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Yolume 6 Issue 7l THE PRESS

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tJVesfern Frigafes
Over the centuries, the frigate has performed a wide
variety Second of the 46-strong ,Knox' class,
of tasks, tanging fromthe classic'eyes of the fleet,
ofMelson's US,SRoark (FFJ 05il tyiities US
dayto the suppression of thell-boatmenace inthe Batfle of Although as large and
capabte as many destroyers, the
the Atlantic of World War IL Today, the name covets
awide c/ass's srng/e-slr aft propulsion and
variety of vessels, lower.speeds lead to it being
classified as a frigate.
The frigate has become the 'workhorse' of current
western navies, The
term is apphed to vessels rangrng from the very expensive
and highly
natrons outside NATO in South America and
the Middle ;as _:.=
specializedASW ships of the Royal Navy,s Type 22 design Italians themselves have taken fou, t upo.;unO
to wfrat"arl eight of the eS,;-:.:_=:-
essentially the cheap and reduced_capaLrllty knox, trale' class vanant, France rates her frlgates ii ,rrrsos (sroc.-.
and bhver Hazaid =. _
as a modern gunilu: ja , ., . _
Perry' classes of the US Navy, whrch-are useJinsteaO generally uses them on overseas patrols
of spechl--J the flag The Japanese frrgate rs piedominantiy
ASW and AAW destroyers and cruisers to escort
convoys and groups of nSW r".i"i.,, .=
amphibrous warships, Japanese waters, In the RoyalNavy tfr" frrdi" *;s "" untrl the beg-::-_-.: _:,.
the 1920s primarily a senerat-puip"r" *",rirr,,p,
", into or c:-. . .'.
To counter the modern nuclear_powered submarine
the frigate proved, but since then lt has been either
should have gas turbine propulsion and two shafts converted
fltted witn contioit_ specialist vessel to tackle elther sub-surface, =.
able-pitch propellers, both features of most *"ri"rn
European de;iq;; ,r.iu"u or antr-air -,.,--:=::=
tasks, The latest Bntlsh frigate design i, tf," ,Danng,
However, the Americans accept a lower maxtmum speed
and only one CVpL 23
flrst of which is still to be ordered iftu, .uu"iai ...
shaft, which has lead to some criticlsm. Some European
natrons such as
vears of plan:::,:
West Germany and the Netherlands have also gol together produce
to i . For the tons term a NATO standard friqute hlir*-;";";;;="-_
but like most alliance projects it is expe-tJJ
stand^ard frigate design for their navies, whici in
these countrles has tt u ort"orn" will pr::. -._
be that consortium members will bre;k up lnio grorp.
manifested itserf as the 'Bremen' and 'Kortenaer, classes
,"rp""i,u"lv, u"J l;ii..= .
Further to help standardrzation, Greece has tougnt two each eroing their own way,
of the Dutch
ships and may build another three under ticencl.
Of the two American
designs ('Knox'and 'Oliver Hazard perry,) only Spaln
among tfr" NaCO
has bousht any, licence-burtdins five and rhree H/vtrMS De Ruyt er, a' T rom p' c ra s s frigate
:ly-llli:: ,6rp""tiultv, of the R oy ar N e ther rands n a w, ;s
flowever, rn terms of exporting their designs rt is the ltalians
now taken the lead with their'Lupo' class, which has
who have
been sord to three
comprehensive weapon iit.

q 1:, 1



@ i8i'tituqo'class
Designed and built with structural fea- director with no radar controls the twin
tures to reduce noise and vibration, the 40-mm mount aft, The hull-mourited
'Chikugo' class ships are used primari- OQ53 sonar rs a iicence-built version of
ly for coastal ASW missions around the the American SQS-23 set, a variant of
Japanese home islands, To facilitate which is used on the 'Spruance class
their use in this role they are gradually ASW destroyers, The I I vessels in ser-
being equipped to carry and operate vice are the Clu'Jrugo (DE2l5), Ayase
the SQS35(I) variable-depth sonar (DE216), Mikumo (DE217), Tokachi
from an openwell offset to starboard at (DEz1B) Ir,vase (DE2 19), Cftjfose
the stern. They are also the smallest (DE220), Niyoda (DE221), Teshio
warships in the world to carry the octu- (DE222), Yoshino (DE223), Kumano
ple ASROC ASW missile-launcher sys- (DE224) and iVosfir?o (DE225)
tem, though no reloads are carried; the
amidships launcher is trained to the Specification
bearing and then elevated to fire a 'Chikugo'class
two-round salvo of the solid-fuel RUR- Displacement: (DE215 and DE220)
5A rockets with their Mk 46 parachute- 1,480 tons standard, (DE2 16-DE2 l9
retarded hominq torpedo payloads out and DE221) I,470 tons standard or one octuple ASROC ASW missile Tokacht(DE2l 8) pays a courtesyvisit
to a maximum rangTe of 9.2 km (5.7 (DE222-DE225) 1,500 tons standard launcher with eight missiles, and two to Hawaii. As in all except the most
mlles), The Japanese vessels do not and 1, 700- 1,800 tons full load triple 324-mm ( 12,75-in) Mk 68 ASW recent J apanese destgns, lft e
carry the alternative payload of a 1- Dimensions: Iength 93, I m (305 5 ft); torpedo tubes with Mk 46 torpedoes 'Chikugo' clas s has s ignificant ASW
krloton Mk 17 nuclear depth charge beam 10.8 m(35 5 ft); draught3.S m Aircraft:none capability but little in the way of
carried by American ships. The prop- (11 sft) Electronics: one OPS- l4 air-search surf ace- to- surf ace or AAW
ulsion plant comprises either four Mtt- Propulsion: four diesels delivertng radar, one OPS-28 surface-search equipment.
subishr-Burmeister & Wain UEV30/40 16,000 hp (l1931kW) to two shafts radar, one GCFS-lB fire-controlradar,
(in DE 2 15, 2Il -219, 221, 223 and225) or Speed:25 kts one OPS-19 navigationradar, one
four Mitsui 2BVBC-38 diesels (in the Armarnent:one mdn 76-mm (3-in) Mk NORL-S ESMsystem, one OQS-3 hull depth sonar (being fitted)
remainder) A Mk 51 fire-control 33 DP gun, one twin 4O-mm AA enrn, sonar, and one SQS-35(l variable- Complement: 165

'Yubari' class
The 'Yubari' class is basically an tm-
proved and enlarged variant of the
'lshakiri' desiqn authorized in 1977-8,
The greater length and beam im-
proved the seaworthrness and re-
duced the rnternal space constrictions
ofthe earher design, The original num-
ber of units to be built was three, but
this was reduced by one when the
Japanese government deleted funds
from the naval budget in the early
1980s. A new three-vessel'lmproved
Yubari' class is to be constructed tn the
1983-7 flve-year plan.
Although not heavily armed and
having no helicopter factltttes in com-
parison rmth contemporary European
designs, the'Yubaris' are ideai for use
in the waters aroundJapan, where they
would operate under shore-based air
cover, Most of the weapons, machin-
ery and sensors have been built under
licence from foreign manufacturers,
The propulsion plant is a CODOG Armament: two quadruple Harpoon Aircraft:none Sm aller th an the prece ding
arrangement with a licence-built surface-to-sudace msstle launchers Electronics: one OPS-28 surface- 'Chikugo' class, the 'Yubari' class is
Kawasakr/Rolls-Royce Olympus TM3B with eight missiles, one 76-mm (3-in) search radar, one OPS- 19 navigatton highly automated, with a crew of
gas turbine and a Mitsubishi 6DRV 35/ DP gn:n one 20-mm Phalanx CIWS radar, one GFCS- I fire-control radar, under I 00. D e signe d to operate
44 dlesel, Extensive automation of the (beinq fltted), one quadruple 375-mm one NOLQ-6 ESM system, one OLT-3 under land-based air cover, the
machinery has reduced the crew total (14,76-in) Bofors ASW rocket launcher, ECM jammer, two Mk 36 Super RBOC desjgn ias fi lue AAW cap ability,
to below 100, which is extremely good and hvo triple 324-mm(12 75-in) Mk 68 chafflaunchers, and one OQS- i hull although the Phalanx 20-mm close-in
for a warship of this size, The vessels ASW torpedo tubes nrth Mk 46 sonar weapon system is being fitted.
which comprise the class are the torpedoes Complement:98
Yubari (DE227) and Fubefsu (DE22B)

Displacement: 1,470 tons standard and
1,690 tons fulIload
Dimensions: length I 1,0 m (298,5 ft)
beam 10,8 m (35,4 ft); draught 3,6 m Developed from the interim 'lshakiri'
(11Bft) desiEm, Yubari and Yubetsu fi aYe
Propr:lsion: CODOG arrangement been enlarged in both length and
wrth one Rolls-Royce/Kawasaki beant, the better to handle the
Olympus TM3B gas turbine delivering armament mounted. Two quadruPle
28,390 hp (21170 kW) and one H arpoon launchers give lft e cJass
Mrtsubishi 6DRV diesel delivering considerable anti-ship capability'
4,650 hp (3468 kW) to two shafts I
Speed:25 kts 1

--*.-ji'l !;
i !1
€r i,.

Modern underwater delecfion sysfems ft areprogressed a
Iong w a17 fr am the sirnp Ie hydr obh on e an d A; diC of th e I I 40 s.
While using ffte same pn'n ciple of high frequency sound waves
to detect targrefs under water, modern electronics give the
equipment range and drs criminatian undreamt of in earlier

How well a sonar performs is effectively the limiting factor for almost all ASW
systems apart f rom the non-acoustic detectors sucli as the Magnetrc Anomaly
Detector (MAD). Sonar systems are divided into passive and active types. The
former uses the fact that any target submarine sends out a signal into the
surrounding water mass in the forniof radiated noise which can be-picked up by
a hydrophone receiver array (sonad on the tracking vessel. For a successful
detection the incoming signal must be sufficient in amplitude to be distinguish-
able against tne backgror"rnd o'tne sea and any extraneous sounds rnade
by the sonar platforrnitself. Modern process'ng equipment can accommodate
very faint signals and, depending upon sea cond;tions, can detect targets at
ranges well in excess of 161 km (100 miles). The ideal platform for the passive
sonar is a submarine which operates below the noisy air-sea interface inhabited
by the surface ship.
These latter craft tend to operate with active sonar, which is distinguishable The hunt for enemysu.bmarinesini'ojves tie use of detectjon systems
by its frequencies, pulse patterns. power levels and other parameters. The rnounled in sftips, submarines and, in t&is case, a fte/icopler, eaci sensor
sonar gear sends out an acoustic energy pulse or 'ping' into the surrounding platlorm having jls adrantages and d:sadyan lages. The already comple x v; a :
water, and the receiver then wa ts f or an echo ref lected off the target: the rule of of rival technologiesis rendered doubly so hy the very nature of the ocear.
thumb for such sonars is that the lower the frequency used the greater the range
for a given power level (and rhe g'eate' ine 'arge ihe rore t"ne chance of its Another way in which the high-power systerns such as the Amerrcan Si:--:
detection on a sonar transmission intercept system), However, to benef it f rorn and British Type 20'16 can detdct submarihes is by utilizing the ref ractro: :' '
active sets the operator must Jse o.e or'moie o'rhe;ng modes. By iar sonar beam itself in deep water to give very long detection ranqes Tl.: :==
the slowest is known as the 'searchlrght' technrque, whereby the transducer sent out is benl down and then up by the seawat6r conditions to"concen:'a .: -
which produces the 'ping' is f ired in a given direction and the operator waits f or a what is known as a 'Convergence Zone' (CZ) which is a circular area a iev, ^- :
returning echo; if none arrives then he rotates the transducerto another bearing wide produced at a distanc6 f rom the ship. Exactly how far away it is ic:.- :: =

and repeats the process. The alternative to this is the omni-directional 'scanning' strictly upon the sea conditions and waler temperatu re in lhe area. Fu rtn:- I * .
mode whereby the transducer remains slationary but a 'ping' is sent out are repeated at equal distances, so forming a series of concentr c crrcles ;.: - - -
sinrultaneously in all direclions. thus considerably increasing the chance of the platform. This mode provrdes a reliable range if the targer is with n a l- :
target detection. ln the most modern systerns the'ping'can be produced the bearingaccuracyis notas good. This disadvantagewas initially overc:- = :
electronically to g ve sector-scanning capab',ities and produce a rapid succes- the use of ASROC and SUBROC nuclear-trpped ASW weapons out ro li-= ' ..'
sion of intense beams for either a higher search rate or shorter-duration pulses. CZ, and the development of the ASW Stand.Off Weapon (with a nuc.:a- -.
The latter are particulariy useful fdr close targets as they can discrimlnate homing torpedo payload) is now due to take the possible engagement rarl : _

submarine manoeuvres. to ihe third CZ and beyond.

The amount of power put into producrng the 'ping' determines not only its Submarines also emiloy a surface ref lection techn que which, by corrc:- - :
range but also to what extent the sonar cbn exploif the alternative rneans of the returns f rom BB and CZ signals, can give a remarkably accurate target ::: j .

sound propagation there are in the ocean, For instance, short-range sets such as They, and increasingly surface ships, now overcome the thermal layei p._: -'
the British Type 184 or American 505-56 employ a'direct paih'above-layer by using a towed-array sonar streamed beneath it. Operating passive,. :-=
eff ect and are usually limited to ranges of less than 1 8300 m (20,000 yds) by the system has extremely long detection ranges. Surface sh ps also overc.-: -' :
ref raction of sornd in seawater o'{ the thermal layer. A nigher-power set whicn layer by using a variable-depth sonar (VDS). which is an acrive transducer .: .. - _
can use electronic means to tilt The bearn steeply downwards, nowever, rray in a body behind the ship bt a depth usually below the laver.
penetrate the shadow zone effect thus produced (which can mask a submarine
bt ranges of rrore than 1830 rn'2,000 yds to tne direct-path system) by passing
the beam through the layer to ref lect off the sea bed in what has become known
as the 'bottom bounce' (BB) mode. Unfortunately the BB can only be used with
suitably reflective sea bed surfaces.

Right:ThisWestlandLynx of the RoyalNetherlands navy displays its dunking

sonar. Once thejrsensorshave detecfed the ta rget, helicopters have an
unrivalled ability to track submarines which can oulrun surface sirps.
DeveJopments in eommunication equipment enable sensor information to be
rapid/y drssern inated betweenfi e/icopters and slrips.

Below: The Lynx 3 will carry a grea! rangre of sensors: active andpassive
sonobuoys, dunJ<ingsonaran d amagmetic anomaly detector. The latter
idenlrlies c&anges in the Earth's magnetic field caused by large melal obl'ects
sucft assubmarines.
F )6Ho'class
Based on the US'Dealey'class des-
troyer escorts, the'Oslo' class frigates
have a hlgher freeboard forward (to
suit the sea conditions off Norway) and
many European-butlt subsystems,
They were built under the 1960 five-
year naval plan, wtth half the cost
borne by the USA, The class under-
went modernization refits in the late
1970s, these including the fitt'ing of
?engmin Mk 2 SSMs, a NATO Sea Spar-
row SAM launcher and Mk 32 ASW
self-defence torpedo tubes, A re-
placement class is being designed for
possible construction in the 1990s,
Currently the largest surface com-
batants in the Norwegtan navy, the
'Oslos' provide the only major ASW
force in the region, For this role they
carry a forward-mounted sextuPle
rocket-launcher with a raprd reload
capability for the 370 to 825-m (405 to
900-yard) range Terne IiI ASW rocket,
Thrs is a 120-kg (265{b) weapon fitted
with a combination depth and proxim- Specification The'Oslo' class frigateBergen (F30 I ) Sea Sparrow surface-to-air missile
ity Doppler fuse for its 6.1-m (20-ft) 'Oslo'class is seen tiring aPengwin surtace-to- launcher with 24 missiles, two twin 76-
lethal radius 48-kg (105.8-lb) HE war- Displacement: 1,450 tons standard and surfacemissile. mm (3-in) Mk 33 DP cmns, one sextuple
head; the target depth can be between 1,850 tons full load Terne ASW rocket launcher, and two
15 and 215 m (50 and 705 lt). Once fired Dimensions: length 96.6 m (3 16,9 ft); Armament: six single Penguin Mk 2 triple 324-mm (12,75-in) Mk32 ASW
the launcher rs automatically trained to beam I 1,2 m (36,7 ft); draught 4,4 m surface{o-surface missile launchers torpedo tubes with Mk 46 torpedoes
(1AAft\ with sx missiles, one octuple NATO Aircraft:none
the vertical and reloaded within 40
seconds, The ships' SQS-36 sonar acts Propulsion: geared steam turbtnes Electronics: one DRBV 22 air- and
as the search unit whilst the Terne Mk delivering 20,000 hp (14914 kW) to one surface-search radar, one WM -22 fue-
3 attack sonar is used for target range shaft controlradar, one Decca 1226
and depth determinattons. For self de- Speed: 25 kts navigation radar, one Terne Mk 3
fence the ships have the American 45- sonar, and one SQS-36 hull sonar
kt 1]-km (6,8-mi1e) range Mk 46 acous- Complement: i50
tic-homing torpedo f,red lrom the Mk
32 torpedo tubes, The five ships in ser- 'Oslo' class frigafes are a
vice are the Os/o (P300), Sergen modification of the 'Dealey' class of
(F301), frondfi ejrn (F302) Stavanger destroyer escort (DE) huilt in the USA
(F303) and iVarvjk (F304), in the 1950s. Freeboard has been
increased, inorder to improve
handling of the more challenging sea
conditionsoff Notway.

@ ffieilie"'(rype 122) class

A Germanized modification of the gas
turbine-powered Dutch'Kortenaer'
design, the sx-ship 'Bremen' class is
replacing the deleted 'Fletche/ (TVpe
II9) class destroyers and the elderly
'K6ln' (Type I20) class frrgates. The
hulls are mated with the propulsion
plant in the building yards, and are
then towed to Bremer Vulkan, where
the weapon systems and eiectronics
are fitted. The first order was placed in
1977, and the ship eventually commis-
sioned in May 1982 after government
approval had been given for the con-
struction in 1976, A further hvo units
were subsequently cancelled as a re-
sult of cost problems, The ships are
fitted with fin stabihzers and the Amer-
ican Praerie/Masker bubble system
on the hull and propellers to reduce
radiated noise levels from the machin-
ery spaces, A complete NBC defence

Bremen(FA1T) is the first of a class oI

six trigates tor the Bundesmatine'
These general-purpose vessels carry
their main anti-submarine punch in
the two Lynx helicopters with which
each ship is equipped.

'Bremen (Type 122) class (continued) Modern Western Frigate s

citadel system is also fitted. Two of the (F211) and Karlsruhe (F212), and all to fuiro shafts Developed from the Dutch
new passive radar/infra-red terminal are now in service; plans call for them Speed: 32 kts 'Kortenaer' class of frigate, the
homing 24-round RAM point-defence to remain in the front line into the 21st Armament: two quadruple Harpoon 'Bremen' class has the satne hulL form
SAM launchers are to be installed atop century, surface-to-surface missile launchers and minor differences in armament.
the hangar in the near future, The ASW with eight missiles, one octuple NATC The major alteration is in the
helicopters carried are Westland Lynx Specification Sea Sparrow surface{o-air missile prouision of diesel cruising engines
HAS.Mk BBs, which drffer from Royal 'Bremen'class launcherwrth 24 RIM-7M mrssiles, two in place of the turbines oI the
Navy machines in having an active Displacement: 2,900 tons standard and 24-round RAM point-defence surface- 'Kortenaer' class.
Bendix DASQ- 18 dunking sonar for use 3,750 tons tull load to-air missile launchers with 48
with the Mk 46 homing torpedoes and Dimensions:lenqth 130.5 m (428, 1 ft); misstles (beingfitted), one 76-mm (3- control radar, one STIR fire-conucl
Mk 54 depth charges they carry, For beam 14,4 m (47,25ft); draught 6,0 m in) DP gmn, and four single Mk 32 324- radar, one 3RM20 navigation rada:.
flying in rough weather the ships are (19 7 ft) mm (12,75-rn) ASWtorpedo tubesfor one SATIR tactical data system, one
fitted with the Canadran Bear Trap Propulsion: CODOG arrangement Mk 46 torpedoes FL 18005 ESM intercept sysrem. ror
landing system, with two General Electric/FIAT Aircraft: two Westland Lynx HAS.Mk Mk36 Super RBOC chafflaunchers
The six ships are the Eremen (F207), LM2500 gas hnbines deliverrnq 51,600 88 ASW helicopters and one DSQS-2 IB(Z) bow sonar
Niedersachsen (F208), Rheinland- hp (38478 kW) and two MTU 2OV TB92 Electronics: one DA-08 arr- and Complement:204 normal and 225
Pfalz (F209), Emden (F210), Koln diesels delivering 10,400 hp (7755 kW) surface-search radar, one WM -25 fu e- maxlmuln

'D'Estienne d'Onres' (A-69) class

Desigmed for coastal ASW, the 'D'Es-
tienne d'Orves'class can also be used
for scouting mrssions, training and for
'showing the flag' overseas, for which
role a total of one officer and 17 men
from the naval infantry can be
accommodated. Since entering ser-
vrce in the mid-I970s the design has
been sold to the Argentine navy,
whose three ships the Drummond
(PI), Guerrico (P2) and Granville (P3)
saw service in the i9B2 Falklands war,
In this campaigm the Guemco sulfered
the ignominy of being damaged by
shore fire from small arms and anti-
tank rocket-launchers during the
Argentine seizure of South Georgia on
3 April; thrs required her to be dry-
docked for three days for repaus to the
hull and armament, Maitre Anquetil (F786), Commandant Specification Classed as an aviso, or coastal escon.
Rated as arzsos by the French, the de Pimodan (F787), SecondMaitre de 'D'Estienne d'Orves' class Commandant Blaison is one of tfi e
first of the class was laid down at Lo- Bift an (F788), Lieutenant de Vaisseau Displacement: I , I 00 tons standard and mostrecentof theA-69 series to
rient Naval Dockyard in 1972 and com- Le Henaff (F789), Lieutenant de Vais- 1,250 tons fuli load enter sewice. AII the class have
mrssioned rnto sewice in 1976. Under seau Lavalle (F790), Commandant Dimensions: lenqth 80.0 m (262.5 ft); Exocet capacity, though the weapons
present French navy plans the first I'Herminier (F791), Premier Maitre beam 10,3 m (33,8 ft); draught 5.3 m are not always shipped.
three vessels built will be paid off in l'Her (P792), Commandant Blakon (17 4 ft)
1996, the other 14 units being decom- (F793), Enseigne de Vaisseau Propulsion: tvuo SEMT-Plelstick l2PC2
missioned at regular intervals untrl Jacoubet (F794), Commandant diesels delivering I 1,000 hp (8203 kW) DP gnm, two single 20-mm AA gurs
2004, All 17 vessels were built at Lo- Ducuing (F795), Commandant Birot to two sha-ftsi in F79I two SEMT- one sextuple 375-mm (14,76-rn)
dent, but at present ship a number of (F796) and Commandant Bouan Pielstlck ]2PA6BTC diesels deliverrng Crer.isot Loire ASW rocket-launche:
armament fits, Six vessels serve in the (F797), 14,400 hp (10738 kw) and four sinqle ASW torpedo
Mediterranean, eight in the Atlantic Speed:24ks Iaunchers wrth four L3 or L5 torpei::s
and three with the Channel squadron, Armament: (F781, F783, F7B6 and Aircraft:none
The ciass consists of the D'Estienne FTBZ) two single MM.38 Exocet Electronics: one DRBV 5lAair- anl
d'Orves (FTBI), Amyot D'lnville surface-to-surface missile launchers surface-search radar, one DRBC 32a
(P7BZ), Drogou (F783), D6troyat wrthtwo missiles (to be replaced by 10-mm (3.9-in) qnm-control radar. c::e
(F784), Jean Moulin (F785), Quartier MM.40 Exocet missiles), or (F792- DRBN 32 navrgation radar, and one
F797) four single MM.40 Exocet DUBA 25 hull sonar; a1l vessels are l:
The' D' E stienne D' Orves' clas s are surface-to-surface missile launchers be fitted withone ARBR 16 paqqsl's
austere, simple vesse/t desigrned wrth four missiles, qne 100-mm (3.9-in) ESM system and tvvo Dagaie decol'
with economy of operation very ,lI
much in mind. Not suitable for deep Complement: 79, plus 17 naval irfa:::-;
waterASW, they areused aroundthe on overseas deployments
coast, with secondary colonial patrol

ffi tro" 12 'Modified Leander' class
A total of 26 general-purpose 'Leander'
class frigates were built for the Royal
Navy in three sub-ggoups: eight'Lean-
der Batch I', eight'Leander Batch 2'
and I0 broad-beam'Leander Batch 3'
ships. Since the first unit entered ser-
vrce in 1963 the class has underqone
numerous refits and modernizatiors so
that today tt can actually be divided
into six separate sub-classes. The five
Batch 3 ships HMS Androrneda (F57),
HMS llermione (FSB), HMS /upiter
(F60) HMS ScyJIa (F7I) and HMS
Charybdr's (F75) have undergone con-
version by the addition of a GWS25 Sea
WolJ automatic point-defence misslle
system plus numerous new sensor sys-
terns to give the most capable of the
sub-classes. The conversion of the re-
maining five Batch 3 units to this con-
fign:ration was shelved because of the
usual economic reasons. One of them,
the ex-8aecftanfe, has since been sold
The eight Batch I vessels were con- Lynch (07). In all cases the countries C om pleted in J 965, IIMS Arethusa
to New Zealandas HMNZS Wellhglon
(F69) to join an existrng 'broad-beam' verted to ASW ships by the fitting of a obtained'Leanders' with better arma- was converted to carry an lkara ASW
HMNZS Canterbury (F421) and the GWS40 Ikara ASW missile installation ment and sensor fits than Royal Navy rockeuauncher during a major refit
standard version HMNZS Waikato in place of the gun mount, To compen- vessels, apart from the latest Sea Wolf cornplefedin I 977. Eigtht of the
(F55). The remaining four units are sate for the loss in AA caPabilltY a conversions. The Dutch managed to original Batch 1'Leander' class
HMS Acftrlles (F12), HMS Diomede second GWS22 Sea Cat launcher was double the sudace-to-surface missile vessels }tave been allered in fhis
(F16), HMS Apollo (F70) and HMS added aft atop the hanqar. One vessel, amament to eight by using the Har- way,
Ariadne (F72), which still retain their the ex-Dido has been sold to New Zea- poon, and the indians managed to fit
114-mm (4.5-in) gun and Sea Cat SAM land as HMNZS SoutfiIand (F104), the last ftuo of theu vessels to carry
armament, The Batch 2 units were due whilst the other seven remain in RN Westland Sea King ASW helicopters. Electronics: one Type 967/978 air- and
to form a single Exocet-armed class, service; these are HMSAurora (F10), surface-searchradar, one Type 910
but this has now changed to three HMS Euryalus (F15) HMS Galatea Specification Sea Wolf fire-control radar, one TVpe
(FlB), HMS Arethusa (F38), HMS 'Leander'class (RN Sea Wolf 1006 navigationradar, one CAAIS
different types. The first comprises
HMS Cleopalra (F2B), HMS Sirius IVajad (F39), HMS Ajax (F114) and conversion) combat data system, one UAA-I ESM
(F40) HMS Phoebe (F42) and HMS HMS leander (F109). However, their Displacement: 2,500 tons standard and system, hvo Corvus chalf launchers,
Minewa (F45), and is known as the remaining service time would appear 2,962 tons firll load one Type 20 16 hull sonar, and one
'Batch 2 Towed Array Exocet Group' as short if reports concerning the phase- Dimensions: lenqth I 13,4 m (372,0 ft); TYpe 2008 underwater telephone
the ships have been fitted with the out of the Ikara system are tme, beam 13. I m (43,0 ft); draught 4.5 m Complement:260
TYpe 2031(I) general-purpose suweill- In addition to the vessels for the (14 I ft)
ance and tactical towed-array sonar on Royal Nalry, a number of other nations Propulsion: geared steam twbines
the starboard side of the stern, Three have either purchased British-built deliverins 30,000 hp (22371 kW) to hvo
of the remaining Batch 2 vessels are 'lreanders' or constructed their own shafts Specification
HMS Danae (F47), HMS Argonaut under licence, These latter include the Speed: 27 kts 'VanSpeijk'class
(F56) and HMS PeneJope (F 127) which Australian HMAS Swan (D50) and Armament: foursrngle MM.3B Exocet Displacement: 2,255 tons standard and
now form the origtnal Exocet conver- HMAS ?orrens (D53), the Indian navY surface-to-surface missile launchers 2,835 tons fu]l1oad
sion qiroup with the twin Mk 6 ll4-mm Ndgrn (F33) Himgiri (F34), Udaygiri wrth four missiles, one sexh:ple Dimensions: Ienqth I13.4 m (372.0 ft);
(4,5-in) sun mount replaced by four (F35), Dunagnri (F36) ?aragn (F41) GWS25 Sea Wolf surface-to-air missile beam 12.5 m(4i.0 ft); draught4,2 m il
MM,38 Exocet launchers and a third and.Vindhygiri (F42), and the Dutch launcher wrth 30 missiles, two single (13 8 ft)
GWS22 Sea Cat SAM launcher. The VanSpeijk (FBO2), Van Gajen (FB0Q), 20-mm AA Cn:ns, and hrro triple 324- Propulsion: as 'l,eander' class
last Batch 2 ship, HMS,funo (F52), had Tjerk Hiddes (F804), Van IVes (F805), mm (12,75-in) STWSI ASW torpedo Speed:28.5 kts
her Exocet conversion halted and is Isaac.Sweers (F814) and Evertsen tubes wrth Mk 46 and Stingrray torpedoes Armament: tvuo quadruple Harpoon
now converting to sewe as the fleet's (F815), The former vessels are the Cht- Aircraft:one Westland Lynx HAS,Mk 2 surface-to-surface missile launchers
navigation training ship. Iean CondeJJ (06) and Almirante ASWhelicopter

HMS Andromeda'Leander' class frigate 38

Reservefeedtank Fl!
io gnqheioorconr'o,panet li.
cutawaydrawing keY 41 Diese,frl,ingTank
42 Doubebottom
I Flaostalf 13 Wnch 24 Sea Cat missile launcher
43 Engineroor -26
2 Variable depth sonar 14 Sonarand mortarcontro 25 Mainmast
3 Craneforsonar position 26 Tvoe965 lono-range air 44 Wheel house
4 Screwguard 15 Mortarammunition seirch radarand iFF 45 Stokers'mess
5 Twinbalancedrudder I 6 Fllohtdeck 27 Receiving wireless aerials 46 Wing tanks
6 Support l7.JLi;iorratinos hal 28 Aft radarplotting room 4'l tue,l
7 Twin screws 1B Juniorratin!s' messhall 29 Corvuschafflauncher ^25
8 Shaft 19 Decklandinglights 30 Airoperatlon control room
9 Stores 20 Hangar 31 Galley
10 Caostan 2'l Aviatiolslores 32 Launch
1 1 Tn;ee barel t\,4k 10 anli- 22 Westrano Lyl/ Mk I 33 Funnel caslng
submarine mortar helicopter 34 Funnel
l2 ASMlocalcommandpost 23 SeaCatdirector 35 Centralcontrolstation
36 Boilerroom
37 Boilers

't3 10

ffi [uo" 2l 'Amazon' class
The Type 2I or'Amazon'class gener- HMS Arnbuscade (FI72) assisted in Specification
Modern Western Frigates
four single 20-mm AA guns, and hvo
al-purpose frrgate was a private ship- supporting operations and the occa- 'Amazon'class triple 324-mm (12.75-in) STWSI ASW
builder's design to replace the obso- sional shore bombardment. Only the Displacement: 2,750 tons standard and torpedo tubes wrth Mk 46 and Stingray
lete Tlpe 41 or'Leopard'and TYpe 61 lead ship, HMS Arnazon (F169), mis- 3,250 tons tu]Iload torpedoes
or 'Salisbury' class frigates, Because of sed the war as she was in the Far East, Dimensions: length I 17,0 m (384,0 ft); Aircraft:one Westland Lynx HAS,Mk2
numerous bureaucratic problems, pri- On 2I May 1982 the lrdenf was so beam 12,7 m (4 1,7 ft); draught 5.9 m ASWhelicopter
vate and official ship designers were badly damaged in bomb attacks that (]e 5 ft) Electronics: one Tlpe 978 navigation
not brought together on the project, she sank, whrlst two days later the Propulsion: COGOG arrangement radar, one Type 992Q air- and surface-
resulting in a class whlch handles well Antelope caught fire and exploded with two Rolls-Royce Olympus TM3B search radar, two RTN l0X fire-control
and is well hked by crews, but lacks when an unexploded bomb that was gas tulbines delivering 50,000 hp radars, one CAAIS combat data
sufficient 'grrowth' potentral to take the being defrrsed detonated aboard her, (37285 kW) and two Rolls-Royce Tyne system, one UAA- I ESM system (only
new generation of sensor and weapon After the war the remaining ciass RM A gas twbines delivering 8, 500 hp
1 in some), tvuo Corvus chafflaunchers,
flts. Thus the vessels will not receive members were found to have suffered (6338 kW) to two shafts one Type 162Mhullsonar, andone
new equipment as such during their severe hull crackrng; indeed one unit, Speed: 32 kts Type lB4Mhullsonar
refit cycles, Durlng the 1982 Falklands Arrow, had to lrnp precariously home Annament: four single MM, 38 Exocet Complement: 177 normaland 192
war HMS Avenger (F185), HMS Ar- from the Falklands to enter emergen- surface-to-surface mrssile launchers maxlmurn
dent (FIB4), HMS AnleJope (F170), cy refit. Al1 have now been strenq- with four mjssiles (not in F 169 and
HMS Arron (F173), and HMS AlacriV thened with steel inserts welded to the Fl72), one quadruple GWS24 Sea Cat
(F174) served in the main combat hull structure, but the future ofthe class surface-to-air missile launcher with 20
zone, whilst HMS Acfive (Fi7I) and remains uncertain at present, misstles, one 1 14-mm (4,S-in) DP gmn,

Below: Atter refitting, HMS

Andromedaand the other four Batch
3 'Leanders' are the most powertul ot
the'Leander' variants. The planned
conversion ofthe other five Batch 3s
has fallen victim to cuts in the

with eight missiles, two quadruple Sea radar, one SEWACO II data
Cat surface-to-air missile launchers information system, one passive ESM
with 32 missiles, one 76-mm (3-in) DP system, two Corvus chafflaunchers,
gnrn, and two triple 324-mm ( 12,75-in) one CWEO I0 hull sonar, and one SQR-
Mk32 ASWtorpedo tubeswith Mk 46 18A towed-array sonar
torpedoes Complement: lB0
Aircraft: one Westland SH-148/C Lynx
Electronics: one IrW-03 au-search
radar, one DA-05/2 target-indicator
radar, one Decca TM1229C navigation From the |Tth'Leander' the
radar, hvo WM-44 Sea Cat fire-control design was amended by increasing
radars, one WM-45 gnrnflre-control the beam. H MS Andromeda was ffi e
54 first of five broad-beamed 'Leanders'
to be fitted with Sea l/l/ol[ and Exocet
mjssrJes, re-cornmissioning in I 980.

48 Frldgeand provlslon room 62 Chartroom 76 Sonar

49 Deepfreeze 63 Navigation lights /'7 A2deck
50 Airconditioning plant 64 L fe rafts 78 01 deck
51 Foremast 65 Tutret 79 No.1 deck
52 Type 978 navigation radar 66 Twin 4.5-in Mk 6 guns 80 No.2deck
53 W nd direction lndicator 67 Turntable 81 No.3deck
54 Type927 rcdar 68 Turntableengine 82 No.4deck
55 Wlnd speed lndicator 69 Shellhandlingroom 83 No. Sdeck
56 UHF aerials 70 Magazine 84 Waterline
57 HF/DFaerials 71 Loading rack 85 Stabilizer
58 HF whip aerial 72 Blastscreen 86 VHFaerlal
59 MRSfire control radar 73 Breakwater 87 Ammunition hoist
60 Enclosed bridge 74 Anchorcable
61 Operationsroom 75 Anchor

Tgpe2linAction landings and to provide the vital naval gunfire
The first privately designed warships to sewe the Royal Navy in modern times, the support to the 2nd Parachute battalion's epic
'Amazoi' class sanr consi derable action during the 1982 South Atlantic campaign, battle at Goose Green. The 4iacity in Ihe
meantrme was employed 1r, operattons to pre-
with allbutone of theclass participating.Although twowerelost, the shipsfared pare for the main 21 May assault at San Carlos,
wellin theacid testof combat, testimony toboth thesoundness of their designand She landed the Special Boat Squadron recon-
the ability of their crews. naissance team responsible for looking at
potential ianding beaches and on the night of
Srnce the first Type 2l frigate, HMS Amazon, Sea Harrier air stnkes of the morning, Durtng 10 May salled all the way through Falkland
commissioned in 1974 the class has proved the wrthdrawal Ihe Arrow, which had just be- Sound between the two main islands on a mis-
very popular with its crews, The tasks with come the flrst ship to fire at the islands, also sion desrgned both to harass the enemy and to
which they have been involved have included became the first Royal Navy vessel to suffer locate shore defences or mlnefieids that might
the peacetime misstons of training, 'showing damage in the conflict when the group was endanger the operation, During the sweep she
the flag' abroad, shadowing Soviet warships attacked by a number of IAI Daggers using discovered an unidentified ship whlch failed to
and undertakinq security patrols ln such places bombs and cannon firet a number of 30-mm answer challenges. Thrs vessel was then en-
as the Persian Gulf to protect British shipping rounds hit her superstructure, injurtng one gaged with th e Al acrity' s single I 1 4-mm (4, 5 - in)
from'accidental'attack by Iran and Iraq during young rating. Thlngs then grew quiet until 4 gun on rapid fire, The scoring of several hits
the current Gulf War. However, the ciass's flrst May when the destroyer HMS was hit resulted in the ship exploding in a sheet oi
claim to fame actually occurred in I977 when by an air-launched AM,39 Exocet missile, In a flame and rapidly sinking. Subsequently it was
lhe Amazon on a deployment to the Far East brilhant dlsplay of seamanship the captain of found that she had been the Argenttne naval
suffered bad internal flre whlch, coupled with
a the Arrow, Commander P,J, Bootherstone, transport 1.sias de los Eslados of 3 840 tons car-
the eariier collision of the US missile cruiser brought hrs vessel alongslde the burnlng des- rying a cargo of avration fuel and other supplies
USS Eelknap with the carrier USS/onn F, Ken- troyer to rnitially help fight the fires raging for the garrison, It was also,AJacrity's unfortun-
nedyinthe Medrterranean in I975, hlghiighted uncontroilably below decks and then, when it ate duty to be one of the ships escorting the
the risk of buildtng modern warships with alu- had been realized that all was lost, to take olf AUantic Conveyor on 25 May when she was hi:
minium superstructures to save top-weight, But the survivors. During the rescue operatlon that by two air-launched AM,39 Exocets after the
it was not until the 1982 Falklands war that the accounted for 236 members of a total ship's Ambuscadehad detected the incoming raid ot:
Type 2ls finally managed to prove their worth. company of around 300 HMS Yarmouth fied her Type 992Q radar, Llke Arrow prevtously
HMS l,ntelope, HMS lJacnty andHMS Arrow her Limbo ASW mortar at a suspected sub- lhe AJacnty moved alongside to flght the fires
sailed in the early part of April as part of the marine contact and reported seeing a torpedo and then rescue survivors as the crew aban-
Task Force's escort and to convoy high-value track near to the stationary vessels, Thts attack doned ship.
surface shrps such as the troopshtp Canberra. has not been specifically claimed by the
Argentines, who will only admit that thelr sub-
Once the Total Exclusion Zone had been en-
tered and the Falkland Islands closed a surface marine San Luis made three torpedo attacks The third ship of the original three Type 2ls
bombardment group, compristng the des- against Task Force ships during the war, two that went to the Falklands was the Anlelope
troyer HMS G/amorganwtthlheArrow and the against surface ships and one against a possl- and she was not so lucky. Escorting the amphi-
AJacity, was ordered to bombard Argentine ble submarine, bious force into San Carlos Water on D-Day she
positions around Port Stanley on the afternoon The Arrow then went on eventually to join survived the numerous air attacks of that dal;
of I May, followrng the Avro Vulcan and BAe the San Carlos gun llne after the lnitial British only to be singled out by a series of McDonne.,-
Douglas A-4 Skyhawk strikes on 23 May wher-
she was positioned in an air-defence slot at the
entrance to San Carlos Water, The last twc
attacks resulted rn two bomb hits by single
454-kq (l 000-1b) bombs, the first aft above her
engine room and the second forward ln the
vicinrty of the petty officers' mess, killing a
young steward and injuring two other ratings
Lucklly the bombs did not explode and the
l-nlelope was able to move away up San Carlos
Water to a position close to the damaged 'lrean-
de/ class frigate HMS Argonaut, herself the
victim of a bomb attack. Here two bomb ds-
posal men were flown aboard and the crew
brought on deck and moved aft as the disposal
men started work on ihe first weapon, which
had come to rest in the vrcinrty of the engine
room, During the defusing process the bomb
exploded, killing one officer lnstantiy, injuring
the other and blowing a huge hole ln the shtp's
side from the waterline to the funnel. The ex-
plosion also caused a fire which rapidly spread
within the depths of the shlp, After fighting the
blaze for approximately one hour Commander
Nlck Tobin, the captain, ordered the ship to be
abandoned as the fire was raging out of control,
Just after the evacuation had been completed
to the various craft around Aa telope a series of
explosions occurred as the flames reached the
ordnance magazines, Thrs caused more fires
which gutted the shlp, and on the following day
she broke in two to form a last defiant V shape

Modern warships have ditfered greatly from their

predecessors sin ce the wide-scale introduction oI
eJeclronjcsensors. Ships are no longer controlled
Irom the bridge in battle, but from a combat
control centre in the bowels of the vesse/.

Modern Western Frigates


Above: The tragic remains ofHM,SArtelope fie jn

San Carlos Water. Hit twice by conventional
bombs, she limped to shelterwhile etforts were
made to detuse the unexploded weapons. These
attempts werc unsuccessfuland the bombs
exploded, causing fires which eventually reached
the ship's magazine.

before the pieces finally sllpped beneath the

T\vo days before lhe Antdope was hrt, the
Ardentbecame the second British naval vessel
to be sunk by Argentine action. On 2l May she
took up an air-defence station after bombard-
ing the area of Goose Green, Attacked by Sky-
hawks late in the afternoon, she was hit near the
stern by 227-kq (500-1b) bombs: these disabled
the Sea Cat SAM system and caused a fire
which had just been contained by the damage
control teams when more Skyhawks attacked,
These hit her wrth two more bombs that ex-
ploded on the side aft, killing some 22 men and
wounding more than 30 others, They also
caused a fire which rapldly spread to the whole
of the ship's after end, The damage sustained in
the attacks was found to be too much for the
repair parties and the order to anchor and
abandon shrp was given by the captarn, Com-
mander Alan West, Most of thedrdenf's survi-
vors were taken off the forecastle by the )'ar-
mouth, the rest being helicopter-winched from
the sea rn their 'once-onIy' survival suits, The

IIMS Antelope (F 170) is seen in happier days. The

TTpe 21 frigates aresp,lendidsea boats, handling
extremelywell. Unfortunately, they lack the
capacity to handle the mostup-to-dateweapon
systems, andlr ave little growth potential.
Ttlpe 21 in Action

Seen during the first bombardment of the runway

at Portstanley, theType 2 I made use of the fine
sea-keeping qualities inherent in the design to
provide a stable firing platform. Later events were
tragically to reveal less fighting capacity,
especially against large-scale air attack'
Modern Western Frigates

I C omplete d in M ay I 9 7 4, H MS Amaz.on was the only fipe 2 I not to

see action in the South Atlantic campaign. A bad fire aboard her in
I 977 brought to light the dangers inherent in all alunzinium
supersfructures, but it was not until after the Falklands conflict that
the Royal Navy decided to revert to steel. After HMS Amazonand
Antelope, subsequent Type 2 I s were constructed with four MM.38
Exocet launchers which give them a powertd punch, but thek
inability to take newer systems remains a major handicap.



Tflpe 2l in Action
derelict hulk, heehng slightly to starboard with
the hangar and stern totally wrecked and
ablaze, sank soon after this,
Of the other class members involved in the
war, HMS Avenger and HMS Actve were used
in the naval gunfire support role during the final
batties around Port Stanley. The Arenger was
also involved in the 30 May AM.39 Exocet
attack on the carrier force, During the attack
she claimed one Skyhawk downed by fire from
her ll4-mm (4 S-in) gun and an Exocet missile
destroyed by another shot from the weapon.
However, the Skyhawk was credited to a Sea
Dart shot from HMS Exeter together with a
second aircraft, whilst of the fate of the missile
the only thlng known for certain is that it did not
hit a task force ship. The only vessel of the class
not to serve in the Falklands was lhe Amazon,
whlch was on deployment in the Far East,
Although sufferlng two losses and the discov-
ery of hull fracturing as a result of iocal sea
condltlons, the TVpe 21s proved themselves
excellent general-purpose'frigates despite
being somewhat underarmed, and they have
all undergone a strengthening programme
since returning home. Their future since the
war has been slightly cloudy, however, as
rumours of premature retirement have
abounded; lf these are true, then the Royal
Navy will have lost yet more badly needed
frigates, not this time to enemy action.
Above: Seen here leading the ill-fated HMS Below: HMS Arrow saw considerable action in the
Antelopg IIMS Amazon sfeams grrace[ully through South Atlantic, bombarding enemy positions near
a calm sea. TYpe 2 I s carry tour MM.38 Exocet Port Stanley, renderingassr'slan ce to the stricken
missile launchers and four missiles, plus a HMS Sheffield a nd firing in support of 2 Para at
quadruple Sea Cat SAM launcher. GooseGreen.


w 3
-. €

"*#- ;,6;;
, 5


',' .i
>K [*" Zl'Broadsword

Orignnally to have been a class of 26 to sion had to be authodzed, The six being the first vessei to fire the Sea Batch 3 variants of the'Broadsrcrd'
follow the 'Leanders' the Type 22 or Batch 2s subsequentiy ordered to rec- Wolf SAM rn anger, class will be highly capable ships,
'Broadsword' class design was con- tify the problem were HMS Boxer although the frigate description may
ceived as an ASW ship for use in the (F92), HMS Eeaver (F93), HMS Brave Specification seem odd fot a vessel nearing 5000
Greenland-Iceland-UK gap against (F94), HMS London (F95) HMS 'Broadsword Batch I' class tonnes and with significant air,
modern high-performance nuclear Sheffield (F96) and HMS Coventry Displacement: 3,500 tons standard and surf ace and anti- submarine
submarines, However, as has hap- (F97), and these will also differ 4,400 tons full load capabilities.
pened to most modern British naval amongst themselves as from the Brave Dimensions:length 131.1 m (430.0 ft);
programmes, the 'chop'fell during de- onwards the propulsion plant will be beam l4,B m(48,5 ft); draught6, I m Electronics: one Tlpe 967968 ar- and
fence cuts and the procurement sche- tvvo Rolls-Royce Spey SM1A and tvvo (]s I f0 surface-search radar, loo Tlpe 9 I 0
dule has been changed somewhat, Rolls-Royce Tyne RM1A gas turbrnes Propulsion: COGOG arrangement Sea Wolffire-control radars, one Tlpe
The original four'Broadsword Batch l' in a COGAG arangement, The Brave with two Rolls-Royce Olympus TM3B. 1006 navigationradar, one CAAIS
vessels ordered were HMS Broad- wil] also be the first Type 22 unit to gas turbines delivering 50,000 hp combat data system, one UAA-I ESM
sword (FBB), HMS Bafileaxe (F89), have an enlarged flight deck to take a (37285 kW) andtwo Rolls-Royce Tyne system, two Coffus chalf launchers.
HMS Bn?Iant (F90) and HMS Erazen Sea King or EH101 ASW helicopter. RMIA gas turbines delivering 8,500 hp two Mk36 Super RBOCchaff
(F9i), Although rated as frigates, these Followrng the 1982 Falklands war a (6338 kW) to two shafts launchers, one T\7pe 20 I 6 hull sonar.
are in fact larger than the contempor- tsroadsword Batch 3' variant has been Speed: 29 kts and one Tlpe 2008 underwater
ary Type 42 destroyers, and were de- ordered: the fow umts will be HMS Amament: four single MM,3B Exocet telephone
signated frigates for purely political Cornwall and three as-yet unnamed sMace-to-surface mrssrle ]aunchers Complement:223 normal and 248
reasons. The hull, with gtreater vessels, these havinq the same basrc wtth four missiles, two sextuple GWS25 maxlmum
fteeboard than that of the destroyers 1si hull as the Batch 2s but with eight Har- Sea Wolf surlace{o-air missile
an rmproved TYpe 12 desigm for use in poon SSMs, a single 114-mm (4,5-in) launchers with 60 missiles, tlvo single A high-speed turn is made by HMS
rough weather without a significant re- DP gmn ald two CIWS. All three batch- 40-mm AA gus, two single 20-mm AA Broadsword (F8 I ), firs t ot the Typ 22
duction in speed, es wrli eventually have the new Type giurs, and (F90 and F9l) hvo triple 324- cjass. fiese vessels, with their twin
Unfortunately, because of design 2050 fleet sonar to replace the Tlpe mm (i2.75-in) STWSI ASW torpedo Lynx helicopters, were designd to
shortcomings they cannot be fitted 2016. tubes with Mk 46 and Stingray c oun te r m od e r n high- pertor m ane
with the deflnitive Type 2031(Z) During the Falklands war the BrrJ- torpedoes nuclear submarines, and to do so in
towed-array sonar at the stern, so a liaat and Broadsword distinguished Aircraft: one ortwo Westland Lynx lhefiarsi seasn orth andwestof the
lengthened'Broadsword Batch 2' ver- themselves in combat, the former HAS, Mk 2/3 AsWantr-ship helicopters Britishlsles.

i1- i


1! 'Lupo- ciass
Built and designed by CN Riunitinaval
shipbuilders, the fow vessels of the
'Lupo' class in the ltalian navy are the
.Lupo (F564), Sagzftario (F565), Perseo
(F566) and Orsa (F567) These were
designed primarily for the convoY
escort role, with a capability for anti-
surface warfare using SSMs if re-
quired. The hull is based on 14 water-
tight compartments and has fixed-fin
stabilizers. To reduce the ship's com-
plement the machinery plant has been
highly automated and divided into four
separate compartments housing the
auxiliaries, gas turbine modules, re-
duction gearbox and the diesel alter-
nator sets. A telescopic hangar has
also been fitted to accommodate a
light ASW helicopter that can also dou-
ble in the missile-armed surface strike
The 'Lupos' have Proved very PoPu-
Iar in Italian navy service, and the type
has been exported to Venezuela, Peru
and Iraq in a modified form that has a
fixed-hangar structure and no reloads
for the SAM iauncher. The six Vene-
zuelan ships are the Mariscal Sucre
(FZI), Almirante Brion (F22), General
Urdaneta (F23), General Soublette
(F24), GeneralSajom (F25) andAlmir-
ante los6 de Garcia (F26), The four
Peruiian ships are the Meliton Carvai'
a, (FSl), Manuel Villavicienco (F52), Mk I missile that has a pop-up terminal Speed:35 kts Perseo, the third'Lupo' class frigate
Montero (F53) and an as yet unnamed attack manoeuwe, Armament: eight single Otomat Mk 2 to enter sewice with the ltalian navy,
unit. The four lraqi units are the Hittrn, surface-to-surface missile iaunchers is seen with her fomtard OTO-MeIara
Specification with eight missiles, one octuple NATO 7 6-mm gan at high elevation. A total
Thi Qar, Al Yarmook and Al QadisYaa,
Lupo' class (Italian navY) Sea Sparrow surface-to-air missile of 1 t have been or are being built for
which are in various stages of con-
Displacement: 2,208 tons standard and Iauncher with 24 Aspide missiles, one the ltakan, Peruvian, Venezuelan and
struction with the first to be delivered
next year. 2,525 tons fl:ll load 127-mm (S-in) DP qun, two tlvin 40-mm Iraqinavies.
The main anti-ship weapon carried Dimensions: length I I3.2 m (371.3 ft); Dardo CIWS, and tvuo triple Mk 32 324-
beam 11.3 m(37.1 ft); draught3'7 m mm (12.75-in) ASWtorpedo tubeswith RTN10X flre-control radar, tvuo
on the ltalian ships is the Otomat Mk 2
(12, I ft) Mk46torpedoes RTN2OX Dardo fire-control radars, one
Teseo missile, which has an Italian
Propulsion OODOG arrangement Aircraft: one Agir:sta-Bell AB. 2 I 2ASW SPN703 navigation radar, one IPN 10
SMA active radar-hominq seeker and
with two General Electncy'FlAT helicopter command and control system, actle
a sea-skimming fhght profiie. To utilize
the missile's over-the-horizon capabili- 1,M2500 sas turbrnes delivering 5l'600 Electronics: one RANI0S atr- and andpassive ESMsysterns, two SCLAR
hp (38478 kW) and two GMT A230 surface-search radar, one SPQ2F chafflaunchers, and one DE I 1608 hull
ties fully, the embarked helicopter is
diesels delivennq 7,900 hp (5891 kW) swface-search radar, one RANI I/LX sonar
used for mid-course gnidance. Export
ships carry the less capable Otomat to two shafts air- and surface-search radar, one Complement:186


'Maestrale' class
The 'Maestrale' class ts essentially a
stretched version ofthe 'Lupo' desigm
with less weapons and a greater
emphasis on ASW, The increase tn
length and beam over the earlier
'Lupos was to provide for a fixed han-
gar installation and a variable-depth
sonar (VDS) housing at the stern, The
improvements have resulted in better
seaworthiness and habitability, plus
the room required to carry and oper-
ate a second light helicopter. Howev-
er, to compensate for this the class car-
ries four less SSMs, and because of the
extra tonnage has suffered a speed re-
duction of around 3 kts. The Raytheon
VDS operates on the same frequencies
as the hull sonar set and gives the ves-
sels a valuable below-the-thermal-
layer capability for use in the very dif-
flcult ASW conditions met in the
Mediterranean. To enhance the ships'
ASW operations further, the Agrusta-
Bell AB,2t2 helicopters carried are
fitted with Bendix ASQ-l3B active
dunkinq sonars, The armament they
carry is either the American Mk 46 Comparabte to the Dutch 'Kortenaer'
homing torpedo or Mk 54 dePth The Ai84 can be used against surface to the Marte ASM system.
charge. The ship iues the A244/Stor' and sub-surface targets. A towed- The eight ships are lhe Maestrale or German'Bremen' classes, the
oedo as well. It is aiso fitted wrth two aray system that can use the existing (F570), Grecale (F571), Libeccio 'Maestale' class is somewhat faster,
VDS irstallation is currently under de- (F572), Scirocco (F573) Afiseo (F574) L arqelv a s tr e tched v er sion of the
hxed tr.rbes for the 36-kt 25-lan (15.5- priceiting' t'upo' cjass, Maestrde
mile) rangte Whitehead Motofides velopment. The helicopters can also Euro (F575), Espero (F576) andZeffiro
carry AS. t2 wue-gnrided anti-ship mts- (F575), and all are now tn servtce with and ier seven sjsfersllips possess
AI84 533-mm (21-in) wire-gnrided tor- enh anc e d ASW.abifi tt'es.
pedo beneath the helicopter pad aft. siles and will eventually be converted the Italian navy,

Maestrale' class (continued) Modern $Iestern Frigates
Fasfer lfi an rnost Western trigates
( although slower than the' Lupo'
cJass), Maestral e is comprehensively
technolog1, including both a hull
sonar and towed variable- depth

Specification hp (38478 kW) and two GMT 8230 CIWS, two single 533-mm (21-in) Albatros acqursition radar, tvuo
Maestrale'class diesels delivering 10, 146 hp (7566 kW) torpedo tubes for A184 torpedoes, and RTN2OX Dardo fire-control radars. cr--e
Displacement: 3, 040 tons standard and to two shafts hvo triple 324-mm (12.75-in) ILAS-3 RTN 10X fire-control radar, one
3,200 tons fuI] load Speed: 32 kts ASW torpedo tubes for Mk 46 and SPN703 navigation radar, one IPNI0
Dimensions: iength 122,7 m (402.6 ft); Armament:foursingle Otomat Mk 2 A244lStorpedoes command and control system, acnve
beam 12.9 m(42,3 ft); draughtS,4 m surfaceto-surface missile launchers Aircraft: two Agusta-Bell AB.2 12 ASW and pasSive ESM systems, hvo SCLA!.
(2?.6 ft) with four missiles, one octuple helicopters D chafflaunchers, one DE I 1608 hu-]I
Propulsion: CODOG arrangement Albatros surface-to-air missile system Electronics: one RAN l0S air- and sonar, and one DE I 164 vanable-deo=
with two General Electric/FIAT wrth 24 Aspide missiles, one }27-mm surface-search radar, one SPQ2F SONAI
LM2500 qas turbines deliverinq 51,600 (S-in) DP enrn, hvo ftvin 40-mm Dardo surface-search radar, one RTN3OX Complement:213

i8arcia' and'Brooke' classes

Designed in the late 1950s as replace-
ments for World War II destroyers, the
Dimensions:length 126,3 m (414.5 ft);
beam 13.5 m(44,2ft); draught4.4m
(14,5 ft)
'Garcia' class ASW escort and'Brooke'
class SAM ship were ordered by the Propulsion; geared steam turbines
US Nalry to the extent of 10 and six units delivering 35,000 hp (26100 kW) to two
respectively, Further production of the shaJts
latter ended durrnq Fiscal Year 1963 Speed: 27.5 kts
because of their high cost and limited Amament: two single I 27-mm (S-in)
capability. Although they are relative- DP guns, one octuple ASROC anti-
ly modern, there are no plans to mod- submarine missile launcher with eight
ernize the ASW ships USS Garcja (first five ships) or 16 (other ships)
(FF1040), USS Eradley (FF1041), USS missiles, and two tdple 324-mm(12.75-
Edward McDonnell (FF1043), USS in) Mk32 ASWtorpedo tubeswrth Mk
Brumby (FF1044) USS Davjdson 46 torpedoes
(FFi045), USS Tose (FF1047), USS Aircraft: one Kaman SH-2F Seasprite
Samp/e (FF104B) USS Koelsc& LAMPS I helicopter (not in FFl040 and Propulsion: as 'Garcia' class USS Edward McDonnell (FFJ 043.) of
(FFl049), USS Albert Davrd (FFi050) FF1043) Speed: 27.2 kts the 'Garcia' class plunges through a
and USS O'Callahan (FF1051) with Electronics: one SPS-40 air-search Armament:one sinqle-rail Mk 22 heauy sea. Unlike later US frigate
new qllns, Harpoon SSM and modern radar, one SPS- 10 surface-search Standard surface{o-air missile c/asse5 the'G areias' are ASW-
ESM equipment, Over the years the radar, one SPG-35 flre-control radar, launcher with 16 SM- iMR missiles, one dedicated, and have little or no
class has been used to test a number of one LN66 navigation radar, one WLR- I 127-mm (S-in) DP gnrn, one octuple m od e r n a n ti - ai r cr af t c ap abi li ty.
prototype systems including the SQR- ECMsystem, one WLR-3 ECMsystem, ASROC antr-submarine missile
l5 linear towed-array sonar which is one ULQ-6 ECM system, one SRN- 15 launcher with eight (f,rst three shlps)
now fitted to FFl040 and FFl043 in TACAN (not in FF1040 and FF 1043), or 16 (other ships) missiles, and two
place of a LAMPS I ASW helicopter, one SQS-26 bowsonar, and (FF1040 triple 324-mm (12,75-in) Mk32 ASW
An automated ASW tactical data sys- ard FF1043 only) one BQR-15 towed torpedo tubes with Mk 46 torpedoes
tem (TDS) is carried by FFI047 and sonar Aircraft: one Kaman SH-2F Seasprite
FF1049, whilst from FFl047 onwards Complement: 247 except FF 1040, LAMPS I helicopter
al ASROC reload magazine has been FFi041, FF1043 and FF1044 239 Electronics: one SPS-S2B 3D radar, one USS Brooke (FFG I ) is natne ship of a
fitted within the superstructure. SPS- IOF surface-search radar, one six-yesse/ c,lass built to a modified
The SAM ships USS Brooke (FFGI), Specification LN66 navigation radar, one SPG-S lC 'Garcia' design. The difterence Ees in
USS Ramsey (FFG2), USS Schofield 'Brooke'class Standard fire-control radar, one SPG- the fi tting of a M k 2 2 single- r ail
(FFG3), USS falbof (FFG4), USS Displacement: 2,643 tons standard and 35 qun fire-control radar, one SRN- l5 mrssrJe JauncJier in place of the alt
RichardL. Page (FFG5) andUSS/ufius 3,426 tons tull load TACAN, one SLQ-32(V)2 ESM system, i-in ( 127-mm) gun. The standard SM-
F. Furer (FFG6) are ldentical to the Dimensions:length 126.3 m (414.5 ft); two Mk 36 Super RBOC chaff I MR missiles now carried give the
'Garcias' except that a single-ra1l Mk 22 beam 13.5 m(44,2 ft); draught4.6 m launchers,. and one SQS-26 bow sonar cJass considera ble anti-aircraft
launcher, originally for Tartar and now (15.0 ft) Complement:248 potential.
for Standard SM-1MR missiles, re-
places the aft 127-mm (5-in) qun mount,
From FFG4 onwards an ASROC reload
magazine was also incorporated into
the superstructure, The Talbof was
used as the test ship for the weapons
ald sensor fit for the 'Oliver Hazard
Perry' class, but has now been re-
twned to.normal appearance. The
cnly planned modernization of the
shrps is the fitting of the SLQ-32(V)2
ESM suite to replace older systems,

Displacement: 2,620 tons standard and
3 560 tons full load
ASW in the North Atlantic
In the middle of winter, somewhere to the east of Greenland, a lone ship batfles aircraft-carrier designed to fight in the gap,
throughtheweather.Inspiteof gale-drivensprayandsleet, andthe short dayin These 'lnvincible' class vessels act as leaders
these northern latitudes, work must go on. Somewhere in the relative calm beneath for the hunter-killer groups that will operate
behind and in front ofthe gap as direct screens
the waves a submarine is trying to pass undetected into the broad expanses of the
for NATO's strike carrier forces against subsur-
Atlantic, and itis the job of NATO ASW forces to detect and trail it,whateverthe face attack, Their primary weapon is the West-
weather. land Sea King HAS.Mk 5 helicopter equipped
with dipping sonar, sonobuoys and magnetic
The Greenland-Iceland-UK (GIUK) gap isvital- anomaly detectors (MAD). They will work in
ly important to the strategic defensive plans of conjunction with the Type 22s and ikara-
the NATO alliance, Through this aligmment of equipped 'Leanders' to hunt down and destroy
nahrral'choke polnts' the Sovietswould have to individual Soviet submarines, If the conflict
pass Iarge numbers of nuclear- and conven- goes nuclear, then the B57 nuclear depth bomb
ilonally-powered cruise missile and attack will be used to ensure a 100 per cent kill prob-
submarines to reinforce the units already in the ability; otherwise the primary weapon will be
North Atlantic for the attempted interdiction of either the Mk 46 or Stincrray homing torpedo.
NATO's sea lines of communication (SLOCs). For submarines damaged and thus near the
Although the Unlted States has already set up a surface or for submarines running shallow,
major programme of prepositioning land and Limbo depth bombs and air-dropped HE
air force equipment, stores, fuel and munitions depth charges will be used.
in Europe, to be matched up with troops and Nuclearcapability
aircraft flown in during an emergtency (so re-
ducing the dependence on resupply by sea At present only the Dutch navy, Royal Navy
during the initial combat phase), the projected and US Naqr surface ships will be involved in
heavy expenditure of supplies and weapons operations around the qap, with overhead pat-
makes such resupply critical for the later rol aircraft cover provided by the US Navy and
stages of any attempt to stem a Warsaw Pact Dutch navy Lockheed P-3C Orions and Royal
offensive. Air Force BAe Nimrod MR.Mk 2s. These air-
Current US (and hence NATO) ASW craft will carry homing torpedoes as their ma-
strategy is to combine the point-defence of Apart from the US and British navies, only the jor weapons payload, but can aiso drop the B57
high-value surface targets and ship formations Netherlands maintains regruIar ASW task groups in nuclear depth bomb. The main detection sys-
the North Atlantic. The two'Tromp' class frigates tem used by the aircraft is the active and pas-
such as carrier battle groups, resupply con- act as flagships for the two A,SW squadrons
voys and underway replenishment groups with sive sonobuoy laid in search patterns over con-
assigmed to CinCEastLant in wartime. siderable areas, Final detection is by MAD, but
offensive searches by hunter-killer ASW
groups and maritime patrol aircraft, and also for night and bad-weather search for peri-
the creation of 'barrier' defences by all avail- scopes the aircraft carry low{ight television
able units (especiaily submarines) at natural role, Selective 'sanitization' operations by pat- and forward-looking infra-red devices.
'choke points'. The GIUK gap is the first such roi aircraft and ASW surface ships groups will When NATO submarines are used in 'bar-
natural obstacie that NATO can exploit to wear also be conducted in areas most likely to be ,rier' operations across the gap, these will be
down the Soviet submarine flcrce as it transits to frequented by Soviet submarines. predominantly nuclear-powered; however, in
and from its Kola peninsula bases to resupply It is the latter, coupled with the increasing the shallower areas Dutch and British conven-
with weapons, which even the nuclear sub- inability ol the medium-ranqe sonars and the tional boats will be used as they are better
marine has to do during war. To perform the poor capabllities of Royal Navy surface ships to listening platforms, Each craft will be allocated
initial detection in the gap, NATO relies on a detect modern nuclear submarines penetrat- a patrol zone from which other NATO sub-
series of fixed sonar arrays in the area; these ing the gap, that resulted in the building of the marines and surface ships will be banned to
form part of the US Sound Surveillance System T\pe 22 frigate with its Tlpe 2016 fleet sonar. prevent 'home goals' ftom being scored. The
(SOSUS) for the North Atlantic, However, as the Thls design also introduced the higher degree boats will use their passive long-range sonar
network is gradually destroyed during war (as of autonomy and seakeeping required by a detection systerns to search the surrounding
it surely will be), then the defendinq ASW surface vessel to stay on station during all the water masses for any tell-taie noise emissions
forceswiil switch to a mixture of mobiie SOSUS weather conditions encountered in the gap. from an enemy submarine, Once such an oppo-
towed arrays (known as SURTASS), the tactical The Tlpe 22 s fully automatic Sea Wolf SAM nent has been detected the NATO boat will
towed arrays of escorts and submarines, and systems also offer the possibility of defence close the potential target at high speed and
speciat arr-dropped area-surveiilance sono- against the deadty 'pop-up' attack from Soviet manoeuvre into a position from which the
buoys that have been designed for just such a submarine{aunched SS-N-7 and SS-N-9 anti- target's course and speed can be determined,
ship cruise misslles. The US'Spruance'class The target is then classified and if hostile will
ASW destroyer was also built with the Qnp in be engaged with wire-gn:ided homing torpe-
Emerging from the Baltic, a Soviet'Krivak' class mind and as the primary polnt-defence unit for does. If the trailing boat is a US submarine it
frigate is shadowed by HMS Ajax, a4 'lkara' class might opt to attack with a bailistic subsurface-
ASW missile-armed trigate of the Royal Navy. An
carrier battle groups that have to pass through
the region on the way to their strike positions in to-subsurface nuclear{ipped SUBROC ASW
interesting contrast can be seen between the
Soviet andBritish approaches toASW vessel the Norwegian and Barents Seas. Surprisingly missile, which is fired along the target's bear-
desr?n. it is the Royal Navy which has built the ASW ing to the target's predicted position, At this
point the weapon is released into the water and
sinks to a preprogrrammed depth where the
warhead detonates. The resultant S-kiloton
underwater nuclear blast crushes all sub-
merged objects within several kilometres of
the detonation point by the pressure wave it
In the future much greater engagement
ranges for both American and, it is hoped,
British nuclear attack submarines will be pro-
vided as the ASW Stand-Off Weapon eguipped
with nuclear or homing torpedo payloads is
introduced into service, thus opening up the
prospect of engaging submarines at ranqes of
more than I6i km (100 miies) without the target
being aware of it: an ideal situation for sub-
marines on 'barrier' patrols in the gap.
USS Oliver ltrazard Pe*y (FFGG7) undergoes hull
strcngth and integyity tests while under
construction. In these days offast submarines,
h oming torpedoes and nuclea r depth bombs,
vessels might face such trialswhile in cambat, and
mustrenain able to fight.


€ lilno*'class
The'Ihox' class is similar to the 'Gar-
cia' and 'Brooke' designs, but is slightly
larger because of the use of non-
pressrre flred boilers, and was de-
signed in the early l96Os, The flrst ves-
sels entered US Navy sewice in 1969,
the last units of the 46-strong class
being delivered in 1974, They are spe-
cialized ASW ships and have been
heavrly cntrcized because of their
single propeller and solitary ]27-mm
(S-in) gun armament,
A five-shrp class based on the de-
srgn but with a Mk 22 missile launcher
for13 Standard SM-]MR and three
Harpoon missiles was constructed in
Spain for the Spanish navy, Bullt with
Amerrcan aid, the Baleares (F7l),
Andalucia (F72), Cataluna (F73),
Asturias (F74) andErfrernadura (F75)
also carry two Mk 25 ASW torPedo
tubes as well as the two triple Mk 32
underwater radiated noise the Prairie/ Joseph Hewes (FFl07B), USS Eowen USS Pha:ris (FF 1094) is seen duilng
systems, for which a totalot22Mk44/46
and 19 Mk 37 ASW torPedoes are Masker bubble system has been used (FF1079) USS PauJ (FF1080), USS.A/- an exercise off the South Arnerican
on the huil and proPeller, The ASW USSE/merMontgomery
r,rzh (FF 108 1), coast. The 46 'Knox'cjass vessels ale
stored in each ships magazines,
From 1980 onwards the American TDS flrst evaluated in the 'Garcia' class (FF10B2) USS Cook (FF1083), USS dedicated to the A'SW role and have
'Knoxes' were taken in hand to receive is being installed as shtps enter refit. M{andless (FF1084) USS Donald 8. recently undergone major retits to
raised bulwarks and spray stakes for- By 19BO eight units will have been Beary (FFl0B5) USS Brewton rmprovesealceepingr.
ward to improve their seakeeprng in assrgned to the Naval Reserve Force (FF1086), USS &rk (FFI0BZ), USS Bar-
heavy weather. Like the 'Garcia'class, as replacements for old World War II bey (PF1088), USS /esse L. Brown Propulsion: geared steam turbines
numerous 'Knoxes' have been used destrbyers. The class comprises the (FF10Bg) USS Arhsworfl (FF1090) delivering 35,000 hp (26100 kW) to one
over the years to test individual pro- USS Knox (FFi052), USS Roark USS MrlJer (FFl091) USS ?Iomas C. shaft
totype weapon and sensor systems, A (FF1053), USS Gray (FF1054), USS Hart (FF1092), USS Capodanno Speed: 27 kts
Hepburn (FF1055), USS Connole (FFl093), USS Pfiarris (FF1094), USS Armament: one i27-mm (5-in) DP gun,
total of 32 (FFl052-i083) were eqrrp-
ped with an octuple Sea Sparrow laun- (FF1056) USS Ratftburne (FF1057) Truett (FF1095), USS Valdez (FFt096) one 20-mm Phalanx CIWS (being
Meyerkord (FF]OSB) USS ffiS' and USS Moinester (FF1097). fitted), one octuple Sea Sparrow
cher, but this will be rePlaced bY a USS
20-mm Phalanx CIWS of the tYPe due Sms (FF1059), USS trans (FF1060) sMace-to-air missile launcher with
to be fitted to aIl46 ships. The port pair USS Patferson (FFl06l), USS l,Vfirbple Specification eight missiles (being replaced), one
of the four twin cells of the ASROC (FF 1062), USS ft easoner (FF 1063), USS 'Knox'class octuple ASROC antt-submarine and
launcher have been retrofitted to fire Lockwood (FF1064), USS Sfein Displacement: 3,0I i tons standard and Harpoon surface-to-surface missile
Harpoon SSMs, whilst all vessels are (FFl065), USS Marvin Siiejds 3,877 tons (FFl052-FFI077) or 4,250 launcher with 12 ASROC and four
also to be fitted to carry the SQR-L8A (FF1066), USS Francjs Hammond tons (other ships) full load Harpoon m:ssiles, and two twin 324-
(FF1067) USS Treeland (FF106B), USS Dimensions: lenglh 133,5 m (438.0 ft); mm (12.75-in) Mk32 ASWtorpedo
TACTASS towed-array sonar, In 34
Bagley (FF1069), USS Downes beam I4,3 m(46,8ft); drausht4,6 m tubes with 22 Mk 46 torpedoes
ships lt will replace the SQS-3SA VDS
(FFl070) USS Eadser (FF1071), USS (1s 0 ft) Aircraft: one Kaman SH-2F Seasprite
system carried in a stern well, For heli-
lakely (FF 1072), USS Robert E Peary LAMPS t helicopter
copter operations an SRN-]5 TACAN B
(FF1073) USSHaroJdE tloif (FF1074)' Electronics: one SPS-40B air-search
is carried and the SLQ-32(V)1 ESM
radar, one SPS-lO surface-search
system is being upgrraded to the SLQ- USS lrippe (FFl075), USS Fanrung
(FFt076), USS Ouel/ef (FF1077), USS radar, one SPG-53 fire-control radar,
32(V)2 conflguration, To reduce one LN66 navigation radar, one ASW
was the first of its tactical data system, one SRN- 15
USS Knox (FFIO 52)
trom the Preceding TACAN, one SQS-26 bowsonar, and
class. Evolved
one SQS-35 variable-depth sonar (in 34
'Garcia' and'Brooke' classes, tft e
ships); ailare to have SQR-lBAtowed
Knox' c/ass vessels are to be fitted
withHarpoonSSMs and the 20'mm sonar
Phalanx close- in weaPon sYs tem

ffi '6nu", Hazard Perry' class

therr magazine spaces and Kevlar Eighteen of the US class have been Fahrion (FFG22), USS.Lewis 8. Puller
Destlned to be numerically the iargest
olastic armour over vttal electronics assigned to the Naval Force Resewe (FFG23), USS,lack Williams (FFC24),
warship class in the US NaW, the'Oliv-
ind communications facilities as training ships along with several USS CopeJaad (FFG25), USS Gallery
er Hazard Perry' class was designed (FFG26) USS Mailon .S. fisdale
for anti-air warfare wrth ASW and anti- A further four shiPs are HMASAde- 'Knox' class ASW frigates, Under cur-
Jaide (FOI), HMAS Canberra (F02)' rent planning the US NaW will not be (FFG27), USS Eoone (FFG2B), USS
swface warfare as its secondary roles.
Because of cost considerations the first HMAS Sydney (F03) and HMAS Dar- ordering any new frigate construction Stepien W. Groves (FFG29), USS
wjn (FO4) for Australia, which may also as it has a surplus of such hulls, The Rejd (FFG30), USS Star/< (FFG3I), USS
26 will not be refltted to carry two
LAMPS IIi ASW helicopters, but will construct up to another sx under Ii- class consists ofthe USS OfirerHazard John L. HaJJ (FFG32), USS,larref
cence, Spain rs also bullding under li- Perry (FFG?) USS Mclnerney (FFGB), (FFG33) USS Aubrey Fifcft (FFG34),
retain the present two LAMPS I Underwood (FFG36) USS Crorn-
machines, The LAMPS facilities will in- cence three vessels ofthe type for her USS Wadsworlft (FFG9), USS Duncan USS
clude the Recovery Assistance, Secur- navv: these are the JVavarra (F81)' (FFG]0) USS Cjark (FFG11), USS rnefin (FFG37), USS Curfs (FFG3B)
Muicia (FBZ) and leon (FB3) George Philb (FFG12), USS ,SamueJ USS DoyJe (FFC39), USS Halyburfon
ity and Traversing (RAST) sYstem
(FFG40), USS McCJus*y (FFG4 1) USS
which will allow the launch and recov- The magazine for the single-rarl Mk Eliot Morison (FFG13), USS,fofin IL
ery of the Slkorsky SH-60 Seahawk t3 SAM launcher can take onlY Stan- Sjdes (FFG14), USS Esfooh (FFG15) Klakring (FFG42) USS Tiacfi
dard and Harpoon missiles, so the USS Cfifton Sprague (FFGI6), USS (FFG43) USS De lTert (FFG45), USS
helicopters with the shiP rolling Renfz (FFG46), lVrbioJas (FFG47),
through 28" and pitching up to 5". All shrpboard ASW weaPons are Mk 46 John A. Moore (FFG19), USS .Antnm USS

have aluminium alloy armour over torbedoes and the LAMPS helicopters. (FFC20), USS FJalJey (FFC21), USS USS Tandergnft (FFG48) USS Roberf

14 1B
Modern W estern Frigat es
USS Oliver HazardP eTw GFG I ) is the
first of a class of over 50 general-
purpose ressels designed to escort
merchant convoys or anphibious
squadrons. ASlll is handled by the
two LAM PS helicopters embarked,
and fft e cJass ca n also fire H arpoon
and ^Sfandard mr'ssr?es.

G. Bradley (FFC49) USS faylor

1FFG52), USS llawes (FFG53) USS
Ford (FFG54), USS Elrod (FFG55), USS
Simpson (FFG56) USS rReuben,/ames
:FFG57), USS Samuej B. Roberts
:FFGSB), USS ftodnel M. Davis
IFFG60) and two unnamed (FFG59 and

0liver Hazard Perry' class
Displacement: 2,769 tons standardand
3 658tonsfullload
Dirnensions:length 135,6 m (445,0 ft) in
-AMPS I ships or 138, I m (453,0 ft) ln
-AMPS III ships
ardFFG4S-FFG61); beam 13.7 m
145,0 ft); draught 4.5 m (14.8 ft)
Propulsion: two General Electrrc
-M2500 gas turbines delivering 40,000
:p (29828 kW) to one shaft
Speed:29 kts
Armament: one sinqle-rail Mk 13
Standard,/Harpoon missile launcher
',nth 36 SM- lMR surface-to-arr and four
Harpoon surface-to-surface missrles, LAMPS i ortwo Sikorsky URN-25 TACAN, one SLQ-32(V)2 ESM USS Oliver Hazard Perry is seen
:ne 76-mm (3-in) DP qun, one 20-mm SH-60B Sea Hawk LAMPS III system, tlvo Mk 36 Super RBOC chaff together with USS Anfttn. (FFG20 )
Phalarx CIWS, and two triple 324-mm heLicopters launchers, one SQS-56 hullsonar, and and USS Jack Wrlliams (F F G 24 ). E ach
i12,7S-in) Mk 32 ASW torpedo tubes Elecfronics: one SPS-49 air-search (in FFG36-FFG43 and FFG45-FFG61 is armed with an OTO-Melara 76-mm
.'nth 24 Mk46 torpedoes radar, one SPS-55 surface-search only) one SQR- 19A towed sonar (3-in) quick-firing gun and a Phalanx
Aircraft: tlvo Kaman SH-2F Seaspnte radar, one STIR flre-control radar, one Complement: 215 20-mmCIWS.

'Tromp' class
Although designated by the Dutch as NBC citadel defence is built into the Specification octuple NATO Sea Sparrowsurface-
ligates, the 'Tromp' class vessels hull, 'Tromp'class to-arr missile launcher with 60 mrss'::s
7?ornp (F801) and De Ruyter (FBAZ) The primary role assigned to the Displacement: 3,665 tons standard and one twin 120-mm (4,72-in) Bofors DF
are, by virtue of their armament and ships is the provision of area SAM de- 4,308 tons full load gun, andtwo triple 324-mm (12.75-:-.
nze, more akin to gnrided-missile des- fence against aircraft and missiles to Dimensions: lenqth 138,4 m (454,0 ft) Mk32 ASWtorpedo tubeswrth lvk 4i
They are equipped with an the hunter-killer group or convoy it beam l4,B m(48,6 ft); draught4,6 m torpedoes
admiral's cabin and supporting com- may be escorting, They also have a (r5 r fD Aircraft: one Westland SH- 14B'/C -.,::-
:rand and control facillties to serve as secondary ASW and anti-surface ves- Propulsion: COGOG arrangement ASWhelicopter
-ie flagshrps of the two Dutch navy sel role. The main armament is a sing- with two Rolls-Royce Olympus TM3B Electronics: one SPS-0I/D radar. :,';:
ASW hunter-killer grroups assigned to le-rail Mk 13 Standard SM-]MR SAM gas turbines delivering 50,000 hp ZW-05 surface-search radars, one
EASTLANT control during wartime. launcher, backed up by an octuple (37285 kW) and trro Rolls-Royce Tyne WM-25 fire-control radar, two SPG
iitted with fin stabilizers, they are ex- NATO Sea Sparrow SAM launcher RMIC gas turbines delvering 8,200 hp 5lC Standard fire-control radars c:-=
:ellent seaboats and weapons plat- wrth a large reload magazine, The (6115 kW) to two shafts SEWACO I data information sys:e:.
:crms in most types of weather, The appearance ofthe vessels is characte- Speed: 28 ks one Sphinx ESM system, two Co.,-j-:
propulsion is of the COGOG type with
pairs of Rolls-Royce Olympus and
rized by the large plastic radome fitted Armament: two quadruple Harpoon chaff launchers, one \pe 162 hui
over the forward SPS-01 3D radar, A surface-to-surface missile launchers sonar, and one CWE6l0 hr:-11 sona:
Tyne qas turbines that have been new multi-beam target-acquisition with eight missiles, one srngrle-rail Mk Complement:306
dcwnrated to improve gas generator radar, SMART, rs under development l3 Standard surface-to-air missile
te and ease of maintenance, A full to replace the SPS-Ol, launcher with 40 SM- 1MR missiles, one
Replacing two crursersin senace
w ith the Royal N etherlands n avy,
IfiVlMS Tromp and De Ruyler are
among the largest andmostcapa.ble
of frigates atloat.Weapons fitted
include H arpoon, S tandar d and S ea
Sparrow missiles.

i il.l " .-, r"
)itffiL"er' and. 'lacob van Heemskerck' classes
The 'Kortenaer' or'Standard' class frt-
gate design was authorized in the late
I960s as the replacement for the 12
IflVLMS Banckert (F810) was the
fourth 'Kortenaer' class frigate to
ehter seruice with the Royal
ASW destroyers of the 'Holland' and Netherlands navy. The'Kortenaers'
'Friesland' classes, The propulsion have a well- balanced armament fit,
plant and machinery layout was taken primary ASW weapons being the two
ftom the 'Tromp' design, the Power of Westland Lynx helicopters carried.
the gias turblnes being kept normal to
give higher maximum and cruisinQt Jacob van Brakel (F825) and Pjefer
speeds in order to permit operattons Florisz (F826).
against nuclear submarines, A single
pair of fln stabrlizers is fltted, and as far Specification
as possible internal sYstems have 'Kortenaer'class
been automated to reQuce crew num- Displacement: 3,050 tons standard and
bers, Eigbt ships were ordered in 3,786 tons tu1Iload
1974, and a further four tn 1976. In 1982, Dimensions: length 130,5 m (428,I ft);
however, two newly comPleted units beam 14.6 m (47,9 ft); draught 4,3 m
were purchased by Greece as the Elfi (14. l ft)
(F450) and.Limnos (F451), These were Propulsion: COGOG arrangement
. replaced in the Dutch order bY two
-vessels witli two Rolls-Royce Olympus TM3B
to be constructed to an air- sas turbines deliverinq 5 1,600 hP
defence variant design known as the (38478 kW) and two Rolls-Royce Tyne
Jacob van Heemskerck' class. The two RMlC gas turbines delivering 9,800 hp
shlps are lhe Jacob van Heemskerck (7308 kW) to two shafts
(F812) and Witte de Wjfh (F813), and Speed:30 kts
were planned to alternate as the Armament: two quadruPle HarPoon
flagship of the Dutch navy's third ASW surface-to-surface missiie launchers II data information system, one Sphinx Armament: as 'Kortenaer' class without
hunter-killer group, assielned to with eight missiles, one octuple NATO (F807-FBl l) or Ramses (others) ESM 76-mm (3-1n) DP gnrn but with one
NATO's Channel Command in war- Sea Sparrow surface-to-air mrsstle system, tvvo Corvus chaff launchers, single-rail Mk 13 Standard surface-to-
trme. The helicopter facilities of the launcherwith 24 mlssiles, one 76-mm and one SQS-505 bow sonar air missile launcherwith 40 SM-IMR
'Kortenaers' has been replaced bY a (3-1n) DP gun, one 30-mm Goaikeeper Complement: 176 normal and 200 missiles
Mk 13 Standard SAMmissile launcher. CIWS, andhvo twin 324-mm (12.75-in) maxlmum Aircraft: none
The two vessels wtll enter service in Mk32 ASWtorpedo tubeswrth Mk46 Electronics: one SMART 3D radar, one
1985 and 1986 respectively. The l0 torpedoes Specification ZW-06 navigation radar, one STIR fire-
vessels ofthe ASW class are the Korte- Aircraft: hvo Westland SH- 14B/C Lyrx Jacob van Heemskerck' class control radar, two Mod STIR fire-
naer (F807), Callenburgh (FB0B), Van ASWhelicopters Displacement: 3,000 tons standard and control radars, one SEWACO II data
Kingsbergen (F809), Eanckert (F810), Electronics: one LW-08 air-search 3,750 tons full1oad informatronsystem, one Ramses ESM
Piet Hein (FBII), Abraftam Crinjn' radar, one ZW-06 navigation radar, Dimensions: as 'Kortenaer' class system, four Mk 36 Super RBOC chaff
ssen (F816), Philips van Almonde one WM-25 fire-control radar, one Propulsion: as'Kortenaer' class launchers, and one PHS36 bow sonar
(F823), BJoys van Treslong (P824), STIR fire-control radar, one SEWACO Speed: as'Kortenaer' class Complement: 176 ph-rs 20 flag stafl

EK Wi"rinsen' (E-zI) class

surface-search radar, one WM-25 ftte-
The 'Wielingen class is the first post- erill CO-240V-12 diesels to drive two Sea Sparrow swface-to-air missile
warwarship type to be completely de- shafts fitted with controllable-pitch launcher with eight missiles, one 100- control radar, one TM1645/9X
signed and built ln Belgium, The prog- propellers. The four vessels built are mm (3.9-in) DP gmn, two single 20-mm navigation radar, one SEWACO IV
ramme was approved in June 1971, the ihe Wielingen (F910), WestdieP AA gmns (to be replaced by one 30- tactical data system, hvo Mk 36 Super
final studies being completed in Tuly (F911), Wandeiaar (F912) and Wesf- mm Goalkeeper CIWS), one sextuple RBOC chafflaunchers, one Si,Q-25
1973, The order for the first hvo ships ftlnder (F913), and these wtll remaln ln 375-mm (14,76-in) Creusot Loire ASW NIXIE ASW decoy system, and one
was placed rn October ofthat year, and operational service until the early rocket-launcher, and two single ASW SQS-505A hull sonar
the hulls were laid down in 1974. The years of the next centwy, torpedo catapultswith 1O L,5 torpedoes Aircraft: none
remaining two were laid down in 1975, Electronics:one DA-05 air- and Complement: 160
all fow units commissioning into the
Belgnan navy in 1978, Specification
Based at Zeebrugge, the four ves- 'Wielingen class
sels are the largest sudace warships in Displacement: 1,880 tons standard and
the Belgnan navy and form its only sea- 2,283 tons tul]]oad
gtoing escort ship element, They are Dimensions:lensrth i06'4 m (349 1 ft);
ful1y alr conditioned, and are fitted with beam 12,3 m (40,4 ft); draught 5,6 m
Voiper fin stabilizers and a Westingt- (18 4 ft)
house hull sonar, The armament and Propulsion: CODOG arranqement
sensor fit is from a wide varietY of witfione Rolls-Royce Olympus TM3B
NATO countries and was chosen to qas turbine delivering 28,000 shp
make the class as well-armed as possi 420880 kW) and two diesels delivering
b1e for so compact a size. For economy 6,000 hp (4474 kW) to hvo shafts
a combined diesel or gas turbine Soeed: 29 kts
(CODOG) machinery outfit was instal- .irmament: four single MM. 38 Exocet
led using a single Rolls-RoyceTM3B surface-to-surface missile launchers
Olympus gas turbine and two Cock- with four missiles, one octuple NATO
Above.' Wieling en has no helicoptet
Distinguished by their low
super s tructu re and relative ly facilities, but is well armed for a
massive funnel, the'Wielingens' are small ship. F irs t of four vessels,
the first post-war Belgian-designed Wielingen and her sisters Provide
and -built vessels. Gun armament Belgium's only ocean-going escort
includes a 100-mm dualPurPose capability,
weapon, together with a GoalkeePer ,
30-mm CIWS soon to be installed.
Armed Forces of the World

Italy was one of the founder members of NATO, and
the ltalian army has a current strength of 258,000, of
whom 187,000 are conscripts serving a 12-month
period of service. To back them up the army's re-
serves total 545,000 and yei more ranpower .s wd!
provided by the Carabinieri, who number over
90,000, and by the Public Security Guard and the
Finance Guard. The army has its own integral avia-
tion units and is divided into two main formations,
the Field Army (Esercito di Campagna) and the Ter-
'torial Army (Force per la Difesa Interna del
On paper ltaly should be a powerful rnrlitary na-
: on, but in reality f ields one of the wea kest of all the
\ATO land powers. The reasons for this ar-e several
:rd varied, many of them derived f ror tne tortJous
-ature of the ltalian constitution and poi t cai scene,
:rd also from the overall weak state o' lne ltalian . -'-:.:
.lonomy. Thus although the army apcears to be ' ::.=: -:;,' *d
s:rong its numbers are deceptrve, for mary of the .€.:'.,".
-r ts are understrength and poorly eql,pped bv pre-
:3nt standards. Some of the equipment n :se in
::iy is first class, but much more is rcw :-apidly Security force, whose men live in and operate f rom Although a large, professional force, lack of upte
:eing rendered obsolescent at best. anc inere barracks that come under the control of the Ministry date equipmentremains amajor problem for the
::pears to be little chance of any larg+s:a,e pro- of the lnterior. They have a strength of 68,000 and Italian army. Pictured here is the Folgore anil-ta:,"i.
:-:ement of new equipment in the foreseeabie fu- are equipped with armoured cars, armoured person- system, cuftently under field tests, which is one of
the few new weapons the army may be receiT ing.
nel carriers and helicopters. The Ministry of Finance
has its own 50,000-strong Guardia di Finanza equip-
The Field Army ped with helicopters and patrol craft to combat
-he Commando Designato 3o Arri"a:a is orga- smuggling, and if all these were not enough there is Italy does produce some indigenc-s -::. ,

- red into three corps, most of lhe r .n:s being also the Public Security Police who intervene during weapons, typical of which is the new 1 55-- - :- -

:::ted in the north of the countrv and alcng the public disorders. Somewhere within this structure in) howitzer now about to be retrofitted :3 a :--.
::'der with Yugoslavia, The three corps , il. rV and come the Vigili Urbani, the municipal civil police. M 1 09 self-propelled howitzers. lta y is alsc ^ . : ,
, Jonsist of one armoured division Lt'e D:r, sione in the international 155-mm (6.1-in) FH-71 ^:.'.::-
l:'azzata 'Ariete'), three mechanized d v s ons, two Equipment programme (the army has some '1 50 FF-lls ,'. :- .
-:ependent mechanized brigades, iorr ncepen- Italy is an industrialized country, but is devoid of further 140 on orded and the SP-70 prog'a--: :-:
:e^t motorized brigades, five alpine br;gades iAlpini, virtually any industrial raw materials. This alone ',:-l
is in the early stages of involvement in :-e
limits the amount of equipment that can be pro- American MLRS programme. The locai a.:r*-- : :-
= ;entred within lV Corps), one a.rbcrne brlgade. industry provides the bulk of the arn'r s -::- -:-
:-: amphibious group and one miss:le brigade. duced locally for military use. Despite this ltaly has a
'rternal reorganizations have recently been thriving armaments industry that produces all man- ments, and there is a relatively smaii c-l:--. -:
=-.cted to make the best possrble use oi the de- ner of weapons ranging from tanks to small arms electronics industry.
-:-:e funds available, and these have now ied to an and ammunition, However, a closer examination
- ,:rall reduction in the number of brigad+sized un- reveals that much of the ltalian army's equipment is
:: n effect this has regrouped a number of mainly imported, mainly from the United States, and that
- ^:erstrength formations into more eff ective much of the heavier locally-produced mat6riel is Infantry debus from an M I I 3 APC while an M1i
-: Jpings that now carry out their own internal train- licence-produced or derived from an imported de- tank drives on ahead. The army also uses ra::cus
- j iSpecial training regiments were used before sign, One example of the latter is the locally- M I 13 derivatives like the M I 06 mortar catier:
produced IAFV armoured personnel carrier, a local some M 1 I 3s are made in I taly under licence a:d
variation of the US M113. some boug ht direct fr om F or d.
The Territorial Army
-ne Territorial Army is responsible for recruiting,
-:::lization and general internal security and inter-
-: Cefence, although in some categories of the
,=::er its responsibilities overlap with some of the
::^er ltalian internal police and paramilitary forces. lt
-:s 'ive regional commands but only four operation-
Each of these is an infantry brigade,
these are based at Florence, Bari. Bologna and
:: ermo- These brigades each have a two-battalion
-':ntry regiment, a two-company tank battal;on, a
': i artillery regiment, signals and engineer com-
:" es and an aviation flight.
The Carabinieri
-ne Carabinieri are legally part of the army and not
- ,, provide the milltary police for the army but also
i s::ong mechanized brigade of 13 battalions, an
: -:Jrne battalion and two cavalry squadrons. lt is an
. --:gular force armed with M47 tanks, armoured
-=-s and armoured personnel carriers.
-3 add to this internal security force. for that is
:,-. :ally what the Carabinieri are, there is the Public
Armed Forces of the World f ?*Q^<= ItalianArmy fl
Recent years have seen an increase in internal
trouble within ltaly, however, and the army has not
remained remote from this. Although the Field and
Tenitorial Armles have not been much involved in
the internal strife caused by political and economic
upheavals, the Carabinieri and the other paramilitary
..forces certainly have played a part, and the involve-
ment of the Carabinieri in the defeat of the 'Red
Brigade' terrorist groups has been one of the force's
major achievements in recent years. Unfortunately
the army has a long history of involvement in internal
politics, and during the late 1960s it was under
heavy suspicion of planning a coup d'etat. The poli-
tical aftermath of that era still has its effects on
relations between the state and the army.
The economic condition of ltaly has recently en-
forced the internal reorganization of the aimy
already mentioned. The manpower strengths main-
tained by the use of a conscript force still cause
inordinate funding expenditure on manpower and
The Fiat/OTO Melara Type 66 I 4 is used by ltalian figure quoted is that the army has 1,116 artillery associated facilities, to the extent that only some 15
paranilitary I
forces. Carrying a crew of I and pieces, of which 320 are 105-mm (4.13-in) pack per cent of any budget is left for new equipment or
atmed with a 1 2.7-mm (0.5-in) machine-grun, it has howitzers. 155-mm (6.1-in) howitzers of all types updating, ln recent years the number of conscripts
fun widely exportedandisbuilt under licence in number 724, of which 220 are self-propelled has been substantially reduced and the new orga-
SouthKorea. M 1 09s; another batch of M 1 09s is on order, Other nization has settled down.
self-propelled weapons include 36 M107 175-mm The three corps of the Field Army are now located
The ltalian army works closely with local industry, (6.89-in) guns and 36 203-mm (8-in) howitzers. The at Milan, Bolzano and Vittorio Veneto, all in the north
to the extent that OTO Melara produced a howitzer SP-70 is in prospect after 1988. along with the bulk of the combat units of the Field
designed by the army to meet its own require- ln anti-tank weapons, the ltalian army is one of the Army. Only one division of the Field Army is located
ments. This was the 105-mm (4.13-in) Model 56 last European homes of the 106-mm (4.1 7-in) recoil- to the south, and that is the Divisione 'Granatiere di
pack howitzer which became one of the most suc- less gun, but this is gradually being supplanted by Sardegna', which is based around Rome. Among
cessful of all post-war light artillery designs. The imports of TOW (870 are currently on order) and the more specialized formations, the missile brigade
army also laid down the requirements for the cur- Milan guided missiles. Numbers of SS.1 1 and Cobra is located at Portogruaro, and the'Folgore' para-
rent in-service automatic rifle, the BM59, which is a missiles are still in service. chute brigade at Pisa. The 'Lagunari' amphibious
version of the American Garand rifle produced in Armoured personnel carriers include numbers of brigade is at Venice and a special Field Army battle
Italy by Beretta SpA. Ml13s (with more currently on orded along with group is based at nearby Trieste for possible border
The standard ltalian MBT is the West German smaller quantities of M106s, M54Bs and M578s to operations. The five alpine.brigades now have a
Leopard 1 , many of which were built in ltaly by OTO an APC total of 4,200 including a quantity of French 'normal' as opposed to their specialized mountain
Melara. The number involved, including specialized AMX-VCls, The paramilitary formations use a variety warfare role (which will still be maintained). The five
variants, will eventually reach 920, and there seems of armoured vehicles including Fiat 6616 and 6614 brigades are the 'Taurinese' (Turin), 'Orobica' (Bolza-
no prospect that the OTO Melara OF40 MBT will be armoured cars, along with some old American relics no),'Tridentina' (Bressanone),'Cadore' (Belluno)
procured by the army. Other MBTs include 550 such as M6s and M8s, and'Julia' (Cividale).
M47s, some of which have now been sold to Spaln, The mobile organization of the Carabinieri has
and some 300 M60A'l s. Operations and recent years three infantry regiments formed from 11 battalions
The ltalian artillery arm is strong, and headed by a The ltalian army has not been in action since plus a parachute battalion (part of the 'Folgore' bri-
Lance long-range missile battalion; the rest of the World War ll, but in recent years smalldetachments gade) and an armoured regiment based in Rome.
single missile brigade is made up of 40 lmproved of the total force have been involved in United Na- The territorial organization of the Carabinieri has
HAWK SAMs organized into three battalions. One tions operations, the most recent of them the de- three divisions (Milan, Rome and Naples)which con-
ployment of some infantry units to Lebanon, where trol nine brigades which in turn control 24 forma-
they acquitted themselves well and managed to tions known as legions.
withdraw when required without the casualties in-
Nthough I taly is slowly increasing its force ot flicted on the other peace-keeping contingents.
Leopardl MBTs, thevenerableM4T soldiers on. Order of battle
No ltalian army units now operate outside national
Totally outclassed by modern armour, OTO
Melara is currently testing an updated M4V with a territory, although one Alpini battalion forms part of three corps headquarters
new engine, new fransmission and I 05-mm the NATO ACE Mobile Force and frequently trains one armoured division (two armoured brigades and
(4.13-in)wn. outside ltaly. one mechanized brigade)
three mechanized divisions {each with one
armoured brigade and wvo mechanized brigades)
two independent mechanized brigades
four independent motorized brigades
frve alpine brigades
one airborne brigade
two amphibious battalions
one missile brigade (one Lance battalion and three
lmproved HAWK battalions)

Army aviation
fourwings (10 squadronswith 29 flights)
10 independent squadrons (21 f lights)
1 9 llght aircraft and helicopter squadrons (eight

fixed-and 1 1 rotary-wing)
1 0 helicopter reconnaissance squadrons
twotarget-acquisition Squadrons (one light aircraft
and one helicopter)
1 7 multi-role helicopter squadrons
four medium transport helicopter squadrons
one training squadron
four repair units.