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Modern NATO Frigates *.'*€'

--':: -
Fuhfished bV
A[ied Fighters of World Wu ll'
3 j:-:s:;:: r-l sring Ltd 1985
Modern Missil6 Submuines and,Missiles

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--^;nc der of British Land Forces during the
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Skoda 149-mm vz 37 howitzer (K4)
By the early l93Os the Skoda works at decided to adopt the K4 as its standard
Pilsen in Czechoslovakia were in a healry field howitzer to replace the
positron to design develop and pro- large range of elderly weapons re-
duce entirely new artillery pieces that maimng from World War L The K4 was
owed nothing to the old World War I given the army desigmation l5-cm hru-
weapons that had hitherto been the bd houfnice vz 37, vz 37 (vz for vzor or
company's marn output, By 1933 they model) denotrnq the equipment's year
had produced, among other things, an of acceptance for service, Skoda drew
entrrely new 149-mm (5,87-in) range ol up production plans, but as always this
howitzers known as the 'K series The took time and in the rnterim the Ger-
first of these, the KI, was produced rn mans occupred the Czech Sudeten-
1933 and the entire output ol these vz land Plans for production became
33 weapons went for export to Turkey, even more frantic, but with the Su-
Romania and Yugoslavia, The Kl was a detenland line of defences in German
thoroughly modern piece with a heavy hands Czechoslovakia was wide open
split trail, and was designed for either to further German aggression and in
horse or motorized traction, For the 1939 they duly marched in to take over
latter the prece could be towed as one the rest of the country,
load, but for the former the barrel The Germans also secured the Sko-
could be removed for lowrng as a da works at Pilsen, finding on the pro-
separate Ioad. duction [nes the first ofthe full produc-
Despite the success of the Kl, the tion vz 37 weapons, By that tlme only a divisional artillery equrpment and T he high water m ar k of G erm an
Czech army decided that the weapon few models had been produced, and even being used by some corps bat- success rn the late summer of I 942 :
did not meet its exact requirements these the German army tested on teries, It was used during the French elementsof ArmyGroupA
and funded further development to the ranges back rn the Reich. discovering campaign of May and June 1940, and penetrated over 300 km (200 miles)
stagre where a K4 model met the spe- that the vz 37 was a sound and service- Iater in the invasion ofthe Soviet Union soulft-easf ofStalingrad. Here a
cificatron, The K4 had much in com- able howitzer with a good range of during I941. Some were still in service C zech-built vz 37 I 1-cm howitzer
mon with the earlier K i, but had a shor- 15l0Om (16,5i5 yards) and firing a in the Soviet Umon as late as 1944, but pounds Soviet positions in the
ter barrel and (as the Czech army was very useful 42-kq (92.6-lb) projectile. by then many had been passed to the {oothills o! the Caucasian mountain
making considerable strides towards The Germans decided to keep the vz various Balkan forces under German fange.
full mechanization) the need for re- 37 in productron at Pilsen for their own control and operating wrthin what is
moving the barrel for separate horse requirements, and thus the vz 37 be- now Yugoslavia; the Slovak army was and in actron 5200 kg ( 1 I,464 lb)
tractlon was no longer required, The came the German army's lS-cm one such recipient, Elevation: -5" to +70"
K4 also used pneumatic wheels (the K1 schwere Feldhaubitze 37(t), or 15-cm Traverse:45"
had solid rubber-rimmed steel heavy field howitzer Model 1937 Specification Muzzle velocity: 580 m (1,903 ft) per
wheels) and some other modrfications (Czech), the (t) denoting tschechisch, sFH 37(t) second
to suit it for the mechanized tractor- or Czech. With the German army the Calibre: 149.I mm (5 87 in) Ma.rimum range: 15 l0O m ( 16,515
towing role. sFH 37(t) became a standard weapon Lengrth of piece: 3,60 m (11 ft 9,7 in) yarG)
With these changes the Czech army of many divisions, formrnq part of the Weight: travelling 5730 kg (12,632 lb) Sheil weisht: 42 ks (92,6 lb)


Skoda 220-mm howitzer

Whereas the Skoda vz 37 howitzer was good customer of Skoda, and in 1928
a completely new design, the slightly took delivery of a batch of 12 220-mm
earher Skoda 220-mm howitzer was Skoda howitzers under the desrgnation
very much a product that had its ori- M.28. Another customer was Poland,
gins in earlier days. In the period up to which ordered no less than 27, These
l9l8, when the Skoda works were the Polish howitzers featured prominently
largest armament producers for the in many pre-war propagranda photo-
Austro-Hungarian empire, the Pilsen graphs of the Polish army, all with one
works had been only sllghtly behind feature in common: in all of these
the German Krupp concern in the photognaphs the breech mechanism
manufacture ol really healry artillery, was obscured in some way, usually by
and the heary Skoda howitzers were a soldier, as part of the normal Polish
second to none in overall efficiency, security procedure in any artillery
Thus when the Skoda works started rllustration intended for publication,
production again the 'classic' howitzer It did the Poles no good, for in 1939
was one of its main products, the Germans invaded and captured or
However, the accent was no longer destroyed the entrre Polish Qnrn park,
on healry calibres alone. Desprte their The unfortunate Yugoslavs followed
dreadful efflciency in demolishing for- just over a year later. Thus the Ger-
tiflcations, such equipments were mans found themselves with a useful
ponderous beasts to move and their quantlty of 220-mm howitzers, which
rate of flre was extremely slow. They promptly became part of the German
were also fearfully expensive, so when army's inventory, There was not much
some of the new nations formed after of a role for such a relatively heavy
the Treaty of Versarlles started to arm prece in the German Blitzkrieg con'
themselves against a difflcult future cept, so the captured howitzers were
they still wanted heauy artillery, but distributed mainly to garrison and sta-
not too heavy, An rnterim calibre of trc umts rn the occupied territories,
about 220 mm (8,66 in) was still about Some of these were as distant as Nor-
right for the destruction of healry struc- way, but in late l94l a number of these
rures but the howitzer itself need not howitzers were gathered together and
i:e too ponderous Skoda sensed the added to the siege train that was sent
narket and produced the required to invest the fortress of Sevastopol in
220-mm design incorporatrng much of the Crimea, Thrs was the last classic
-.s considerable experience in such
::atters, and it was not lonq before cus- Skoda produced some of the best
.:mers arrived heavy artillery pieces of WorldWar I,
The flrst was Yugoslavia, formed and continued the traditionwith the
::m severai of the pre-World War i 2 2 0 -mm howit zer, which w as
:aLkan states The new nation decided exported to both Poland and
-::ad much to fear from its neiqhbours, Yugoslavia" After the Germans
=:-i thus was involved in numerous invaded Eastern Europe they used
-::hases of weapons of all krnds
;'-.:. the captured weapons against the
-7hout Europe Yugoslavia was a fortress of S evastopol.
Skoda 220-mm howitzer (continued) Heavy Artillery of World Wa; II
investment of a fortress by the age-old ingr the remainder of the conflict, Weight: travelling 22700 kg (50.04S lb)
method of assembling and uslng a
Maximumrange: 142CC r:
and in achon 1420b ks (32 4Ob Ib) (15,530 yards)
siege train, and the fortress fell after Specification Elevation: +40" to +70' shell weisht: I2B kq (282 '-: '
the Skoda howitzers had played a use- Skoda 220-mm howitzer Traverse:350'
fi:l part, Thereafter they were once Calibre: 220 mm (8,66 in) Muzzle velocity: 500 m ( 1,640 ft) per
more scattered and saw little use dur- Lengrth of piece: 4,34 m (14 ft 2,8 in) second

Obice da 210/22 modello 35

During the late 1930s the Itaiian army
decided to attempt to replace the bulk
of its heavy artillery park, which by
that time resembled an oversue artil-
iery museum, It selected two good and
thoroughly modern designs, one a gnln
wrth a calibre of 149 mm (5,87 in) and
the other a howitzer wrth a calibre of
2lO mm (8.26 in), The howitzer was de-
signed by an army orgranzation known
as the Servuio Tecnici Armi e Muni-
zioni (STAM), but production was car-
ried out by Ansaldo at Pozzuoli.
The howrtzer was known as the
Obice da 210/22 modello 35. Although
shown in prototype form rn 1935, it was
not accepted for servrce until 1938
when a production order for no less
than 346 was placed, The modello 35
was a very sound and modern design,
It used a split-trail carriagre with two
road wheels on each srde. When the
howitzer went rnto action these wheels
were raised off the ground and the
weight was assumed by a firing plat-
forni under the marn aile. The-entre
weapon could then be traversed easily
through 360" once the stakes that
anchored the trail spades to the
grround had been raised.
The main problem for the ltalians
was that having designed a fust-rate
howitzer they could not produce it
quickly enough, Desprte the good in-
tentions of the ltalian army, it had to
enter the war with its antique gmn park
still largely undisturbed by modern
equipments, and by the autumn of 1942
the grand total of modello 35s was still
only 20, five ofthem in Italy and the rest
in action in the Soviet Union, Part ofthis
state of affairs was due to the fact that
despite the requirements of the italian four loads with an extra load for assem- sated with American equlpment that Italy made extensive use of heary-
army, modello 35s were sold to Hun- bly equipment and accessories, The was freely supplied to the Italian army artillery inWorldWar I, but by the
gary as they came off the production modello 35 attracted the attentions of and war-surplus equipment was wide- 1930s her big gruns were looking
line, no doubt in exchange for raw the Germans, and when the ]talians ly available elsewhere, decidedly obsolete and new
materrals and food products, The swrendered in September 1943 the weapons were ordered. The 2I A-r-,-
Hungarians found it necessary to make Ansaldo concern was forced to con- Specification howitzer pictured herewas an
theu own carriage modrflcations to suit tinue production for German units Obice da 210/22 excellent desigm, but I talian indus r;
this 2l-cm 39.M to the rigours of their based in ltaly. Thus the modello 35 Calibre:210 mm (8.26 in) could not produce the gans wtth
service and eventually set up their became the 21-cm Haubitze 520(i) and Lengnhof piece:5 m(16 ft4.85 rn) sufficient speed.
own 2l-cm 40.M and finally 2l-cm was still in aetion with the Germans Weight:travelling (two loads) 24030 kq
40a.M productron line in 1943. when the war ended. (52,977 lb)andinaction 15885 kg second
In service the modello 35 was suc- AJter 1945 attempts were made by (3s,020Ib) Maximumrange: 15407 m(16 E:-
cessful enough, ]t could be transported Ansaldo to sell the modello 35 on the Elevation: 0" to *70' yards)
in two loads, but for prolonged moves home and export markets, There were
it could be further broken down into no takers as the home market was
Muzlevelocity:560 m (1,837 ft) per
Shellweight: 101or 133 kg(222 -::

Most of I taly's 2 I 0 -mm howitzers

found their way into Hungarian
hands for service on the Eastern
Front. Those still in lta,ly at the time of
the Italian surrender were promptly
manned by Germans, and made
their contribution to the tenacious
delence o! the peninsula until I 945.
Heavg ArfflffierH fln Baffle s,.
Despife the tactical developments sthce 19 ! 8, heavy artillety For all these technicalities the imagination is still attracted by the sheer
still-had a vital role to play in World War Ii/. Many battles cf w€apons such as the German 35.5-cm M1 or intrigued b1'.-
technical freaks as the American'Little Davld'with its huqe 914-mm i3e -
becarne sieEre - like slagging ma fcheg horribly siznilar to thase ca|bre. No doubt it \^/ould be poSsible to formulate Viable reasons whv s-,-
of I914-I8. FromLeningrad toCassino, tromSevastopol to the oddities should exist in an era dominated by the tank and the heavy bomber, : - .

S iegfried Line, atmies dug themselves in so deep Iy that only it rs still something of a challenge. Although such monsters survrved unlil 1?-:
(aird were even under further development at that tirne) the truth was thai tn= -
big guns could blast a way through. day was well past. Perhaps the greatest indicaiion that their era was over can ::
seen in the example of the greatest protagonist of heavy artrllery during Wc' -
The classic role of heavy artillery in warfare is ihe destruction or neutralization of Wai 11. namely the Red Army. lt used nothing larger than the 203'mm {8-',
the enemy's fortrficaticns and strongpo nis, though n more recenttimes tt has Modei 1931 howitzer from the beginning to lhe end: Rather than relying on .
also incluiled the destructtorr cf the enemV's freld ano other artillery. ln Worid few super-heavy weapons spread thinly (which was usually the case for mcs:
War 1l both tasks were important. This may seem curious, lor we have by now other combatants who had such weapons); the fied Army relied instead on th=
become used to the idea that World War ll was a war of swilt movement and principle of mass, using larQe number$ of heavy artillery batteries to delive'
armoured thrusts. But cn manv ironts thrs was not always the case: along many streams of heaVy projectiles, both against foriified areas and against the
batllef ronts campaigns oiten settled down into long periods of relative inactiv- enemV's answerinq batteries. And the Fed Army won.
ity, and further idvinces and/olwlthdrarvals were often prevented ejther by
weather conditions or lack of Tesources on b'oth sides. Under such conditions
heavv artillerv could once rrrore Tesume its lmportance and make life as miser-
able and dangerous as possible for the enemy.
During Woild War lllortiiications were stiil arounci, The best-known example
is the Fiench Maginoi Line, but there were many others such as the old but
nonetheless effeclive defences that ringed the port of Sevaslopol and the ring
of 'l gth century forts that defended Metz. These were still strong enoug-h io stop
the US 3rd Almv ln its tracks after Patton's rapid advances acrcss France in
1944. It must noi be forgotten that under modern conditions many large cities
can become just as effective as fortificatrons in siopping the rapid advance oJ
even armourjheavy {orces. The examples of Stalingrad and Leningrad are still
there Jor all to see, and under these conditicns the only weapons that can be
used to reduce such large-scale obstacles remaln the heavy gun and the heavy
Thus heavy artillery had a large part to play rn many campaigns durlng World
War ll. Som6 of the weaoons were ratl-rer ederlv (to put it mildly), but most
cornbatant nations had deemed it worthwhile to invest heavily in large-calibre
artillerv of ail kinds.
One' kind of heavy artillery that was relatively new \nas the specialtzed
long-range counterbontbardment gun. Experience gained during World War I

wad thai enemy batteries had to-be silenced dunng.critical periods such as
large-scale aitacks {to prevent harassing fire on sensitive rear areas, for exanr-
piel. During World Wai I thrs roie was oiten assumed by railwa-y artrllery, but in
World Waill the specialized long-range guns often weighed in lor this purpose
Typical of these long-range guns wds the German 24-cm {9.45-in) Kanone 3,
which was really a cqse of bverkillforthe targets against $/hich weapons such as
the American 155-mm 16.'1-in) Gun M 1 or the German 15-cm {5.9-in) Kanone l8
r\ €re filore than acieo.rcte
But among 16e hssliy artrllery types the hc\ /itzer tended to predominate over
the gun, for irith its higher projbctile traiectoly and flexible system of propeilant
chaiges the howitzer rTvas often a f ar more usefui weapotr than the gun The gun
certa'inly had the greater range, but it otten hacl to use a flal traiectory at tln-les
r'vhen piung ng fi16 would haie far more effect on the types of target involved,
such as str6ndpoints or bunkers. By 1945 artillery develcpme nts were such.that
the range dis6iepancy between guns and hou;itzers were not all that marked,
the horiitzer's shorter range berrig frequenlly offset by its heavler projectlles
Another World War ll innovation was the lnlroduction of the gun-howrtzer rn
which a variable propellant system could be allied wlth the abilrty to use either
rj rectfireorfireihtdeupperleqrsler,t.e athighahgleso{elevation!oproduce
ciunging fire. Typrcal of such weapons was the Soviet 152-mm {6-ln) Model 137
Connected byfield telephone to thegun battery, the For"vard Qbsewatian
Post reports the rnap reference af the target and will spat the fall ofs.hof" Ihese
.Russjans ftave dug themxelves a deep slit trencJr to esrape a Germ an counter-
barrage designed ta 'blind' the Soriel guns.

. : t :eaqt gir'ns wera sited several miles behind the lines to avoid the The British T.Z-in howitzer could flinE its S l.T-kg (202-lb) shell nearly I 8 km
- :,. :. ccne attentions of enemy field guns and mortars, so target intormatian {lI miles), butmanoeuwing it the {ew yards to t}te breech was the hard bit' It
- :: be relayed back to the gunners by forward observers, ifte the Afrika had d ricjous re coil, requiring blocks like the one in the foreground to he
:.- :9r-:1 shovtn here. placed behindfor the wheels to runup.
Heavy Artillery of World War l.

The tremendous forces un,leasfi ed by the firing of a heavy gun meant th a :

unless the weaponpossessedan efficient recoi! system itwould need
frequent re-layinq. This German gunner checks the sighting.

A German baf f ery on the Western Front in the spring of I 94A: ready for a With a deafening toar. a US I55-mm hawitzer hurls a 43-kg (93-lb) shelt ar
sustajnedbornbardnrenf, siefisiaue.been slockpiled near the guns so llal a German positions, Mount Porchia, Italy. Numbed by long-term exposure ::
rapirl rate af fire can be maintained. Befare firing shells are removed fram the noise, the crew no longer attempt to protect their ears, which will suffe:
their wicker cases and lfte fuses set. irreparabie damage.

-1St $.. lr,.lil3

''::::.:. :::|t.:. rtl:...:


llt)tf.rtutrldt;lirllllil'(lrtiltr:lliit iltrll ut..,,

ffi i.z-rnHowitzers Marks I-V and 6
tt4 i;7ti.v/:eavti; T he story of B ritish he avy artillery
Between the wars the British army , 32r', rJ

tended to neglect artillery; a number, after I 9 1 8 is the familiar one of

of programmes were initiated but inaction and neglect. When war
came to nauqht, so when healry artil- brokeout again, heavygpns had to
Iery was required in 1940 all that there be improvised by re-lining the old
was to hand was a quantity of old 8-in howitzers to a calibre of 7.2-in to
World War I 203-mm (8-in) howitzers give them arespectable rcnge
with ranges too short for current condi-
tions. As a stopetap it was decided to
reline the exrsting 203-mm barrels to a
new calibre of lB3 mm (7,2 in) and to
develop a new range of ammunition,
The original203-mm caffiages were to
be retained, but the old traction en-
gine wheels were rePlaced bY new
pneumatic balloon{yred wheels on on to take part rn the long sloq north
what became known as the 7.2-in through Slcily and Italy, and were used
Howitzer, following the Normandy'landingrs,
The new ammunition provided the But by 1944 numbers of 7.2-in bar-
conversion with a r.rseful increase in rels were being placed on rmPorted
range, but when the weaPon fired the American Ml carriages, These excel-
fuIl charge the recoil forces were too lent carriages proved to be just as suit-
much for the carriage to absorb, Frringt able for the 7.2-in howitzer as they
the 7,2-1n howitzer on full charge was a were for the American 155-mm (6.l-in)
risky business, for the whole equip- gmn and 203-mm howitzers, and the
ment tendedto rearup and jump back- first combinatron of a 7.2-in barrel with
wards, Before the next round could be the Ml carriage was the 7.2-in Howit-
fired the howitzer had to be man- zer Mk V, Few, if any such combina-
handled back into position and re-laid, tions were made as it was obvious that
Some of this unwanted motion couldbe the MI carriage was capable of car-
partly overcome by placing behind rying more than the original conver-
each wheel wedge-shaped ramps uP sion. Thus a much longer 7.2-in barrel
which the howrtzer and carrtage could was placed on the Ml carriage and this
climb, only to roll down agtain into was the 7.2-in Howitzer IvIk 6, The lon-
roughly the oriennal posttion, but some- ger barrel produced a considerable
times even these ramps were insuf- range increase to 17985m (19,667
ficient and the howitzer would jump yards) and the carrrage was much
over them, But the conversion proved more stable than the old 203-mm car- The 7.2-in howitzer could be as leaps into the air af ter firing at full
to be an excellent projectile-delivery riaqe, As more M1 carriages became terrifuing to its crew as to the target; charge. Surprisingly for such a
system capable of gtood range and a available they were used to mount the seen fiere jn action atRoutot, France, makeshift desigm, the 7.Z-in proved
high degree of accuracy, to the extent new Mk 6 barrels, and by the end of in September I 944 the I 1-ton gun fairly efficient.
that the gunners in the field called for 1944 there were few of the original 8-in
more, carriages left, With the increased sta- Specification Specification
In order to provide more, the num- bility came increased accuracy, and 7.Z-in Howitzer Mks I-V 7.2-in Howitzer Mk 6
ber of B-in howitzer conversions even- the Mk 6 howitzer gained an enviable Calibre:183 mm (7.2 in) Calibre: iB3 mm (7,2 in)
tually ran to sx marks depending on reputation for good shooting, to the ex- Lengrthof piece:4.343 m (14 ft 3 in) Lengrthof piece:6.30 m (20 ft B in)
the original barrel and type of conver- tent that they were retained for many Weight: in action 10387 kq (22,900 lb) Weight: in acrion 13209 kg (29, I20 U:
sion; some of the B-in barrels came years aftet the end ofthe war in 1945. Elevation: 0" to +45" Elevation:-2'10 +65"
from the United States, The first 7.2-in Traverse: Bo Traverse:60"
howitzers were used tn action dwing Muzzlevelocity: 5 lB m (1 700 ft) per Muzzle velocity: 497 m ( 1,630 ft) Per
the latter period of the war in North second second
Afrlca (they were the howitzers men- Maximumrange: 15453 m (16,900 Maximumrange: 17984 m (i9,667
tioned in Spike Milligan's hilarious yards)
military memorrs) and in Tunisia, went Shell weisht: 91.6 kg (202 lb) Shellweight:91,6 ks (202 Ib)


I55-mm Gun MI
=When the Umted States entered Worlel arranqement was such that in action battery work. Numbers were issued to
various alhed nations and the Ml was
although now considered to be rathe:
lacking in rangte and range flexibili:-;
War I in l9l7 it was ill-equipped with the wheels were lifted to allow the car-
heavy artillery, and consequently was dage to rest on a forward firing plat- soon parr of the British army gun park, as a result of the fixed charges use:
issued with various Alhed arttllery form that in use proved to be an excel- whrch used the lype in actton in and it is gradually beinq replaced bI
models, including the French 155-mm lent arrangement andvery stable. This Ewope from the Normandy landings more modern designs, But it will st-
(6. 1-in) CPF (Grand Puissance Filloux), stability made the qlln very accurate, onwards. The M] also went self- be some years before it is replaced t:
This gmn was one of the best of lts type and eventually the carriage was propelled, This was carried out using a the armies of nations such as Austna
at that time, but in the years after 1918 adopted by the British lor use with much-modrfied M4A3EB Sherman tank South Korea, Taiwan and TurkeY,
the American design teams souqht to their 7,Z-in (LB3-mm) howrtzer. For chassis with the gmn mounted in an
improve the overall efficiency of the towing the trail legs were hitched up open superstructure, and in this form Specification
gun and carrtage by introducing a on to a limber device, There were two the vehicle/gun combination was 155-mmGunMIAI
series of prototypes throughout the of these, the M2 and the M5, the latter known as the M40. It was 1945 before Calibre: 155 mm (6, 1 in)
I92Os, Sometimes this programme having a rapid up-and-over lift the M40 actually qot into production so Lenqthof piece:7,366 m (24 ft 2 in)
stood in abeyance for years, but by the arranqement that permitted quick use its main career was post-war but 1t was Weight:travellinq 13880 kq (30,600 lb)
late I930s the new design (very basi- in action but whtch could also be widely used by many nations. agatn and in action 12600 ks (27,778ib)
cally the original GPF barrel equipped dangerous to an untrained crew For including the UK. Elevation:-2"to +65'
to accommodate an Asbury breech this reason the M2 hmb'er was often After 1945 the US Army underwent a Traverse:60"
mechanism) was standardized as the preferred. period ofinternal reorqanization and in Muzzle velocity: 853 m (2,800 ft) Per
I55-mm Gun MI on Carriage Ml, and The Ml was gradually develoPed the process the M1 and M2 guns be- second
productron started at a steady pace at into an MIAI form and then into the M2 came the M59, The post-war period Maximum range: 23221 m (25, 395
in late 1944, These changes were also saw the end of the limber devices yards)
various American arsenals,
The M] gmn and carriaqe combina- mainly limited to production expe- for it was drscovered that with most of Shellweight:42 ks (92,6 lb)
tion was very much an overall im- drents and did not affect the Qnrn's per- the heavy tractors used to pull the guns
provement on the old French GPF de- formance, which proved to be excel- all that was needed was to join the
sign, but introduced some new fea- lent: a 43.1-kg (951b) shell could be trails and connect them drrect to the
tures. The barrel was 45 ca[bres lonq, fired to a range of 23221 m (25,395 tractor towinq eye, usually with chains,
and the carriaqe was of a heavy split- yards). The Ml soon became one of In this form the 155-mm (6, ]-in) M59
trail type carried on four doubletyred ihe standard heavy guns of the US serves on to rhls day wlth many armies
road wheels forward. Thrs carriage Army and was often used for counter- around the world, It is still a good grun,

The 155-mm Guns cff \llftrr
At the end of the CivilWar in I865 the most experienced artillerymen in theworld
(2.95-in) Model 1897 field gmn and a_lso re _::-
mm GPF long-range gmn,
were American, but heavy guns were of little use in the years of Indian-hunting that The GPF (Grand Puissance Filloux, l-iel..--,-
followed.WhentheUSAenteredWorldWar I itcame as arude shock tohave {obuy 'great strength Filloux', the Frlloux par: re-a::_;
theirequipmentfrom theAllies, sotheUS Armysetaboutdesigningits ownartillery; to the name of the designer) was at ihe -_::-=
the result was'Long Tom'. rrghtly regarded as being bne of the 1=s.
examples of healnT artillery in its calibre -.
could fire a 43, l-kq (95-lb) high explosive s:=_
For the US Army the l55-mm (6 i-in) Gun Ml forces became rather isolated from what was to a range of 18380 m (20, I00 yards) arrd :-=: _:
was a long time a-coming, It could trace its happening elsewhere in the weapon develop- remained a relatively portable weapol -:t-
origins to 1919 when the Westervelt Board ('the ment worid, and so tended to judge future re- was easy to handle in battle, It made al -de.
Caiiber Board') had completed its far-seeing quirements by its own insular experiences. Up counterbattery weapon and was equally tie.'
deliberations and recommended (among to 1914 this meant a series of Indian wars and a for long-range heavy fire-support fue m:ss:c:-.
other things) that the US Army should have a lew colonial expeditions. These activitles drd The US Army took to it with a will, and i:-,',-=s
new and powerful 155-mm gnrn to follow on not require heavy artillery, so the US Army did even decided to produce the tlpe rn the JS-:-
from the 155-mm M1918 that was already in not call lor the development oi any such The l55-mm guns the Americans tock :;::
service. weapons. from the French became known as the lvI.9- -
The M 19 18 was a good sun but for the Amer- Thls was to have serious results in l9l7 when The home-produced versions became ,:::
icans it had one fatal flaw, namely that it was not the Americans entered World War L The first M1918 and differed in detail from the Fi=:-::-
an American weapon, It was French in origin US Army divisions to travel to the battlefields of originals due to changes made to surt Amer::--
and its acceptance was something that the US France were almost entirely infantry-based. production methods; there was ever- a:.
Army dld not like to think about, For years it Their artlllery component was minimal and Mlgl8Al with additional modrfications. Fe-,'; ::
had carried out a policy of purchasing Amer- American industry was in no position to start these American M1918 guns reached Fra:-:=
ican weapons only ln order to maintain a state masslve artillery production for some time. The before the Armistice of November I9 I8, c:;: :.=
of self-reliance in case of emergencies, and only thing to do was to adopt whatever large numbers that were produced formei -:-:
any weapon or item of equipment that was weapons the British and French allies could
purchased from abroad had to be really Eood offer, At the time this extended down to An imposing weapon even when on the move, the
or urgently required to get past the procure- machine-guns, but at the upper end it involved 'Long Tom' was a development of the excellent
ment authorities. While this policy was no the adoption of French artillery pieces on a French 155-mm GPF gun supplied to the US Arml-
doubt laudable from the US point of view, it did grand scale, The Amerlcans took over from the in 1918.The heavy split-trail carriage provided a
have the major disadvantage that the US armed French numbers of the famous '75', the 75-mm very stable firing platform.

The 155-mm Guns at War
be even more powerful than the MI92C c,::
again funding was hard to come by so deve-:;-
ment dragged on throughout the I930s. -:=
new gnrn was designated the T4 and undenr,-e:--.
some modifications before it was at :as-,
ordered for production during 1938 as the 1::-
mm Gun MI on Carriage M1,
At first production proceeded at a slow pa::
at the Watervliet Arsenal. By the time of Pea:-
Harbor only about 65 complete equipme::=
had been produced, but things then alterer
drastically, Once again the US Army was
Designed to the specification of the Westewelt nucleus of the US Army's heavy artillery for plunged into war with a deficiency of hea',,
Board, thecarriageof the l55-mmMI was many years after the war, They even found a artlllery, but this trme some equipments were
required to accept an f -in howitzer and was tinally new role as coastal defence guns, The US Army to hand and so were the facilities for mahnq
s tandar dized in I 9 3 8, als o under the de signation was responsible for the coastal defences of the more, As an lnterim measure during the 193Cs
MI. Onoperations thegunwasnormally towed by United States, but despite huge investment in many MI9l8 gun caryiages had been 'hlgh-
theM4 tractor rather than the truck shown here.
batteries and weapons there were inevitably speeded' for faster traction by the introductior
gaps around the long coastlines where no de- of new wheel bearings and pneumatic tyres
fences could be permanently sited. The M1918 and brakes, so these at least could provide the
was accordingly assigned to this task, berng US Army with a start towards its war prepara-
allotted to units that were intended to move tions, and it had a lot olpreparing to do. As the
along pre-determined lengths of coastline United States entered the war huge numbers of
where no conventional coastal defence batter- raw recruits flocked to the training estabhsh-
res existed, At points along these 'beats'were ments that sprang up all over the continental.
prepared concrete emplacements known as USA, They at least had something with which to
'Panama Mounts'on to which the guns could be train: in June i940 the US Army had no less than
placed to provide them with a 360'field of fire. 973 I55-mm gnrns of all types and more were to
In this way the guns were used for coastal hand by the following year, Many of these were
defence, and thrs practice remained in use located in such places as the Phiiippines, Pana-
until 1941 and after, Some guns actuaily saw ma and other overseas stations, and some were
action in the Phillppines during the Japanese lost during the Japanese invasion of some of the
mvas10n. Far East outposts,
Coastaldefence 'LongTom'
But good as the M1918 was, the Westerveit Thus the MI918 entered a new war, but as
Board wanted something better. It issued an time went on the type was gradually replaced
outline requirement and in 1920 a new deslgn by the more modern l55-mm Gun MI and its
appeared. This was known as the MI920, but it modern stable carriage. But the Mi9l8s took a
remained only a prototype, It had a ranqe ex- long time to fade away. Many were retained as
ceeding that of the MI918 but it arrived on the trarning weapons until the war ended and il
The difterencebetween gun andhowitzer is seen scene at a point in time when the United States was the winter of 1943-4 before the last of them
by comparing this photograph of the US I 55-mm was avidly withdrawingrinto an isolationist shell were withdrawn from active service in Italy,
howitzer with the picture below.'Long Tom's' 40- and defence spending for overseas ventures The barrels were sti1l good for more service
calibre length barrel helped give a range of was cut drastically. There were enough but the carriages were not, being quite simply
22000 m (24059 yards) compared to the I 4000 m weapons already to hand so it seemed sense- too worn and battered for more use as their age
(1531 1 yard) range of the stubby-barrelled
howitzer. less to ask for more, Thus spending on the caught up with them.
155-mm (6 l-in) gun project was slashed to the By that time the Gun Ml waswell established
point where the design remained in limbo for and coming off the production lines in ever-
A'Long Tom' fires at minimum elevation, the front
of the weapon resting on a firing j ack underneath many years, At the end of the 1920s some growing numbers. But this growth was not with-
the carriage with the bogie raked above the efforts were made to produce a modern form of out its critics. Many high-ranking officers within
ground. W hen it is time to m ove ofI the b arrel will carriage for a 155-mm gun, Shortly after a new the US Army hierarchy took a long time to be
be pulled back and clamped to the trail. gnrn design was initiated that was intended to persuaded that heavy artillery was required in
quantity, and that included the 155-mm gnrns,
The critics adopted the llne that valuable ship-
ping space could be better used by weapons
such as anti-tank and anti-aircraft weapons.
and that there would be little call for heavy
artlllery rn the type of fast-moving combat they
envisaged for the US Army once it got back intc
Europe, The troops in the batteries thought
otherwise, but it took some time for production
priorities to be rearranged and the really large
increase rn numbers did not take place unti.
1943; hence the survival of the M 19 i8 as a front-
line weapon until 1944, But even after that date
there were temporary changes in priorittes
that meant that Ml production was slowed,
It was a1l rather lrustrating for the heaw
artiliery battery commanders, who wantei
more and more of the new guns, Once with the
troops the MI proved to be an immediate suc-
cess and the weapon soon was asslgned the
nickname 'lrong Tom', This name was well de-
sewed, for the Ml had a long slender barrel 4l
calibres long (U45) that gave the gun a distinc-
tive appearance, The gmnners were less happl-
with the carriage, for although it provided the

J -10
Heavy Artillery of World War II

The I 55-mm M I gun in travelling mode, trails worked, it was soon drscovered that rts action mm (3,54-rn) quns in turrets, Flnally &e li1-s
together and connected to the limber. Still used by was very unforgrvlng to anyone who got in the were intended to cover the gaps in the cc;e:-
I 3 countrtes bday, it is served by a I 4-strong crew way while the devlce was in operation, In fact rt age of the static weapons, and ths ihe_; a-:
and can maintain a rate of fire of two rounds per was downright dangerous and many casualtres usrng some of the old Panama Mounls bu: a;:
were caused beiore more care and attentron numbers of the mobile metal 'Kellv Mc'::-=
were devoted to its use, Despite the success of whose origins owed much to the basi6aly si:::--
barrel with a very stable firing platform it was such trarnlng, the M5 limber remained heartily lar mounts used by the German lS-cm Kar::::
something of a brute to move, Fortunately the disliked by all who had to use it and whenever ao
split trail legs provided the top carriage with a possible battery commanders attempted to After the middle of 1944 the M] was:c be
wide degree oftraverse; no less than 30'could obtain the o1d M2 limber, found rn service everywhere from the Pacf.:::
be traversed lo each side of central, Thus smaii Gradually numbers of MIs crossed the Germany, They at all trmes provided ster:r::g
changes of firing angle did not require the Atlantic and moved into action in Italy. in the service and vrere also used by the Royal Ar:--
usual humpinqs and heavings, but moves ofany UK the type was prepared for the invasion of iery long-range batteries of the Brrtsh ar::;
distance did, These were made no easier by France, but back in the United States the Mls and for a trme by the Free French forces, Tt:.-
the carry-over from the Ml918 of a single-axle were already bn active service'. Like the ear- proved themselves excellent weapons, 3:-r
limber device that took the weight of the traii iier M1918 the Ml also assumed a coastal- many are still in use to this day.
legs off the towing vehicle, but the iifting of the defence role and was used as part of a four-
trail legs onto the limber was no easy task. This weapon defence system to cover the coasts of
was realized by the designers, who revised the the mainland USA, Largest of the four types of
The ganner coyers hr's ears as his I 5 5 -mm' Long
original limber design (the M2) into a form weapon involved were the 406-mm (16-in) Tom' blasts oIf a round againstJapanese artiltery
where the limber itself could be used to lift the coastal-defence guns that could shield large positions in the hills beyond Dulag, Leyte Island,
trail legs by an 'up-and-over' mechanism in- areas of coastline, Behind them were 152-mm 1944. The long range of the I 55-mm made it an
volving cables, While this device (the MS) (6-in) coast-defence guns and numbers of g0- excellent weapon for counterbattery work.
%i 8-in Howitzer IVII
After the United States entered World
War I in 1917, among the vartous types
of heavy artillery its army received
once US troops arrived in France was
the British B-in Howitzer Mks Vll and.
VIII, which were incidentally being
produced in the United States to a Brit-
lsh order. The Americans took to this
howitzer with a will, for they soon dis-
covered that it was a very accurate
weapon and in the years after 19lB set
about producing their own verston.
This was under the aegis ofan advisory
body known as the Westemelt Board,
which also recommended the intro-
duction of the 155-mm Gun M]. The
board also recommended that the 155-
mm (6, l-in) snrn and the 203-mm (B-in) I
howitzer should share the same car-
riage and thus the new howttzer used I
the same MI carnage as the 155-mm
Gun Ml.
Despite the recommendations of the
Westewelt Board, however, the de-
veiopment of the new howltzer was
slow and erratic, and at times ceased
altogether for years on end, Thus it was
not until 1940 that the hou,rtzer was
standardized as the 8-in llowitzer Ml,
The M] owed much to its British ort-
gins but was longer, and as it used the
MI carriage it was even more accurate
than its predecessor. However, it
should not be thought that because the
8-in Howitzer MI and the 155-mm Gun
Ml shared the same cafiiage the two
barrels were interchangeable, They
were not, for to exchangte the hvo bar-
rels involved a great deal ofworkshop
time and a great deal of trouble, elimination of enemy stronqpoints and which could be fired to a range of Above: A good view o[ the
Once the Howitzer Ml had been in- bunkers. The shell ired by the Ml was i6596m (IB,l50 yards). The M106 is in te r r u p te d- s c r ew s te ppe d - thr e ad
troduced into sewice it soon became a inltially a 90.7-kq (2001b) hish explo- still in servrce with the B-in Homtzer breech mech anism of an I - in
very popular and powerful weapon. sive shell also used by 203-mm (B-in) Ml, which in a post-war desiqrnation howitzer in action. Four crew
Because of its accuracy it could be coast gnrns, but this was later replaced reshuffle was redesignated MI15, members prepare to litt the 9 I -kg
used to bring down heaw fire on spot by a special hlgh explosive shell Like the 155-mm Gun Ml the 203- (200-lb) shell, the size ot which gives
targets quite close to friendly troops known as the M106 which had the mm howrtzer also went self-propelled, some clue as fo why the maximum
and was frequently used thus in the same weight as the earlier shell but although the first version did not rate offirewas one round per

In addition receiving the French

155-mm gun, the US Army in France
received during 1918 theBritish 8-in
howitzer, which was suhsequentlY
used as ffie basrs for post'war US
heavy gun design. The M I howitzer
resulted from years oI intermittent,
underfunded research and was not
standardized until I 940. Once in
action, however , it was an
r'mpressive pie ce ; accur ate and
hard-hitting, it is still in service
worldwide and was develoPed into a
self-propelled gun, the M I I 0.

f d *q
8-in Howitzer M I (continued)
The blast effect of an f -in howitzer
hits not justtheears but thewhole
body as the shockwauepasses .di s
outwards. This is the first B-in
howitzer in action in Normandy,
1 944 , firing during the barrage the
Americans organized to celebrate
theFourthof July.
appear until 1946, This was the M46
which used a much-modified M25 tank
chassis as the carrrer. Subsequent de-
velopment along these lines has now
led to the M110 series which originally
used the 203-mm howilzer in a form
virtually unchanged from its towed
I version but which has now been de-
I veloped to the Mll0A2 which uses a
, much lengthened 203-mm howilzer
1 The towed B-in Howitzer M115 is still
in widespread servrce all over the
world, and there are few signs that it is
likely to be replaced in the near future.
Thus the 203-mm howrtzer can lay
claim to being one ofthe longest{ived
of all modern heary artillery pieces: rt
can trace back its origins to World War
I and rs still in service.
Calibre:203 mm (B in)
tengthofpiece:5,324 m (17 ft 5.59 in)
Weight: travelling 145 15 kg (32,000 ib)
and inaction 13471k9 (29,698 ]b)
Elevation:-2'to +65'
Muzzlevelocity: 594 m (1,950 ft) per
Maximum range: 16596 m (18, 150
Shellweight:90.7 ks (200 lb)

Right: Driving through the bitter

December weather of I 944, these
8-in howitzers are travelling through
Belgium to jointheUS FirstAmy.
Artillery was particularly effective in
areas like the Ardennes, where
roadswerefew and choke points


ffi [+o-** Howitzer MI Weighingover 30 tons, theUS
240-mm howitzer originated from a
The Westewelt Board of 1919 made
projectbegrun alterWorldWar I, but
many recommendations as to the fu-
ture state of American artillery, too little progress had been made before
1940, and Anerica had been atwar
many in fact for the military funds avatl-
18 months betore the 240-mm
able at the time, Thus some parts of the
weapon was ready. However, once in
re-equipment progrralnme had to be
postponed following some preliminary action it proved very useful against
design investigatlons that lasted untii German emplacements in Italy and
192 1, One part of these postponed pro-
north west Europe.
jects concerned a common carriage
that could mount either a 203-mm (Bin) fighting settled down behind static
qun or a 240-mm (9.45-in) howrtzer, At lines for any time, There was little call
that time the 240-mm howitzer project for the type to be employed whenever
could be dropped because the US fighting was flurd as it took too lonq to
Army was still trying to develop a 240- emplace the weapors or Slet them out
mm'howitzer based on a French of action, but when they were used the
Schneider design, but that project was heavy 163,3-kg (360-1b) high explosive
beset with problems and eventually shelG were devastatlng weapons. The
came to nothing. only a few equtP- 240-mm howitzers wete used bY both
ments being produced for trainlng the US and Brrtish armies, and theY
pwposes. served on for many years after the war,
But in 1939 things looked different, A fewattemptswere made to place the
and the 203-mm qun/240-mm howttzer 240-mm howitzer onto some form of
prolect was resurrected. The 203-mm self-propelled chassis but none of
qun took far Ionger to get into service these projects got very far despite the
than was at ftst envlsaqed, and it was advaniages that self-propulsion would
not until 1944 that the flrst equipments have given this heavy weapon, Instead
were issued. But the 240-mm howitzer attempts were made to simPlifY the
project was less problematical and assembly procedure or even allow the
was ready by May 1943. Thts 240-mm piece to travel in one load, Nothing
Howitzer Ml turned out to be a fairly came of these ideas and the 240-mm
massive piece of artillery using what howitzer was gradually withdrawn
was vtrtually an enlarged Ml carriage from use during the late 1950s,
as used on the 155-mm (6. l-in) Gun MI' Today the oniy 240-mm Howitzer
But the 240-mm howitzer carriage did MIs still in use are those emplaced on
not travel with-the barrel fitted. Instead the Chrnese Nationalist-held islands off
it travelled on a sx-wheeled cariage the coast of mainland Chrna. There
and once on site its wheels were re- they act as heavy coast-defence
moved. The barrel was towed on a weapons and are kept fullY sewice-
form of semi-trarler, At the chosen site able,
the carriaqe had to be carefi;llY em-
placed and a pit was dug to Permit
barrel recoil at fuIl 65" elevation, The
barrel was then lifted tnto position, Specification
usually by a mobile crane that was also 240-mmHowitzerMl
r.rsed to place the carriage tnto position Calibre:240 mm (9.45 in)
and spread the trails, Emplacement of Lengthof piece: 8,407 m (27 ft 7 in)
the 240-mm howttzer was thus no easy Weight: complete 29268 ks (64,525 lb)
task, and sometimes took uP to eight Elevation: + 15'to +65"
hours of arduous labour, Traverse:45"
But once in place the howitzer Muzzle velocity: 701 m (2,300 ft) Per
proved to be a powerful weaPon lt second A 240-mm howitzer prepared for barrelwas then lifted into place by a
Maximum range: 23093 m (25, 255 action: it travelled on a sk-wheel crane which was also used to sPread
was first used extensively during the
yards) carriage, which was emplaced over a the traik. Setting up the howitzet
Italian campaign and afterwards in
North West Europe whenever the Shellweight: 163,3 kg(360 lb) pit dug to absorb the recoil. The could take over eight hows.

ffi fiirt" David'

Despite the fact that many artrlllery
preCes were much larger than the
strange device known as'Little David''
the fact remains that this weapon stili
holds the record of having the largest
calibre of any modern artillery piece at
no less than 914 mm (36in), and not
even the largest German railway gun'
the huse 80-cm K(E), got anPuhere
near that with its calibre of 800 mm
(31.5 in),
Little David was one of the oddities
of the artillery world. It had its origins
in a device used to test aircraft bombs
by flring them from converted large-
calibre howitzers at chosen targets
Existing howitzers could not manage to
and firing tests started later the ed using a geared quadrant on the The largest-calibre artillery piece of
fire the heavier bombs so a device 1944
modern times, 'Little David'was
known as the Bomb Testing Device Tl same year, breech end ofthe barrel, There was no
Lrttle David was little more than a recuperator mechanism, the barrel originally a devicefor testing aircraft
was designed and Produced, It Per- bombs by firing them atvarious
formed well enough and gave some- large muzzle-loaded mortar with a being simpiy pumped back into post-
rifled barrel. The barrel rested in a tion after each firingt. Loadingwas by a targets. Someone suggested that it
body the idea of using the device as an
steel box buried in a deeP Pit which special crane which formed part of Lit- could be used as a gan Proper, and
artili-ery weapon proper, With the in-
also contained the elevating gear and tle David's equipment train, with the invasion ofJaPan in
vasion ofthe mainland ofJapan tn pros- prospect the IIS ArmY welcomed the
pect such a weapon would be ideal for the sx hydraulic jacks used to mount The projectile was of a unique form
and remove the barrel. Some traverse with a iong tapered nose and a cuwed ldea of amonster howitzer to smash
demoiishing the expected Japanese
base. It weighed no less than 1678 kg J ap anes e f o r titic ati on s.
bunkers and strongpoints, so the pro- was orovtded in the box mounting and
(3,700 1b), ol which 726ks (1,600 ]b)
ject was given the go-ahead in March the 6arrel was elevated and depress-

r 392
'Little David (continued)

was explosive. Such a projectiie would dug into a prt. The barrel rests on its
have had dreadful effects on any transporter wheels ready to be towed
target, but Little Davrd was never used in semi-trailer fashion by a heavy trac-
in action, During its fiilng tials it was tor, and one ofthe oddly-shaped shells
soon demonstrated that accuracy was is still to hand.
poor, and the US Army was less than
enchanted by the l2-hour emplace- Specification
ment time required every time the Little David
weapon was used, The war ended be- Calibre:914 mm (36 in)
iore the development tdals were com- Length of piece:with elevating arc
plete and the US Army promptly Put B,534 m (28 ft 0 in)
the whole project 'on ice'before finally Weight complete: B2B0B kg
cancelling it during late 1946. Thus Lit- (182,s60 rb)
tle David never even Ieft the Aber- Elevation: +45"1o +65'
deen Proving Grounds in Maryland Traverse:26'
where all lts development and flring Muzzle velocity: not recorded
trials had been conducted, and the Maximum range: 8687 m (9, 500 yards)
weapon promptly became a museun Shellweight: 1678 ks(3,700 lb)
piece for the wonderment of all, Today
rt can still be seen there, forming part
of the extensive ordnance museum
that occupies much of the site open to Once the atomic bomb had saved the
the public, The weapon is still relative- Allies from mounting a conventional
lycomplete, What appears to be a invasion ofJapan the fortress-
small metal shed is in fact the main crusher 'Little David' was without a
mountingr which was supposed to be role and the project cancelled.

re Houi"t 152-mm suns

When considerrng Soviet artrllery de-
velopment it is as well to remember
that the Soviet artillery desigp teams
rarely produced anything innovative.
Irstead they placed grreat emphasts
upon a steady programme ofdevelop-
ment in which a new piece of ord- The 1 52-mm grun-howitzer M I 937
nance was placed on an extsttng car- has a box section split trail carriage,
nage, or in which a new carriage was and its double tyres were filled with
allied to an existinq gun or howitzer, sponge rubber. On the mave, a two'
Their continual alm was to produce an wheeledlimber is secured under the
artillery piece that was as liqht as frails.
possible but flring as heavy a projec-
tile as possible to as grreat a rangte as The Sovrets wanted vast numbers, but These two major field gnrns desrqns,
possible, the Artillery Plant Number 172 at Perm the Model i937 and the Model 1910/34,
This was particularly true of the could not produce enough so another formed the mainstay of the heavy field
Soviet 152-mm (6-in) heavy guns. source of these gun-howitzers was gun batteries of the Red Army
There were three main types of these, sought, This h.uned out to be the same throughout the war, Later develop-
althouqh others existed and the ear- barrel as the Model 1937 but mounted ment tended to concentrate on howit-
hest of them could trace its origins on the carnage of an earlier 122-mm zers, but the fleld gnrns proved to be
back to 1910, Despite its age this (4,8-in) fleld snrn, the Model 1931, This very useful weapons, They were often Specification
weapon, designated the 152-mm Push- combination was known for some able to outrange their German coun- Model 1937
ka obr. l9l0g was updated in l93O to reason as the 152-mm Gun-Howitzer terparts and so impressed the German Calibre: 152,4 mm (6 rn)
become the l52-mm Field Gun Model Model l9l0/34, to the Soviets and as gnlnners that they used as many cap- tengnhofpiece: 4,925 m (16 : - : :-':
1910/30, In this form it was still ln ser- the 15.2-cm K 433/2(r) to the Germans, tured Soviet 152-mm guns as they Weight: travelling 7930 kg - =!.i
vrce when the Germans invaded in There was also one other Soviet 152- could lay their hands on, Many of these andinactionTl28 kg(15 7-: :
1941. The Model l9I0/30 was an unre- mm (6-in) field qnrn about which little is captured weapons were used against Elevation:-2'to +65'
markable piece of artil1ery, so heavy now known. This was apparentlY a their former owners and as many again Traverse:58"
that it had to be carried in two loads. long l52-mm naval barrel placed on were diverted to the Atlantic Wall de- Muzzle velocity: 655 m (2, 143 ;+:i
Th:s was considered to be too much of the carriase of the 203-mm (Bin) howit- fences, second
a drsadvantage for modern use, and by zers produced as a form of emergency Perhaps the best indication of how Maximum range: 17265 m ( lE t3 -
i941 the Model 1910/30 was beins design in l94i-2, Few details now ex- good the Model 1937 gnrn-howitzer yards)
phased out ofuse. The Germans desig- lst, was at the time it was introduced can Shellweight:43.5 kg (95.9 lb)
nated equipments l5.2-cm K
in 1937 the Soviet desiqn teams
came up with a replacement. This was
the l52-mm Gaubitsa-Pushka obr.
1937g (152-mm Gun-Howitzer Model
1937) which emerged as a new and
rather long gnm barrel mounted on the
carriage ofan existing piece, thd 122-
mm (4,8-ir) Field Gun Model I93l/37
(A-19) This combinatron was a gun-
howitzer rather than a gmn, and turned
out to be a very versatrle and powerful
weapon, known to the Germans as the
15.2-cm K 433/l(r) in captured sewice.

Seen here in German ftands as a

coastal defence piece, the Soviet
1 52-mm gun was a tough and

reliable weapon and was produced

invast numbers. Massed batteries of
heavy artillery played a vital role in
driving the Germans back from
ffi Soviet 152-mm howitzers
In 1941 the Red Army still had substan-
tial numbers of short 152-mm (6-in)
howitzers such as the Field Howitzer
Model 1909/30 and Field Howitzer
Model I9I0/30, but these were long in
the tooth and despite an interim updat-
ing proErramme carried out after 1930 The Sovietllnionnot only produced
they lacked range, It was reahzed that some of tft e bes t artillery desigms of
these howitzers would have to be re- World W ar I I but also manufactured
placed and in 1938 the rePlacement big gpns in prodigious quantities-
appeared, For once ths weapon was The 1 5 2 -mm howitzer series was
an all-new design combininq a long even used in llr e anti-tank role, for
152-mm barrel with a sturdY and which itfired a40-kg(88-1b) solid
steady split-trail carriaqe, It went into shotprojectile.
productron at tlvo artillery factories,
knock out any known tank, The Ger- same range of ammunition as the Mod-
Artillery Plant Number 172 at Perm el1938 and the range capabilitres re-
and Artlllery Plant Number 235 at Vol- mars also prized the Model 1938 hrgh-
kinsk. The Field Howitzer Model 1938, lv. usinq as manY as they could caplure mained the same. By 1945 tt was in
later known as the M-I0, tumed out to rincler the desionation 15.2-cm sFH sewice with the Red ArmY in huge
443(r), either in the Soviet Union or as numbers and was later designated the
be a gEeat success and was widelY D-t. Ethiopia and Mozambrque There
used. later becoming one of the main part of the Atlantic Wall defences.
More twned up in ltalY and France Post-war the Model I93B and Model seems to be no sigm of its ever passng I
types in Red Army service throughout
In their constant strivrng to make 1943 went on to sewe in manY more away, t
the war,
The Red Army came to value the their progeny as light and efficient as conflicts, Gradually the Model 1938
possible, the Soviet artillery destgners faded ftom use and is now known to be Specification
flexibility of the howitzer over the long- Model
, later converted the Model 1938 to be used only by Romania, but the Model 1943
range capabilities ofthe gnrn to a great Calibre: i52,5 mm (6 in)
mounted on the carriage of the l22-mm 1943 is still very much in evidence, It is
extent, and found durinq the early days Lengrthof piece:4.207 m (13 ft9.6 in)
(4,8 in) Model 1938 howitzer. A larger still in Red Army service, although now
of the war with the invading German Weight: travellinq 3640 kg (8,025 ib)
muzzle brake was fitted to reduce, at mainly with resewe units, It has been
army that the heaw 51,l-kg (112.61b) and rn action 3600 kg (7,937 Ib)
high explosive shell was also a power- ]east in part, the recoil forces of the bestowed the accord of betng thought
heavler barrel, and the new combina- f,t to be copied by the Chinese armY, Elevation:-3" to +63,5"
ful anti-tank weapon, This derived which now has its own version, known Traverse:35'
from the Red Army practice of ustngt tion became the l52-mm Field Howit-
zer Model 1943, As its designation im- as the Type 54, The Model 43 is used Muzzle velocity: 508 m (1,667 ft) Per
every available field prece as an anti-
tank weapon, and was so successful plies this new howttzer/carrlage com- by nearly every nation that has come second
bination was first produced in 1943 and under Soviet rnfluence, rangnng from Maximum range: I 2400 m ( i3, 560
that a special so[d-shot projecti]e was yards)
soon replaced the earlier Model i93B Czechoslovakia to Iraq and from Cuba
introduced for use by the Model 1938 Shell weight: HE 51, I ks ( I 12.6 ]b)
This werghed 40 kq (88.2 lb) and could in productton, It continued to flre the to Vietnam, it has even turned up in

W [iig-** Howitzer Model I93I

The heaviest of the field-type weapons
used by the Soviets between 1941 and
1945 was the 203-mm Howitzer Model
1931, also known as the B-tl. This was a
powerful but healryweaponthat ls now
generally remembered as being one
of the few artillery weapons to use a
carrjase that ran on calerpillar tracks
This wbs an outcome o{ lhe huge Soviet
investment in tractor faclories during
the 1920s and I930s, and the r.rse of
these tractor tracks n'as thus an ob-
vious and economic meas-rue for the
Soviet carnage desiqners to take The
use of these tracks meaut that the Mod-
el i931 could traverse verY bad or soll
terrain where othel weapons of slmiiar
weight could not venture,
This was an impofiant Point for the
Model 1931, whjch was a heavY Piece
lt was so heavy that although most ver-
sions could be towed for short dis-
tances jn tvro loads, Iong moves in-
volved the breaking down of the
weapon into as manY as six seParate
Above:The heaviestSoviet gun in
field use during the war, the 203-mm
Howitzer Model I93l was mounted
on conver ted agricultur al tr actor
tracks widely available in the S oviet
Unjon as a resu lt of Stalin's lopsided
industrialization programme. I t fired
a 1 00 - kg (220 -1b) shell to a maximum
range oI I 8 km ( I I miles).

The migthty 203'mm howitzer M I 93 I

is still in servicewith sarne heavy
artillery units of the Soviet armY
today, atthough it no JonErei' uses its
lracked chassis. The Gennans were
pjeased to use any ther caqtured,
and fielded them not onlY in the
Sovietl|nion but against the Allies in
I taly and north west EuroPe.

203-mm Howitzer Model 193 I (continued) Heavy Artillery of World War II
Ioads, Some versions could move in pdsingly, whenever mobile wadare
five loads but there were about sx was possible the Model l93l was at a
different variants of the Model 193 1. All disadvantage and consequently many
of them used the tracked carriage but fell into German hands as they could
varied in the way they were towed. not be moved quickly enough, The
Movement of the Model l93l involved Germans were so short of heavy artil-
the use of a Imber onto which the split lery that they Lrsed as many as they
trarls were lifted to be towed, usually could, mainly in the Soviet Union but
by some form of heavy tracked tractor also in ltaly and in North West Europe
wrth (again) agricultural oriqrns, Some after 1944, under the designation 20.3-
of these limbers used tracks again but cm H 503(r),
others had large single road wheels, A-fter 1945 the Model 1931 appeared
Others had hvin road wheels of smaller to fade from service but in recent years
drameter. it has once more emerged, It is still
To the soldier at the front all these part of the equipment of the current
variations made little difference as the Red Army heavy artillery brigades
howitzer itself remained much the and is still used for the destruction of
same throughout its service life. It was strongpoints and any fortresses that
rather a ponderous weapon to use in might still be encountered, It has now
action, and the rate of fire was usually lost the tracked travelling arranqe- Specification Its tracks provided the 203-mm
hmited to one round every four mr- ments and has in their place a new Model I93I howitzer with unusual short-range
nutes, although higher rates could be wheeled road-wheel suspension with Calibre:203 mm (B in) mobility for su ch a he avy gun,
attained, It made a powerful barrage two wheels in tandem on each side. It Lengrthof piece: 5,087 m(16 ftB,3 in) althoughfor long journeys ithad to
weapon but was also used for the de- is now very likely that thrs form of car- Weight: in action U700 kg (39,022 lb) be broken down into several loads.
molition of healry stronQlpoints, a heary riage allows the Model 1931 to be Elevation:0'to +60" Here the 203-mm howitzer ploughs
100-kg (220,461b) high explosive shell towed in one load, and it is also be- Traverse: B' its ponderousway through the snow
being provided for the role. But essen- lieved that this veteran will be re- Muzzle velocity: 607 m (i,99I ft) per to a new position, towed by a Stalin
lally it was a weapon for static use as it placed in the near future by a new second artillery tractor.
was a ponderous beast, berng limited 203-mm (B-in) howitzer on a self- Maximum range: 18025 m ( 19,712
3n the move to a maximum speed of no propelled carriagre, yards)
more than 15 knr/h (9,3 mph), Not sur- Shellweight: 100 ks (220.46 lb)

I5-cm schwere Feldhaubitze 18 Shown here in an EasternFront

colour scheme, the Ii-cm sFH I I was
Wrthin Germany the two major artil- a compromise between Krupp and
lery manufacturing concerns had been Rheinmetall design and becane the
Krupp and Rheinmetall since the turn standard German heavy field
cf the century, Both flrms survived ordnance ofWorldWar IL
World War I intact, butwiththeirusual
markets shattered both decrded to
start again wrth new products, Thlrs for worked to a limited extent but caused
both the 1920s was a period of re- excessive barrel wear in the process
tenchment and research so that by and also overstrained the carriage re-
Lhe time the Nazi party came to power coil mechanism. To overcome the lat-
:r 1933 both were ready to supply their ter problem some howitzers were
:iew customer, The new customerwas fitted with a muzzle brake to reduce
shrewd enough to invite both parties to recoil forces, but this modification was
submit designs for every new artillery no great success and the idea was
lequirement made by the erpanding dropped; weapons so modified were large numbers when the war ended in Weight: travellinq 6304 kg ( 13,898 l-b.
Serman forces, and thus when a call designated 15-cm sFH l8(M), 1945 and for a period the howitzers andinaction 5512 kg (12, 152 lb)
was made for a new heavy field howit- As the war went on the sFH lB was were used by many armies. Czechos- Elevation: -3" to +45"
zer each company was ready with a placed on a self-propelled carriage lovakia used an updated version ofthe Traverse:60'
suitable design, known as the Hummel (bumblebee), sFH 18 until qutte recently, and the Muzzlevelocity: 520 m (1,706 ft) pe:
The trouble for the army selectors and thus formed part of the Millery type was also used by the Pofiugnrese second
-was that the submissions
were as good component of a few Panzer divisions. army for a consrderable period. Some Maximum range: 13325 m ( 14, 57C
as each other, Thus the eventual Not all were used in the field role. Divi- still survive in parts of Central and yards)
equipment was a compromise, the sions that found themselves installed South America, and the sFH lB has Shellweisht:43,5 kq (95,9 lb)
Rheinmetall ordnance being placed along the Atlantic Wall defences used surely been one ol the soundest and
cn the Krupp carriagre, This selection therr sFH l8s to bolster coastal de- sturdrest of all German artillery pieces, This l|-cm sFH 18 is being towed into
was made in 1933 and given the de- fences, usually under German nar,ry the cavernous mouth of an Me 323
signation of l5-cm schwere Feld- control, Some sFH l8s were handed transport by an Sdkfz 7 half track.
haubitze 18 (15-cm sFH l8), although out to some of Germany's allies, not- Specification The m aj ority of G e rm an ar till ery was
.he actual calibre was 149 mm (5,87 in), ably Italy (obice da 149/28) and, for a 15-cmsFH 18 horse-drawn, but the I 1-cm howitzer
The howrtzer quickly became the stan- whi]e, Finland (m/40), Calibre: 149 mm (5,82 in) was modified early in the war to fu
Card German heavy field howitzer and The sFH lB was still m use in very Lengthofpiece:4.44 m (14 ft 6,8 in) towed by vehicles.
-t was churned out from numerous pro-
duction fnes all over Germany,
The first version of the sFH lB was
ntended for horse traction and was
:owed in two loads, namely barrel and
:arriage. But before long a version in-
:ended to be towed by a halftrack trac-
:cr was produced, and this soon be-
:ame the more common version, It
proved to be a sound and sturdy howit-
zer and served well throuqhout all of
3ermany's World War II campaigns.
Cnce the invasion of the Soviet Union
xas under way in 1941, however, it
soon became apparent to the Germans
tat the piece was outranged by its
Sovret 152-mm (6-in) equivalents, Va-
:rous attempts were made to increase
:ange, including two more powerful
propellant charges to be added to the
six already in use, These extra charges
The BcffEe fer ffierEfln
After thesixthArmyperishedin the{razen hellof Stalingrad, thewrjtingwas on tfte ber 1942 anC, apart from a le.+,'cccasicn:-,"rhen
wallfar theGerman war ln theEast. Hitler's {utile holocawst atKursk tke nextyear the Germans had been able to take th-- .acil:a,
only served ta accelerate theinevitahle, andfram thenan fjreftedArmydrove initiative for a short period lvrtn local ctiensi'..:s
the Soviets' westward advances hai bee: r:
remorseJess Iy westward from tke central {,I5'$ft, across Fo/an d and into the lentless. by Aprrt .945 rhey were -:- '--+ * ;=:
neiittanA otbermany. ByApril 1945 fJre f&unde:" of Soviet artillery could beheard and there settled down for what was lo be ::::-i
from Berlin itself " final o[{enstv-
As usual thc Soviels orepared ni h " .--.:-
By 1945 the Reci Army artillery organization port support unrts by the front headquarters, oughness that recalls the massive build ups ::
had settled down into a coherent arm thal ex- By 1945 lhe ait-llery djrisrcns had reached a lhe World War . or the Wesle rn :'r'. -'
aclly suired the Sovrel use ol trcssed atm:es on ponl wherc Lhey ccutl be used bv Lhe Red Huge amounts of vrar mat6nei anci weapcirs
a huge scate. tach front iarmy group) had Army commanders lo almost 1iteral1y punch were brougiri forvuard lrom the war factones
assigned for its own use a full arttllery corps their way through opposing Gernan positions, still thn.rmminq easi of the Urals, In Berhn the
consisting of lwo anti-alrcraft and two artillery The usual method was for the heaw artillery sound of artrii&y frre was an everyday aciiunci
to what passecl trr r:orma t litc rn a 'lreck+d c-
divisrcns, These drrzisions were adciitional to -lrteries to aliqn Lhemselves almost vrheel-ha' to
the artillery allotments made to the ri-{le and whcel tc croaLe rnassl;e bomhardments Among the smokinq heaps oi rubble lhat haa
mechanized divtsions whrch frequerrii"/ had a could swamp any ellemy pcsiiion with carpets once beenone of Eurcpe's major cities, miliiall,
number of 152-mm (6 ir,) howrtzer balterl-s. ol prolectiies. To ihe artillery batteries' efforts and crvil llfe somehow managed to contirrue
but the arti]1erv divisions held the bulk of the wor:ld be addecl ihe fearful fire of the multiple Civilians were few in number and were by far
heavy "reapons rockei'launchers cf all rockei calibres, the ou:nurnbe:ed by -he nrlirary wlLo langed "rc:-
\&'ithin the artilJery cltvts.on Inere were a artillery clivisions addu-igi therr 300-min projec- the rast of 'he cll re qular German crII:! Lo c
nL,lnber ol artri.Lery brLgacies, each s:pporlcci trles. rabbie of 'forerqyn legions', party organizations
by its own transport battaljon and an artillery The massive hatterinq ram of what were and virtually r,intraineci conscripis many of
survey battery for plottrng and sur..'eying oiten known as 'breakthrough' artrliery divi- whom w.rc dr )'ourrg a- 14 years. By day
targets and battery locations. Although. there sions was a poweriul -weapcn thal the Red nrght the Allied and Red air iorces flew over
were many variations upon th€ establishrnent Arr:ry had exploited to the fuii by 1945, bul tts the crty lc add to the piles of rubble below anci
the usual arranqement was as followst oire major vreakness was an almost compleie to stoke the errer-burninq fires on almost ever-;
1 one hear,ry hcu,.ryrtzer artitlery brgad€ ol 1(1ur lack oi flexibilrty. Oi:ders came from cn hrgh
batteries, each battery havinrf four iroops each anci aL the; lovrcr comin,lrd -ev=..; al- .haL uras
wantecl was a totai obedtence to orders, even
The doomedcitywaits
with four i52-mm howttzers, makinq 64 i52-mm
howrtzers Lo il,e br,qad,.- when it was sornetirnesi appalcnl that the grrns Among ali this clesolatron ilrtler was still in
2, one howitzer artillery vrith four bal- were fi.rinil arnm'unition at ncthinq, This lack of his bunki:r atiempting to use -"vhat remained ci
'cries. each balrery .rai:nq four troops ca'.Lr fl.rihrlr'y rlic. ai'er",-.d ihe v, rV t i..{ae'ir:re his charisma lo command the shatiered armed-
with four IZ\.mm (4 8'rn) hovritzers, makrnq 64 :ype oJ Ll,1i'lo rhe R.C Aimy ic L"rh: I.r.le .tnd forces and defend what was left ol the Thi-r:d
ho-;vi'zers Lo the br,qacle, again the drltlJcry 4p,:i 1rr^ trc l civi'-orts Rerch. Ir wuS pol r,'r,ich. Tn the West tne.A11....
3, one hear,^r howrtzer artillerv bnqade wrth macle maicr hreakllii:or:ghs against ihe cntml: v,rcre still ad,rancrnq a;ici rl w'ts only a rnatter c'
ba'tcries each baticry havin! oniy rhre i'
fo'.rr llnc Geiman in.S . nly rO halr r , rtede:ei time beiore the Red Army stearnroller macie:
troops each with three 2O3'mm (8-rn) Nlodel rnrned line tr: resulrplY in preparatton for vet yet another push to overwhelm Berlin, But just
193 I howrLzers. nrakittg l6 20.1 mm hort r'.zers ro another set-plece bornbardment and batile, by remarning rn the city, when much of the
the bnqacie ,tn'i lhcn r, ' a lv-ncq tr a:n party and crvil administration had alreacly lefl
4. one mortar brlqade wrth four ba.tteriers, each In this lashicn tho Red Ai:my approar:hed
.been ior the soutirern hinlerland of Cermany, Hitler
battery having four batteries each v;ith lolrr Br-.rlin. It had adva.ncincJ in leaps and wrs str.l ahle tr- use h s plosence l,> insnt,"r
100-mm (6 3-in) mottars, rnaking 64 160-min horrnds ever since the Cermi,rn 61h Armv had s d(rlendarr: ir hali. on ihus one ol rhe
mortars lo Lhe briradc lnd l.6nq..pc1,nlr.n rr. S.r..n-irerJ ]J j.-:r, mns cv.l (lenilrs?s r)i :h(, 20lh c.:lruy rrsed ht'
5 one roc<e' Launcher brrq;dc wtth a .iouse lasl reserves of power to condemn thousands
organization and a variable nr,rmber of 300-mnt more to death at a tinie when ail 'ras already
(ll.B rn) mobrl+ mLrlliple rcckr l-lrrrnJt'ts lost Hrs party henr:hmen seemed to do whai
{ ,Sovief *fileev ofi.serves lfie frsl rsrunds of a
'hey e. LrJci '.o ld'i t. -1-,c rlo:tl-: -e 1al. AIL lnrorrch
The total manpower for each of these artii- ,O*iugu i;puuf on Gerrna.n .:n#-fanJe ob.slacjes jn
lery drvisions was 12,000, and in acldition t,: fvant of th*ir r,qsi{pns. oflen u.sec' the eiLrly rlays of Aprii l!45 squads of pally
{arra,ics rnln'.rd 1h^,1.-lrlis ^{ F^rLrn sc^krr.-r
their rnual rnotor transpcrt strenllths i.he dtvt- fftejre$rnsin a -'s.l/rng$arre-q* '. ',{rfills *f F."?.pJo.sions
sions were usually pro.rided with more trans- vthrit swept. before lh? 44vtn(i\q lroops . cu,i 'deserters' and hangrng thern qn the spot
h:': ne.lrJty OoS-. c^ hal I' ry-r nOl iCrf'c
befcre cvery streei tn Berlin hiid lls danq[n,1
exanple of lhe partv'-s 'r,'attittil f-)olnrers.
Awhy acrcss 'ithe Orir:r iho Sorriets already
nr''l sr on 1l1c ;r s,lftr.e ['.'\ /cI-. l''h ' partv in
-h. I .l.lrrn,,-: la l.':l I ,.1 ;.rC - 'l I rs I)1'155;4
th,ev Lrad alreariy rrnr:orrr:red many exarnples ol
concentralion c;rmos and ell tlie othnr exces-
Sr'- \i C;o' -.,n t,,..' .n'ho f.,r.-. rr1/;'fi11r'hr
So."rrol l]nion itsell lhe bnrial rr.tle of lbe Gaitlsi-
tert trua ati.rarly condemnecl millons oi Soviet
citiz,r:ns to by iocai fnrceci labour or de-
pc:JatiorL tc th.r: labour camps of the Rerch, ancl
lh+ R' ,l AttLu rr..,S,'- 'lo t'.,C()l l/. I' .1, n;lnr,c
to a Lreaten a.::nrv, ns it aclvan<-:ecl ar:ross Easl
!",r:sra -rn'j tntc Ccrn,"nv 's, ll hr Pod Ai'nv
had carried oitl its o,.rrn plocJralnme ol punish
rnenls, loctinq arid all the othttr happenings lhat
fol1o."nr battle, and rt was ready to rnake the last
hururliatrng arlvance urto the he,rrt of the Third
By 16 Ap::rl 1945 the Soviets v,rere ready and
the massed artiliery of iwo arrnies ieil upon the
Cerman pr:sitions, l'he lwo armies, swolien in
nrlnri--rs b/ rnrrr( 'rons nl ^>tta sl-r'(. tli'. ls:ons
anC armcur, v/ere commandeci h"y two ol the
Red Army conintanders that the Gernians had

,i ,':
- i":,

j..: l

i.'irii- '
i!:r'' ].:l
li:': :

I : 1l,l fi-t
t.:: , i:i

r:e to fear most, It4arshals Konev anci Zhu- nades ready to lall upon any infantry posiilons Nothing but ruins - the remains of the foreign
, ' ln the north Zhukov's lsi Belorussian Frcni that were left 1n a state to delend ihemselves. ministry in Berlinwhere plans had been drav,': ::
Bv iB April the Red Army was through the to reshape the map ofEurope. Europe had tnCee:
-,Ke throuQth the German hnes bei';',eei been c&anged, but not in the manner envisage: :
::.'../edt anci Frankiurt an der Oder lc tne OCer delences and able to range about the
'i:h Konev's lst l-lkrainian Froni brc<e -,'rrtualiv untoucheC farnlands of Pomerania as
: ::ugh between Forst and Gijrhlz. There r: r:.i:,.'ed towards Berlln, The tanks moved with
, lnesse in these massed attacks Tfie ai:-l- .ie arirllery, siopprnel every no1,r"r and again to trnued rherr westward advance. Br' - ---. -..
.: :-..- lvds dlrdl]ged wneel-lc--!rheel ln ic"','s :l-.j suppcrt :he rrext armcured advance so that Red Arny lanks wcre ir Lhe PoLsdar-+: . .

. r.rdered away lor hours beicre :h: ::l.:s :,',"-.1-n a ie.,i,i oays she:ls 'were lalling on the and through the sound cf artillery flre :ir: :: - -

: ','ed forward-. Tc, their fire n'a: accea :... ^ :i-r.i : t !.:..:l
,.:+.' ter of srnall arms could be heard, eve:: -: .:
-:rsome nolse oi the massed :r r:.t, :'r,-',n,ri the ciij' Hltler coni:inueci his decline Chancellery bunker where Hitler sirii :.:..'
--e rockei-launchers cf ai1 cal,li:s Ti::: -:::r a siale of norai faniasy, Already unhinged court with an entourage of the party fait::'--, -: '
. e the dre;deo Ka . . .s: .., :- :'-. -. .. ._.= , '=...F . -. ..:" --:Lr "'t 'he prevLous ]u17,
:: that point reality broke through the fan:as'.' .:'. :

.-S llid , - .,r -- : =,:

COLlld Oe-..d.- l-:.-=r s :t:d'.r"tthdre'!./ intc a realm where the ,n a la:t nroment of Wagnt-rian elol-tic-r l-- -
. :liefie jd with expiosive ancl il j: ri:g ir: ;::e : - .s l:r.::ar al::y ani party Civislons ol 1939 still shot hrmself along v/ith the farthlul i;; Er..,
icly no' ol rh'lr T.ola.' ' : !--. -.' . :.. ::.--:.:: aii :e :riered nonexistent divtsions and Lris dog, Their bodres were burnej r:. -.=
. -1 crash, .lo lheir l^s'r lc.-;r .' o : : - : :- .:.: ...:.. .,r.,.. :ii.c r--rdps cs lhougn he was qarden ouiside the bunker and the i.:=j
. rssed lire of lhe 152-mm hcwilzers anl ,:re : -,- -:. :::ii::;a:i :i a ll]lghiy force, The reality glimnler to the hcr::.,..
added their small 'lhud
.:rderous 203 mm Model 1931 h:'-,"ir:zers :ia ,'.:s :::::','.'-se C,;:side the bunkers whal re- around rhenr as the P.eich car.e ' . - ' - '
.ie able to seek out and destroy ihe she:.:rs :::-:.:j :: :he Cerinan army and the party end,
,-',: stronEpoints lvhere the hapiess Geit:.:: :::::-::. sha:ler-.i Lelo a mynad oi individuals Arcund lhe hunker rhe Fed Arri-. :.
. -'rrriry atlempted to ftnd urhat shelter :n:,'
','.':r: .::< ','.-ia: precautlons for tlie futr-rre that inlo a desolate wilclerncss o{ ruined t ,-. t
-:id. Farther back behind the fronl ltnes :i: :::',' ::.raih. :: Tnrs ranged from murdering where rsolated pockets of reslstance st,,, - ..
'. r emd n-flQ Cern"an bdtlerles v. aro . -: . . .-- --lj r,, --s ar s;scecied poltitcal opponents to ercd. Many of the rema jn jng s'rongi.o-r- ' '
','ept away by a torrerrt of fire that deslr,:;,'eo :lr-;,:.: ".'
illlie ir,!l,,]€S and lootec treasures nranned by various of the German 'fote,;:: -=
-: quns, gun positions and the renainr:,,-: -: :-. . r ::r. a+ In a hnal franL-c orgy of gions' who only too well what tc e .-1- = -
. :ks o{ ctmmuniL-cn. :-:' . .--- .i: f ll / in.1 iaserler squadscar- once they feil into Red Army hands l:.:: :
the bornbardrnent lifted the tar.ks l-a .. . ':.-t: ..:. irlaC,l..Ot-lS and then ran tO preferred to qo down flghting, Amon=r ::.=--
.- ,,ed forw-ard. Tlie T'-34/B5s and the IS-2s j- - cddntents wFre 'hc rcmdrnlncj mer.- ..
,.::bered from their hides, carrying v;ith thei:r T:r: ras: Geinar countercflensive had been such Waffen SS .rnrts as lhe Leqr -: '
.. Cescen' infantry sqtrads trdtrg )r. .1.- .: :ri:r:c c.r :ililer for 22 April, The advancing George culled Lrtrn Lhe njfraff o'Bi..-..
,-:s and wrth their sub-machine guns ani cl'e- F,e i irn',' ,in::s harrily noticed it as they con- prisoners-of-war, and the fanatjcal ada,3r=:. .
of the lndian Leglon who had often 'i,-
even therr German commanders :.-.-
ferocity and dedication to the Nazi cause
such pockeLs o{ resistan^r- rhe Rt:d Ar^ ..
manders wasted no trme. They srmpl;i :. -=
foi-ward a number oi 152-mm hovritzers .:.,
sited them close to the source of ihe rests:.:- - =
Then lhe howrlzers srmply blasred Lh+n .

as Red Army r-anreramen rocorded. l:.+ r .

to show workers back 1n the USSR ,r''n:: :.=

labours had made oossrole Thus -.. -
Arrny artillery machrne wrs in at rhe k.-- .

paved the route to Berlin all the way lic::'. : .

lingrad, and despite inflexibility its shee:. ; '
.... ,.., i

er had made the final Red Army vtctci-,' i - -'..'

The Red Army artiilery rnachine is :.' .-.,
powerful todal',

With nathing tafear from the spentLutiwa!:e
fJreseSorziel .15 ?-mm quns are drawn up ai'rr':s'.
hub to hub as they lay down a barrage on the
xtrviving G ennan positions. Afler jnces.sar."
paunding by massed artillery the R-ed Arr:'
attacked in averwhelm ing strength.

I5-cm Kanone 1B
When a German army requtrement for
a heauy glln to arm the new dlisional
artillery battedes was made in 1933,
Rheinmetall was able to land the con-
tract, Using the same carriage as that
submitted for the lS-cm sFH IB com-
petition, Rheinmetall designed a long
and good-looking gnrn with a range of
no less than 24500 m (26,800 yards),
which was well tn excess of anything
else available at the time, Production
did not begin immediately lor at the
time priority was gdven to the sFH 18,
so it was not until 1938 that the army got
its firct examples as the l5-cm Kanone
18 (15-cm K 18),
When the army beganto receive the
weapon it was very happy with the
range and the projectiles, but was less
than enchanted wrth some of the car-
riage features. One of these was the
fact that as the gnln was so long the gnrn
and carriaQle could not be towed
together except over very short dis-
tances. For any lonq move the barrel
had to be withdrawn from the carriage prisingly, the gunners asked for some- tion in addition to the marker shells A 15-cmK 18 forms thecentrepieceof
and towed on its own special transpor- thing better but rn the interim the grun was made available, There was a spe- a German artillery park captured by
ter carriage, The carriage itself was was in production and the gn:nners had cial concrete-piercing shell with a the British in Libya. This Rheinmetall
towed on its own wheels and a small to put up wrth thrngs as they were, As much reduced explosive payload, and d esign had an impres sive range, but
limber axle carrying another two things turned out, many of the K 18s another was just the opposite, being a was d angerously time- consuming to
wheels, A1l this took time, an undesir- were allocated to static coastal- thin-walled shell with an rncreased ex- deploy or withdraw.
able feature when gretting the gnrn into defence batteries or grarrison divtsions plosive content for enhanced blast
and out of action, and this time was where their relative lack of mobility effect, Specification
increased by another carriagTe feature, was of small account, Not surprisingly, On paper the K lB should have been lS-cmK lB
the use of a two-part turntable onto the coastal batteries soon found that one of Rheinmetall's better desrgns, It Calibre: I49,I mm (5.87 in)
which the gun was liJted to provide the K 1B made a qood coastal gnrn: its had an excellent ranqe and fired a Lengthofpiece:8,20 m (26 ft 10.8 in)
360'traverse, This too had to be got long range and the easily-traversed heavy projectile, but for the qunners Weisht:travelling 18700 kg (41,226 ]b)
into and out of action, and the carriage carriage made it ideal for the role, and who had to sewe the thing it must have and in actron 12460 kg (27,470 Ib)
was equipped with ramps and wrn- it was not long before spectal marker provided the source of a great deal of Elevation: -2" to +43'
ches so that even when sectionalized projectiles using red dyes were pro- hard work, Gunners are always Traverse: on platform 360" and on
for towinq it made up into two heavY duced specially for the marking and trained to get in and out of action as carriage I 1'
loads, rangrng of the gnrns. rapidly as possi$e, whatever weapon Muzzle velocity: 865 m (2,838 ft) per
As if the time-consuming installation Production of the K lB ended well they are using, but the K 1B seems to second
and removal drawbacks were not before the end of the war in favour of have provided them with somethingt Maximum range: 24500 m (26,800
enough, the rate of fire of the K lB was heavier weapons. But for the guns that only hard work could turn into an yards)
at best tvvo rounds per minute, Not sur- already in the field a range of ammuni- acceptable battlefleld weapon, Shellweisht: 43 kq (94 B lb)


15-cm Kanone 39
The gmn that became known to the
Germans as the l5-cm Kanone 39 (I5-
cm K 39) came to them via a round-
about route, The gnrn was origdnally
desigrned and produced by Krupp of
Essen for one of its traditional custom-
ers, T\-rkey, during the late 1930s. The
gun was intended to be a dual field/
coastal-defence gun and so used a
combination of split-ttail carriage
allied wrth what was then an innova-
tion, namely a portable tumtable onto
which the gun and carriage would be
holsted to provide 360'traverse, a fea-
ture very useful in a coastal-defence
weapon. T\vo of the ordered batch had
been delivered in 1939 when World
War broke out, and there was then
no easy way of delivering any more to
Turkey, With a war on its hands the
German army decided it needed as
many new freld gnrns as posstble and
the desiqn was taken into German ser-
vice without modification as the 15 cm
Kanone 39, and the type remained on
the production lines at Essen for the
German army alone.
Thus the German army found itself

The 1 1-cm Kanone 39 was a KrUPP

design commissioned by Turkey.
OnIy two examples had been
supplied when war broke out and
the G erman ar my adop ted it inste ad,
along with large stocks of
anmunition built to Turkish

lS-cm Kanone 39 (continued) Heavy Artillery of World War II
',",'lth a
larqe and useful gun that had to plosive sheil and a semi-armour-
:e transported in three loads: barrel, piercing projectile originally intended
:arriage and twntable, For most pur- by the Turks to be used against
poses the turntable was not really warships, All ihis non-standard
:-.ecessary and was only used when the ammunition was gradually used up be-
irrn was emplaced for coastal de- fore the Germans switched to thelr
::nce; the unit consrsted of a centlal normal ammunitron types,
::rntable onto which the carriage was By that time the K 39 was no longer in
placed, a series of outdgger struts and use as one of the standard weapons of
ar outer traversing circle, The whole the German army. The fuIl production
-.rrntable was made ofsteel, and in use run for the army was only about 40, and
rias anchored in place, The spread thrs was understandably thought to be
:rails were secured to the outer too awkward a number for logistical
:averse circle, and the whole grun and comfort, Thus the K 39s were diverted
:arriage could then be moved by us- to the tfaining role and then to the
-rg a hand crank arrangement. This Atlantic Wall defences, where they re-
platform attracted a great deal ofatten- verted to their htended purpose, On
:on from many other design teams, in- the static Atlantic Wall sites the turn-
:luding the Americans who used it as tables could be careflrlly emplaced to
re basrs for the 'Kelly Mount' used best effect and the gnrns could use their
rith 155-mm (6, l-rn) Ml quns, long range to qood purpose. Elevation: -4'to +45" A l1-cm K 39 lies abandoned on the
The K 39 could fire conventional Traverse: on turntable 360'and on lrozensteppes, providing a subjea
Serman ammunition, but when first in- Specification carriage 60' of interestfor the columns of Soviet
:cduced into service it came with siz- l$crnK39 Muzzle velocity: 865 m (2,838 ft) per tr oops marching wes twar d s. T h e
:.irle stocks of ammunition produced Calibre: 143 i mrn (5.87 r,r) second K 39waseventuallywithdrawn to a
::r Ttrkish use and to Ttrkish spe- Lengrth of piece:8.25 m (27 ft O.B in) Manimumrange: 24700 m (27,010 training role for logistic reasons.
:-ications, This involved a three- Weight: travelltrg 18282 kq (40 305 Ib) yards) Some were emplaced in the Atlantjc
::arge system and included a high ex- and:.n acion .2203 kq (26 896 lb) Shellweisht:43 kg (94.8 lb) Wall as a coastal defence gan.


lZ-cm Kanone 18 and 2l-cm Morser 18

ren rt came to artillery design in the
y':ars during both world wars, Krupp
;1 F.qqsn g3n fg regtarded as the virhral
-:aders. The company's sound
:pproach, coupled with the thorougrh
::'.'elopment of innovations, led to
s::::e of the most remarkable artillery
,:-:ces in use an]'where in theu day,
one of these innovations feahned
::- what were two of the most remark-
.-:e adillery pieces in sewice dulng
i'i,rrld War IL This innovation was the
::::ble recoil' carriage on which the
::rnal recoil forces were flrst taken
-p by the orthodox recoil mechanism use untrl the end of ihe Trar. as drd the 2l-cmMrs 18 A 2 I -cm Morser I 8, so called
:,:se to the barrel and then by the l?-cm K I8 w:lch:cnmued to rmpress Calihls; N16.9 mm (8,3 1n) because theGermans refened ta
:=sage sliding inside rarls set on the all who encounre:ed it. either as reci- Lenqtlofpiece:6,51 m(21 ft4,3 in) their heavy howitzers as mortars.
:rk of the travelling carriage, In this ptents of the 68-kg (149.9-lb) shell or as Weight: travelhng 22700 kg (50,045 lb) used tfie same carriage as the
T:-Y all the recoil forces were gunners In iacr the A.lhes somehmes and in action 16700 ks (36,8 17 lb) 17-cmK 18.
=-sorbed rn'rth virtually no movement acted as gurners. for in 1944 some Elevation: 0' to + 50'
::-ative to the ground, and flrrng Alhed batteries rised captured 17-cm Traverse: on platform 360o and on Asthe SthArmy advanced depe,r
::JJacy was thus enhanced, Further K l8s when ammLrnitron supplies for carrlage 16" into Tunisia, this I 7-cn K I I was
-:-provements also ensured that the ther norma] chargres were drslupted Muzzlevelocity:565 m (1,854 ft) per captured intacf and used aErains: : :s
::--e barrel and carriage could rest by the long loqisncal trarn from Nor- second AfrikaKorps former owners. LonEe:
:- a hght finng platform that formed a mandy to the German border. For all Maximumrange: 16700 m (18,270 ranged than the 2 I -cm M I 8.
;:;rt for easy and rapid traverse. thelr weight and bulk, both the l7-cm yards) production facilities were devotxi
lrisdouble-action carriage was (6,8-in) and 21-cm pieces were fairly Shellweight: HE 121 kg (266 B lb) exclusivelytotheK l8 after 1942
,sed mainly with two Krupp weapons, easy to handle A full 360'traverse
-:e smaller was the l7-cm Kanone l8 could be made by only one man, and
r::ual calibre l72.5mrn/6.79 in) and although both pieces had to be carried
:: larger the 2l-cm Morser 18 (the in two loads the carriage was well
3=rnans often followed the continen- equipped mth winches and ramps to
. practice of callng heavy howrtzers make the process of removinq the bar-
= ::ortar). These two weapons were rel from the carrlage a fauly light and
::i rntroduced in l7-cm (6.8-in) form rapid task. For shorl distances both
: :941 and in 2l-cm (8.3-in) form in weapons could be towed in one load
-:39. Both proved to be excellent by a heavy halfrrack tractor.
T:apons and demand was such that
!-::pp had to delegate extra produc-
::: to Hanomag at Hannover, Of the
T;l weapons priority was at first given
-: .re 2l-cm Mrs 18, and a wide range Specification.
-: special projectiles was developed I?-cmK l8
::: this weapon, including concrete- Calibre: 172.5 mm(6,79 in)
:-.rcrng shells, But with the advent of tengnh ofpiece: B,529 m (27 ft I 1,8 in)
:: 17-cm K 18 it soon became appa- Weight: travelling 23375 kg (51,533 ]b)
:::t that the l7-cm shells were only andinaction 17520 kg (38,625 ]b)
less effective than their 21- Elevation: 0' to * 50"
:::: equrvalents, and that the 17-cm gnrn Traverse: on platform 360'and on
-=l a much greater ranqe (29600n/ carriage 16'
::370 yards as opposed to 16700m/ Muzzle velocity: 925 m (3,035 ft) per
- ! 270 yards), Thus in 1942 priority was second
;-,-.n to the 17-cm K lB, productron of Maximum range: 29600 m (32,370
:-: 2l-cm Mrs 18 ceasrng, yards)
n:t the 2l-cm Mrs lB remained in shellweisht: HE 68 kq (149,9 lb)
Armed Forces of the World

From 1947 to the present, tne major problem faced
by the ltalian navy has not been an external threat
but rather a shortage o'rrcney. Almost every major
construction programn'e nas e tner been post-
poned or partly cancelled beca-ise of the lack of
funds, and this has mean: that srips sirch as the
'lmpavido' class of miss'le destroyers, built in the
early 1960s as part of the f rsi post-war building
programme, are still in front-l ne coerat,onal service
even though their usefulness n -odem naval war-
fare must now be questionable. ;cwever, the 1975
Legge Navale (naval law) autno;zer a build-
ing programme to provide nev. constructlon and
f ully to modernize some of tne o! n orderto
update the fleet to meet NATO reqr'ren'ents. De-
spite this worthy intention, parts l= re cran. s.jcn as
the two improved 'Audace' ciass repiacen'ents for
the'lmpavido'class units, have iaclo be postponed
because the total construction anc reb.r !d ng costs
have overrun the initial estlmates. Allrcign suffer-
ing badly from these econom c serrac<s. :ne ltalian
navy has a manpower strengtn o'38.650 ,excild:ng
1,500 naval airmen and750 marnes, a-3 s ergaged
n expanding its capabilities and r s nas prov ded a
stimulus to the indigenous shipb" c-n-c r' lnat air force to operate fixed-wing aircraft. fhe Vittorio Vittorio Veneto is the fleet flagship of the I talian
's navy andwill remain so until the light aircraft-
helping to ensure that ltaly rerra Fs 5'::-e reac of Veneto, now iitted with the long-range Standard
the European warship exporters' .ea-c-e. SMl ER SAM n:issile, Otomat anti-ship missiles and carrr'er Guiseppe Garibaldilblitted out. Mounthg a
The most important unit in tne neu -egEe \ala e ASROC ASW rn ssrles. can still operate effectively formidable array of anti-ship and ASW missile,
programme is the light aircraft-ca'-e. G- secpia she carries nine AB.2 I 2 helicopters to sc"een an
e-ther ln s,jpport ol the carrier or in her own right as
Garibddi, which is currently being i::e: o-: g'r -- an ASW hunter-<:ller group leader providing both an
cantieri. She is due to replace the tlr.. ece-\ -e - ,AS\t nel copter screen around the force and the
coptercruisers Andrea Doriaand Ca'o )- ba-,c * :ac lt'es necessary for helicopter maintenance. battery as their main armament and one rather i.e-
iake over the fleet flagship dutles 'r'cr i-; 1r id Tne n ed,un'-range area SAM defence to the car- two helicopters of the ASW variant. Coastal ccr'",:'.
nelicopter cruis er Vittorio l/eneto. Altnclgr: 3- a,a \ rer and AS\\ tas< groups is provided by the two defence and ASW duties are at present the tas< :'
designed to operate only the licenceo- Ag-s':a-t 'lrrpavdo' and tvvo 'Audace' class guided-missile the eight corvettes of the 'De Cristofaro' and "A ca:-
Sikorsky SH3D Sea King ASW helicoprer or'is Ac.s- cesircveis w't1 the,r Standard SMlMR missiles.
iaANestland EH101 replacement, the mnfg--arcr T-ese sn os are assrsted by the eight 'Maestrale'
.^: Although their hulls are simply bigger versims d
cf the ship (with its 'flush' through dec< ano ^eC cass and s.*c 'Alp;no' class ASW frigates which the'lmpavido' c/asg Audace andArdiro aremud
-amp at the forward end of the flightdec<, .ra(es 'r p'cv'oe tre sJrace ship screens. The modern more effective vessels. Carrying one or two /rSW
obvious that V/STOL jet aircraft can be en'ba.<eo. 'frraestrales' are an enlarged version of the four helicopters, they are equipped with a prclrerfal
Such a move would cause a major polit:cal sio'r =cr 'L.rpo class anti-surface warfare convoy escort fri- anti- aircraft battery and are soon to fu frtted *lith
:ne navy as the ltalian constitution pern ts c^\ --.e gates. and cany an enhanced Otomat SSM missile OtomatSSMs.
Armed Forces of the World lZ F"'sS ItalianNaw
ly-controlled underwater mine-disposal vehicle
known as MIN, together with six divers for the
identification and destruction of both moored and
ground mines as well as a conventional Oreposa
towed mechanical sweep system.
The navy's small amphibious force has a single
marine infantry battalion for which a new LPD has
been ordered from CNR for delivery in the late
1980s. This new ship will be able to carry up to 400
fully equipped troops, 36 APCs, three LCMs in a
floodable dock and three LCVPs on the upper deck.
As an alternative to the APCs and LCMs she can
carry up to 30 MBTs or their equivalents. The upper
deck will be of the carrier type with an island on the
starboard side. lt will be able to operate helicopters
up to the size of the Boeing Vertol CH47 Chinook.

Order of battle
Surfacevessels :\
one light anti-submarine warfare carrier: Guiseppe 1.
G a ri b a I d i (C551 I f itti n g o ut
three helicopter cruisers : V itto rio Ve n eto (C5501,
Armed with six 533-mm (2 I -in) torpedo tubes, the and wire-guided A184 active-passive acoustic- And rea Doria (C553) and Ca i o D u i I i o \C5541, the
diesel-electric attatk submarine Nazario Sauro uras homing torpedo (plus a variety of ground mine ' last being used as a training ship
ordered in I 967 but commissioned only in I 980 types) the ltalian boats are very manoeuvrable and four guided-missile destroyers : Audace (D550),
dter defence cufs causedier cancellation until are ideally suited for operating in the restricted wa- Ardito (D5511, I mpavido (D57 0l and I ntrepido
I 97 2, when she was re-ordered.
ters of the Mediterranean. (D571)
Apart from the submarine the, other major threat '1
0 anti-submarine warfare f rig ares-. M a estral e
that the ltalian navy has to be able to overcome lF 57 }D, G r e ca I e (F 57 1 l, Li be cc i o (F 57 2\, S ci r o cc o
ros' classes. These elderly vessels are to be re- around its coasts and at several strategic'choke lF573l, Aliseo lF57 4), Euro (F575), Espero (F576),
placed over the next few years by an eventual total points'within its sphere of influence is the sea mine. \. A/prno (F580) and Ca rabi nie re
Zeff i ro (F577
of 12 new-build 1,300-ton corvettes, of which the The need for a large number of minesweepers and (F581 )
first four (Mrne rva, Urania, Danaideand Sfinge) have minehunters is obvious as almost 90 per cent of the foursurfacewarfare frigates: Lupo(F564),
lust been ordered irom CNR. country's strategic imports such as oil come by sea S ag i tta ri o (F565), Perseo ( F566) a nd Orsa ( F567 )
The submarine force is relatively modern, and and all the routes to the major ports pass through eight corvettes: four 'De Cristofaro' class and fou r
comprises eight hunter-killers of the 'Nazario Sauro' relatively narrow channels. The mine-counter- 'Albatros' class, with four of an eventual 1 2-shlp
and 'Enrico Toti' classes, plus two early 1950s measures force to deal with this has always been of replacement class on order
period ex-American'Tang' class boats. These latter limited size and often of marginal effectiveness. At seven fast attack hydrofoils (missile): seven
craft are due to be replaced by another two units of present it consists of four ocean, 1 4 coastal and four 'Sparviero' class
an improved 'Nazario Sauro' design for which a con- inshore minesweepers backed by nine minehunter fou r fast attack craft (convertible): two 'Freccia'
tract has been placed with ltalcantieri. Armed with conversions. All of the units are either ex-American class and two'Lampo'class each able to serve as
the 2Gkm (12.4-mile) range electrically-powered or constructed to NATO designs of the 1950s. To a gunboat, torpedo craft orfast minelayer
update the force and replace the least effective 55 amphibious warfare vessels: 32 LCVPs, 1 8
units four GRP minehunters of the 'Lerici' class are LCM3s, two'De Soto County'class LSTs, one ' i
being built by lntermarine. A further six units prob- special forces depot ship, two 'Higgins' class
Built entirely of aluminium, the'Sparuiero' class
ably to the modified 'Lerici' design known as the frogman support craft and (on order) one LPD
@rofoils are capable of up to 50 kts and carry a
'Gaeta' class will be built. Equipped with a licence- 32 minewarfarevessels: four'Aggressive' class
pal;r of Otomat SSMs. In the confined waters
atound ltaly their short range and limited built version of the AN/SOO-14 'Squeaky Fourteen' ocean minesweepers, three'Adjutant' class
annamtent are nof a serjous dr'sa dvantage. minehunting sonar, these ships use a single remotb- coastal minesweepers, six'Adjutant' class
minehunters, 1 1'Agave' class coastal
minesweepers, three'Agave' class minehunters,
four'Aragosta' class inshore minesweepers and
(on order) four' Lerici' class minehunters (with
another six planned)
three survey ships
two underway replenishment tankers -v
1 00 or more service and auxiliary vessels
Submarines .1

four'Toti' class patrol submarines: Attilio Bagnolini

t '.,:
(S505), Enrlco loti (S506), Enrico Dandolo(5513]t
and Lazzaro Mocegino (5514) ,'
four'Sauro' class patrol submarines: Nazario Sauro
1 8), Fecr'adi di Cossafo (S5 1 9), Leon a rdo da

Vinci (5520) and Guglielmo Marconi (S521) : '

two 'Tang' class patrol submarines: Livio Piomarta
(S515) and Romeo RomeilS5l6), to be replaced
by two more 'Sauro' class boats

Marine infantry :'.:

San Marco marine infantry battalion group with 30

' ::.'::
VCC-1 armouredinfantryfightingvehicles,24
LWP-7 amphibious armoured personnel carriers;,':
1 6 B1-mm mortars, eight 1 06-mm recoilless rif les,

and six Milan anti-tank missile launchers