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# LINEAR ALGEBRA

RESEARCH MINI

Created By:
1. CristyIndryany S (4163312005)
2. Tira Kristy Pane (4163312028)

MATHEMATICS DEPARTEMENT
FACULTY OF MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCES
STATE UNIVERSITY OF MEDAN
2018
FOREWORD

Praise and gratitude I pray to the presence of God Almighty for His blessings and
Grace so that the writer can complete this linear algebra mini research task. In writing this
mini-research, the author certainly can not solve itself without the help of others. Therefore,
the authors would like to thank all those who have helped complete this mini-research.
The purpose of this research mini writing is to fulfill one of the tasks in linear algebra
courses.
The author is very aware that this mini research is still very far from the perfection
caused by the limitations and ability of the author. Because the authors apologize if there is a
mistake in writing and the authors also expect criticism and suggestions that are constructive
for the perfection of this research mini.
Finally, the authors say thank you for this mini research can be useful and can increase

## Medan, May 23, 2018

Author
CHAPTER I
PRELIMINARY

1.1. Background
One of the most important branches of mathematics is Algebra. Algebra comes
from the Arabic word "al-jabr" meaning "meeting or relationship or completion". The
inventor of Algebra is Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi. Mathematical
sciences can also be used to solve real-world problems in the fields of economics,
statistics, biology, or others. For other branches of mathematics are Analysis, Differential
Equations, Geometry, Graph Theory, and Applied Mathematics. In Algebra has a subject
to be developed further, one of which is Linear Algebra.
Determinants are a subject that is included in Linear Algebra. Determinants are
used to solve problems related to Linear Algebra, for example finding the inverse matrix,
determining the characteristic equation of a problem in determining the eigenvalues, and
for solving linear equations.
The calculation of the matrix determinant values known for this is the Sarrus
method and the expansion cofactor or Laplace expansion. Sarrus Method
used for the order matrix and. As for orders of more than 3 is usually used cofactor
expansion is the retrieval of rows or any column, after that summed. Cofactor expansion or
Laplace expansion is an extension of the cofactor, since in the calculation the determinant
thus contains the cofactor of any row or column. Other methods to calculate the
determinants of matrices other than the Sarrus method and the cofactor or Laplace
expansion are also used elementary row operations (OBE), elementary column operations
(OKE), and a combination of OBE with the expansion of the cofactors.
Based on previous research on the calculation of matrix determinant by Armend Salihu
obtained New Method to Calculate Determinants of Matrix, by Reducing Determinants to
2nd order in 2012
and New Method to Compute the Determinant of Matrix, and also research
conducted by Dardan Hajrizaj obtained New Method to Compute theDeterminant of 3 3
Matrix in 2009. In this discussion will dibahastentang equation relation recurrence amount on
the operation of addition and multiplication operation in order 3 , order 4, and order 5 using
Laplace expansion method and Chio method. Of the two methods will be compared the
number of addition operations and multiplication operations using recurrence relation
equations are done manually. If the order is greater then the time required is also long, so in
this discussion will be discussed which is more simple whether the expansion method
Laplace or Chio method. For calculations performed on computers using algorithms for large
orders requires a large memory, but in this discussion will only be discussed for calculation
manually only.
Based on the above problem, it is seen that the importance of a matrix determinant
calculation for a large order. Therefore, in this thesis the author took the title "Recurrence
Relation Equation on Matrix Determination Value Calculation Using Laplace Expansion
Method and Chio Method".

## 1.2. Formulation of the problem

Based on the above background, the following problems can be formulated:
1. How to prove Laplace's expansion method to calculate the determinant of the matrix?
2. How does the recurrence relation relationship the number of functions on the addition and
multiplication operation in determining the determinant of the matrix using the Laplace
expansion method?
3. How to prove Chio method to calculate the determinant of matrix?
4. How does the recurrence relation of number of functions in the sum and multiplication
operation in determining the determinant of matrix using Chio method?
5. How is the comparison of laplace expansion method and Chio method seen from sum sum
operation and multiplication operation?

## 1.3. Writing purpose

Based on the formulation of the above problems, then the purpose of this study is:
1. Prove the Laplace expansion method to calculate the determinant of the matrix.
2. Referring recurrence relation equations to the number of sequences in addition and
multiplication operations to determine the determinant of the matrix by the Laplace
expansion method
3. Proving Chio method to calculate the determinant of matrix.
4. Refer the recurrence relation equation to the number of sequences in the addition and
multiplication operations to determine the determinant of the matrix using the Chio method.
5. Show comparison of Laplace expansion method and Chio method seen from sum sum
operation and multiplication operation?
1.4. Scope of problem
In order for writing can be directed, then the problem in this thesis has a restriction
that is the recurrence relation equation discussed in this study is a function of the sum of
multiplication operations and the addition operation on the order matrix 3, order 4, and order
5.

## 1.5. Benefits of research

This research is expected to benefit all parties.
1. For Authors
a. It is a vehicle for acquiring knowledge and insight into methods that can be used in
calculating the determinant value of a matrix.
b. As a provision of practical experience in applying the knowledge gained dibangku
especially in the field of Mathematics.
a. As a reference in adding insight and knowledge of methods in calculating the determinant
value of matrix with simpler method.
b. Provides information to the reader that there are other methods that can be used in
calculating the determinant of the matrix and may help in finding a large beriero determinant.

## 1.6. Research methods

1. Type of Research
The research method used in this paper is literature research or library research (library
research). Research literature or often also called literature study is a series of activities
related to library data collection methods, reading and recording and processing of research
materials. (Zed, 2008: 3). Meanwhile, according to M. Nazir in his book entitled "Research
Methods" suggests that the meaning of literature study is a technique of data collection by
conducting a study of books, literature, records, and reports that have something to do with
the problem which is solved.

## 2. Data and Data Source

Data needed in this research is data covering about matrix and process calculation of
determinant of matrix. Information
for this study collected from reference books on Linear Algebra, Determinan, journals and
internet articles on matrix and matrix determinants. The reference book used is Elementary
Matrix Theory (2003) and Linear Matrix Algebra (2012), Linear Algebra with Its Application
(1993), Matrix Version (1984), and Linear Elementary Algebra application version vol 1
(2005) for the basic concepts of matrices and determinants.

## 3. Data Collection Techniques

Data collection is one of the process of data procurement for research purposes. Data
collection is a systematic and standard procedure for obtaining the necessary data. To obtain
data, the authors use the steps of Library Research that every research requires materials that
are sourced from the library. The author uses the documentary method, which is looking for
data about records, books, research journals relevant to the problems that the author
discussed.

## 4. Data Analysis Technique

The steps taken by the author in analyzing the data are as follows:
1. Formulate the issues to be discussed.
2. Collect and understand the various literature related to the issues to be discussed by
reading and reviewing the related material. In this case, the literature used, in the form of
books related to the matrix and determinant matrix.
3. Solve the problem by using Laplace and Chio Expansion Method and with OBE or OKE.
4. Make a conclusion. The conclusion is a short answer to the problems that have been
described in the lecture
CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION

## A. Determinant matrix with Lapalace expansion method

Calculation of matrix determinant with n ≥ 3 will be simpler if solved by Laplace
Expansion method is a method of calculating the determinant by using a cofactor or extension
of the cofactor by summing the product of each i-th row entry or the jth column with its
cofactor

Definition 2.1.13
If the matrix A is nxn, the determinant of the matrix A is defined by

Theorem: If the matrix B is derived from matrix A by bringing the row (column) i through p
row (column) then det (B) = (-1) ᴾ det (A).

Theorem (Laplace Expansion): The determinant of a [A] = [ij] matrix is equal to the number
of multiplicative elements of any row (column) with its cofactors:

## The Proof of Laplace Expansion Theorem

- For example known matrix A is

- Search | A | = | A | ᵗ
- Determine the matrix B obtained by moving the first row through (i-1) the first row and the
j column through (j - 1) the first column is obtained
- Because of doing two displacements ie rows and columns then
|𝑨| = (−1)𝑖−1 (−1)𝑗−1 |𝐴|
= (−1)𝑖−1+𝑗−1 |𝐴|
= (−1)𝑖+𝑗 |𝐴|
It can be seen that the elements in the matrix B position of the first row of the first
column ie𝑎ij and minor𝑎ij are exactly minor than A. Thus, the tribes | B |= (−1)𝑖+𝑗 |𝐴|
It is all the tribes of determinant A that have ij as a factor. Then the determinant of the initial
matrix is the determinant of the matrix A is |𝐴| = ∑𝑛𝑗=1 aij (−1)𝑖+𝑗 |𝑀𝑖𝑗|
|𝐴| = ∑𝑛𝑗=1 aij cij

## B. The use of recurrence relation equation in Laplace expansion method on 3, 4,

and 5 order matrices

For the order matrix 2 there are 2 multiplication operations and 1 addition operation,
order 3 there are 9 multiplication operations and 4 sum operations, order 4 there are 40
multiplication operations and 17 addition operations, and order 5 there are 205 multiplication
operations and 86 sum operations. With recurrence relation can be written as below:
a. Operation Sum
Let Jn be the sum of the summation operations of the matrix with the order n + 1, then
𝐽₁ = 1
𝐽₂ = 4
= 𝐽₁. 3 + 4
𝐽₃ = 17
= 𝐽₂. 4 + 1
𝐽₄ = 86
= 𝐽₃. 5 + 1
Then the general solution of the recurrence relation equation for the sum of the sum
operation is
𝒑𝒏 = 𝟐(𝒏 + 𝟏) + 𝟏
C. Determinant Matrix using Chio Method
Chio Method Theorem
Let A=[aij] be the square matrix of the order nx n, and assume a11. Given D denoted as a
matrix obtained by replacing each element in A(1)(1) by
Then j
𝐷
|𝐴| =
𝑎₁₁𝑛−2

1
|𝐴| = |𝐷|
𝑎₁₁𝑛−2
1
|𝐴| =
𝑎₁₁𝑛−2

Evidence
The matrix A is given a ber x den nx n ie

A=

Then multiply each second column with a₁₁ except the first column

= 𝑎₁₁𝑛−2

So it can be written:

By performing an elementary row operation other than the first column (-a12) multiplied by
the first column plus the second column [(-12) .I -II], so on depending on the column
1
=
𝑎₁₁𝑛−2

## Using Laplace expansion along the first row is obtained

1
= 𝑎₁₁𝑛−2

The use of frequency relation equations in Chio method for 3, 4, and 5 order
matrices
In the order matrix 2 there are 2 multiplication operations and 1 sum operation, order 3 there
are 11 multiplication operations and 5 sum operations, order 4 there are 29 multiplication
operations and 14 sum operations, and order 5 there are 61 multiplication operations and 30
addition operations. With recurrence relation can be written as below:
a. Operation Sum
Let Jn be the sum of the summation operations of the matrix with the order n + 1, then

𝐽₁ = 1
𝐽₂ = 5
= 𝐽₁ + (𝑛. 𝑛)
𝐽₃ = 14
= 𝐽₂ + (𝑛. 𝑛)
𝐽₄ = 30
= 𝐽₃ + (𝑛. 𝑛)
Then the general solution of the recurrence relation equation for the number of multiplication
operations ie
𝐽𝑛 = 1 + (𝑛2 )
b. Multiplication Operations
For example Pn is the number of matrix multiplication operations with the
order n + 1, then
𝑝₁ = 2
𝑝₂ = 11
= 𝑝₁( 𝑛2 ) + 2((𝑛 − 1)2 ) + 1
𝑝₃ = 29
= 𝑝₂( 𝑛2 ) + 2((𝑛 − 1)2 ) + +2((𝑛 − 2)2 ) + 1
𝑝₄ = 61
= 𝑝₂( 𝑛2 ) + 2((𝑛 − 1)2 ) + 2((𝑛 − 2)2 ) + 2((𝑛 − 3)2 ) + 1

Then the general solution of the recurrence relation equation for the number of multiplication
operations ie
𝑝𝑛 = 2(𝑛2 ) + 2((𝑛 − 1)2 ) + 2((𝑛 − 2)2 ) + ⋯ + 2(1) + 1

## E. Comparison of Laplace Expansion Method and Chio Method based on

Number of Sum and Multiplication Operations

The sum of the sum and multiplication operations can be presented in the table below
from the 3rd order matrix, the 4th order, and the 5th order, namely:

Comparison Table calculates Matrix Determination with Laplace Expansion Method and
Chio Method
Based on the above table note in the total column of sum and multiplication. For the Laplace
3 order expansion method requires 13 sum and multiplication operations, Order 4 requires 57
addition and multiplication operations, and the 5th order requires 291 sum and multiplication
operations. While the Chio Ordo 3 method requires 16 summing and multiplication
operations, Order 4 requires 43 addition and multiplication operations, and the 5th order
requires 91 sum and multiplication operations. So it is intuitively seen that the Chio method is
simpler than the Laplace expansion method.

The Laplace expansion method and Chio method can be presented using Ms. excel to
calculate the determinant of the matrix based on the general solution of both methods,
namely:

Comparison Table Laplace Expansion Method and Chio Method using Ms. Excel

From the above table it can be seen that the Chio method is simpler for its addition operation
and its multiplication is less than the Laplace expansion method for orders over 3.
CHAPTER III
COVER

A. CONCLUSION

Based on the problem formulation and problem limitation and description on the
discussion that this research aims to find the solution of recurrence relation equation of order
3, order 4, and order 5 using Laplace expansion method and Chio method. Lapalce expansion
method is a method to calculate the determina matrix by selecting any row or column for
expansion, then multiplying the elements aij with cofactor yaitucij until the matrix obtained
in which berordo 2. As for Chio method is the method of calculating the determinant of
matrix where for position on the first row column first yaitua11 ≠ 0, then for example given
the matrix D obtained by replacing each elementai at A (1) (1) by

From the order order, and the order is obtained the relation of recurrence relation of
sum sum operation and multiplication operation. To determine the determinant of the matrix
using the Laplace expansion method on the addition operation can be searched with 𝑱𝒏 =
𝟏(𝒏 + 𝟏) + 𝟏 and the multiplication operation can be searched with pn = 2 (n + 1) + (n + 1).
While the Chio method for the summing operation can be searched by Jn = 1 + (nn) and the
multiplication operation can be searched 𝑝𝑛 = 2(𝑛2 ) + 2((𝑛 − 1)2 ) + 2((𝑛 − 2)2 ) + ⋯ +
2(1) + 1So it can be concluded that for the Laplace 3 order expansion method requires 15