull rear, one on each side, but ifthese
made to Arqentina (2t), Italy (25), fail the LVTPT can also be propelied
South Korea (61), Spain (19), Tharland by its tracks at the slower speed oI
(23) and Venezuela (1i). The type's 7,zkrn/h (4.5 mph).
only combat use, apart from On the basic hull of the LVTPT
peacekeeping duties in Lebanon, has several specialized versions of the
been with the fugentine marines dur- vehicle have been developed. The
ing the 1982 invasion ofthe Falklands, command model, the LVTC?, has ex-
when one vehicle was knocked out by tensive communications equipment
the Royal Marrnes with a Carl Gustav and a 12-man crew, The recovery
light anti-tank weapon, member of the famiiy rs the LVTR?,
More recently the LVTPTA1 has en- which is fitted with a winch for recov-
tered production for the US Marrnes, ery of vehicles, a crane for chanqing
and most of the original LVTPT vehi- components in the field, and a com-
cles-are to be brought up to this rm- plete set oftools and other specialized
proved standard, which includes re- equipment. There was to hqve been an
placement of the onqinal Detrort- engineer vehicle with hydraulically-
Dtesel engine by a Cummins diesel, operated dozer blade (at the front of
and incorporation of passrve night- the hull) and a mine-clearing system,
vision devices, a smoke-qenerating but this was not piaced in production
capability, a fire-suppression system, although a prototype was built. There
improved ventilation for the troop was also to have been a 105-mm (4.13-
compartment, a Position Location and in) howitzer model to replace the
Reportinq System and improvements LVTH6, but this did not reach even the
to the 12,7-mm (0,S-in) weapon station. prototype stage, Undergoing trials in
For trials purposes three LVTPT vehi- 1984 was an LVTPT with the hnret of
cles have recently been fltted wrth a the Sheridan light tank armed with a
one-man tufiet armed with a 40-mm i05-mm (4 13-rn) gnm. The chassis of
grenadeJauncher and a 12,7-mm (0.5- the LVTPT was also used as the basics-
rn) machine-gnrn, but no production for the Mobile Test Rig which was
orders have yet been placed. armed with a laser to shoot dovm air-
The LVTPT has a hull of all-welded craft, This was successfully tested in
aluminium construction with the driver the mid-1970s but drd not enter ser-
at the foont on the right and the vehicle vice.
commander to his rear. The enqine
and transmissron are at the front, with Specification
the one-man turret (armed with a 12,7- twP?
mm/O,S-in machine-gnrn) on the right; Crew:3+25
1,000 rounds of ammunition are carried combat weight: 22837 kg (50,348 lb)
for thrs weapon. The troop compart- Powerplant: one Detroit-Dresel Model
ment is at the rear of the vehicle, and BV-53Tdeveloping400 hp (298 kW)
the normal means of entry and exrt to Dimensions: length 7.943 m (26 ft
this is a large power-operated ramp rn 0,7 in); mdth3.27 m (10 ft8.7 in); heisht
the hull rear, Over the top of the troop overall 3,263 m (10 ft 8,5 in)
compafiment rs a three-part roof hatch Performance: maxrmum road speed
that opens sideways to enable cargo 64 hrr,&(40 mph); maxrmumwater
and troops to be loaded when the vehi- speed 13.5 lan/h (8.5 mph): maxrmum
cle is alongside ships, The 25 marines road range 482 lcn (300 miles): fording
are seated on three bench seats, one amphibious; gradient 60 per cent;
down each side of the hull and one in trench 2,438 m (B ft O in); vertical
the centre; the last can be folded to obstacle 0,9 14 m (3 ft 0 ln)

Left: The LW7 series arc not small Abov e : With a sev en-hour
vehicles, being 7.94 m (26 ft I in) in waterborne endurance, the LWPT
length, and weighing in at 22838 kg can be launched up to 50 km (3 I
(50,348 lb). Only the superpowers miles) from thebeach, and carry up
can aftord to develop such armoured to 25 fully-armed troops or over
vehicles specifically for their 4500 kg(9,900 lb)of cargointhe
arnphibious Iorces. basicversion.
TVTPT crmoured amphibious
cssault vehicle

The LWPT has an all-welded aluminium hull with

a maximum armour thickness of 45 mm on the hull
sides, sufficjen t to protect the occupants from
shrapnel or small arms fire. Twenty-five fully-
equipped Marines can be carried, seated on three
bencft seafs. They exit the vehicle through the
power-operated ramp at the hull rear, which has a
door in the left side in case ofp ower failure . A
Marine Corps Assault Amphibian battalion k
equipped with I 87 LWPZs plus five LWRT
recovery vehicles and I 2 LWCZ command
Modern Amphibious & Oversnow Vehicles


US Arnphibious Development
The nature of the Pacific conflict led toa
IJS involvement with amphibious war
which has lasted to this day. This
involvementhas led to acontinual
r equirement for s pecial v ehicles.
The development of the full{racked amphi-
bious vehicles used so successfully by the US
Marine Corps can be traced back to the early
1930s, when Donald Roebling developed a
vehrcle capable of carrying out rescue mis-
sions in the Florida Everglades, The first pro-
totype was completed in ]935 and though pos-
sesslng a land speed of 40 km/L (25 mph) was
very slow in the water. Over the next four years
lurther deveiopment was carried out and the
water speed increased to 14 5 km/h (9 mph).
The US Marine Corps subsequently ordered
three improved vehicles, and qulckiy followecl
with a production order for 200 more, The latter
was officiaily called the l,VTi (Landing Vehlcle
Tracked Model I), but was more commonly
known as the Alligator or Amtrack, The frrst
models were unarmoured and used for car-
rying supplies, but armoured models were
soon developed and the vehicies were used for
amphiblous assault operations, Later in the
wai, fire-support models were developed, the
first wilh a turret-mounted 37-mrn (i.46-in) eun duction ol the LVTI, IrVTZ LVT3 and LVT4, Korea, I 5 September I 950, and the first waves of
but later models with the complete turret of the Production began under the designation the I st Marine Division head into Inchon harbour
M8 howitzer motor carriage armed with a LVTPS (Landing Vehicle Tracked Personnel aboard their World War I I -vintage AMTRACs
Model 5) in 1952 and continued until 1957, by (Amphibious T r ac ked Vehicles).
short-barrel 75-mm (2 95-in) howitzer, By the
end of World War II no less than 18,620 LVTs whrch time 1,124 had been built by five com- rounds of ammunition were carried.
had been built by four manufacturers at seven panies. Baldwin-l,ima-Hamilton built 91 FMG The LVTPS was the baslc member of a com-
locations. In addition to being used by the US Corporation 313, ingersoll 239 St Louis Car plete family of vehlcles. The LVTH6 (Landing
iirrces, LVTs were also supphed to the Free Manufacturing Company 425, and Pactfic Car Vehicle Tracked Howitzer Model 6) was fitted
French, Nationalist Chinese and British. In the and Foundry 56. over the troop compartment with a turret hous-
poslwar period the French army used LVTs in ing a short-barrel 105-mm (4. 13-in) howltzer, a
Indo-China, while France and the UK used The arrival of the LVTPS 7.62-mm (0 3-in) co-axial machine-gun and an
them during the 1956 invaslon of Suez. The The layout of the LVTPS was very dilferent external roof-mounted 12.7-mm (0,S-in) anti-
vehrcles were also supplied post-war to ltaly, from the original LVTs as the troop compar! aircraft machine-qun, When afloat, a total of 100
the Netherlands, South Korea and Thalland; ment was at the very front and the engine com- rounds of 105-mm, 1,000 rounds of 7.62-mm and
indeed, some reports state that they are stil1 in partrnent at the very rear, The troops entered 1,050 rounds of 12,7-mm ammunition were car-
service with the Phi[ppines and Taiwan in the vehicle via the hydraulically-operated ried,
1984. ramp at the front, and a total of 34 fully equip- The command member of the famlly, the
After the end of World War II some of the ped US Marines could be carrled seated on LVTCS (Landlnq Vehicle Tracked Command
older LVTs were scrapped, but many others bench seats, ihough in an emergency 45 could Model 5), carried 12 men (a three-man crew
were rebuilt to continue in service untrl the be carried standing up, With its seats folded up plus mne command stafO and was fitted with
arrival of the LVTPS in the early 1950s, The the LVTPS couid carry 5443 kg (12,000lb) of extensive communications equipment. The re-
LVT3 was fitted with a small machine-gmn tur- cargo afloat or 8165 kg (18 000 lb) of cargo on covery vehicle was the LVTRI (l,anding Vehl-
rei over its forward hull and provided with firll land. Lrght vehicles and weapons could also be cle Tracked Recovery Model I) and was not
overhead protection for the rear troop com- carried in the troop compartment, for example fitted with a machine-gun turret; standard
partment to become known as the LVT3C The the ]05-mm (4 l3-in) MlOl towed howitzer, its equipment included welding gear, an air com-
LVA(A)S used in the fire-support role with its crew and 90 rounds of ammuniticn, When pressor a generator, a lifting boom and a
75-mm (2 95-in) howitzer was also modernized. alongside a ship, cargo and men could be winch.
and both of these types were used durrng the loaded via the large cargo hatches in the roof. The LVTEI (l:anding Vehicle Tracked En-
inchon landings in Korea in September 1950. The LVTPS was powered by a Continental LV- glneer Model l) was used to clear obstacles off
The onginal LVTs suffered from a number of 1790-1 VI2 water-cooled petrol engine de- the beach and was fitted with a special hyd-
drawbacks apart from their poor armour pro veloprng 810 hp (604 kW) and coupled to a raulically-operated dozer blade on the front of
tectionr they were unrehable and prone to CD-850 series transmission, The vehicle had a the hull, together with a rocket-propelled
mechanicalfailure, the troop compartment had maximum road speed of 48 28 kmA (30 mph) mine-clearing system,
no overhead protection from shell bursts, and and a water speed ol 19.3 km/h (12 mph) but The LVTPS series was used by the US
the troops had to leave the vehicle by chmbrng because of its weight and high fuel consump- Marine Corps in South Vietnam, but from l97i
over the srdes. Late production vehrcles were tion its range of operatlon on land was only was gradually replaced by the LVTPZ serles,
fitted with a power-operated ramp at the hull 359 km (223 miles). When afloat the LVTPS was designed and built by the FMC Corporation, It
rear which enabled troops and supplies to be propelled by its tracks, each of which had no was thought that all of the LVTPSs had been
unloaded quickiy, and the type could also car- less than 135 blocks, each of them with an scrapped or expended as range targets, but it
ry a Jeep or 57-mm (2.24-tn) anti-tank gun. inverted water grouser. As the LVTPS had is now known that some were passed onto
Late in 1950 the Ingersoll Products Division been rushed,into service during the Korean Chi1e, the Philippines and Taiwan and that
of the Bors Warner Corporatiorr was awarded War many problems soon became apparent, these remarn in service in 1984,
a contract by the Bureau of Shlps for the design, and the vehicle proved very difficult to main- In addition to the previously mentioned pro-
development and construction of prototypes of tain, Many LVTPs were subsequently im- duction members of the LVTPS family there
a new family of landing vehicle tracked. De- proved, being redesignated LVTPSAI. The were many trials vehicles. These included the
sign work started in January 1951, and by Au- basic vehlcle had a three-man crew consisting LVTAAX] anti-aircraft vehlcie, which has the
gust 1951 the first prototype had been com- of commander, driver and machine-gunner, complete turret of the M42 Duster self-
pleted under the clesignation LVTPXI, The the last in the turret over the forward part of the propelled anti-aircraft grun over the troop com-
company was no stranger to LVTs, as dwing troop compartment and armed with a single partment; thls turret is armed with twin 40-mm
World War II it had been involved in the pro- 7,62-mm (0.3-in) machine-gmn, for which 2,000 quns.
Modern Amphibious & Oversnow Vehicles
The LW9.{amily was used far a variety ol
purposet one membet being the LWHG howitzer.
The hulkof thevehicleis apparentfrom the
relatively small appearance of the tank-sized
105-mm grun turret.

abiiity to carry behreen l8 and 22 fu1ly equrp-

ped troops, and the provislon of a twret-
mounted 25-mm cannon plus co-axial 7.62-mm
(0.3-in) machine-gun, The idea was that lwo oi
the companies would be awarded further c-on-
tracts which would eventuaily lead to the con-
struction of full-scale mockufs. But in 1979 the
Landing Vehicle Assault was cancelled and
contracts were subsequently awarded for the
Landrng Vehicle Tracked (Experimental), or
LVT(X), to General Dynamics Land Systems
Division, FMC and Bel1 Aerospace. As of late
1984 all three companies had submitted theu
proposals and two companies will probably be
in the early 1950s the Ordnance Division of While the LVTPS was a major improvement awarded contracts to build prototype vehicles.
: MC Corporation, which had produced I l, 251 over the original LVTs, it proved difficult to one of which wili eventualiy be placed in prc-
VTs during World War II, bullt four pro- maintain and according to the US Marine Corps duction. A11 companies have proposed vehi-
:oiypes of a fuli-tracked armoured amphibious needed 22 hours of maintenance for every 100 cles f,tted with a two-man power-operated hu-
:oop carrier called the LVTPX2. Thls vehicle hours ofoperation; it also had no less than 152 ret armed with at least a 25-mm cannon plus a
:rcorporated many automotive and suspension gnease points. co-axial 7.62-mm (0.3-in) machine-gun. The
:omponents of the M59 full-tracked armoured The LVTPS famlly has now been replaced Bell and General Dynamics proposals also
personnel carrier that the company was build- by the LVTPT/LVTPTAI series, whlch is fully have two remote-controlled 7.62-mm (0 3-in)
ng for the US Army. The four prototypes were described separately, This needs only six machine-gnrn installations above the rear troop
jelivered to Camp Pendleton in February hows of maintenance for every I00 hours of compartment; these have been f,tted as the US
i953, and each vehicle was put through 350 operation, has only 29 grease points, a greater Marine Corps expects that in future amphi-
hows of endurance testing over ali types of range of operation on land and water, and high- bious operations the US Marines will have to
:errain and through heavy surl These vehicles er road and water speeds, the latter achieved fight further inland than in the past. Although
-r,.ere then modified and further trials were car- by the use of two hull-mounted wate4ets, the LVT(X) will have improved mobility. ire-
red out in 1954, 1955 and 1956, after which the The LVTPT series was to have been re- power and armour protection over the fl,lrren:
:,'pe was declared standard and given the type placed by the Landing Vehlcle Assault (LVA), LVTPZ series, it will not have a dramatic in-
designation LVTP6 In the end, however, the and ln 1976 the US Narry awarded conceptuai crease in water speed: unless there is a con-
LVTPO never entered productlon. The design contracts to the Bell A.grospace Division siderable breakthrough rn hull design (apari
I-VTHX4 was the fire-suppoit vehicle and fitted of Textron Inc., to the FMC Corporation and to from the installation of hovercraft type skirts as
'rrth a turret armed with a l05-mm (4.l3-rn) the Pacific Car and Foundry Company, The proposed for the now defunct Landrng Vejtcle
howitzer. The LVTAAX2 was fitted mth the following year Curtiss-Wright was awarded a Assault) there is litt1e scope lor firrther de-
:wrn 40-mm turret of the M42 self-propelled separate contract for the development of a stra- veiopment,
anti-aircraft gnrn (aiso fitted to the previously- tified-charge rotary engine fqr the LVA. The
Cescribed LVTAAXI vehicle), A bolt-down ongrinal US Marine Corps requirement was for
107-mm (4.2l,lrr) mortar kit was also developed a vehicle vrnth a water speed of between 40 and The LW7 family, while smaller than the
br the LVTPO and projected versions rn- 64 kn/h (25 and 40 mph), a land speed of be- gargantuan LWi seriet rs muci more efiertite,
cluded recovery, engineer and command tween 64 and 88 kn/h (40 and 55 mph), good and considerably /ess expensive fo serv:'ce an d
vehicles. operating range on both land and water, the run. I t also has greater range on land and in safu .

LARC-S amphibious cargo carrier
In the I950s the US Transportation En-
gineering Command tssued a requre-
ment for a vehrcle capable of trans-
porting 4356 kg (10,000 lb) of cargo
from ships lyrng offshore, across the
beach and then to inland dumps. De-
velopment of thrs vehicle, subsequent-
1y called the lJighter Amphibious Re-
supply Cargo S-ton (IARC-S) was car-
ried out by the Borg Warner Corpora-
tion, Production was imtially under-
taken by the Adams Division of Le
Tourneau Westinghouse, but final pro-
duction came from Condiesel Mobiie
Equrpment Division, and between
1962 and 1968 about 950 vehicles were
built. In additron to being used by the Above: LARC-1 has been in service
US Army, the LARC-S is also known to since 1 962, providing transportation
be rn sewice wtth Australia, West Ger- for up to20 fullyequippedtroops or
many and Argentina, The last used the 4356 kg (1 0,000 lb) ot carso.
vehicle durinq its lnvaston of the Falk-
lands in 1982, but by the time of the
islands' recapture by the British all of
the vehicles had been retumed to the
mainiand. On roads 4x2 drive is normallY
The huli of the LARC-5 is of all- used, the 4x4 drive beingt enqaged
welded aluminium construction with only when the vehicle is being driven
the cab at the fuont of the vehicle, car- across country; a two-speed transfer
go areas in the centre and the engdne case is fitted (hiqh and low ranges).
compartment at the very rear. The The LARC-S is powered in the water
cab, which is open at the rear, has by a three-blade propeller mounted
seats for the driver and two passen- under the hull at the rear. Both power-
gers and is provided with a magnettc operated and manual bilge pumps are
compass, a heater and windscreen de- fitted for the disposal of any water that
koster, a portable fire extingnnsher, a seeps into the vehicle. The LARC-5
radio, and a portable lamp and cable. has no suspension as such, the
If required, the rear of the cab can be 18,00x25 tyres absorbing all of the
shielded by a fabric cover, shock. Steering is power-asststed on
The cargo area is open on the top, the ftont wheels only.
but fabric curtains reinforced with
stranded wire rope can be installed on Specification
each side to protect the cargo from
In up to 20 fully
of cargo Crew:1*2
equrpped troops can be carried by the combat weight: 14038 kq (30,948 Ib)
LARC-S, and some vehicles have been Powerplant: one Cummins VB dresel
fltted to the rear of the cab with a hyd- developing3OO hp (224 kW)
raulically-operated boom that can lift a Dimensions: lenqth 10.668 m (35 fi
maximum load of 2495 kg (5,500 lb), 0 in); width 3, 149 m (10 ft 4 in); heisht
The engine compartment is fully en- overall 3.034 m (9 ft I 1,4 in)
closed and provided with a fire exting- Performance: maxlmum road sPeed
utsher operated from the cargo-deck 48,2 km/h (30 mph); maximumwater
rear bulkhead. The flrst production speed 16 km/h (10 mPh): maxrmum
vehrcles were powered by a petrol road range, empty 402 km (250 miles);
engine but final examples have a fording amphibious; gradient 60 per An LARC - 5 of the Au stralian Army moder n am phibiou s su pply vehicle
diesel engine which reduces the dan- cent; trench not applicable; verttcal negotiates rough surf, giving agood has to cope with in order to be
ger of fire, obstacle about 0.5 m (i ft 7.7 in) impressionof the conditions that any effective.

ru ltnc-ls amphibious cargo carrier

The Lighter Amphibious ResuPPlY wheeled vehicles, TYpical loads can
Cargo l5-ton (IARC-IS) is a member rnclude a 155-mm (6, l-in) Ml14 towed
4 x 4 vehrcles desiqned to
of a family of howitzer, whose crew, ammunition
meet the requirement of the US ArmY and ZYz-Ion 6x6 towing vehrcle are
to tansport cargo from ships, over the carried in another LARC-IS. The sides
beach and on to points iniand, The of the freight area can be fitted wtth
other vehicles are the smaller LARC-S fabric curtarns teinforced with
and the rnuch larger LARC-60, The stranded wire rope to stop spray
LARC-IS was designed by the lng- reaching the cargo, and with these
ersoll-Kalamazoo Division of the Borg curtains removed cargo can be loaded
Warner Corporation, production and unloaded from the side with the
being undertaken by the Mihtary Pro- aid of a fork-lift truck.
ducts Divisron of the Fruehauf Cor- The engnnes are mounted under the
poration, The first production vehicles fully enclosed cab, which can be re-
were completed in the mid-1960s. The moved as a complete unit. The engines
only known operators of the LARC-15 are coupled to a transmission and a
are the USA and West GermanY, two-speed transfer case (high and
The LARC-15 has been designed to low), and in the water the vehicle is
carry a maximum load of 15 US tons propelled by a four-blade propeller
(13608 ks/30,000 lb) and oPerate in mounted Lrnder the reai of the hull;
surf up to 3,048 m (10 ft) high. A major waterborne steering is vra the wheels
difference between the IJARC-S and and a rudder, The vehicie has no sus-
the LARC-]5 is that the latter has the pension system, the large 24.AAx29
engdne compartment and cab at the iyres absorbing the shock. Steering s
rea-r to nake possible the incorpora- power-assisted and the driver can TheLARC-IS is thelargerbrother of trucks can thus be carried, but on-
tci: ci a :ydraulcally-operated bow seiect one of three drfferent modes; the MRC-1, with a capacity of I 5 US land performance is limited when
::::.; -:: -:-e :'nloading of tracked and two-wheel, four-wheel and obltque tons ( I 3608 kg/ 30,000 lb). Large carrying large loads.
--A3'C- 15 amphibious cargo carrier (continued) Modern Amphibious & Oversnow Vehicles
=-sc k:iown as crab), the last being The large 36,00x41 tyres are fitted
=ed ur very difficult conditrons such as wrth a central tyre pressure-requlation
t-,:se likely to be found on many system, a feature very useful for cros-
--^^L^^ sing deep sand as the pressure can be
-ne LARC-60 was the first of the decreased for improved traction,
to be developed (in the early
-r-?.Csby the Pacific Car and Foundry Specification
J.:mpany of Renton, Washingrton, Its LARC-15
':2,276maximum load of 60000 kg Crew: l+l
Ib) can be increased to Combatweight:34i00 kq (75,177 ]b)
-,-1000 kq (220,460lb) in an emergen- Powerolant: two Cummrns VB diesels
:;'<edand like other LARCs it was widely each developinq 3OO hp (224 kW)
in South Vietnam to transpofi car- Dimensions: Iength 13.716 m(45 ft
;: foom ships onto the beach, where it 0 in); width4.419 m (14 ft6 in); heisht
r.-as unloaded into trucks for trans- wiIhcab4,724 m(15 ft6 in)
!'3rtation to supply dumps inland. An Performance: maximum road speed
'-:rusual feature of the LARC-60 is that it 50 krr/h (31 mph); maximumwater
-: powered by four engrnes, one speed 15 kr/h (9,3 mph): maximum
p,cwering each of the four road wheels. road range, empty 482 km (300 miles);
afloat, the vehrcle is powered fording amphibious; gradient 40 per An early LARC-L5 is seenwith ramp The bulk of thevehicle enables it to
:_r two propellerc at the rear, each of cent; trench not applicable; vertical lowered and anM-56 self-propelled operate through up to 3.05 m ( I 0 ft)
--.:se berng dnven by two engines. obstacle not known anti-tank gun prepared to unload. of surf

G Hi<#^[ison amphibious truck

-:,e EKW Bison 4x4 amphibious truck
---- been developed as a private ven-
-:e by the Eisenwerke Kaiserlautern
3:ppner company of West Germany
-:r both civil and military applications,
seen in public for the first time
=C wasEWK
:- has considerable experi-
:::e in the development of amphi-
r,ous vehicles, havingr already de-
:-9ned the ALF-2 amphibious flre ten-
i:r, the M2 amphibious bridge/ferry
:--;siems used by the British, West Ger-
:::an and Singapore armres, and more
::cently the APE 4x4 amphibious
-:moured reconnaissance vehicle.
-le last was developed to meet the
::quirements of the West German
.rny but has yet to enter production
:ecause of a shortaqe of funds.
The Bison has a fully enclosed for-
.'.:rd control cab with the engine to its
:=ar. The engine is coupled to a fully
r::omatic transmission with six for-
.t::d and one reverse gear. The load
llea is at the rear and provided wrth
-op sides, bows and a tarpauhn cov-
:1. The normal load is 5000 kg
- i,023 1b), but ln an emerqency a total
:- 7000 kg (15,432 lb) of cargro can be
:.rried. Before the vehicle enters the
'rater a trim vane is erected at the amphibrous vehicles rs Hans Trippel, The EKW Bison was originally designed for civil use in underdeveloped
l-lnt, and the flotation bags are ex- who has been workrnq on such vehi- r egions, bu t the obviou s mili tary ap p lica tions of s u ch a vehicle wer e soon to
:nded to each side and lnflated wrth cles for some 50 years and has recently lead to forces interest.
:e aid of an APU-driven pump; the
-:tation bags give additional buoyan-
designed the Trippel 4x4 550-kg
(i,212-1b) lght vehicle whrch rs prop-
:,.- when the Bison is afloat. The APU elled rn the water by two propellers
:-so provides the power for the two (mounted at the hu-ll rear), each of
llopellers which are mounted at the which can be traversed through 360".
:ear of the hull, These propellers have A brlge pump rs fitted as standard ald
:een designed by Schottel and can be thrs is automatically actrvated w-hen the
:aversed through 360" for increased vehicle enters the water, so there rs no
'.','aterborne manoeuvrability, (Schottel possrbrLty of the dnver forgettLng lo
propeilers are fitted to many of the sritch it on. Thrs vehrcle has yet to
-rrnoured fighting vehicles used by enter productlon for rrnlitary use.
re West German army, including the
ix6 Transportpanzer and the BxB Specification
-rchs reconnaissance vehrcle.) Steer- Bison
-rg rs power-assisted to reduce ddver Crew: 1+1
-atigue and dual brakes are fitted as Combat weight: ieC00 kg (35.274 lb)
s:andard (hydraulic on the front Powerplant:one KHD VB ar-ccoled
and pneumatic on the rear). diesel developLnq 320 hp (239 kW)
--ne Bison is also fitted with a central Dimersions: lenqlh I 34 m (30 ft7 .7 n)
:)Te pressure-regnrlation system that wrdth 2.5 m (B ft 2 4 in), heiqhi to cab
=llows the driver to adjust the tyre roof 2.96 m (9 ft 8.5 m)
pressure to suit the type of terrain Performalce: maxtmum roai sceei
:erng crossed. The Sovrets have fltted B0 kn./tr (49.7 mph): maxLm'um .raler
:rch a system to most of their wheeled speed l2lcrrh (7 4 mph) r.a;:nr.
lmoured vehicles and many of their road rangre 900 kn (559 miles) -crc-::g The 5000-kg (1 I ,023 lb) capacity venture, the EKW Bison hasyet to be
:ross-country trucks since shortly after amphibrous, oradreir 6C oer le:.: Bison is diven by two steerable ordered for military purposes, but
:re end of World War IL rrench not apphcabl+. ;:r--:.- Schottel prope.i/ers af speeds of up to deve lopment is c omple te.
Another West German designer of obstacle not avarlable 12 kn/h (7.4 mph). As a private
Amphibious Vehicles in Vietnam
The very first regular American troops to set drstributed to the indrvtdual units. If there were area, On each side of this were no less than 34
foot inVietnam were Marines, and the LVTPS good roads near the beach the LARC-Ss could inflated air cells attached to an endless belt,
saw extensive use. Nevertheless, there were take the carqo drrect to supply dumps, so sav- Thrs vehicie couid carry 12 men (rncludtng. its
many other designswhichwere tried outin ing time and manpower in unloading, two-man crew) and had a very low ground
the Delta and along the coast. It was origrnally thought that the Ml13 full- pressure, It was not accepted for service.
tracked armoured personnel carrier could not To meet the requirements of ihe US lviarines
While helicopters played a major role in the be employed in South Vietnam, but irials soon the XM759 Marginal Terrain Vehicle (MTV)
rvar in Vietnam, the bulk of the frghting was dispelted thrs behel The MIl3 could easily was developed; this could carry 14 fully equlp
carried out by infantry frghiing on foot, although propel rtself across most of the area's inland ped troops or 1361 kq (3,000 ]b) of cargo pius its
rn many operations they were helicoptered to a waterways, but the main problem came when two-man crew. Instead of conventional tracks
pornt as near to iheir objeciives as possible. In the vehrcle tried to leave the water, as the thrs vehrcle had 17 wide tyres attached to the
the coastal areas a wide variety of craft ranging banks were often very steep and the tracks of track to give a low ground pressure. Trials wiih
fronr destroyers to Bell SK 5 hovercraft (and the Ml13 thus lost traction, This problem was this system showed many shortcomings and
smali junks and motorboats armed with liqht sotved by putttng a capstan-type drum on each lhe Lype wds nol built in quantily.
machine-guns) trred under the codename Op- of the front-mounted drive sprockets; these Whrle hehcopters were used to transport
eration'Market Time'to stop the coastal inflltra- were used in conjunction with two ground men and urgent supplies of food and ammunr
tion of men and supplies lrom North Vietnam , anchors and lengths of 30,48 m ( I 00-ft) rope for tion from one base to another, most of the sup-
A wide range of craft, many of them self recovery, Explosives were also used on plies had to go by road, In the wet season many
armoured and heavily armed, were used to occasion to blast away high banks, To over- of the roads in South Vietnam (especially rn the
patrol the numerous inland water-ways in South come small rivers and streams, or to overcome central highlands) proved almost impassable
Vletnam. The raprd burld-up of US lorces ln very high banks, M1l3s fitted with a scissors- to standard 6xO trucks. In 1966 19 GOER 4x4
1'/ietnam meant that the existing ports could not type bndge were also deployed in South Vtet- amphibious trucks were deployed to South
hope to cope with the vast increase in required nam and used with some success. Vietnam, and wrthin l8 months these had car-
supplies, these ranging from fuel, food and Althouqh the M113 could cross paddy ftelds, ried some 9068 tonnes (8,925 tons) of stores and
ammunition to replacement vehicles and greai efforts were made 1n the USA to design 6,44 million litres ( 1, 7 mrllion US gal) of luel wrth
equipment, In ihe early days of the butld-up vehicles with a much lower ground pressure an availabilrty of over 85 per cent These 19
ships would often lie off ports for days unttl and therefore tmproved mobility over swampy vehicles were in fact srx-year old prototypes
berths became vacant, The 4x4 LARC (Ltght- and marshy ierrain. One of the more interest- that had been stored in West Germany alter
er Amphibious Resupply Cargo) was widely ing of these was the Pneumatic All-Terrain trials, Following the successful use in South
used in South Vietnam to carry supplies from Amphibian (PATA) developed by the Ling- Vietnam of the GOER the US Army piaced an
ships offshore onto the beach, where the valu- Temco-Vought company, This consisted of a order in I97 I ior 8 t2 cargo trucks, I l7 recovery
abie cargoes couid be offloaded onto 6x6 central body vrhich contained the VB petrol vehicles and 371 tankers, and many of these
trucks and taken fi.uther inland before beinq eng,ne uansrilssron crew and cargo-carrying remain in sewrce today, althoughthey are now

The Marines made num.erous amphibious assau/fs

on Vietnam, but the VC rarely obliged by resisting
them. Here theLWPSs lumber up the beach at the
beginn:inE of another attempt to trap the elusive
Werrillai.Thefearsome size of the LWPS was a
handicap once ashore, and it proved hard to
maintain and was vulner able to mines -

:.. #:
;.dJs rffi
=# ''-5&
r .S€ Sit€
Modern Amphibious & Oversnow Vehicles

-:ing replaced by the 8x8 Hearry Expanded

i.l:brlity Tactical Truck.
Yet another vehicle developed lor use in
i,uth Vietnam was the Chrysler Marsh Screw
rich was powered by a Chrysler engine
'.'rich vra a transmission drove hr,,o large cylin-
,::rcal screwlype pontoons on each srde Thrs
-,-d a maximum speed in marshy terrain of
.,:cuI 22 km,ft (14 mph), but caused severe
rimage to roads, The Soviet I,FN'I F.VD GPI 66
-:'.,ery similar to the Marsh Scre',-. ari.s based
" he G I-T rracked oversnc','. . ::r- r-e


Left: Emerging from ihe surf like a mechanical sea

monsfer, this is the LWESA I engineer version of
the LWP5. Dubbed the 'potato digger' by the
t{arines, itccuki akafue aI27-kg {2,042-Ib)
derna€&+a c::rrge fo cjearr*:ae6ejds.


Type 60 oversnow vehicle
The Japanese northern rsland of Hok-
kardo rs often covered rn snow, anC this
factor led the Japanese Ground Self-
Defence Force to the procurement of
two full-tracked oversnow vehicles,
the T1rye 60 and Type 61, both de-
signed and burlt by the Komatsu Manu
facturing Company and the Ohara
Ironworks, The Type 60 which rs also
cailed the Medium Snow Mobile, has
been desiqned to carry a total of l0
men (includinq the driver) or 900 kg
(1,984 Ib) of cargo, and to tow a trailer
or weapon wergthrnq 1500 kq
(3,307 lb) The engrrne is at the front of
ihe Type 60 and coupled to a manual
gearbox with four forward and one re
verse gear, while the suspension is of
the bogre/tcnsion-bar type with eight iqsi),:,t:i:
t .,': .
dual road wheels, return rollers, drive ts#'.,'.:r
sprockeL ard dler The caroo area is j':
at the rear and provrded with a drop
tailgate; lt is normally covered with re-
movable bows and a tarpaulin cover.
The Type 61 oversnowvehicle, aiso
called the Large Snow Mobile, is simi-
lar in appearance to the Type 60 but
can cary I2B0 kg (2,8221b) of cargo or
tow a maximum load of 3200 kg
(7,055 lb) and as such is often used to
tow skrfitted artillery such as the lO5- Specification (6 ft 8,7 1n) Evolved fr om the civilian K om atsu
mm (4. 13-in) MlOl which is the stan- Type 60 Performalce: maximum road speed KC-20 designed for use in the
dard weapon of its type tn the Crew: 1+9 36 km/h (22 mph); maximumwater nor the r n J ap anese r's/and of
Japanese Ground Self Defence Force. Combat weight: 3770 kg (8,31 I lb) speed not app[cable; maximum ranqe Hokkaido, theType 60 was adopted
The Type 61 is powered by an Isuza Powerplant: one Toyota 6-cy[nder 135 km (84 miles); fordins not known; in 1 9 60 by the J apanese Ground Self'
DA-120T 6-cylinder water cooled water-cooled petrol engine gradient 60 per cent; trench 1,066 m Defence Force,largely for use in the
diesel developing 155 hp (116 kW), developins 105 hp (78 kW) (3 ft 6 in); verticalobstacle 0,5 m samelocation.
Dimensions: lenqth 4.07 m (13 ft 4,2 in); ( I ft 7,7 in)
coupled to a manual qearbox wrth five
forward and one reverse gear, width 1,98 m (6 ft 6 in); heisht 2,OS m

XW ii[*U"tdier Snowmobile oversnow vehicle

The Industrial Division of Bombardier
Limited of Quebec has for many years
been involved in the design and pro-
duction of a variety of tracked and
semi-tracked oversnow vehicles for
the crvilian market, More recently it
has undertaken productton of some
2,000 M35 CDN 6x6 272-ton trucks for
the Canadian fumed Forces, and ls
buildinq the West German lltis 4x4
light vehicle for both the Belgian and
Canadian forces. The very small Bom-
bardier Bombi oversnow vehicle has
been used by the Canadian Armed
Forces as part of the United Nations
forces operating in the Sinai desert,
where the type's very low ground
pressure makes it equally at home on
sand as on snow. The Bombardier Ski
Doo Elite Snowmobile, which can car-
ry hvo passenqers, has been tested by
the US Marine Corps as a reconndlss-
ance vehicle for possible use in Nor-
way and elsewhere. The full-tracked
Bombardier Skidozer, whrch is avail-
able with either a petrol or a diesel
engine, is used by a number of coun-
tnes in a military role, althougth it was
not onelna]ly designed ior this pur-
The Bombardier Snowmobile over-
snow vehicle is used by the Canadtan
Armed Forces in northern Canada as a
general ulrhty vehicle, and tn appear
ance is very similar to a coach but the
engine is at the rear and coupled to an
automatic gearbox with three forward
and one reverse gear, The front sus- arms, f,tted with 420 mm (16.5 in) wide the power-assisted rack and pinion Purchased by the Canadian Armed
pension consists of coil sprrngs and tracks which consist of rubber belts type. and standard equipment in' Forces for use in thewastes of
hydraulic shock absorbers and is nor- with steel crosslinks. cludes a heater and defroster, hvo fuel northern C anada, the B omb ardier
mally fltted with tyres, though these The personnel enter na a large door tanks, wing mirrors, front and rear Snowmobile,like man7 other such
can be replaced by skls, The rear sus- in the forward part of the vehrcle, and lights, dry type paper air cleaner, vehicles, was originally designed for
pension on each side consists of four there is also a door in the rear and an block heater and full instrumentation. civil rather than military use.
r:bber{yred road wheels on trailingt emergency roof hatch. Steering is of
Bombardier Snowmobile oversnow vehicle (continued) Modern Amphibious & Oversnow Vehicles
lhe BombardierBombihas found an
rrusuaj usefor its abilities with the
Canadian contingents of the UN
:crces in theMiddleEast, its low /
ground pressure being as suited to
sand as to snow.
3.cmbardier Snowmobile
Crew: lf ll
Sornbatweight:2337 kg (5,152 Ib)
one Chrysler Model 318
petrol engine developing lBZ hp
- jgkW)
Dimensions:lenqth 5,38 m (17 ft 7.8 in);
-:,ith 1,95 m (6 ft 4,8 in); height 2,06 m
: -.9in)
Ferformance: maximum road speed
: i' -<r/h (40 mph); maximum water
;:ed not applicable; maxrmum range
:: - kn ( 199 miles); fording not known;
l::iient not known; trench not
-;phcable; vertical obstacle not
Jl: t'trn

Bv 202 tracked oversnow vehicle

'..= irst oversnow vehicle used in any
- -irers by the Swedish army was the
- LVeasel, which was developed by
j riebaker during World War 11 and {-
.:i both in Euope and the Far East.
:r re mid-1950s these were becom-
,:-; irftcult to maintain and operate, so
:,: Swedish army approached a num- {T
: =: cf national companies with a prop-
.:i to build a new vehicle, As none of I t-
'--,=r showed any real interest, the
:'.'.-:Csh army itself built prototypes
'':-:h were completed in 1958. These
, ::e followed by additional vehicles
::rporating improvements as a re-
trials with the oriqinal test ngs
'.i=-r cfprototypes. Once the design had
:=:: finalized the complete produc- Naturaltl. Scand:naia has prored a fertile ground for the designofoversnow
-- orogramme was put out to tender,
:- vehicles. r'itn rheSs'edrsir Bt 252 being in service with severaltountries,
.---: in 1961 Bolinder-Munktell was inclu din g Tur kei. an d the W.
.-'.'-ded the first production contract
-: ie
vehicle, which was called the
3; 202.
-:rc Bv 202 remained in productron
-: almost 20 years, final deliveries
:=-:g rnade in 1981, In addition to
::se for the Swedish army, sales were
=-: made to Ftnland, the Netherlancis,
-;:r-,'vay, Turkey and the UK, The last
-,=s rts vehicles for a wide range of
,--:s such as command, carqio-
:-rying and towing the 105-mm (4. 13-
.-- Light Gun on skis, The Royal
l.l=nes and Royal Artillery used the
''=:rcle during the 1982 Falklands
:-:paign, where it proved to be one
-- :e few vehicles able to traverse the
: :;qy terrain, In the Swedish army the
:':2a2is now being supplemented bv
.-. much rmproved Bv 206 buih Ly
.:,:gh,nd & Soner, alhough it wrll be Specr-ficanon
..--ny years before the older vehicle s Bv 2A2
;:,ased out of Swedish service The Bv
-,2 is also used for a number of cr-,,rl Combat weighr: -:- -'<; :

::ies in Sweden and countries where Power-olar-t ::-: -.':-',-: l -

--. low ground pressure enables it to :---- ---:---
::- - -- --

:rlss with ease terrain such as swamp

- .o and snow. Dirners:cns: -::-;, : Z

The Bv 202 consists of two units, foc:.:
rear, connected by an artrculatel
'.-.. - - -_:--- -:
---nt. The front unit contatns the el- Perforrna:rce: :. :i-*
--t :: ; l:c+ec
;:e transmrssion, driver and cor:- L: ,::-:- -= ::;t- :-1,-i:-.-jl- ,',-c:el
.- -. tr : j: :-. : **- *-.
:-,ander, while the rear unit carries tre :r:. -: -L--
- - .:- .:.f-fl]_-J::
-:ad which can be B00kg (1,764 Ji, :a:.:=---,::. - 1::--l=S :-:C-:-: A British Army Bv 202 comes ashore F alkland I slands, where the low
-:ross country or kg (2,205 Ur) cr
1000 :*-:-:.-. : l^ -^. ^^-; from an SRN-6 hovercraft on the ground pressure was a great
:--ads. The commander and driver al:
:--ated in a fu1ly enclosed cab pr:-
_:* coast of Notway. I t was used
effectively on the peat bogs of the

Bv 206 tracked oversnow vehicle
The Bv 206 was developed from 1974 Developed toreplace theBv 202 inSwedish army service, the Bv 206 is a larger and more capable vehicle
by Hiigglund & Soner to meet the re-
quirements of the Swedish army for a
vehicle to replace the Bv 202 tracked
oversnow vehicle, After trials with
three batches ofprototypes, the Swed-
ish army placed an initial order for pro-
duction vehicles in i979, the first of
them delivered in 1981. The Swedish
army has a requirement for some 4,000
Bv 206s, and export orders have
already been placed by Finland, Nor-
way, the UK and the USA, whtle trials
vehicles have been ordered by Cana-
da and Italy, In the US Army the Bv 206
is known as the Small Unit SupPort
Vehicle M973, and 268 vehicles have
been ordered to replace the old Ml16
tracked oversnow vehicles which
have been in service rn Alaska since
the 1960s.
Like the Bv 202, the Bv 206 consists of
two units, front and rear, connected by
a steerrng unit, The front unit contains
the engdne and transmission and has
seats for five or sx men, while the rear
umt has seating for I I men, When used
in the cargo-carryingt role, the Bv 206
can move a maxrmum of 600 kq
(1,323 ]b) in the front unit and 1400 kg
(3,086 Ib) in the rear unit.
The basrc Bv 206 has fully enclosed
front and rear bodies of flre-resistant
glassfibre reinforced plastic. Each
body unit is provided with a heater,
which is essential in Sweden during
the winter months. The basic vehicle is
fully amphibious, beinq propelled in
the water by its tracks. As an option the
standard Ford V6 water-cooled petrol
engine can be replaced by a Mer-
cedes-Benz S-cylinder inline turbo-
chargred dresel developing 125 bhp
(e3 kw)
The antr-tank member of the familY
is the Pvbv 2062, which has an open-
topped front body in which is mounted
a Bofors 90-mm (3.54-in) recoilless Above: The Bv 206 has been fitted
rifle, the rear unit beinqt used for with a variety of weapons, including
ammumtion, The front unit is provtded a TOW anti-tank missile mount. It has
with special roll-over protection bars been ordered by several nations,
which can be quickly lowered in ac- including theUSA, UK, Canada and
tion to allow the recoilless rifle to be Italy.
used, In the future the 90-mm (3.54-in)
recoilless rifle will be replaced by the
Bofors BILL anti{ank Qnrtded missile,
whlle for trials purposes the vehicle
has already been fitted wtth the Right:The Bv 206 can transportfive
Hughes TOW anti-tank guided or six men in the front section and up
weapon, already used by the Swedish to I I in the rear section. Total cargo
army. The command post version of capacity k 2000 kg (4,409 lb) in the
the Bv 206 is the Rabv 206I, and this is two sections. Both sections are
fltted with extensive communications driven, but the engrine and
equipment. It has also been suggested transmission ls in the front.
that the Bv 206 could be fitted with the
Swedrsh Giraffe suweillance radar (on
a hydraulically-operated mast) for use
in conjunction wrth the Bofors RBS 70
surface{o-air missrle already fle1ded
by the Swedish army,
Bv 206
Crew: front unit 5 or 6 and rear unit I l
Combatweight:6340 kg (13,977 lb)
Powerplant: one Ford Model265BE Vo
petrol enqine developing 136 bhP
(i0r kw)
Dimensions: lenqth 6,86 m (22 ft 6 in);
width LBS m (6 ft 0.8 in); heisht 2.40 m
(7 ft 10.5 in)
Performance: maximum road sPeed
55 kll,,h (34 mph); maximumwater
speed {rr/f (1.86 mph) maximum
raig: -:i <n (205 miles); fording
:::l:-:-: -: gradient 60 per cent;
vertical obstacle Inwinter, theBv206 enters its element, its fully heated enclosed cabins ensuring crew comfortinthe oftenbitterly
i: -.a_r1
__: _,able: cold norihernSwedishclimate.The Bv 206 is fully amphibious, being propelled inwater by its tracks.
Armed Forces of the World

Despite all the many cutbac<s and str,ctlres of the
past few decades, the British army is still a powerful
military organization and it has demonstrated this
fact on many occasions. the most recent being the
Falkland lslands campaign (Operation'Corporate')
during 1982. That campaign has somewhat hidden
the fact that the bulk of the British army's striking
power is still maintained as part of NATO and is
based in West Germany. There the army operates
not as a national army but as part of a much larger
European army that trains and acts as a delerrent to
any potential aggressor. ln this context the units
based in the United Kingdom act only as supply and
support units for the NATO-assigned forces, only a
relatively small force being maintained for home
defence. Other forces are still maintained in various
parts of the world in what are very much relics of a
bygone empire.

The Army in Germany

The army stationed in West Germany is some
52,000 strong and contains nearly allthe main com-
bat r,rnits of the service. The army in Germany is
known collectively as the British Army of the Rhine
(BAOR) and is divided into three main components.
The maln combat element is I (British) Corps, or I

(BR) Corps, with its headquarters at,Bielefeld. ln

support of I (BR) Corps is Rhine Area, which is the
supply and support element for the corps, and in
time of war Rhine Area would become the British
Support Corps or BRSC. The third element is the
Berlin lnfantry Brigade, very much out on a limb and
deep wlthin Warsaw Pact territory but maintained
there as part of 1945 treaty arrangements.
One of the main things to remember when study-
ing the BAOR is that a good deal of its manpower
and equipment strengths are maintained not in
West Germany but in the United Kingdorn. Nearly
every unit in BAOR relies upon reinforcements of
men (from the Territorial Army and Regular Re-
serves) to bring it up to full combat strength, and
although there are large stockpiles of supplies and
equipment maintained in West Germany at all
times, still more would have to be brought overfrom
the United Kingdom in an emergency. ln thrs case
the smooth transf er of men and equipment to I {B R) three brigades, and one of the 3rd Armoured Divi- Widely respected for its professionahm aro'
Corps would be the task of the BRSC. sion's brigades (19th lnfantry Brigade) is maintalned efficienq, the British armydeploys its main
The BAOR operates as part of NATO's Northern in the United Kingdom at Colchester so it too would strength in Germany as part of NA71)'sNortllen:
Army Group (NORTHAG) with the other NATO- have to make its way to Germany if required. Army Group . The infantry regiimen ts are egur'ppeC
assigned forces of West Germany, Belgium and the The brigades are either armoured or infantry and withFV43? armoured personnei carn'ers. seer
here behind Ferret armoured cars.
Netherlands. In time of peace all the four nations the exact make-up 9f s $rigade depends on its oper-
involved maintain their armies under national control ational role in time of war. Of the four divisions two
and would only operate as a NATO force in an would act as forward unlts (the 1st and 4th (medical, supply and comparable un :s ,,, a - : :--:.
emergency. The only British army units involved Armoured Divisions) and another would act in sup- under division control. The mair. c'tl i- : -- :'
with NORTHAG at all times are those of a single port of these two (the 3rd Armoured Division). Each each battle group is formed to re.: : ::--:- .-
Royal Signals regiment. of these divisions would be made up mainly from operational requirement or objec:,: :-t -,--: --
ln an emergency the manpower strength of armoured brigades (each with one or two armoured two are the same. In theory e3:- :::: = l-,-: :
NORTHAG would expand from about 200,000 to regiments) and one or two mechanized infantry bri- formed f rom a balanced groJc - I --' ='- '. - -': '-'
about 500,000. Some of this manpower growth gades. with the preponderance of armour forward. andartillerywith engineera-l : ;--: :-:: .- : --
would come from the reinforcements for the BAOR. The 2nd Infantry Division has three infantry bri- someinstances local preoc-:?'=-'.=::- --: j - .'
for although the main striking force of I (BR) Corps gades, two of them being Territorial Army brigades. another are bound to oc:-' : : =-=-: - - -. ,
consists of four divisions only three of these are Having outlined these administrative guidelines, it wardareamuchof theba---::'--: :+*l:r: -.:
actually based in the BAOR area and one of those now has to be said that in time of war all these tidy fromarmourwhileina'e:-.-=a---+'=" - :-' ; :r
maintains part of its strength in the United Kingdom. distinctions would be laid inside a much less defined more infantry. ln sori : a'==: a=-: :-:-:: : r,*
| (BR) Corps consists of three armoured divisions, organization based on the divisions, which would bat teams (two o.:^-:: :' .- -- -'- : tr--
one infantry division, an artillery division and corps then break up into a number of task forces, battle group) may well be -. - .
troops (divided into arms and services). The groups and combat teams. Each armoured division defence weapons. a, *
armoured divisions are the st, 3rd and 4th
has within its organizatlon three armoured brigades, is dependent pu'- , -::-
Armoured Divisions, all of which are based in West a reconnaissance regiment, three artillery regim- manneT in wh,c^ :-: --.:
Germany; the 2nd lnfantry Division is based in the ents, an engineer regiment, an Army Air Corps reg- conduct his tas<
United Kingdom. headquartered at York, and it iment. and transport, medical, stores support, repair The main i r3: l::= ::€-:-,:-:
would have to be moved to Germany in an emergen- and provost units. All these units are divided up and definedasasirc :' =-::.-1-: - - ---
cy. Each of the divisions, armoured and lnfantry. has assigned into battle groups, although some units eastof Hannol':'::/,- -- --= -::---
-7_ (?, -{=>
Armed Forces of the World BritishArmy ffi
gades. To these must be added three more bri-
gades; the first of these is the 1 gth lnfantry Brigade,
which is assigned to the 3rd Armoured Division in
BAOR. The second is the 1st lnfantry Brigade,
't" which has two functions: the NATO central reserve
and the basis for the United Kingdom component of
the NATO Allied Mobile Force (Land) or AMF(L),
which is a multi-national force intended for use on
either of the NATO flanks in Norway or Turkey. The
third UK-based brigade is the sth lnfantry Brigade,
which is designed for the home defence of the
United Kingdom but which took part in the Falkland
lslands campaign of 1982. Other brigades are admi-
nistrative only and are maintained by the various
district headquarters. One of the district headquar-
ters, the North East District at York also doubles as
the headquarters for the BAOR's 2nd lnfantry divi-
sion, though a f orward headquarters for this division
is maintained at Lubbecke
The United Kingdom acts as the main training
base for the army. Nearly all the army's basic, trade,
officer and other training is carried out in the United
Kingdom, and the personnel from the various train-
ing establishments would make up much of the
south, and extending eastwards to the lnner Ger- Prctected by Chobham armour and mounting the home defence personnel in an emergency. Most of
man Border (lGB) between East and West Ger- trusty L 1 1 AS I 20-mm rifled gun, the FV4030/ 4 the army's rnain supply, repair, research and de-
many. To the rear of I (BR) Corps and back to the Challenger is one of the most powertd main battle velopment facilities are also based in the United
Channel is the domain of Rhine Area/BRSC, and the tanks in the world, but at the time of writing only Kingdom. The main administrative and policy sec-
one armoured division is scheduled to receive
2nd lnfantry Division would be used to maintain and tions are based in London and its environs while
guard the supply lines to I (BR) Corps through this large training areas are centred around Salisbury
area. Plain, the Aldershot area, Catterick in the north and
Not all of I (BR) Corps troops would be assigned to main supply and support centre. Only a relatively several other areas well known to generations of
the divisions. Under direct corps control is the artil- small number of units are assigned to home de- soldiers.
lery division, which has a long-range general support fence as the national executive has decided that the
regiment (armed with 175-mm/6.89-in M107s), a best place to defend the nation is on the European The Army abroad
missile regiment (armed with the nuclear Lance continent, and thus in an emergency nearly all units The British army still maintains sizable nunibers of
missile), a heavy regiment (armed with 203-mm/8-in and manpower would decamp for Germany To soldiers at various locations oversea5, the main
M 1 1 0 howitzers, also with a nuclear capability), two maintain th;s sltuation the Unlted Kingdom is di- strength currently being in the Falklands. The army's
Rapier-armed light air defence regiments (with a mix vided into a number of districts, each with its admi- main manpower contribution to the Falklands is now
of Tracked and Towed Rapiers), and a locating reg- nistrative tasks of seeing to the day-to-day functions past, but about three infantry battalions plus artil-
iment. Corps troops include an amphibious engineer of allthe establishments and units within its area, be lery, engineer, reconnaissance, Army Air Corps and
regiment (equipped with the M2 floating bridge and they Regular Army or Territorial Army other elements are still maintained there. Once the
ferry), an armoured engineer regiment (equipped Within the United Kingdom three brigades are new airport at Mount Pleasant is complete it is
with Centurion AVREs and Chieftain AVLBs), two maintained at all times as part of the 2nd lnfantry expected that these levels will fall to a much lower
corps signal regiments and a special corps Army Air Division for BAOR (these are the 24th lnfantry Bri- total.
Corps squadron. To these must be added a whole gade, the 15th lnfantry Brigade (V) and the 49th Northern lreland is hardly overseas but it is still a
retinue of various service units. lnfantry Brigade (V), both the latter being TA bri- constant drain on the army's manpower resources,
ln Berlin the Berlin lnfantry Brigade ls made up of even though the local police forces have now
three infantry battalions and a single armoured assumed many responsibilities once maintained by
squadron. ln an emergency it would have a holding the army. There the army has establrshed the Ulster
I n s ervice s ince I 9 67, the C hieftain will continue to Defence Regiment (some 7,100 strong and orga-
role only and would not expect to be reinforced. provide the bulk of Britkh tank strengthfor many
years to come. Heavily armoured and also nized into 11 battalions to undertake many of the
The United Kingdom equipped with the L I I AS I 20-mm gun, Chieftains army's routine duties) but a number of infantry and
For the army the United Kingdom acts as its are currently being retrofittedwith the Improved other battalions (variable according to the localstate
main recruiting area, its trainlng centre and as its Fire Control System. of tensions) are on duty there at any one time.
An infantry battalion is maintained in Gibraltar. and
in Belize in Central America a mixed force of infan-
try, artillery, Army Air Corps, engineer and other
troops is based to maintain the sovereignty of what
was British Honduras. ln Cyprus two weak infantry
battalions plus the usual support forces are used to
guard the British Sovereign bases; these also act as
part of the United Nations Force in Cyprus (UN-
FICYP). A small force also works with tire United
Nations in Sinai. Away to the east in Hong Kong the
army has a single infantry battalion plus four Gurkha
battalions with another Gurkha battalion in Brunei.
The Gurkhas are very much part of the British army
i: still, and have a battalion based in the United King-
dom; they also have their own engineers, signals
and transport squadrons, and one of the Gurkha
engineer units is based in the United Kingdom at
regimental strength.
The army also maintains large tralning areas in
Kenya and Canada. The Canadian area at Suffield ln
Alberta is large enough for almost unlimited live
_t: _.4 firing exercises to be held. This facility is used forthe
training of battle groups from BAOR.