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US SAM Developrnent
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Naval
rface-fo-Air
l{issiles
Nowhere has the teclutological revolution affected warfare
more than at sea, Today's warshilx fight with radar,
computers and missiles to the extent that where frghting ships Silhouetted by the dawn, the twin Mk
26 launcher of the nuclear-powered
formerly bristled with light and heavy anti-aircraft guns, crurer US,S Mississippiis/oaded with
modern defences consist of a few solitary missile launchers, two Standard SM- I MR missiles.

During the period after World War II a vast array of research establish- in all the 'brush wars' fought around the
world it was not until the Vietnam
menis, special trrals ships, apparently unlimited money and groups of War that the naval SAM was first fired in anger, This war allowed the
rndustrial contractors were employed to solve the problem of furnishrng area-defence weapon (in the form of the Talos and Terrier) to be fired on
major surface combatants with a surface{o-air missile (SAM) defence a number of occasions against North Vietnamese MiG aucraft, scoring a
that was able to go to sea. total of seven known kills. The short-range systems did not get their
Although the iauncher and its missile were lrom an early stage seen to chance until the 1982 Falklands war, when dozens of Sea Dart, Sea Slug,
be the answer, rt required considerable resources just for the peripheral Sea Woif and Sea Cat missiles (as well as land-based Btowpipe and
equipment and redesigning of the shrps to carry the systems, For Rapier SAMs) were fired as part of a layered air defence nelwork
example, most of the first-generatron missiles literally had to have the against Argentine aircraft, Although recent evidence suggests that the
launch vessels stripped to the framework and rebuilt just to accommo- naval SAMs downed a combined total of only I I aircra.ft, this weapon
date the associated magazines, power supplies and electronic systems proved itself once and for ail to be more ellicient than the gnln in anti-au
below decks; then provision had to be made for the launchers and radar warfare defence.
equipment above decks, By the early I960s these beam-riding area-
defence missiles were overtaken by a second type specifically de-
A British Aerospace Sea Darf mrssjJe is Jauncfied. a Dart, an area defence
signed for shorVmedium-range defence of individual vessels, such ^Se
system, was used operationally for the first time in the 1982 South AUantic
systems being typified by the Tartar and Sea Cat systems, Surprisingly, conflict, shooting down at least five aircraft.

're

-.ruF
Naval Crotale
Derived from the ggound{aunched
Crotale system, the Naval Crotale
variant was designed as a self-defence
missile for use by ships against
medium-altitude, low-altrtude and sea-
skmmrng attacks by aircraft, helicop-
ters and missiles. It can also be used
agarnst surface targets in an emer-
gency. The standard Naval Crotale 85
version comprises a turret assembly
wrth two co-axial units (one with eight Naval Crotale uses lfte same b asic solid-fuelled Matra missile as the land-
readyto-fire missiles in theu contain- based version, having a Mach 2.5 performance and capable of tackling
er-launchers and the other supporting an fi'-slrjp mrssiles.
the fue-control radar and IR tracking
systems), a shelter housing the electro-
ruc data-processinq cablnets, and an
operator's console in the combat op-
eration centre for supervising the sys-
tem and sendinq the fire orders, A new
version, the Modular Naval Crotale, is
now available wlth either an eiqht-
mrssile Modular Naval Crotale (8IvLS)
or a four-missile Modular Naval Cro-
tale (4lvLS) launcher ftrrret for installa-
tion on shrps down to 500 tons displace-
ment. In all cases the target acqulsitlon
and trackrng is performed by the radar
of the Naval Crotale system itself after
it has been desigmated by the ship's
sensors. Missrle guidance is per-
formed by an improved line-of-sight
unit, For. sea-skimming targets both
the missile and target are tracked by a
drfferential IR technique, Once in the
vrcinity of the target the warhead is
detonated by an infoa-red proximity
fuse wlth a built-in time delay so that
the prefraemented splinters formed
by the detonation are concentated to
rmpact in the most vulnerable zone of
the target, A total of 18 reload rounds is
normally carried for the eighlround
Iaunchers. In the French navy the
basic Naval Crotale BS version is fitted
to the 'Georges Leygn:es' and 'Tourvil-
le' classes, whilst the Saudi Arabian
Naly has bought the Modular Naval
Crotale BMS system for the two lrigates
berng constructed ln France,

Specification Weights: total round 85 kg (tB7 1b); manoeuwinq targets, or 0.7-8,5 kn T he des troyer Georges Leygnres is
NavalCrotale warhead lS-ks (331b) HE- (0. 43-5, 28 mrles) agarst manoeuwtng seen tiedup alongside thewhartin
Type: point-defence missile foaqmentation targets, or 0,7-6.5 lcn (0.43-4,04 miles) Beirut. The eight-round Crotale
Dimensions:lenqth 2.Bg m (9 ft 5.8 in); Performance: maxmum speed Mach agarnst sea-shmming targetsi altihrde launcher and ils associatedradar
diameter 0, 15 m (5.9 in); span 0,53 m 2.3; range 0,7-13 kn (0,43-8,08 miles) limits 4-5000 m (13-16,405 ft) systems are prominent at the top of
(1ft8,7 in) agaifft hehcopters and non- thephotograph.
+

h
Masurca
Developed in the mid-1950s, the over, Dwinq flight the missile follows a
Masurca is a wholly French-designed trajectory which is determined bY
and French-buiit medium-range sold- proportional navigation as it keeps its
propellant area-defence naval SAM antenna pointed at the target illumin-
for task force and carrier escorts. Only ated by one of the two fire-control
three French shrps are equipped wrth radars. The Masurca system is cur-
the mrssile and its associated radar rently undergoing an upgnadtng prog-
systems, namely the missile friqates ramme to increase its reliability and to
Duquesne and Suflren and the crurser improve rts engagement envelope so
Coibert. Each vessel has a 3D sr.rweill- that it can be used well into the 1990s.
ance radar, a weapon-direction sys-
tem, two independent fire-control Specification
radars and a twin-rail launcher wrth a MasurcaMk2Mod3
48-round magTazine. T\ro types of gnri- Tlpe: medium-range area-defence
dance were developed for the deflni- missile
tive production vetsion, the Masurca Dimensions: Iengrthof missile 5.38 m
Mk 2 Mod 2, which used a command to (17 ft 7.8 in) and ofbooster 3,32 m (10 ft
line-of-sight beam-riding technique 10.7 in); diameterof missile0.406 m
and for the Masurca Mk 2 Mod 3 which
introduced a semt-active radar seeker
into servrce, Only the latter system re- Originally a relatively primitive
mains in service, the former having beam- riding comm an d gruidance
been phased out'in 1975, A solid- missile, theMasurcais now, as the
propellant booster unit is fitted, and in result of continuous development, a
under 5 seconds,'this accelerates the sophkticated SARH ( semi- active
missile to a speed of about Mach 3, at radar homing) missile with a range
which point the.rsustainer motor takes of 50 lan(31miles).

r262
Masurea (continued)
Naval Surface-to-Air Missiles
(I ft 3,98 in) and ofbooster 0,57 m (1 ft
10.44 in); spanof missile0,77m(2 ft
6.3 I in) and ofbooster 1,50 m (4 ft
11.05 in)
Weights: mrssrle 950 kg (2,094 Ib);
booster 1l4B kq (2,531 lb); warhead
100-kg (220-lb) HE-fragmentation
Performance: maximum speed Mach
3; range 50 km (3l miles); altitude Masurca is an area defence missile developed in association with Matra.

_e
ltmits 30-23000 m (1OO-75,460 ft) Currently beingupgraded, the systemwill sewe into the lgg}s.

fi ltiu"tro,
ffi
The Albatros Mk 2 medium-range sur- -dffi
face-to-air missile system uses the
Aspide multr-role mrssrle and can be
integrated with various types of ship- I
board fire-control systems. It can en- :::--:!*dil;=;*
gage anti-ship missiles of either the h.-.::.,.:'r,il'l!S
pop-up or diving type as well as the -' ,:,,1-:,i,:\€5
.,:i!Eg
normal range of manoeuwing arcraft
targets, The orignnal Albatros Mk I
system developed in I968-7i utilized
the RIM-7H5 missile of the NATO Sea
Sparrow project. Like the Sea Spar- Above: Albatros has been developed
row, the Aspide missile uses semi- by S elenia us inqAspide mrssiJes,
active radar homing, the trajectory to which also serve as air-to-air
the target being of the colllsion type weapons amongs t othe r role s.
wrth proportional navrgation. Target-
illumlnatton ls by a continuous-wave Dimensions:length3,70 m(I2 ft 1,7 in);
radar array whtch ts part of the ship's diameter 0,203 m (8 in); span 0.80 m
electronic outfit. The ]auncher can (2 ft 7.5 in) Weights: total round 204 kg
either be a standard eight-round cell (450 lb); warhead 33-ks (72,75-1b) HE-
v,nth associated reload magazine, or fragmentation
for ships down to 200 tons a four-round Performance: maximum speed Mach
cell which can be ieloaded rfrequrred 2.5+; range IB,S lcn (11,5 miles);
via standard shipboard replenishment altitude limits l5-5000 m (50- 16,405 ft)
at sea faciirties. Each inissile rs stored
in its own canister that also serves as
the launch tube, The missile is basical- Right: An Aspide missile is launched
ly the same as the au-launched version from theAlbatros system of a'Lupo'
but has cropped wings and flns, Since class frigate built in ltaly for the
it was developed, the Albatros missile Peruuian navy. Albatros has been
system has been adopted by 15 coun- adopted by I 5 navies to date,
tries througrhout the world (Argentina, inclu ding that of I taly.
cuador, Greece, Iraq, Italy, Japan,
Libya, Nigeria, Peru, Spain, Venezuela Below : An Aspide mrsr'/e rs /auncled
and four others). from the octuple launcher of an
Italian 'Maestrale' class frigate. The
Specification Albatros system is replacing the
Aspide /VATO Sea Spa rrow system in the
Type: point-defence missile vessels of the ltalian navy.
Close -in ltlleapon Suslems
The biggest threatin modern naval wartare comes from the
high,speed, sea-skimming missile, and much effort has been
made tofind an effective last-ditch counter.ln most cases, the
solutionhasbeen agun systemwith ahigh rate of fire.
Fleet air defeqce.is. based on the attrition of attacking aircraft and missiles by
defence'in depth, initiaily by combat air patrols (working in conjunction w-ith
airborhe early warning airbrait) along the axes of hrghest threai and then nV SQQ"
coveiage wiih missiE systems of [rogressrvely shorter range However, with
the adrlent of modern cii.lise missiles that have sea-skimming and underwater-
launch capabilities, there was need for new lightweignt deJence systems. to
work effebtivelv as 'last-ditch' weapons in the engagen- ent of attacKers leaking
through the quter defence zones oi popping up f rbm crl:se missile submarines
at rei;tively short range. These weafons w6re req I red to deslroy the incoming
missiles fdr enough 6ut to prevent them f rorn maLi,ta rling a bailistic trajectoty
jnOiriii'ing into ihe defenbing ship. The systerns v,:ie al-sc required 10 have a
very h igh iniividual+ound kill piobability, an e xtre.r e t =asi reactlon tim e, a high
rat6 o*ire and.an extremely good first-time h t cap:b lilv.
To meet this the US NavyEesigned and built tne 2f-rir Phalanx close-in
!/eapon system (CIWS) with a six-barrel A/6141 G.:r 19' grn and.a v^ery
ef'edtive d'epleted uranium projectile. Tne Roval \a l=::ij Jool the Sea
Wolf automatic missile systern to'ollow on fron-. i' e 3':. : -s :ei Cat mlssrle
Unfortunately the Falklands war showed a neeC :l' :::1 ilpes ef system
(especiallyagainstsea-skimmingmissiles),sotheRc'.': rasa-doptedthe
"..':--r.r Goalkeeper
Philanx a's a-n interim CIWS for-her carriers and the J-::-
CIWS for certain new,build ships. Existing shrps' clc==-'=' j? letences are
being upgraded. by the installation of more basic gu n s!' s:.'- s ari ine carriage of
the new Javelin portable air-defence missile.
The US Navy id planning to supplement the Pna 1'' :'
:.:-2 7 ships with.th6
: g-L;dance against
Rolling Airframe Missile t6at uses passive radar r:-- j 3- :
activdradarhoming cruise missjles.
TheSovietnavy,6sthechief operatorof theanl:-si 3:-- s: "'rssrle'hadin.the
nreantime analys'ed the defencd against such weac:-: ::"ecily, and had thus
gone for a missile/gun mix from thb star{. The SA-\-: 3::':: ''vas used as the
;rio rrv"roiir1;:i;feil;:n;i*ort, wittr ripioirr: -6--^ 3-,nl and 100-mm
t3 9-in) guns as back-up before the missiles c.-:.'..:^:-e f:aal close-ra1ge Goalkeeper is a Dutch-designed systen with a 30-mm Gatling type canion
area cov'bred by the 30lmm ADG6-30'Gatling' o,r. -' : - - - r, 13st Soviel su{qqe manufactured by General Electric in the USA, with electronics by Hollandse
snipswere eqripped with combinations of thiest s '.':--. '-;rihe.early 1970s
onwards. The Soviets are nowactively engaged . 3' -J ' I = second-generatron
S ig[aal app ar aten. T he sy s tem ias been ciose n by th e R oy al N avy for new -
burJd vessels.
retwork into Service, this being based on a ve{,ca:- .-- .. r t defence missile
"
*iirliipaujritvbgainiicruGr;ijiiles,tnesA-N'E z-..-:;'a:tedversionsofthe
ADG6-30; possibly with depleted uranium amr -- : '- :- ;'t equivalent.
Other European nations have gone for a less s::- :: :::eC mix of guns and
nrlssiles. ltaly designed and has
-exporred
tne ;€-'- :- ^ OTO-Melara Com-
-
oact gun andthe 4d-mm Dardo close-range ie':-::3. ::3:.', tcgether with the
Albatios lightweight short/medium-range n' ss = s ,.-< -:-. *lthough consider-
ably less eipensiv:e than the systems o:1ne ,a,e." ' . '. j.
3: ," ers, the capabilitles
of these syitems appear to b6 of tlre san e c,ie' 3 -1: - lhey have yet to be
combat teAted.'On;rcountry that has consriera::: :r:;':r'ce cf naval missile
warfare, lsrael, has gone ltsbwn way anci is f'ti:1g 3:':< :::ri-defence missiles
anC eitH'eiJiobaily lesigned 30-mm grn svstei c: z ="..nx. mount to lsraeli
','essels.
For the future there are alreadY rumours of a Sc'' e : ,:s:' arir-misslle defence
system for major cabital ships, to be f leldeci rn ine iei: 13E!s SofartheUSNavY
aas remained quiet about thls, although lt is probabl',' r::'a. behind with such a
SVStCM.

Lef t : T he Gene r al Dynamic s P halahx Above:The ADF6-30 30-mm cannon


system makes u se of the 20-mm is inwidespreaduse throaghout the
Vulcan cannon developed for So:viet naw, ranging from the.eight
aircraft use in the I I 50 s. Primary mounf ed on Kirov and Kiev (fwo of
CIWS tor theUSNaw, thePhalanx whiih areseenabove) to.the singl'
has been itted to the RdyAlNavy's units.llf ted lo Wanuchka 'c1ass
'I nvincible' class carr iers. corvettes and smailer vesseis.
ffi Hea Cat
Designed and built by Short Brothers
in the late 1950s, the Sea Cat was the
first shipborne SAM system desigmed
for close-ralge air defence in place of
rapid-firing gmrrs such as the 40-mm
Bofors, The first gmided trials took
place in, 1960, the initial shipboard
trials following on board HMSDecoyin
196I.rA series of fi:ll-scale shipboard
trials before service acceptance was
then undertaken rn 1962 aboard the
same ship, the missile system becom- Above: Developed in the late I 950s,
rng knor;rrn as the Guideci Weapon Sys- Sea Cal entered service as the Royal
tem (GWS) IvIk 20 in the Royal Navy. Navy's primary short-range air
The Sea Cat has a duai-thrust motoi, defence system in the early I 960s,
four fixed fins, hydraulically-driven replacing gan systerns suci as tft e
wings and a continuorx-rod blast war- 40-mmBofors.
head with both delayed action contact
and proximity fuses, The missile is Right: Seen aboard the'County' class
quided by radio command and can be missile des troyerHjt{S Antrim rn ft e
integrated with almost any type of South Atlantic, Sea Cat tkst saw
sighting and fire-control system, as the action in the batUes around the
continual lmprovement and updating F alkland I slands. While r apidly
programme in the Royat Navy has becomrngrless than effective against
proved with the introduction into ser- high speed targefs, severa/
vrceof the GWSMk2l andGWSMk22 Argentine aircraftwere beheved to
versions with different radars to grive lraye been des troyed by the rystem.
darkfire capabrlities, The system is
due to continue in service with the Below: Launched from the standard
Royal Navy until the mid-lgg0s. The four-round launcfier, Sea Catrs
launcher used most often is a quadru- eftective to about 5.5 km (3.4 miles)
ple hand-loaded version, although andrbcapab/e of Mach l.
some of the countries to which the mis- Interceptions can be made betwen
sile has been exported use a light- I 0 and 9 I5 m (30-3000 ft). Sea Cat is
weight triple unit, Since it entered pro- in sewice w ith some 1 5 navies,
duction in the 1960s 16 navies have including tha t of Argentina.
bought the missile, but it was not until
the l9B2 Falklands war that it was rsed
in combat. There it proved to be a
useful 'scare' defence, but its use
against modern high-performance
manoeuvnng targets must now be
somewhat in doubt. Operator coun-
tdes are Argentina, Australla, Brazil,
Chile, India, Iran, Libya, Malaysia, the
Netherlands, New Zbaland, irliqena,
Sweden, Thailand, UK, lenezuelaand
West Germany,
Specification
SeaGat
Tlpe: point-defence missile
Dimensions: lenqth 1,48 m (4 ft lQ.3 in);
diameter0, 1905 m(7,5 in); span0.65 m
(2 ft 1.6 in)
Weights: total round 68 kg ( 149.9 lb);
warhead about lO-kg (22tb) HE-
fragrmentation
Performance: maximum speed Mach
1; range 5.5 lon (3.4 miles); altitude
hmits 30-915 m (100-3,000 ft)

Sea Dafi
The Sea Dart (or Guided Weapon Sys-
tem Mk 30 to give it its Royal Navytitle)
was designed by Britsh Aerospace un
the I960s as a third-generation area-
defence naval SAM capable ofengag-
ing targets such as aircraft and missiles
at both very high and, under certain
circumstances, very lowaltihrdes. The
system was used operationally during
the 1982 Falklands war, beingoficially
credited with eight kiils. However, re- shot down outside the missile's official missiles), the sole Type 82 class des- Sea Darf ri an a rea defence missile,
cent evidence suggests that the num- engagement envelope at very low koyer built. Sea Dart can also be used powered by a Rolls-Royce Odin
ber was ach-rally five: an A6rospatiale level. The launcher is a twin-rail unit out to 25-30 km (15,5-18,6 miles) ramjetwith rocket booster for
Puma helicopter, a Learjet 35A recon- and is coupled with two Type 909 agarnst swface targets f reguired. The launch. The missile depicfedfias a
naissance aircraft, a BAe Canberra target tracking and illuminator radars system was also sold to Argentu:ra for cover over the ramjetintake.
B.Mk 62 light bomber and two McDon- on the Type 42 (20 missiles) des- its tvvo Type 42 destroyeri, and thjs
nell Douglas A-4C Skyhawk Iight troyers,'Invincible' class aircraft car- probably explarrs the relatlve lack of
attack aircraft. The last aircralt was riers (20 missiles), and HMSBnsto/ (40 kills by the system during the war as

1265
SeaDart (continued)

the enemy already knew its perform- 1980s and early I990s. A Lightweight
ance capabilities. Guidance is of the Sea Dart system has also been de-
semi-active homing type with associ- veloped for ships down to 300 tors dis-
ated proportional navigation. A ramjet placement: this uses deck-mounted
engine powers the missile in fliqht af- container-launchers with simpllfled
ter a sohd-propellant booster unit has radars and fire-control units. The Peo-
brought it up to the veloctty required ple's Republic of China Planned to
for the main engine to take over. Unfcr- purchase this system as part ofa mod-
tunately, in the 19Bl defence cuts a ification package for its 'l,uda' class
corsiderably improved Sea Dart Mk 2 destroyers, but the dealwas cancelled
was cancelled: this was a version to because of funding problems.
combat the Soviet cruise missiles de-
sigined to go into a terminal dive ftom
high aititude, and this politico- Specification
economrc cut has Ieft a serioris gap in SeaDart
fleet defences for the period ofthe late Type: medrum-range area-defence
missile
In addition to arming the U K's TYpe Dimensions: lengrth 4.36 m (14 ft
82 and TYpe 42 destroyers, Sea D art 3. 65 in); diameter 0.42 m
is mounted on the three'lnvincible' ( I ft 4.54 in); span 0.9 I m (2 ft 1 LB3 in)
class airctaft-carr'ers. Ifis also used WeighG: total round 550 kg (1,213 Ib);
by Argentina on thef TYpe 42 warhead HE-fr agrmentation
des troyers. A lightweight system has Performance: maximum sPeed Mach
beendeveloped to arm vessels down 3*;range 65 }<rn (40.4miles); altihrde
toonly 300 tons. lunits 30- 18290 m (100-60 000 ft)

ffi $ea Wolf


Conceived in 1962 and desigrned bY
British Aerospace, the Sea Wolf was
origdnaily developed as the repiace-
ment for the widely-fitted Sea Cat SAM
svstem. Unfortunately, in the Guided
Weapon System Mk 25 Mod 0 devrsed
for thb Royal Navy, the weapons pack-
age proved so large that it could be
fitted on warships only dovrrn to the size Fwther to improve the missile's capa-
of 2,500 tons or so. In fact it was the bilities and rangte, a vertical-launch TheSeaWo[f mLss/eis J.9 m (6 ft3 in) longandweighs 82 lcg(180.4 lb).Itcan
room required to fit two comPlete capability, flrst demonstrated in 1968 a round of ammunition.
be freafed as
manually-reloaded GWS N{k 25 sYs- from HMSLocfi Fada when it was con-
tems with their attendant 30-round sidered to be of low priority, will be
maqazines and six-round launchers used aboard the new TYpe 23 'Daring'
thaihelped 1s fulalizg the drmensions ciass frigates when they are eventually
and displacement of the TYPe 22 ftl- ordered. In the meantime several
gates in excess of the Sea Dart- Iiqhtweight systerris have aiso been
equipped TWe 42 destroYers. developed, the GWS Mk 25 Mod 3 ver-
Sea Woif is a fr-rlly automatic point- sion being retrofitted in one form or
defence system with radio command another to vadous RN ship classes to
to line-of-sight gnridance coupled with increase their self-defence capability
radar dillerentiai or low [ght TV track- Another variant wlnch swprisingly the
ing. The missile's manoeuwability and Roval Naw did not follow uP was the
sp-eed allowsit to engage small Mach 2 conversion of the standard four-round
anti-ship mtssiles and alrcraJt targets Sea Cat iauncher to take Sea Wolf con-
under severe weather conditions and tainer-launchers (together with the
sea states down to low aititudes. Dur- fitting of appropriate electronics and
ing the Falklands war the T\Pe 22tn- raOars), Su-ch a prognamme for the ti-
gates HMS Brilliant and HMS Broad- gates bf the Roya} Narry would have
Jword, together with the converted undoubtedly resulted in a much higher
'Ireandel' class frigate HMS kill rate for the close-range air-
Andromeda with onlY one launcher, defence systems aboard RoYal NavY
used the missile operationally, one of shrps in the Falklands than was in fact
the TYpe 22s actingas the close-range obiined. To date no other nation has
air-defience ship or'goalkeeper' to the bought thls unique missile system
carriers. The first combat use was from
the Brilliant on 12 May when the ship Specification
engaged a flight of four McDonnell SeaWolf
Douglas A-4 Skyhawks, shooting down Type: point-defence mjssile
two anA forcing a third to crash as it Dimensions: Iength 1,90 m (6 ft 2.8 in);
evaded a misslle. The official llst cre- diameter0.30 m(11,8 in); span0 45 m
dits the Sea Wolf with five kills, (I ft 5,7 in)
althouqh recent evidence now sug- Weights: total round 82 kg (180 4 1b);
sests ii was only the three described warhead ? HE-fraqmentation
above, ptus a Possible fourth What Performance: maximum sPeed Mach
ach.rally came out of the war was that 2+ i range 6.5 km (4,04 miles) or 10 kn
(6. 2 mrles) in vertical-launch form;
the sysiem required a number of soft-
wareupgrrades to increase its rellabil- altrtude limrts about 4.7-3050 m (I5-
itv: on several occasions the compu- r0,000 ft)
tdrs associated with target-tracking
broke lock because they had what was A S ea W olf mis sile is launched {rom a
akin to a nervous breakdown trying to Type 22 frigate. The missile is highly
dilferentiate betvveen targets flying effective, but with ancillary radar,
close together. Iaunch and command sYstems the
The modifications culminated in a SeaWoE rystem is rather heavY, and
successful trial whereby a Sea Wolf to ooerate two launchers effectively
enoaoed and destroved a sea shm- the'Tl4,e 22 frigates have to be larger
miiq"Ml,l.Og Exocet lnti-ship missile. than TYpe 42 destroYers.

I Ztltl
a
SAlls in Adion tn fhe Falklands
l:r all the widespread adoption of surface-to-air missiles in thenavies of theworld,
::e only occasions where they have seen operational service have been inVietnam
',,,'nere US long-rangremrssilesscored against enemy aircraft), and theFalklands,
','.':tere for the first time a missile-armed fleet came up against determined large-
:cale attack.
'-?82
. .,= Falklands war was the flrst real test of the ship wide open. In what can only be de-
. '-: jern surface fleet's layered defence con- scribed as a miraculous escape the bombs
--:: uslng aircraft in the outermost defence meant for lhe Brilliant fell short, one then
--:: and medium-range SAMs in the middle bouncing over the top of the ship's superstruc-
: -:,: before hostile aircraft can reach the final ture,
,-::e-range inner zone, defended by short- In the meantime Ihe Glasgow, unable to en-
:---;e shrpborne missiles, medium- and iight- gage with her Sea Dart system, survived a
- =--bre anti-aircraft guns and small arms, direct hit from a 454-kq (1000-ib) bomb that
,:e f,rst combat use of SAMs durrng Opera- passed straight through her hull from one side
.-,- Corporate'was on 9 May 1982, when the to the other before explodino in the sea
--;'::e 42 destroyer HMS Coventry and the Type beyond several seconds later, However, the
-: rrgate HMS Broadsword were operating off
:::: Stanley. The Tlpe 965 air search radar of
damage proved severe enough for the Glas-
gow to have to withdraw from the operational
':.= Ccventry picked up a siow-movrng hostile zone. As a result of this attack, Admiral Wood-
-,:iorne target near the town and engaged it
'.''-.h a Sea Dart missile, This exploded close to
::. F,rgentine army Aerospatrale SA 330 Puma
:.:-rcopter, causing it to crash with the loss of all
:bcard, Three days later, on 12 May, came the
-rn of the destroyer HMS GJasgouz and the
:- ate HMS Bnlliant, sister ships of the pre- €Yry!ry":a
.--ius vessels, Two four-plane fligrhts of McDon-
:-e1l Douglas A-4B Skyhawks from the Argen- :r,::=:::ffi
.-ne air force's Grupo 5 swooped in to attack the
srips just after midday as they took part in a
:ombardment of Port Stanley airfleld, The
-eading wave was engaged by the BnTlant's
Sea Wolf systems, which sent two aircraft cart-
-i heeling out of the sky in flames and forced a
:hird to crash as rt tried to evade a mrssrle, As
:he surviving Skyhawk pulled away the second
:Ight attacked, three aircraft heading for the
G)asgow and one for the Bnlljant. Again the Below: The only ships fitted with,Seas/ugs jn the
Above: The first problem taced by the Britishwas
Sea Wolf system prepared to engage, but as that any assault on the Falklandswould have to South Atlantic were the'County' cJass deslroyers
:he missiles were about to be launched the cope with the substantial threat posed by the HMS Antrim and Glamorgan. A first-generation,
nre-control computer suddenly switched off skilful pilots of the Argentine armed forces, flying beam-riding weapon,,Seaslugsaw its first ( a nd.
ihe automatic enqagement sequence, leaving A-4Skyhawks or (as here) theDassaultMirage. probably its last) action in the campaign.

::i

itlii.Ert,|+

=ri:i;.i.+rl

!FrF*

F{ a --
-
SAI\4s in Action in the Falklands

-..=:::--n oiher warships had suffered damage


:-:-J-::g ft-om light to severe) in the restricted
','.-r:=rs Although several
kills were claimed by
--:-=
SiMs over the bridgehead a recent postl
',',-- aralysis suggests that in fact they only
hit
-.-= ,iJ Dagger which fell to Sea Cats launched
r:::: '-'re frrgates HMS Argonaul and HMS P/y-
-::*:o. The numerous other misslles launched
.';=re not fued rn vain, as they certainly suc-
:=ecied in turning back Argentine arr attacks
--C preventinq accurate bombtng,
On 23 May the Argentines came back to the
ceach-head with more heavy strikes that left
se;eral other shrps damaged, including the
iEate HMS Antelope with two unexploded
::mbs rnside her, An A-4B Skyhawk of Grupo 5
-,',-as
lost to hits from a Sea Wolf from the Broad-
s;'rcrd (and possibly a shore-based Rapier),
=rd the number of kilis clarmed by the naval
:r-ssiles was aqain much greater than those of
shore-based SAMs, The .4n f elope subsequent-
--; sank during that night after one of the bombs
as it was being defused,
=xploded
The following day was a repeat of 23 May,
-,';rth heavy defensive
mrssile fire and antl-
aircraft gunflre directed at the low-level attack- shrps at anchor in San Carlos Water. The in- The penalty for misjudging the Argentine threat
ers, Several aircraft were claimed by the mis- tense defensive flre resulted in the loss of two was severe. In the face of determined, skilful low-
srles, None were actually lost, although the A-4C Skyhawks from Grupo 4 to combined fire level attack and in the absence ofany AE:VI/, even
Argentines have admrtted that several aircraft from several systems including Sea Cat and the best defence can prove penetrable, as
sulfered severe battle damage before regain- Sea Wolf missiles. Then just after 14,00 the tr agic ally shown byHMS Antelope.
-ng therr bases, The next day, 25 May, was missile trap ships came under attack by four
expected to be a maxlmum-effort day for the A-4B Skyhawks from Grupo 5. TVio aircraft Skyhawks and causing the radar to break lock
Argentines as it is their natlonal day, For thls a went for each shlp, The pair heading for the again. The 8ro adsword could then only look on
:nissile trap (a T\pe 42 destroyer, the Coren, Broadsword dropped lour bombs, of which helplessly as three direct hits biew the port
r,1u, and a Type 22 frigate, theBroadsuuor@ was one scored a direct hit after bouncinq off the side out of lhe Coventry, causing her to capsize
depioyed to a point near Pebble Island to catch water: but thrs failed to explode ev6n after and sink. The final attack of the day went in
'Jre enemy aircraft before they dropped to very demolishing the front of the Broadsword's against the carrier task group iater in the after-
low level for the final run-in, The ships nearly Westland Lynx helicopter, The ship's Sea Wolf noon, when two Exocet-armed Dassault-
cauqht several Learjet 35A reconnaissance air- fire-control system broke lock at the critlcal Breguet Super Etendards of the Argentine
craft of Grupo 2 in the morning on a highJevel preJaunch moment before she could destroy navy fired their AM.39 missrles, hitting the
photographic run over the beach-head, but as her attackers, At the same tlme the other palr
lhe Coventry attempted to launch her Sea closed Ihe Coventry, whlch fired a Sea Dart at
Darts the Learjets flew out ofrange. The Lear- The most capable ml'ssi/e qys tem in use in the
them and missed, The Broadsword took up the battle was Sea Wolf. It destroyed a number of
lets were followed untrl mid-day by small engagement but just as she was going to fire attacking aircraft, but operations exposedsome
fltghts of Skyhawks attackinq at low level the Ihe Coventry cut across her bows, shieiding the technical faults needing urgent remedies.

1268
SAMs in Action in the Falklands

Atlantic Conveyor. Dunng thrs atrack HMS /n-


vincible alone fired no less than six Sea Darts in
less than two minutes without httting anything
but in the process scaring HMS Hermes' crew
almost to death as one SAM passed close to
rheir shrp.
On 27 May a further highievel photo run
over San Carlos was made by the Irearjets, but
no response from the Sea Darts came as the
ships fitted with the system were wrth the car-
riers away to the east, It was whilst working
wrth them that the Type 42 destroyer HMS
Exeter engaged the second Argentine attack
on the group on 30 May when with a left and
right from her launcher she destroyed two low-
flying A-4Cs from Grupo 4 that were backing
up the Exocet attack. The missiies actually hit
the arrcraft outside their engagement en-
velope. The Sea Dart's high-altitude capability
was finaily tested on 6 June when the third
photo reconnaissance run by Learlets ofGrupo
2 was countered by a launch oi two Sea Darts
from the Exeter. One failed in flight but the
other blew the tail off the leading Learjet at a
height of 12000 m (39 370 ft), causing it to crash
with the loss of its crew of five, The engage-
ment also showed the limitatron of Sea Dart in
that a second engagement could not start until
the first was finished.
On Q June, the day of the Bluff Cove tragedy,
HMS Plymouth keenly felt the lack oi modern
air defence systems when her Sea Cats and Above: SeaDart was used on several occasions, most attacks were made outside themr'ss/e's
gnrns failed to save her from severe damage but Argentine familiarity with the system (which performance spectrum, with the result thatSea
caused by an attack by five Grupo 6 Daggers, arms thek two Type 42 destroyers) ensured that Dart was not assuccessfu,las fi ad been expected.
The iast mlssiie engagement occurred after

The most critical moment in the battle


for the Falkland Islands came when TheArgentine air force is an efficient, well-
trained service, and during the battle it
the British Task Force made its major pressed fiome attacks at extremely low level.
amphibious assault. For the period of Unfortunately for the Argentine ground forces
the landing, m,ost of the force would ontheislands, the pilots could notseriously
delay the landings.
-Jdf
d+ffih
w{t\

Most of the escorts.in the confined sp,4qgt alt,.::.


San Carlos
Naval Surface-to-Air Missiles
dark on 13 June when the Exeter blew a BAe
Canberra B Mk 62 hght bomber out of the sky
wrth a Sea Dart as she bombed Mount Kent
Aom 12000 m (39 370 ft)
Atthough they did not destroy as many air-
craft as claimed in the Whrte Paper on the war,
the naval SAMs were more elfective than guns
rr the Falklands, The Sea Dart (when available
at the San Carlos beach-head) forced the
majority of the attackers to fly low level and
limited the high-level reconnaissance and
bombing mlssions, However, the war also
showed up the Sea Dart's weaknesses in fire-
control and computer-launch areas. On the
other side ofthe corn experience revealed that
the Sea Dart could be used outside rts nominal
launch envelope agrainst low-flying targets.
The Sea Woll although suffering a number of
software failures during critical saturation
attacks, nevertheless proved to be an excellent
defence system at short ranges, although its
use in defending other ships was found to be
limrted, The most numerous missile system, the
Sea Cat, showed itseif to be somewhat long in
the tooth for modern naval warfare, numerous
rnstances being recorded of the missile run-
ning out of fuel just as it was going to hit a target,
However, it did fulfil its purpose in helping to Above: At the start ofthe operation, gans were not judgement. Indeed, experiencehas shown that a
prevent accurate air attacks when it was used expected to be ofany great use in defending the combination of gans (suci as the 20.mm Oerlikon
rn conjunction with other systems, Hopefully fleet, which proved to be a considerable error of shown) and missiles is mosteffective.
most of the shortcomings revealed in the sys-
tems have now been rectrfled, It cannot be
demed that lack of money (and, tn some inst-
ances, foresight before the war) certainly con-
tributed to these failings in one way or another.

Major targets for the Argentine attacks were


lhe specialized assau/t sfiipsHMS Fearless and
intrepid. Eacfi of lfi e resse/s was equipped with
Sea Ca f mrssiles as well as various add€d Although not the most effective of systems against
machine-gruns. low, fast-moving targets, SeaCat notched up
severa,lsuccesses during the battie, and even
whenaircralt escaped the deterrenteffxt of
seyereJmissiles approaching was enough to
'.,:,impair the accuracy of a boltibing attaek,

v.

-{E-
f sn-r.r-l 'Goa'and SA-N-7

The firstSoviet navy SAM to see wide service, the SA-N- I 'Goa'is thought to
have beendevelopedfrom the land-based system of the same name.

Below: A 'Kashin' class destroyer Above : Visible behind the twin I 30- Above: The twin-rail SA-N- I launcher
launches an SA-N-I Goa. The mm gan mounton the Soviet aboard a 'l(asftin'c/ass destroyer is
engagement envelope ofthe Mach desfroyer Sowemenny, the single- roll-stahilized to give stable launch
2.1 mksile is between 6 and 22 km rail fiauncher for the SA-N-7 is conditions in rough sea states.There
G.7 - I 3.7 miles) at heights ranging thought to be capable of rapid areover 60 systems inuse on'SAM
from90 to 15250 m (295-50,030 ft). reloading and firing. The presence oI Kotlin','Kanin','Kynda','Kashin' and
The 60-kg ( 1 32 Jb) warhead can be six separatefire control radars 'Kresta l' class vessels, the last two
high explosive or low-yield nuclear. implies a multiple target system. c/asses fi avrhg two twin launchers.

Specification
SA-N-l'Goa
Type: medium-range area-defence
nissrle
Dimensions: length 6,70 m (21 ft
- 1 8 in); diameter of mtssrle 0,46 m (1 ft
t i rn)andofbooster0,T0I m(2 ft
3 6 in); span of missile 1,50 m (4 ft
i i.l rn)
Weights: total round 946 kg (2,085,5 lb)
icr SA-N- 1a and 950 ks (2,094.4 lb) for
SA-N- Ib; warhead 60-kg (132-lb) HE
or l0-krlotonnuclear
Performance: maximum speed Mach
Z I,range6-22 km (3,7-13,7miles);
altrtude limits 90- 15250 m (295-
50,030 ft)

K Hn-N-s'Goblet' and sA-N-6


The two-staqe solid-propellant SA-N-3
'Goblet' entered servtce in 1967 as the
second-generation medium-range
Iodmedium-altitude area-defence fol- ,',r,I
low-on to the SA-N-I 'Goa' system in
Soviet navy service, With improved
'i
anti-air warfare capabilities, the SA-N-
3 can also be used in the surface-to-
swface role out to the radar horizon,
Unlike other contemporary Soviet
navy SAMs it has no Soviet armY
equivalent, and is not derived from the
5A-6'Gainful' as often stated. The SA-
N-3 may be frtted with either an HE-
fraqmentation or a 25-kiloton nuclear A gener ation further on trom the SA-N - 1, the SA-N - 3' G oblet' is a M ach 2'8
warhead, and is flred from a hvin-arm missile that doe-snot seem to have a land-based equivalent'

\272
SA-N-3 'Goblet' and SA-N-6 (continued) Naval Surface-to-fur Ms s r.1 e s
.r':lcher, the system rotatlng to the
.':rlrcal for reloadinq from an under-
:eck magazine. The proportion of mis-
::es fltted with nuclear warheads in
-:e ship's outfit has been assessed by
*-me sources as 25 per cent, Guidance
'. by radio command via 'Head Light'
::ries fire-control radar array. The
3oblet' is fitted to 'Kresta Ii' and'Kara'
:lass mrssrle cruisers as well as to the
lloskva' and 'Kiev' classes of avration
s :]lps,
I
In 1978 the replacement system, the
SA-N-6, entered sewice on the 'Kirov
:-uclear-powered cruiser class as part
:i what is now known to be a Soviet
AEGIS-style SAM area-defence sys-
:em for surface task groups, The sing-
je-stage missile is vertically launched
:om silos served by eiqht-round rot-
ary magazines, and is an advanced
lgh-performance SAM adapted from
:he Soviet army's SA-i0 speciflcally to
provide the navy with a missile that has
extensive anti-cruise missile capabilt-
ies, Missile guidance is semt-active
:or the mid-course phase (with target Specification Above: The large twin-rail launcher
:llumination from the 'Top Dome' SA-N-3'Goblet' aboard 'Kresta II' class cruisers may
radar) and then active radar for the Tlpe: medium-range area-defence be a dualpurpose system, capable o!
terminal phase to gTive a much more missile firing SS -N - 1 4 anti- submarine
accurate rnterception, The system has Dimensions: length 6.40 m (21 ft 0 in); missiles aswell as theSA-N-3.The
srnce entered service on the 'Krasina' diameter 0,70 m (2 ft 3,6 in); span sysfem isa/sofitted to the'Riev',
class missile cruisers, which have a 1,70m(5ft6.9in) 'K ara' and'Moskva' c/asses.
slmmed-down version of the missile Weights:total round not known;
firted to the Kirov. The 7.0 m (22f1 warhead 150-kq (331-lb) HE or 25- Right: The hatch covers over the
1l..6in) long solid-propellant Mach 6 kiloton nuclear vertical launch system aboard the
mrssile has a 100 kg (220 lb) conven- Performance: maximum speed Mach Sovief cruiser Slava conceal eight-
.ronal HE warhead and can engage 2,8; range 6-30 lcn (3,7-lB,6 mrles) in round rotary magazines tor the SA-N-
iargets between 10 m (33 ft) and early versions or 6-55 km (3.7-34 miles) 6missrJes carrie d. The SA-N-G has
30500 m (100,065 ft) at ranges between in later versions; altitude limits 90- also been fitted to the 'Kirov' class
1.6 and 64 km 16 and 40 miles) 24500 m (295-80,380 ft) crusels as an a nti-missile system.

ro $n-N-+ 'Gecko' and SA-N-8


The single-stage solid-propeltant SA-
N-4'Gecko'entered service in the ear-
lv 1970s as the Soviet navy's point-
Cefence missile system for both large
and small surface combatants. Based
:n the Soviet army's SA-8, the SA-N-4
':ses a fully retractable twin-arm laun-
:her with an l8-round under-decks
mssrle magazine, The missile has an
-lE warhead and can be used out to rts
:raximum range as a surface-to-
s,rface missile in emergency. Its qlu-
jalce is of the command type via the
?op Group' flre-control radar system
:ssociated with each launcher, Unlike
:-her modern Soviet naval SAMs the
Secko' has been widely exported to a
:--'-:mber of Soviet client states as part of
--:-e armament outfit for export versions
:: the 'Nanuchka' missile coruettes and
licm class light frigates.
In the early 1980s a new vertically-
-.:ached poinldefence
SAM system, Above : Little is known of the SA-N-B
-:.: SA-N-8, went to sea aboard the system, other than the fact that it is a
,laloy' class of antr-submarine des- short- tomedium-range system and
::-,'er and the third and fowth of the may be active radar homing. First
,.-:v class aviation
ships, The missile deployment is in tft e Udaloy /arge
. a shorVmedium-range weapon. of ASW destroyer,with pop-up systems
:-;l performance with a semi-actrve fore and aft.
-: -ctlve radar-homing
'=:-
gnridance
sys-
No other details have been re- Right: In addition to the potent SA-N-
,=..ed at present, 6in its vertical launchers, ffte Kirov
has two 'pop-up'mrssjle s/stems
Specification firing the point defence SA-N-4
Si-N-4'Gecko' 'Gecko'. The two bandstand-like
l-.qce; point-defence mlssile Iauncher covers are visible in front of
l::rensions: length 3,20 m (10 ft 6 in); and to either side of the bridge.
- 0,21 m (8,25 in); span 0,64 m
":::eter
-..-2in) Performance: maximum speed Mach
Ti::rghts: total round 190 kg (418,9 lb); 2; range 1,6-12 km(1-7,5miles);
--:ead 5O-ks (110-lb) HE- altitude limrts 50-13000 m (165-
_:-.._:Ittduull 42,650 ft)
I sA-N-s'Grail'
Ihe solid-propellant single-stage SA- seeker being activated when the
N-5 'Grail' is the shipborne version of operator has acquired the target. An
the Soviet army's shoulderlaunched indicator liqht (denoting seeker ac-
SA-?b short-range lR-homing SAM, quisition) tells the operator when he is
The Soviets give the missile system the free to launch the missile. In order to
desigmatlon 9M32M and the missile the defeat flare countermeasures, fllters
designation Strela 2M. It is fitted have been installed in the seeker, The
aboard various small combatants, SA-N-5 uses an increased{hrust prop-
amphibious warfare vesseis and auxilt- ellant to give a qreater range and
ary ships as a four-round pedestal speed in comparison with the earlier
mor.rnt with an adjacent reload locker SA-7a,
containing a further four or eight laun-
chers, The shoulderlaunched version
is also used by the Soviet Naval Infan- Speciflcation
try from the decks of amphibious war- SA-N-S'Graif
fare vessels and by other nations such Tlpe: pointdefence missile
as East Germany, Egrypt, Israel and Dimensions: lehgth L29 m (4 ft 2,8 in);
Syria from fast attack craft, The missile diameter 0,07 m (2,76 in); spannot
relies upon a puisuit tnterception to known
engaqe low-flying aircraft, and has Weights:total round9.2 kg (20.3 1b);
proved especially effective aqainst warhead 2,5-ks (5.S-lb) HE-
helicopters and slow-flying fixed:wing fragmentation TheSA-N-i Grail is asimple has its two four-round launching
aircraft such as observation planes, A Performance: maximum sPeed Mach adaptation of the SA-7 man-portable posts amrdslrips just aheadof the
simple optical sight and tracker unit is 1,95; range 4,8 kn (3 miles); altitude infra-red guided missile. The plattorm. On deck astern of the posts
used for both types of mounts, the IR limits45-4800 m ( 150-15,750 ft) 'Polnocny' class landing ship shown can be seen the reload lockers.

€ fierrier and Tartar


The Terrier area-defence missile was
developed from the technologY in-
volved in the Talos missile prognam-
me, but actually preceded that missile
into servtce, Compared with Talos the
Terrier was much more compact,
being small enough to be fitted aboard
the missile fngates or large destroyers
that were being constructed to carry One of the earliest generations of naval surface-to-air missiles, Tartarwas supplied to the navies of the USA,
missile systems. Since the start of its Australia, France, I taly, 1apan, the Netherlands and the Federal Republic of Germany-
development in 1949, the Terrier has
evolved gradually over the years with (5,000-50,000 ft). The next version, the and a new motor propellant The itr-r- Terrierhasbeenlargelysuperseded
only one major component at a time iW-t tniM-Zgj, was a re-engineered provements increased the velocity to brst44dgrl,\utformanyyearsit
varied to produce new variants. The BW-0 iut had'no significant perform- Mach 3 and the range and maximum providedairdelencefortheUSNavy.
orignnal Mach I.B beam-riding missile ance improvements in either rangre or altitude llmit by 50 per cenl, lhis ryqq TheRIM-ZE,seenlaunchedfromthe
was designated BW-O (later RIM-24) aititude, In lg56thereenteredservice rapidly followed by the BT-34 (RIM- cruiserl/SSJosephusDanielsinJ9T3,
wrthranqe limitsof 1B.5kn (11,5 miles) the BT-3 (RIM-2C) with new taii con- 2D), which added a surface-to-surface hadamaximumrangeinexcessof
and altitude limits of 1525-15240m trols, rmprdved beam-riding gnridance capability to the Terrier system when 70 km (4?miles).
Terrier and Tartar (continued) Naval Surface -teAir Missiles
:: entered sewice in i95B and in- (70,000 ft). It also has a useful surface-
-eased the SAM range to 37 kn (23 to-surface anti-ship capability, About
nrles). A nuclear version mth the I- 6,500 rounds were produced, and most
yield W45 fission type warhead countries that were supplied with the
'olotonalso produced alongside this
';ras type (Australia, France, italy, Japan,
'":ariant and designated BT-3(N); in its the Netherlands and West Germany in
:edesi€rnated RIM-2D(N) form thts ver- addition to the USA) have now con-
sion is still rn service on a number of US verted to the Standard missile,
Navy ships equrpped with the Stan-
iard SM-]/SM-2ER system. The last Specification
pianned variant, the HT-3 (RIM-2E), RIM-2D(N) Terrier
entered service one year earlier than Type: medium-range area-defence
'-he BT-3 and introduced continuous' missrle
rave semi-active homing as the gui- Dimensions: lengrthof missile 4, 115 m
Cance mode, whrch increased its low- (13 ft6 in)andof booster7,874 m(25 ft
altitude engagement capability and 10 in); diameter of missile 0.343 m (I ft
mproved the single-shot kill capabil- 1,5 in) andof booster0.457 m (1 ft 6 in);
-ty fiqure by over 30 per cent com- span of missile 1,074 m (3 ft 6,3 in)
pared with those of the beam-riding Weights: missile 535,2 kg (1, 180 1b);
-rariants, The last HT-3 versions, delt- booster 825.5 kg (1,820 lb); warhead
vered in the mid-1960s, weie fitted W45 l-kilotonnuclear
'srth a new sustarner and power supply Performance: maximum speed Mach
that rarsed the range to 74 km (46 3; range 37 lcn (23 rniles); altitude
miles); these missrles were then destg- lrnits 152-24385 m (500-80,000 ft)
nated RIM-2F, Production of the Ter-
ner ended in 1966 after some 8,000 Specification
rounds of all marks had been manufac- RIM-248 Improved Tartar
hued, The conventional warhead ver- Type: medrum-range area-defence
sions have now mostly been super- missile
seded by variants of the Standard mts- Dimensions: length 4,724 m (15 ft 6 in);
sile. diameter0.343 m (13,5 in); span
in 1952 a need was appreciated for a 0.6I0m(2ftOin)
semi-active homing missile as a com- Weights: totai round 594,2 kg
plement to the larger systems to en- (1,3I0 lb); warhead? HE
gage low-flyrng targets and to replace Performance: maxrmum speed Mach
the 127-mm (5-1n) gnrn mount on a one- 1,8; ranqe 32,375 lan (20.1miles);
for-one basis, The result was the basic altitude limlts 15-2 1335 m (50-70,000 ft)
version of the Mach I.B Tartar missile
(RIM-24A), which was effective be-
tvueen ranges of 1.85 and 13.7 kn (1. 15
and 8,5 miles) and altihrde limits of 15
and 16765 m (50 and 55,000 ft). Howev- First trials of the AEGIS air defence
er, a Product Improved Tadar was sys tem used T afi ar and Terrier
soon sought, the Improved Tartar missiles while awaiting development
GIM-Z4B) version entering sen'ice Ln of the Standard. ATartar missile k
1963. Thrs had a range increase to seen bernglaunchedtrom the trials
32.5 kn (20,2 miies) and an upper alti- sirb USS Norton Sound agrainsf a
tude engagement limit of 21335m su pers onic F irebee drone.

USA

srano.ara
-
The semi-actrve radar homlnq conven-
ional warhead Standard family of nav-
al SAMs started deveiopment in the
early 1960s as the replacement for the
Temer and Tartar systerns, The lat-
:er's repldcement was the Standard
SM-IMR (RIM-66A), and was designed
inth an enqagement range of 46,35 kn quldance which extends the range of Latest in a line of missiles stretching back to the late I 940s, the Standard
.28.8 miles) and an altitude of 45- the Tartar-sized missile by 60 per cent missile, in its SM-Z form, is used in the advanced AEGIS system.
'-3240 to around 74 l<rn (46 miles). A corres-
m (150-50,000 f0, The Terrler's
replacement, designated Standard ponding Standard SM-ZER varrant or
SM-IER (RIM-67A) had a range of RIM-678 is not desigmed to be fired by
14 kn (46 miles) and altitude limits of AEGlS-equipped ships, although im-
+5-24385 m (i50-80,000 ft), After enter- provements in its booster technoloqy
rg service from 1968 onwards in ships adds,a complete Mach number to its
-:ndergoing refits and on new-build velocity to give a kinetic range far out-
-r'arshrps, both missiles have under- side the current limits of an AEGIS
;cne several reliability improvement type ire-control system. However, the
performance update program- improvements considerably enhance
=d
::es. A new dual-thrust motor for the the weapons' capabrlities against high-
S:andard SM-lMR produced the RIM- performance alrcraft and missiles,
668 missile with a 45 per cent increase Those ships equipped with Terriers
'- maximum range and a 25 per cent and its Standard SM-IER replacement
:crease in the upper altitude engaete- have suitable fire-control systems and
*ent limrt. In most cases the changes are gettinq the Standard SM-2ER,
-'"t have been made have been in- A low-yield nuclear fission warhead,
::rporated as production 'Block' the WB I, is under development for de-
::-anqes which have not gnven rise to ployment with some 500 or so Standard
new designations. The most re- SM-2MR and SM-2ER missiles from the
=-r
:--tt version of the SM- ]MR, however, mid- l980s onwards to replace the Ter-
-.. been gdven the designation RIM- rier RIM-ZD(N), Desigmated Standard
i6C or Standard SM-2MR as it is the SM-2(N) the missile will become part Standard SM-2MR missijes are almost doubles the range of the first
* srle desigmed to operate with the carried aboard the widedmissile model, and the gireatly upratd
ijGIS air-defence system, The AEGiS frjals sfijps USS Norton Sound. fle e I ec t r o ni cs of the !ruidan ce sys tem
:-;em allows for mid-course missile ContinuedonpageLZTE SM-2 version of the Standard missile ens ures improved performance.
us sAt.l
S urface-to-airm.r'ssi/e development by
the US Navy.has seen a considerable
advance in accuracy and capability '
sinceWorldWar II. The missile defence
of today, notably the highly sophisticated
AEGIS system, is apotent force.

II
I
The Talos long-range area-defence SAM was
theprincipal goalof the WorldWar Ilprogram-
me known as 'Bumblebee'. Because of the
Americans' lack of ramjet propulsion experi-
ence, the missile in its ultimate form was
approached in stages. T\llo of the test vehicles
produced were the Experimental Prototype
Missile (XPM and the Supersonic Test Vehicle
(STV). The icrmer was developed into the
Talos proper whilst the latter evolved rnto the
Terrier missile. As buiit, the Talos was a beam-
rider over most of ils range, flying along a
radar beam designed to gmide the missile
along an energy-efficient trajectory until it
along it 0 (RIM-ZA) BW-t (RIM-ZB), BT-3 (RIM-2C), Twin Talos missiles are seen aboard the World
nearedthe_target,whereasemi-activehoming and BT-3A (RIM-2D) were the beam-riding War II 'Cleveland' class cruiser, converted to
seeker took over. This resulted in the missile variants while the HT-3 (RIM-2E and RIM-2F) grur:ded missi/e configruration. Talos was used
often impacting the target from above, a factor was the semi-active homing variant. A nuclear- operationally during theVietnam War, scoring at
which produced several tactical surprise situa- armed version of the BT-3A, Isror,vn as the BT- ranges of over I 20 km (75 miles).
tions in Vietnam, where MiG piiots were taught 3(N) or RIM-ZD(N), was also built with the I-
that SAMs always arrived from below. kiloton W45 warhead to complement the con- ment for target illumination by dedicated radar
Throughout its service lifetlme, from 1957 to ventional HE-fragmentation versions. from launch to interceptlon, a new missiie
1979, Talos was continually updated: the last The third missile of what became known as known as the Typhon was ordered into de-
version, the RIM-8J, had a range of 249 kn (i50 the 3T-Program was the Tartar, which was en- velopment in both medium- and long-range
miles), which was a considerable improve- visaged as a shorter-range equivalent of the forms, The missile was to use new aerodyna-
ment over that of the earlier models. The final Terrier to arm destroyer-sized vessels princi- mic and electronic technology to overcome the
Unlfied Talos versions cguld lse either a 5- pally against low-flyihgr attackers, Deiigneld saturation threat, but it was cancelled as the
kiloton W30 nuclear or a 210 9-kg (465-1b) HE- from the outset as a semr-active radar hoiring necessary technologry ultimately proved to be
fragmentation warhead.. Dwing Vietnam de- system, the missiie soon underwent a produc"t beyond the capabilities of the industries in-
ployments the cruiser USS/,ongBeach scored improvement programme that resulted in the volved at the time, However, many of the ideas
two MiG kilis at extreme range over North Improved Tariar (RIM-Z4B) with a consider- and concepts devised for the system surfaced
Vtetnam in 1968, whiist dwing the mining of ably enhanced performance envelope. Com- later in the AEGIS programme. Before this lat-
Haiphong harbour in
Hatphong in April 1972 the cruiser USS pared with those of the tvvo other systems, the ter system mahrred, however, replacements
?rcago added a thud
Chicago kill.
third krll Tartar's development was rapid,
rapid,-and
and large
larqe for the Terrier and Tartar were still needed,
As already i4dicated, the Terrier was de- numbers of the family were procured for boith and this resulted in the development of the
veloped from the Talos technotogry but actually the US Navy and friendly Western nations. Standard missile famiiy. The Standard SM-IMR
preceded it into service by a year or so. The was evolved to replace the Tartar and the Stan-
programme su-ffered from continual Depart- Newtechnology dard SM-IER to replace the Terrier. Using
ment of Defense pressure, and for this reason In the late lg50s the major percelved threat cofilmon components, the Standard SM-IMR
su-ffered badly from reliabllity problems in its that the Soviets could field was a saturation was ultimately developed into the Standard
early stages, Its evolution was thereiore gra- attack by aircraft and missiles, in which the SM-2MR for use with the muttiple{arget antr-
dual, one major element of the gmidance sys- fleet's missile defences wor'rld have to cope saturation AEGIS system. This uses the inbullt
tem, means of flight control or propulsion motor with a large number of targets simultaneousiy, faciiity of the AEGIS system fire-control com-
being varied at a time. Most significant As the existing missiles such as Tatos and Tei- puters to command any missile's autopiiot sys-
changes resulted in new versions, and the BW- rier were tactically limited by their require- tem in flight to provide continuous cowse up-
dates so that the missile can fly a highly efficient
trajectory to the vicinity of the target, where the
semi-active homing seeker takes over, The
more energy-efficient flight trajectory con-
siderably increases the range of the SM-2MR,
to the point where it matches that of the earlier
SM-IER missile. At the same time as the AEGIS
system was being developed an improvement
programme for the SM-IER was underway.
This resulted in the SM-2ER missile, whlch en-
tered operational sewice in 1980 with a higher
velocity and improved engagement envelope
to enable it to defeat high-performance targets,
Interestingly, the SM-ZER cannot be used with
the AEGIS system as its performance is outside
that system's capabiiities. A nuclear-armed
version of both the SM-2MR and SM-2ER is
under deveiopment to allow the missiles to
engage nuclear-armed cruise missiles at long
range.
A standard MRmrssi,le ri,launcfi ed from USS
Ticonderog4 the firs t of the AEGI S cruis ers. AE G I S
is a complete air defence system, with advanced
detection and controlequipment deslimed to
handle saturation air and missile attacks on the
carrier battle group.
Naval Surfa c e-to- Air lvllissil[es

In the Iate 1950s interest was directed to-


-,vard a point-defence missile system that cottld
replace the existing 76-mm (3-in) and 40-mm
arr-defence gnrns. This was due to be the Sea
Mauler deriiative of a US Army programme -of
but, because of delays, an evalu-ation avail-
able systems to sewe as an interim system
resulted in the Sea Sparrow Basic Point De-
:ense Missile System beinq chosen. The British
Sea Cat missile was the nearest rival but the
Sea Sparrow was finally chosen over it because
rt was considerably faster and had a higher
single-shot kill probability. Subseguently Sea
Mauler was cancelled and the Sea Sparrow
girew into a complete family of derivatives with
variants based on existing air-to-air missiies.
Apart from the new derivatives, the system was
also improved through the fitting of a new
iarget acguisition system that was introduced
rnto the fleet from 1973 onwards. A version of
the US Army's Chaparral SAM system was also
',:sed for a time.on a number of FRAM des-
troyers during the latter stages of the Vietram
War aiter the USS Higbee had been hit by a
iromb from a MiG in April 1972, but the system
hrown as Sea Chaparral and using AIM-9D
Sidewinder lR-homing missileswas rapidly re-
moved from each vessel when lt returned to
the United States. This proqralnme was fol-
lowed by what has eventually become looum
as the multi-national Rollrrg Airframe Missile
(RAM) RIM-I16A. Ths is a short-range ligrht-
weight missile designed to complement ciose-
in weapon systems. Using an entirely passive
gn-ridance package to counter active radar-
homing cruise missile targets, its service entry
has been delayed until the mid-1980s,
A tu]l list of US Nary SAMs that have entered
service is given in the accompanying table to
show the evolutionary nature of most of the
programmes.

Right: Developed from the land-based Chaparral


system and usin g aversion of the NM-9
Sidewrnder mr'ssrJe, Sea Chaparral saw limited use
toward the end of theVietnam War. The mounting
k an adaptationof theArmyM4S orM54 systems,
with the operctor inside the central post.

US Naval Surface-to-Air Missiles

1. RIM-2 Terrier area-defence missile Range Range


RIM-2A beam rider 18.5 km miles)
(1 1 .5 Rl M-8E Unif ied Talos, interchangeable warheads 1Bb km (1 15 milesi
R M-2B re-engineered R M-2A
I I 18.5 km {1 1.5 miles) R lM-BG SSM capability added 185 km (1 15 miles;
RIM-2C new tailcontrols and motor propellant 27 .75km (17.24 miles) RGM-BH special anti-radiation homing version for
RIM-2D some re-engineering plus SSM capability 37 km (23 miles) shore targets 222 km (138 milest
Rl l\4-2D(N) nuclear version of Rl M-2D with RIM-BJ much modified Unified Talos 241 .4km (150 miles'
1-kiloton head 37 km (23 miles)
Rl M-2E f irst continuous-wave semi-active 4. RIM-24 Terrier medium-range area-defence
radar-homing version 37 km (23 miles) missile
RIM-2F new sustainer and power supply 74 km (46 miles) RIM-244 seml-active homing with SSM capabillty 13.7 km (8.5 milesr
RIM-248 lmproved Tartar 32.2km (20 miles'
2. RIM-7 Sea Sparrow point-defence missile
RIM-7E5 Sea Sparrowversion of AIM-7E 22.2km (13.8 miles) 5. RIM-66 and RIM-67 Standard area-defence
RIM-7H Sea Sparrowversion of AIM-7E 22.2km (13.8miles) missile
RIM-7H5 NATO folding-fin version of AIM-7H 22.2km (13.8 miles) RIM-66A Standard SM-1 MRwith SSM capability 46.25 km i28.75 r-- es
RIM-7F Sea Sparrowversion of AIM-7F 22.2km (13.8 miles) RIM-668 improved Standard SM-1 MR 67.06 km (41.7 r- es
RIM-7M improved lowievelversion of AIM-7M 22.2km (13.8 miles) RIM-66C Standard SM-2MR forAEGlS 74 km (46 m'les
RIM-67A Standard SM-1 ER 74 km (46rn es
3. RIM-8 Talos long-range area-defence missile Rl M-67 B Standard SM-2ER 148 krn r92 r. es
R lM-8A f irst tactical Talos 92.5 km (57.5 miles)
RIM-BB first tactical nuclearTalos (5-kiloton yield) 92.5 km (57.5 miles) 6. RIM-116 RAM point-defence missile
Rl M-BC extended-range Talos 185 km (1 15 miles) RIM-1 164 Rolling Airframe Missile (RAM) 9.25 kn'
R M-8D extended-range nuclearTalos
I 185 km (1 15 miles)
RIM-BF modified RIM-BD with first continuous- 7. Sea Chaparral point-defence missile
wave seeker 185 km (1 15 miles) AIM-9D R-guided Sidewinder
I 8.05 <r
Standard (continued)

of the ship's normal missile outfit, 0.914m(3ft0in)


Further improvements are underway Weights: totai round 608,7 kg
to both missile types to counter high- (1,342 lb);warhead? HE
level diving missiie targets, The Stan- Performance: maximum speed: Mach
dard SM-IMR is used by Australia, 2+;range 74 lcn (46 mrles); maximum
France, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands altitude 24385 m (80,000 ft)
and USA, while the SM-IER, SM-2MR
and SM-2ER variants are resewed to Specification
the US Navy, RM-6TAStandardSM-lER
Type: medium-range area-defence
Specification missile
RIM-664 Standard SM- IMR Dimensions: length 7,976 m (26 ft 2 in);
Type: medium-range af ea-defence diameter0,343 m(1 ftl,5 in); span
mrssile 0,914m(3ft0in)
Dimensiors:length4,47 m (14 ftB in) Weights: total round 6 16.9 kg
diameter0.343 m (1 ft LS in); span (1,360 1b); warhead ? HE
0.9 14 m (3 ft 0 in) Performance: maximum speed Mach
Weights: total round 578,8 kg 2,5+; range 74 lcn (46 mrles);
(1,276 1b); warhead? HE maxmum altitude 24385 m (80,000 ft)
Performance: maximum speed Mach
2+;range 46,25 km (28.75 miles); Specification
maximumaltitude 15240 m (50,000 ft) RIM-678 Standard SM-2ER
Tlpe: long-range area-defence
Specification missile
RM-66BStandardSM-lMR Dimensions: Iength 8.23 m (27 ft 0 in);
Type: medium-range area-defence diameter 0.343 m (l ft 1.5 in); span
mrssile 0.914m(3ft0in)
Dimensions:length4,724 m (15 ft6 in); Weights:totalround 1387, I kg
diam6ter0.343 m(1 ft 1,5 in); span (3,058 Ib); warhead? HE
0,914 m(3 ft0 in) Performance: maximum speed Mach
Weights: total round 608.7 kg 2.5+; range 148 ]an (92 miies);
(1,342 1b); warhead? HE maximum altitude 30480 m (100,000 ft)
Performance: maximum speed Mach
2+; range 67 lqn (4 i,6 miles); Off S an J uan, the' Belknap' class
maxrmum altitude 19050 m (62,500 ft) crurberUSS Wainwrighltires an SM-
2ER missile. The ex tended range
Specification version of the Standard with the aid
RIM-66C Standard SM-2MR ,of the large hooster motor is capable
Type: medium-range area-defence of rangesintheregionof 150 km(93
missile miles), and the improved electronics
Dimensions: lengrth 4.724 m (I5 ft 6 in); and gaidance enhance the
diameter 0.343 m (I ftI.S in); span perf o r m a nce c on s id er ab Iy.

€ HL" sp"rrow
In the early 1960s the Sparrow proved
to be the best missile to lorm the basis
of the Basic Point Defense Missile Sys-
tem (BPDMS) for the US Navy, The first
mrssile used, the RIM-7ES, of what has
now become a family of Sea Sparrow
missiles, was derived from the AIM-?E
Sparrow air-to-air missile, This was
then reconfigured into the RIM-?H
round and then the RIM-?F was used,
based on the much improved AIM-7F, Based on the AIM-7 Sparrow Iamily of air-to-air missiles, the RIM-7 Sea
The semr-active radar-homing Sea Sparrow provides basic point defence for the US and NATO navies.
Sparrow's performance was quite im-
pressive as its engagement ranqe was
between 14,9 and 22.3lgl (9.25 and
13,8G miles) depending upon the
target's altitude, wluch could lie be-
tween 30 and 15240 m (I00 and 50,000
ft). All versiors were, however, consi-
dered deflcient against low-flying
cruise missiles which had by then be-
come a major threat to US naval forces,
In order to rectify this defect, low-
altitude radar gmidance and fuslngt
capabilities were to be given to Block I
RIM-7F missiles to enable them to hrt
targets below 15 m (50 ft), whilst Block
IImissiles were to get enhanced
ECCM features. However, both fxes
were dropped from the procEamme as
the RIM-7P was superseded on the
Continuedonpage 1280
The only missile defence cawied by
USNavy attack carriers is the Basic
Point Defence Missile System, using
Sea Sparrow missiles. The system
has been in operation for some time,
as this picture of U.SSJohn F. Kennedy
taken in the Mediterranean in I 969
demonstrates.

1 410
latmch Sgsfems
Cne of the most dramatic sights inmodern militaryweaponry
:.sthe launch of anaval missilefrom awarship atsea.The
.nissr/e jsno t thewhole story, however: without thelauncher,
r eloading systems and magazines there would be no defence
at all against determined onslaughtfrom an enemyattacking
:n numbers.
-he launch rate and reliabiiity of its launcher system have an important impact on
.re effic,ency o'rhe surface-to-air -issile system as a whole. Throughout the
leveloprnent of naval SAMs the weapons have continually integrated new and
mproved design features that were aCopted to permit faster and more efficient
aunching, First-generatron systems such as the Sea Slug Mk 1, the Terr;er and
tne earlier Talos variants were far less reliable than the anillery systems that
they were designed to replace, so much so that check-out and even overhaui
J1d asserrbly'acilit.es were required as part of the rFiss:le sLowage and loading
system together with (until quite recentiy) the means of jettisoning and replac-
:ng duci rounds already on the launcher. Surprisingly, this last feature had a
considerable effect on the physical design of the launcher itself. The missiles
ihemselves were mostly stowed in horizontal magazines in the first generation
of purpose-built and converted missile ships, and were fired from twin-arm
launchers.
Dui'nq the '1 95Os thc concept of verticar stowage gained ground as it posses-
sed the advantages of handling the missiles in attitudes much more suitable for
tne reduction of'damage fronishock, vrbration cr ship motion together with a
reduction in the amount of handling equipment needed. The boosters and
missiles could thus be mated in th6 magbzine space and then placed on a The GMLS Mk 26r's flre /asfesf a nd mostversatile launcher in IJS Navy service
ready-use ring below the Iauncher. However, because of its sheer size the Talos today. Fully automatic, the Mk 26 can handle Standard SAMs, Harpoon SSMs
nad 1o remain a norrzontal stowage system. aadA^SROCASW missiles, from magazines of 24,44 or 64 roundcapacity. tt
The advent of the U S Navy;s Tariar f6r missile destroyers brought into service egulps the Ji?sf A-EGJS crulsers . but will be superseded by vertical launch
a highly automated vertical stovrage system wrth both M k 1 1 double- and M k 1 3 syslems.
and Mk 22 single-rail launchers
Tne ldtter ry[e was deviseC to acn.eve a higher rel abil,ty than tle tw n-a'-
iauncher whilst maintaining the same overall rate o{ fire. However, the adopt on
of the Tartar did have disadvantages the missiles became more difficult to
ser,-ice (which ultimaieiy preclude-d the use of a nuclear warhead fcr obvious
safety reasons) and there was a lack of flexibility in accommodating other
missile types ({or instance, the rnodern 'Ollver Haza rd Perry' class frigates with a
Mk 13 launcher can carry only SAMs and the equivalent-sized Harpoon anti-ship
missile but not the ASF'OC intr-submanne mrssile). The latter was one of thb
main reasons why 11-," Mk 13 launcher was reiected for the AEGIS system,
leading to the development of the new Mk 26 launcher. Th s has an even fastei
rate of fire and the ability to handle most type of missiies. This conventionaltwin
raillauncherinturnistobesupersededbytheMk4lvertical-iaunchsystemwith
individual compartments that can handle missiles up to and incluoing the size of
Tomahawk crurse missiles. The rate of {ire is decreased to one round per
second, though the capability of muitrple-shot engagements is ava!lable far
more readily than before.
The Royal Navy went to an automatic twin+arl launch system for the Sea Dart
area-defence missile but stayed with hand loading for rts new Sea Wolf point
defence system, which has somewhat degraded lhe ability to cope with satura-
lion atracks.
The Soviets rnore or less ioilowed the US Navy in this paltern of development,
but sprang the surprise of the f irst operatronal vbrtical-LAunch SAM launihers in
the late 1970s with the SA-N-6 system; this uses rotary magazines to reload the
individual launcher bins. A second rnrssile system, of the point-defence type, is
now entering service with the same rotary-reload launcher arrangements.

r&

In between theMks IA and 26 twin-rail launchers, FMC praduced lfies.lhgje- Th e G M LS Mk I0I aunche r is fit ted to U S N avy cru.fsers and Jarger de s troyer s
rail Mk i 3 svstem. Fif ted to mr'ssrle deslroyers as well ai ta the two nucleir as well as to c r uis er s of the I talian navy. C a p ahle of fir ing S tand ard or Terrier
cruisers Califomiaand South Carolina and to fft e'Oliver Hazard Perry' class rnissi/es, the Mk I 0 in its later models can also handle ASROC . The size of the
fngares, the Mk I 3 can handle Terrier,standard and H arpoon missiies. syslem rsindica ted by the number of maintenancecrew.
Sea Sparrow (continued)

production line by the monopulse


seeker-equipped RIM-ZM version of
the AIM-7M. This incorporates all the
Lmprovements from the start and in fact
the US NaW is replacing all the pre-
vious Sea Sparrow variants in service
by this missile as fast as it can, The
NATO Sea Sparrow system differs
foom the BPDMS mainly in haung fire-
control systems that allow completely
automatic engagements from target
acquisition to mtssile impact, The mis-
sile used is the folding fin RIM-?HS ver-
sion designed to flt the more compact
eight-round launchers that NATO
navies use, An Improved PDIILS was
introduced into the US Navy from 1973
onwards, and this has a much im.
proved target-acquisition radar and
data-handling system, The Sea Spar-
row is operated by Belqium, Canada,
Denmark, Greece, ltaly, Japan, Nor-
way, the Netherlands, Spain, the USA
and West Germany.
Dimensions: lengrth 3.98 m(13 ft 1 in); warhead 40-kg (BBlb) HE-fragmentation A Sea Sparrowmr'ssr7e ri /auncfi ed
Specification diameter0,20Q m(Bln); span 1.02 m Performance: maximum speed Mach from its octuple box launcher aboard
RIM-TMSeaSparrow (3 ft 4 in) 3+,rcn]e22.2 km (13.8 miles); altrtude the amphibious commandshrp USS
Type: point-defence missile Weights: total round 228.2 kg (503 lb); limits B- 15240 m (25-50,000 ft) MountWhitney.

ffi irevr
Interest in a short-range lightureight
missile to complement the Phalanx
close-in weapon system remained
strong even after the Phalarx prog-
ramme began in 1969, After consider- The RAM, or Rolling Airframe Missile, employs components from both the
able congnessronal pressure on the US SidewinderAAIUI and theStinger portableSAM, added to apassive radar seeker.
Navy, the West German and Danlsh
qovernments stepped il
to save the
programme from termination by sign-
ing memoranda of understanding to
develop what by then was desigmated
the RIM- I 16A or Rolling Airframe Mis-
sile, usually shortened as RAM, to arm
both frigates and smail combatants.
The missile's unusual narne is derived
from the fact that it is spinning as it
emerqes from the launcher, after
which fins are extended, Guidance is
entirely passive, and initially uses a
tvvo-antenna broad-band radar seeker
to point the terminal homing IR seeker
head at the target. When this picks up
the 'glint' ofthe target, the radar seeker
is turned offas the IR gmidance s consi-
dered much more accwate. The ship's
flre-controi system informs the mrs-
sile's radar inferometer system of the
frequency of the incoming target's ac-
tive seeker head, The RAM employs
the motor, fuse system and warhead of
the Sidewinder air{o-air missile, the This is the first test Launch of RAM over water , with only the nose of the missile out of the launch box but with the front
IR seeker of the Strnger surface-to-arr fins already deploying.
missile, and the passive radar system
described, The launcher will erther be
a newly developed 24{ube system on
a Phalanx gun mount (for the two
NATO navies) or a five-round unit in-
serted into each of two upper cells of
an octuple Sea SparrodASROC laun-
cher on US Navy warships, Operation-
al deployment of the system has been
delayed until the mid-1980s although
the trials have been successful,

Specification
RIM-I16ARAM
Type: poinldefence missile
Dimensions:lengrth 2.794 m (9 ft 2 in);
drameter 0,127 m (5 in); span0,438 m
(1 ft 5.25 in)
Weights: totalround 72, I kg (159 1b);
warhead 10. 2-kg (22. 4-1b); HE-
fragmentation
Performance: maxrmum speed Mach Wellonitsway, theRAM missile accelerates towards its maximumvelocity of Mach 2.The systemisdesigned fo
2+; range 9.4 kn (5.85 miles); altitude complementthe Phalanx 20-mmguninproviding comprehensive close-inanti-mrssj,le defence.
limrts lowto medium

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