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Mini Riset Aljabar

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RESEARCH MINI

Created By:

1. CristyIndryany S (4163312005)

2. Tira Kristy Pane (4163312028)

MATHEMATICS DEPARTEMENT

FACULTY OF MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCES

STATE UNIVERSITY OF MEDAN

2018

FOREWORD

Praise and gratitude I pray to the presence of God Almighty for His blessings and

Grace so that the writer can complete this linear algebra mini research task. In writing this

mini-research, the author certainly can not solve itself without the help of others. Therefore,

the authors would like to thank all those who have helped complete this mini-research.

The purpose of this research mini writing is to fulfill one of the tasks in linear algebra

courses.

The author is very aware that this mini research is still very far from the perfection

caused by the limitations and ability of the author. Because the authors apologize if there is a

mistake in writing and the authors also expect criticism and suggestions that are constructive

for the perfection of this research mini.

Finally, the authors say thank you for this mini research can be useful and can increase

knowledge for the readers.

Author

CHAPTER I

PRELIMINARY

1.1. Background

One of the most important branches of mathematics is Algebra. Algebra comes

from the Arabic word "al-jabr" meaning "meeting or relationship or completion". The

inventor of Algebra is Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi. Mathematical

sciences can also be used to solve real-world problems in the fields of economics,

statistics, biology, or others. For other branches of mathematics are Analysis, Differential

Equations, Geometry, Graph Theory, and Applied Mathematics. In Algebra has a subject

to be developed further, one of which is Linear Algebra.

Determinants are a subject that is included in Linear Algebra. Determinants are

used to solve problems related to Linear Algebra, for example finding the inverse matrix,

determining the characteristic equation of a problem in determining the eigenvalues, and

for solving linear equations.

The calculation of the matrix determinant values known for this is the Sarrus

method and the expansion cofactor or Laplace expansion. Sarrus Method

used for the order matrix and. As for orders of more than 3 is usually used cofactor

expansion is the retrieval of rows or any column, after that summed. Cofactor expansion or

Laplace expansion is an extension of the cofactor, since in the calculation the determinant

thus contains the cofactor of any row or column. Other methods to calculate the

determinants of matrices other than the Sarrus method and the cofactor or Laplace

expansion are also used elementary row operations (OBE), elementary column operations

(OKE), and a combination of OBE with the expansion of the cofactors.

Based on previous research on the calculation of matrix determinant by Armend Salihu

obtained New Method to Calculate Determinants of Matrix, by Reducing Determinants to

2nd order in 2012

and New Method to Compute the Determinant of Matrix, and also research

conducted by Dardan Hajrizaj obtained New Method to Compute theDeterminant of 3 3

Matrix in 2009. In this discussion will dibahastentang equation relation recurrence amount on

the operation of addition and multiplication operation in order 3 , order 4, and order 5 using

Laplace expansion method and Chio method. Of the two methods will be compared the

number of addition operations and multiplication operations using recurrence relation

equations are done manually. If the order is greater then the time required is also long, so in

this discussion will be discussed which is more simple whether the expansion method

Laplace or Chio method. For calculations performed on computers using algorithms for large

orders requires a large memory, but in this discussion will only be discussed for calculation

manually only.

Based on the above problem, it is seen that the importance of a matrix determinant

calculation for a large order. Therefore, in this thesis the author took the title "Recurrence

Relation Equation on Matrix Determination Value Calculation Using Laplace Expansion

Method and Chio Method".

Based on the above background, the following problems can be formulated:

1. How to prove Laplace's expansion method to calculate the determinant of the matrix?

2. How does the recurrence relation relationship the number of functions on the addition and

multiplication operation in determining the determinant of the matrix using the Laplace

expansion method?

3. How to prove Chio method to calculate the determinant of matrix?

4. How does the recurrence relation of number of functions in the sum and multiplication

operation in determining the determinant of matrix using Chio method?

5. How is the comparison of laplace expansion method and Chio method seen from sum sum

operation and multiplication operation?

Based on the formulation of the above problems, then the purpose of this study is:

1. Prove the Laplace expansion method to calculate the determinant of the matrix.

2. Referring recurrence relation equations to the number of sequences in addition and

multiplication operations to determine the determinant of the matrix by the Laplace

expansion method

3. Proving Chio method to calculate the determinant of matrix.

4. Refer the recurrence relation equation to the number of sequences in the addition and

multiplication operations to determine the determinant of the matrix using the Chio method.

5. Show comparison of Laplace expansion method and Chio method seen from sum sum

operation and multiplication operation?

1.4. Scope of problem

In order for writing can be directed, then the problem in this thesis has a restriction

that is the recurrence relation equation discussed in this study is a function of the sum of

multiplication operations and the addition operation on the order matrix 3, order 4, and order

5.

This research is expected to benefit all parties.

1. For Authors

a. It is a vehicle for acquiring knowledge and insight into methods that can be used in

calculating the determinant value of a matrix.

b. As a provision of practical experience in applying the knowledge gained dibangku

especially in the field of Mathematics.

2. For Readers

a. As a reference in adding insight and knowledge of methods in calculating the determinant

value of matrix with simpler method.

b. Provides information to the reader that there are other methods that can be used in

calculating the determinant of the matrix and may help in finding a large beriero determinant.

1. Type of Research

The research method used in this paper is literature research or library research (library

research). Research literature or often also called literature study is a series of activities

related to library data collection methods, reading and recording and processing of research

materials. (Zed, 2008: 3). Meanwhile, according to M. Nazir in his book entitled "Research

Methods" suggests that the meaning of literature study is a technique of data collection by

conducting a study of books, literature, records, and reports that have something to do with

the problem which is solved.

Data needed in this research is data covering about matrix and process calculation of

determinant of matrix. Information

for this study collected from reference books on Linear Algebra, Determinan, journals and

internet articles on matrix and matrix determinants. The reference book used is Elementary

Matrix Theory (2003) and Linear Matrix Algebra (2012), Linear Algebra with Its Application

(1993), Matrix Version (1984), and Linear Elementary Algebra application version vol 1

(2005) for the basic concepts of matrices and determinants.

Data collection is one of the process of data procurement for research purposes. Data

collection is a systematic and standard procedure for obtaining the necessary data. To obtain

data, the authors use the steps of Library Research that every research requires materials that

are sourced from the library. The author uses the documentary method, which is looking for

data about records, books, research journals relevant to the problems that the author

discussed.

The steps taken by the author in analyzing the data are as follows:

1. Formulate the issues to be discussed.

2. Collect and understand the various literature related to the issues to be discussed by

reading and reviewing the related material. In this case, the literature used, in the form of

books related to the matrix and determinant matrix.

3. Solve the problem by using Laplace and Chio Expansion Method and with OBE or OKE.

4. Make a conclusion. The conclusion is a short answer to the problems that have been

described in the lecture

CHAPTER II

DISCUSSION

Calculation of matrix determinant with n ≥ 3 will be simpler if solved by Laplace

Expansion method is a method of calculating the determinant by using a cofactor or extension

of the cofactor by summing the product of each i-th row entry or the jth column with its

cofactor

Definition 2.1.13

If the matrix A is nxn, the determinant of the matrix A is defined by

Theorem: If the matrix B is derived from matrix A by bringing the row (column) i through p

row (column) then det (B) = (-1) ᴾ det (A).

Theorem (Laplace Expansion): The determinant of a [A] = [ij] matrix is equal to the number

of multiplicative elements of any row (column) with its cofactors:

- For example known matrix A is

- Search | A | = | A | ᵗ

- Determine the matrix B obtained by moving the first row through (i-1) the first row and the

j column through (j - 1) the first column is obtained

- Because of doing two displacements ie rows and columns then

|𝑨| = (−1)𝑖−1 (−1)𝑗−1 |𝐴|

= (−1)𝑖−1+𝑗−1 |𝐴|

= (−1)𝑖+𝑗 |𝐴|

It can be seen that the elements in the matrix B position of the first row of the first

column ie𝑎ij and minor𝑎ij are exactly minor than A. Thus, the tribes | B |= (−1)𝑖+𝑗 |𝐴|

It is all the tribes of determinant A that have ij as a factor. Then the determinant of the initial

matrix is the determinant of the matrix A is |𝐴| = ∑𝑛𝑗=1 aij (−1)𝑖+𝑗 |𝑀𝑖𝑗|

|𝐴| = ∑𝑛𝑗=1 aij cij

and 5 order matrices

For the order matrix 2 there are 2 multiplication operations and 1 addition operation,

order 3 there are 9 multiplication operations and 4 sum operations, order 4 there are 40

multiplication operations and 17 addition operations, and order 5 there are 205 multiplication

operations and 86 sum operations. With recurrence relation can be written as below:

a. Operation Sum

Let Jn be the sum of the summation operations of the matrix with the order n + 1, then

𝐽₁ = 1

𝐽₂ = 4

= 𝐽₁. 3 + 4

𝐽₃ = 17

= 𝐽₂. 4 + 1

𝐽₄ = 86

= 𝐽₃. 5 + 1

Then the general solution of the recurrence relation equation for the sum of the sum

operation is

𝒑𝒏 = 𝟐(𝒏 + 𝟏) + 𝟏

C. Determinant Matrix using Chio Method

Chio Method Theorem

Let A=[aij] be the square matrix of the order nx n, and assume a11. Given D denoted as a

matrix obtained by replacing each element in A(1)(1) by

Then j

𝐷

|𝐴| =

𝑎₁₁𝑛−2

1

|𝐴| = |𝐷|

𝑎₁₁𝑛−2

1

|𝐴| =

𝑎₁₁𝑛−2

Evidence

The matrix A is given a ber x den nx n ie

A=

Then multiply each second column with a₁₁ except the first column

= 𝑎₁₁𝑛−2

So it can be written:

By performing an elementary row operation other than the first column (-a12) multiplied by

the first column plus the second column [(-12) .I -II], so on depending on the column

1

=

𝑎₁₁𝑛−2

1

= 𝑎₁₁𝑛−2

The use of frequency relation equations in Chio method for 3, 4, and 5 order

matrices

In the order matrix 2 there are 2 multiplication operations and 1 sum operation, order 3 there

are 11 multiplication operations and 5 sum operations, order 4 there are 29 multiplication

operations and 14 sum operations, and order 5 there are 61 multiplication operations and 30

addition operations. With recurrence relation can be written as below:

a. Operation Sum

Let Jn be the sum of the summation operations of the matrix with the order n + 1, then

𝐽₁ = 1

𝐽₂ = 5

= 𝐽₁ + (𝑛. 𝑛)

𝐽₃ = 14

= 𝐽₂ + (𝑛. 𝑛)

𝐽₄ = 30

= 𝐽₃ + (𝑛. 𝑛)

Then the general solution of the recurrence relation equation for the number of multiplication

operations ie

𝐽𝑛 = 1 + (𝑛2 )

b. Multiplication Operations

For example Pn is the number of matrix multiplication operations with the

order n + 1, then

𝑝₁ = 2

𝑝₂ = 11

= 𝑝₁( 𝑛2 ) + 2((𝑛 − 1)2 ) + 1

𝑝₃ = 29

= 𝑝₂( 𝑛2 ) + 2((𝑛 − 1)2 ) + +2((𝑛 − 2)2 ) + 1

𝑝₄ = 61

= 𝑝₂( 𝑛2 ) + 2((𝑛 − 1)2 ) + 2((𝑛 − 2)2 ) + 2((𝑛 − 3)2 ) + 1

Then the general solution of the recurrence relation equation for the number of multiplication

operations ie

𝑝𝑛 = 2(𝑛2 ) + 2((𝑛 − 1)2 ) + 2((𝑛 − 2)2 ) + ⋯ + 2(1) + 1

Number of Sum and Multiplication Operations

The sum of the sum and multiplication operations can be presented in the table below

from the 3rd order matrix, the 4th order, and the 5th order, namely:

Comparison Table calculates Matrix Determination with Laplace Expansion Method and

Chio Method

Based on the above table note in the total column of sum and multiplication. For the Laplace

3 order expansion method requires 13 sum and multiplication operations, Order 4 requires 57

addition and multiplication operations, and the 5th order requires 291 sum and multiplication

operations. While the Chio Ordo 3 method requires 16 summing and multiplication

operations, Order 4 requires 43 addition and multiplication operations, and the 5th order

requires 91 sum and multiplication operations. So it is intuitively seen that the Chio method is

simpler than the Laplace expansion method.

The Laplace expansion method and Chio method can be presented using Ms. excel to

calculate the determinant of the matrix based on the general solution of both methods,

namely:

Comparison Table Laplace Expansion Method and Chio Method using Ms. Excel

From the above table it can be seen that the Chio method is simpler for its addition operation

and its multiplication is less than the Laplace expansion method for orders over 3.

CHAPTER III

COVER

A. CONCLUSION

Based on the problem formulation and problem limitation and description on the

discussion that this research aims to find the solution of recurrence relation equation of order

3, order 4, and order 5 using Laplace expansion method and Chio method. Lapalce expansion

method is a method to calculate the determina matrix by selecting any row or column for

expansion, then multiplying the elements aij with cofactor yaitucij until the matrix obtained

in which berordo 2. As for Chio method is the method of calculating the determinant of

matrix where for position on the first row column first yaitua11 ≠ 0, then for example given

the matrix D obtained by replacing each elementai at A (1) (1) by

From the order order, and the order is obtained the relation of recurrence relation of

sum sum operation and multiplication operation. To determine the determinant of the matrix

using the Laplace expansion method on the addition operation can be searched with 𝑱𝒏 =

𝟏(𝒏 + 𝟏) + 𝟏 and the multiplication operation can be searched with pn = 2 (n + 1) + (n + 1).

While the Chio method for the summing operation can be searched by Jn = 1 + (nn) and the

multiplication operation can be searched 𝑝𝑛 = 2(𝑛2 ) + 2((𝑛 − 1)2 ) + 2((𝑛 − 2)2 ) + ⋯ +

2(1) + 1So it can be concluded that for the Laplace 3 order expansion method requires 15

addition and multiplication operations, Order 4 requires 57 addition and multiplication

operations, and order 5 requires 291

Sum and multiplication operations. While the Chio Ordo 3 method requires 16

summing and multiplication operations, Order 4 requires 43 addition and multiplication

operations, and the 5th order requires 91 sum and multiplication operations. Thus the Chio

method is simpler than the Laplace expansion method for determining the matrix determinant

value manually with an order of more than 3. But algorithms using computers for large orders

require large speed memory.

B. SUGGESTION

Therefore, to follow up this writing, the authors are hoping for a new research that

discusses the calculation of determinants of matrices for larger orders using the computer as

well as reviewing the Chio method in more detail.

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