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Forthcoming iszues featue:
Infuty Ileapons of World lt'/ar I
Volume 6 Issue 63 Pistols, Machine-Ens urd Srt Ma
British Tanks of World Wu II
Published by
Orbis Publishino Ltd Modern Naval SAivls
@Aerospace P'ublishinq Ltd 1984 Canier Aircnft of the 1960s

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Armoured Personnel
Carriers Pqrt2
Nowhere has the spread, of armament manufachtring
capability become more apparent than in the production of The wheeled armoured vehicle is
wheeled armoured, vehicles. With manufacture rangring from inherently less massive than
comparable tracked vehicles, and its
the superpowers to the Third World, the prospective air and helicopter portability has
putchaser faces a bewildering choice of equipment, from the found it a place in the evolving
military doc trine of s peedy
simplest to the most sophisticated. deployment and rapid intervention.

Most of the wheeled armoured personnel carriers described rn the flrst and 1960s many countries purchased new vehicles from European cr _ S
part of this feature (for example the Soviet BTR-152 BTR-60, BTR-70, the manufacturers, and there are still several companies whose entire pr: -
South African Ratel and the BLR from Spain) have been developed duction is now devoted to exports. ln recent years, however, a number ::
specifically to meet the requrrements of the home market, although in countries who have in the past purchased their armoured vehicles :-
many cases these vehicles have been exported in substantial numbers, Europe or elsewhere have established flourishrnet automotive ini:-.-
Most of the vehrcles discussed in this second part, however, have been tries, and many of these are now turning therr attention to the design a:-:
developed with company money as a private venture, In these cases the development of varrous types of armoured flghting vehicles, For exa:r-,
manufacturer detects a gap in the marketplace and designs a vehicle to ple, ENGESA of Brazrl orrginally started to convert 6 X 4 and 4 x 2 vehic-es
meet this requirement, A typrcal vehicle of this type is the Belgian into all-wheel drive confignrration for civilian use. These. proved s:
SIBMAS 6x6 vehicle, which can be used for a wrde range of roles successful that the Brazilan army took an interest and the company:he:-
including that of an armoured personnel carrier, The Malaysian army converted many army trucks into full 6x6 configuration, In the 1960s::e
had a requirement lor a new armoured personnel carrier, and the many USA stopped export of military equipment to many South America:-
vehicles evaluated in Malaysia included the Belgian SIMBAS, West countries, and Brazil then dectded to design its own family of 0r:
German Condor, Brazihan EE-11 Urutu, US Cadillac Gage Commando, armoured vehicies which would share many common components. I:re
Belgian BDX and the West German Transportpanzer I; the tracked result was the EE-g Cascavel armoured car and the EE-ll Un:-.
Scorpion was also tested. After exhaustrve trials of all of these vehicles, armoured personnel carrier, which have been adopted not only by ::::
the SIMBAS 6x6 and Condor 4x4 types were selected, plus a small Brazilian army and marines but also by many other countries all over -:_:
number of Alvrs Scorpion CVR(T) and Stormer APCs. Many countries world, especially ln the Mrddle East, By early 1984 ENGESA had bi' :
are now holding competitions for new armoured vehicles, and these can well over 3 000 EE-9s and EE 1ls,
be an expensive undertakrng for the manufacturer as trials are not In the future even more countnes, including Egypt, are expecied ::
normally subsrdrzed by the prospectrve customer, enter the wheeled armoured personnel carrier market,
For some years after the end of World War II, many countries were
equipped with surplus armoured vehicles from the United States and The extra mobilityof thewheeledAPC is of considerablevalue to those
nations with long borders to patrol. The Dragoon is typical of the new breed o{
Unlted Kingdom; indeed, in 1984 there are strl1 many countries that use ptivate venture developments selling to smaller armed forces throughout the
the oid American half track armoured personnel carrier, In the 1950s world.

. -3,



DAF YP-408 armoured personnel carrier

Since well before World War II DAF Hatches are provided over the top of
has been a major supplier of wheeled the troop compartment. Standard
vehicles to the Royal Netherlands equipment includes a heater, but the
army, and in 1958 it built prototypes of YP-408 lacks an NBC system and
an erght-wheeled armoured person- amphibious capability, If required,
nel carrier, With a number of modiflca- infra-red equipment can be fltted for
tions and the replacement of the Her- the driver and the machine-gnrnner.
cules JXLD petrol engine by a more The basic armoured personnel car-
powerful DAF dlesel engine, this was rier is called the PWI-S(GR), thrs stand-
accepted for service as the DAF YP- ing for the Pantser Waqen Infanterie-
408, the first production vehicles being Standaard(Groep); the platoon com-
delivered in 1968 and final deliveries mander's vehicle rs the PWI-S(PC)
takinq place in 1968, A total of 750 vehi- and has a crew of mne and additlonal
cles were built for the Dutch army and communications equrpment; and the
flve are used by Surinam these latter battalion or company commander's
being passed on when the Dutch with- vehicle is the PWCO this having a
drew in the 1970s. In the Dutch army crew of sx, additional commumcations
the YP-408 is now raprdly being re- equipment anC mapboards. The
placed by the YPR-765, which is the ambulance model, which is unarmed Specification The YP-408MT tows a French-built
Dutch version of the FMC Armoured is the PW-GWT which can cary two YP-408 Brandt I 20-mm mortar, and
Infantry Fighting Vehicle, and lt rs ex- stretcher patients and four seated pa- Crew: 2f l0 fransporls lft e s even- man m ottar
pected that all YP-408s will have been tlents plus its three-man crew (driver Combat weight: 12000 kg (26,455 lb) team as well as up to 50 mortar
phased out of sewice by 19BB at the and two medical orderlies). The PW-V Powerplant: one DAF Model DS 575 bombs. The machine-gun is a
latest, freight carrier can transport1500 kg 6-cylinder diesel developing 165 hp Browning M2 HB I 2.7-mm and is
The hull of the YP-408 is of all- lb) of freisht. The PW-MT has a
(3,307 (123 kW) operated by the vehicle commander.
welded steel construction which seven-man mofiar team and tows a Dimensions: length 6 23 m (20 ft 5.3 rn);
varies in thrckness from mm B French 120-mm (4,72-rn) Brandt mortar width 2 40 m (7 ft tO 5 in); heiqht First produced in 1968, the 8x6 DAF
(0.315in) to lSmm (059in), The en- and 50 mortar bombs More recent (includins MG) 2,37 m (7 ft 9.3 in) YP-408 is soon to be replaced by the
gdne rs at the front, the commander and versions are the PWRDR radar carrier, Performance: maximum road speed tracked FMC infantry fighting
driver are to the rear of the engrne which is fiited with the British Marconi B0 kn/h (50 mph); maximum road vehicle. With a crew oI two, the YP-
compafiment, and the troop compart- Avionics ZB 298 gnound surveillance range 500 km (311 miles); fording 1,2 m 408 can transportup to I 0 fully-
ment is at the rear, The diesel engrne is radar, and the PWAT anti-tank vehicle (3 fi I I int; gradrent 60 per cenr: equipped infantrymen, but has no
coupled to a manual grearbox with five which has the Huqhes TOW ATGW vertical obstacle 0.7 m (2 ft 4 in); NBC protection or amphibious
forward and one reverse gear and a system, trench 1,2 m (3 ft l1 in) capability.
two-speed transfer box. The YP-408
has a total of erght road wheels (four on
each side), but only sx of these are
powered, makinq the YP-408 an Bx6
vehicle; it is the second pair of road
wheels which ts unpowered. Steering
is power-assisted on the front four
wheels, and the tyres have reinforced
side walls that enable the vehicle to be
driven for a distance of 50km (31
miles) at a reduced speed after they
have been punctured. The driver is
seated on the left wrth the commander/
machine-gmnner to his right. The 12.7-
mm (0,5-1n) M2 machine-gmn can be
traversed through 360" and elevated
from *B'to *70'.
The 10 fully equipped troops enter
and leave the YP-408 through two
doors in the hull rear, and are seated
flve down each srde facing each other,


MOWAG Roland armoured personnel carrier The basicRolandwas desigmed from

the outsetfor relatively easy
conversion to a number ofroles,
including those of personnel, cargo
The MOWAG Roland 4x4 is the smal- or ammunition carrier,
lest vehrcle currently produced by the r ec onn ais s ance, c ommand and
MOWAG company of Kreuzlngen, communic ations post or, as
Switzerland, and is used mainly in the illustrated, for the ambulance role.
internal security role, The flrst pro-
totype was completed rn 1963, the first
productron vehicles belng completed
the following year, Known operators of
the Roland include Argentina, Bolivia,
Chile, Greece, Iraq, Mexico and Peru
The hull of Roland rs of all-welded steel
armour construction that provides the
crew with complete protection from
7,62-mm (0.3-in) small arms fire, The
driver is at the front the crew compart-
ment in the centre and the englne at
the rear on the left side; there is also an
aisle in the right side of the hull that
leads to a door in the hull rear. The
driver has a roof hatch, and there is a
single door in each side of the hull, In
each of the three doors is a flring port
(with a vision block above) which
allows three of the embarked infantry-
men to frre their rifles or sub-machine
emns from within the vehicle in safety,

MOWAG Roland APC (continued)

In the centre of the roof is installed In the late 1960s the company de-
the main armament; this is normally a signed and burlt another 4x4
simple cupola wtth an externally armoured personnel carrier called the
mounted 12.7-mm (0,S-in) or 7,62-mm MOWAG Grenadier, which can carry
(0,3-in) machine-gun. One of the a total of nine men including the com-
alternative weapon statrons is a tufiet mander and driver. This model was
on top of whrch is a remotely- sold to a number of countries but is no
controlled 7.62-mm (0.3-in) machine- longer offered, having been replaced
gun fired from within the turret. by the Piranha range of 4x 4, 6 x 6 and
The petrol engine is coupled to a B x B armoured vehicles, Typical arma-
manual gearbox with four forward and ment installations for the Grenadier in-
one reverse gear and a two-speed cluded a one-man turret armed with a
transfer case, More recent production 20-mm Hispano-Suiza cannon and a
Rolands are offered with an automatic turet with twin BO-mm (3, 1S-in) rocket-
gearbox to reduce driver fatignre, launchers The vehrcle is fully amphi-
When used in the internal security bious, being propelled in the water by
role, the Roland is normally fitted with a propeller under the rear of the hull.
an obstacle-clearing blade at the front Waterborne steerlng is accomplished
of the hull, a public address system, by turning the steering wheel in the developing 202 hp ( 151 kW) The anti-tankRoland is armed wtth
wire mesh protectton for the head- normal manner to move two parallel Dimensions: len glh 4. 44 m (14 ft 6, B in); three M es s erschm it t-B ol kow - B I o hm
lamps and sometimes the vrslon blocks rudders mounted to the immediate width2,01 m (6 ft 7 in); heisht (with M am ba wire - guid e d a n ti - ta n k
as well, a srren and flashing lights, rear of the propeller, turret) 2,03 m (6 ft B in) m jssrTes. T he e qu ipment is m ou n t ed
Another optron is MOWAG bulletproof Performance: maximum road speed directly onto the remote-controlled
cross-country wheels. These consrst of Specification I l0 lcr/h (68 mph); maximum range 7.6 2 - mm machine-gun turret.
metal discs on each side of the tyre, the Roland 550 km (341 miles); fording 1,0 m (3 ft
outside ones having ribs which assist Crew:3+3 3 4 in); gradient 60 per cent; vertical
the vehicle when crossing through Combat weight: 4700 kq (10,362 lb) obstacleO.4 m(1 ft4 in); trenchnot
mud. Powerpiant: one V-B perrol engine applicable

MOWAG MR 8 series armoured personnel carriers

Since the end of World War ll the the normal position complete visibility
MOWAG company has manufactured is possible through 360".
a wide range of tracked and wheeled Unlike more recent MOWAG
armoured fighting vehicles aimed wheeled armoured vehicles, the MR B
mainly at the export market, and has series vehicles have no amphibious
also built prototypes of armouredvehi- capabrlity and are not fitted wtth an
cles for foreign governments. For ex- NBC system or any type ofnight vision
ample, MOWAG built some of the pro- equipment, althouqh both of the latter
totypes of the West German Marder could have been fltted if so requrred
mechanized infantry combat vehicle, by the user.
In the 1950s a 4x4 series ofarmoured MOWAG continued to develop the
vehicles were designed and burlt MR 8 series for other export markets,
under the company designation and these vanants included the MR
MOWAG MR 8, and this was subse- 8-09 sporting a one-man turret armed
quently adopted by the West German with a 20-mm cannon, the MR 8-23 that
border police in two confiqwations, had a two-man tufiet armed with a 90-
the SW I and the SW2. The first batch of mm (3,54-in) gnrn and a 7,62-mm (0,3-
20 or so vehicles was supplied drrect in) co-axral machine-gmn, and the MR
by MOWAG, but main production was 9-32 fitted with a 120-mm (4,72-in) mor-
undertaken in West Germany by tar at the rear of the hull. The last ver-
Henschel and Bilssinq. Total produc- sion had an open-top hull, and before
tion in West Germany amounted to ab- the mortar could be fired it had to be W e s t G er m an Bundes gren z s c hu tz personnel carriers. The first Swiss-
out 600 vehicles.
The SWl (geschiitzter Sonder-
lowered to the grround, TWo multiple
rocket-launchers were also designed
(BGS, or Federal Border Police)
parade with their armoured but
built models were delivered in I 9 5 I
60, subsequently built in the Federal
wagen Kfz 9l) rs the armoured person- and built, one with a launcher fitted unarmedMRS(modelSWl) Republic.
nel carrier model and accommodates with 20 145-mm (5. 7-in) barrels and the
five men plus the commander and other with two B0-mm (3 1S-in) rocket
driver while the SW2 has a slightly projectors fed by an automatic loader
different hull top and is fitted with a which enabled a cyclic rate of 500
one-man turret armed with a 20-mm rounds per minute to be achreved,
Hispano-Suiza cannon plus four None of these models entered produc-
smoke-drscharqers mounted on each tion,
side of the turret to frre forwards,
The same basrc hull is used for both Specification
the SWI and SWZ, with slight differ- MR8
ences to the rool In the SWl the com- Crew: 2f 5
mander and driver are seated at the Combatweight:8200 kg (18,078 lb)
front of the hull wrth a windscreen rn Powerplant: one Chrysler Type R 36 1
front of each man; these windscreens 6-cylinder petrol engine developing
can be quickly covered by armoured 161 hp (120 kW)
shutters with integral vision blocks, Dimensions: length 5 31 m (17 ft 5 in);
The drrver also has a roof hatch above wrdth 2.2 m (7 ft 3 in); herqht (hull)
his position for driving in the head-out LBB m (6 ft 2 in)
position, The troop compartment is at Performance: maximum road speed
the rear of the vehicle with the engine B0 krr/h (50 mph); maximum range
compartment to rts left, In each side of 400 km (248 miles)j fording 1.1 m (3 ft
the hull is a two-part door that opens 7 in); gradient 60 per cent; vertical
left and right: each door has a vision obstacleO,4 m(1 ft4 in); trenchnot
block and a firing port, Over the top of applicable
the troop compartment are two roof
hatches and an unusual cupola, The
latter rs fixed but split down the middle TheSW2modelof theMR 8, alsoused seven. Smoke drschargers are
so that it can be opened vertically if by the BSG, differs in being armed mounted on each side of the 2a-mr:,
required; in each half are three fixed with anHispano 20-mm cannon and turret.
vision blocks, When the cupola ts in having a crew offour instead of

MOWAG Piranha armoured personnel carrier

The MOWAG Piranha rangre of 4x4, the US Marines include a logistics sup-
6 x 6 and B x B armoured personnel car- port vehicle, a command vehicle, a re-
riers was desigrned by MOWAG in the pair vehrcle, a mortar carrier and an
late 1960s, and the first prototype was antl-tank model, The US Army with-
completed in Switzerland in 1972, with drew from the programme early in
flrst production vehicles followingr four 1984.
years later. As with all recent The hull of the Piranha is of all-
MOWAG vehicles, the Piranha family welded steel construction which pro-
was a private venture and developed vrdes protection from small arms fire,
without government support. In 1977 On the sx-wheeied version the driver
Canada decided to adopt the 6 x 6 ver- is at the front on the left with the com-
sion and production was undertaken in mander to his rear and the engine to
Canada by the Diesel Division of the right, The troop compartment is at
General Motors Canada, 491 being the rear of the hull, and entry to this is
built for the Canadian Armed Forces gained via two doors rn the hull rear,
between 1979 and 1982. Canada uses Armament depends on the role, but
three versions ofthe 6x6 Piranha: the can range from a single-man turret up
76-mm (2.99-in) Cougar Gun Wheeled to a two-man power-operated turret
Fire Support Vehicle which has the armed with a 90-mm (3,54-in) Cockertll
same two-man turret as the British Qnrn. If a healry weapon such as this is
Combat Vehicle Reconnarssance fltted, however, the commander is nor-
(Tracked) Scorpion; the Grizzly mally in the turret and a reduced num-
Wheeled Armoured Personnei Car- ber of troops rs carried, The 4x4version of the Piranha has a machine-gan mount. All of the
rier, which has turret armed
a one-man All members of the Piranha family maximum load of I0 infantrymen Piranha family are fully amphibious,
with a 12,7-mm (0.S-in) and a 7,62-mm are fully amphibioLrs, being propelled and, as here, canbe armedwith a being driven by twin propellers in
(0.3-in) machine-gun and has a three- in the water by two propellers at the remote- control led 7.6 2 - mm water.
man crew consisting of commander, rear of the hu1l. Optional equtpment
gmnner and driver plus sx lully equip- includes such thrngrs as night vision
ped troops; and the Husky Wheeled equipment, an NBC system. an air-
Maintenance and Recovery Vehicle, conditioning system (essential in the
which supports the other vehrcles rn Middle East) and so on.
the field. In addition to being used by
Canada, the Piranha rangte of vehicles
is used also by Chile (licence produc- Specification
tion), Ghana, Liberia, Niserra and Sier- Piranha (6 x 6 version without
ra Leone, and in 1983 the 6x6 model armament)
was evaluated by the Swrss army as an Crew:2* 12
antr-tank vehicle fitted with the combar weight: 10500 kq (23, t4B Ib)
Hughes TOW anti-tank system, After Powerplart: one Detroit Diesel 6V-537
evaluating a number of different vehi- developing 300 hp (224 kW)
cles both tracked and wheeled, the Dimensions:lenqth 5.97 m (19 ft 7 in);
USA selected the 8xB version of the width2.50 m(B ft2.4 in); heisht 1,BS m
Piranha to meet its requirement for a (6 ft I in)
Lrght Armored Vehicle (LAV) and the Performance: maximum road speed
first of these was completed for the US 100 lcr/h (62 mph); maximum rangte
Marine Corps in late 1983, These have 600 km (373 miles)t fording
a two-man power-operated turret amphibious; gnadtent 70 per cent;
armed with a Hughes Helicopters 25- verticalobstacle0.S m(1 ftB in); Armed with the Belgian Cockerill mgdeyn intantry fighting vehicle.
mm cannon (as fltted to the Bradley) trench not applicable 90-mm grun, the 6 xG Piranhais Such a large weapon is mounted at
and a co-axial 7.62-mm (0,3-tn) c ap able of fu lfiLLing the intantry the expense of the number of troops
machine-gun, Variants required by suppott role so often required ofthe carried.

ffi %rn" Dragoon armoured personnel carrier

In the late 1970s the US Army Miiitary
Police issued a requirement for a vehr-
cle which would be arrportable in a
Lockheed C-130 Hercules transport
aircraft and be suitable for both air
base protection and convoy escort,
The requrrement lapsed, but the
Verne Corporation went ahead and
with its own money built two pro-
totypes of a vehicle which was even-
tually called the Verne Dragoon. In
appearance the Dragoon is very simi'
lar to the Cadillac Gaqre V-100 and V-
150 range of 4x4 multi-mission vehi-
cles, but shares many common compo-
nents with the M]l3A2 full-tracked
armoured personnel carrier and the
MB09 6 x 6 S{on truck, which are used
all over the world, From the M11342
the Dragoon uses the enqdne, starter,
periscopes, bilge pumps, switches,
electrical and hydraulic components
(to name but a few), with the obvious
logrstical advantages.
The hull of the Dragoon is of al1-
welded steel construction which pro-
vides the crew with complete protec-
tron from 5,56-mm Q.22-in) and 7,62-
mm (0,3-in) small arms fire and shell
splinters, The driver is seated at the Although apparently very similar to the weII established Cadillac Gage Commando range, the Dragoon is rtgsigned for
front on the left with another crew maximumlommonafitywith the existingUS Armyinventory. As is usual today, avariety of weapons can be titted,
Continued on page 1246 including the Arrowpointe 90-mm turret with the Mk I I I Cockerill 90 -mm gun.

USlightArmoured Undet test at the Marine Ccrps
Combat C enter, 71ren gr4'me Pa,::-.
in Caffiornia, the GM Canada
Piranha has beenseJecfed rtnnerc:
the MV competition. The vehicle is

VehicleProgramme the 8 x 8 model of the Swiss MOWAG

Piranha built under Ecence in

For manyyears the US Marine Corpsftashad to operatewith

much older equipment than the US Army, often under
conditions less than suitable to army-oriented designs. The
changing military doctrines of the 1980s, however, have seen
maj or changes in procurement policy.

Recent events in the Middle East and Central America have shown the need for
the United States of America to have units that can be quickly deployed by air
anywhere in the world. The US Army and US Marines have many excellent
armoured vehicles, but many of these are very heavy and it would take many
weeks to transport a complete armoured or mechanized dlvlsion from the
continental USA to say Persian Gulf (for example) and by this time it could well
be too late. For this reason it was decided to establish the Rapid Deployment
Force (now renamed Central Command) which can quickly call on US Army. US
Navy, US Air Force and US Marine Corps units. Some of these units are standard
divisions with their heavy equipment, but the US Army and US Marine Corps
intend to form unlts with much lighter equipment that could be in the Middle
East within perhaps two or three days.
ln 1981 the US Army and US Marine Corps issued a request for proposals to
some 20 manufacturers of tracked and wheeled vehicles in the West for the
required Light Armoured Vehicles, for in order to get the vehicle into service as
quickly as possible it had been decided to use an existing vehicle rather than to
design a new vehicle from scratch as the latter process could take anything up to
10 years. ln June '1981 seven firm proposals were received, and late in that year
three companies were awarded contracts to supply vehicles for testing. Alvis of
the United Kingdom, teamed with Martin Marietta of the USA, built one Scor-
pion 90 powered by a diesel engine to meet the requlrement for an assault gun
vehicle and three Stormerarmoured personnel carriers to meetthe requirement
for the light assault vehicle. The Stormers also had the diesel engine and were
fitted with a two-man power-operated turret armed with a 25-mm Chain Gun as
installed in the lV2 Bradley lnfantry Fighting Vehlcle. Cadillac Gage was awarded The US Ma-r ne Corps will use the LAV for a variety of roles including recon-
two contracts, one for the 6x6 V-300 Commando and the other for the stretch- nalssance in force, attack, exploiting a breakthrough and pursuit operations.
ed V-150 S Commando. Three V-150 S vehicles were supplied, all with a The basic US Marine Corps version is called the LAV-25, has a thre6-man crew,
two-man turret, one with the 90-mm (3.54-in) Cockerill Mk lll gun and the other consisting of commander, gunner and driver, and can carry six fully-equipped
two with the 25-mm Chain Gun. Three V-300s were also supplied, one with a marines who are seated in the troop compartment at the rear of the hull. Tne
90-mm (3.54-in) gun and the other two with the 25-mm cannon. General Motors two-man power-operated turret is armed with a 25-mm Hughes Helicopters
of Canada suplied four BxB versions of the MOWAG Piranha vehicle, some Chain Gun, 62-mn (0.3-in) co-axial machine-gun and a"similar we'apc.
fitted with the 90-mm (3.54-in) Cockerill Mk lll gun and the orhers with a 25-mm mounted on the roof for anti-aircraft defence. Prototypes have also been buiit c.
Chain Gun, all in a two-man turret. the specialized verslons including a cargo carrier with hydraulic crane for loadinc
After tests in the USA by US Army and US Marine crews, the General Motors and unloading stores, an 81-mri moriar carrier, an anti-tank vehicle with tn;
Canada B x B vehicle was selected, and late in 1 982 the company was awarded a Hughes TOW ATGW system, a command and control vehicle with extensive
contract worth $30 million for the supply of the first 60 LAVs for the US Marine communications equipment and finally a maintenance and recovery mode:
Corps, the first of these being delivered on schedule late in 1983. At that time it whicl. is essential as the vehicles will be operating a long way from their ma -
was stated that the f ive-year contract for the LAV would be worth some $477 base. At present no procurement is taking place of the go-mm (3.54-in) assaull
milljon and cover the suply of 969 vehlcles with an option on a further 598 gun mcdel. although there is clearly a need for a fire-support vehicle of sorne
vehicles. Early in 1984, however, the programme suffered a major setback type. There is also a requirement for an air-defence vehicle, and for tria s
when the US Army decided to wlthdraw from the whole LAV project. The US purposes a LAV has already been fitted wlth a two-man turret armed with e
Marines remain committed to the LAV and intend to form at least three Light 25-mm/30-mm Gatling gun, Stinger missiles and a surveillance radar.
Armoured Assault Battalions (one each at 29 Palms, California; Camp Lejeune, The US Army is now pushing ahead with its Mobile Protected Gun System.
North Carolina; and Camp Pendleton, California) with a single company on which in many respects is a light tank, but this will not be in service for at leasl
Okinawa in the Far East. five years.

The 90-mm assault gunversion of the Piranha has not as yet been funded, but Theprototype cargocarrier is fittedwith a 1815-kg (4,000-lb) capacity czane.
the Cockerill Mk III armed vehicle would undoubtedly meet a requirement for a 13600-kg(30,000-lb) capacitywinch at the rear, a systemfor the trans[erence
an infantry fire support vehicle. of fuel, and aportable auxiliary power unit.
Dragoon armoured personnel carrier (continued)

member to his dght, the matn crew mand, engineer, anti-tank (wtth TOW
compartment is in the centre, and the ATGWs), recovery and internal secur-
engrne is at the rear of the hull on the ity vehicles,
right side (on the Cadillac Gage vehi- In 1982 six Draqoons were supPlied
cles it is on the left srde), and an aisle to the US Army and a smaller number
connects the main crew compartment to the US Nary, TLre former are used by
with the door in the hu]] rear, The the 9th Infantry Division High Technol-
troops normally enter and leave the oqy Test Bed in two roles, electronic
vehicle via a door tn each side of the warfare and video optical surveillance
hull, the- Iower part of each door folding vehicle, The flrstof these has extensive
down to form a step while the upPer communications equipment and a hyd-
part hinges to one side, Firing ports raulically-operated mast which can be
with a vision block above are provided quickly extended for improved com-
in the sides and rear of the crew com- munications. The US Navy uses its The electronicwarfare Dragoon is jammingof highspeed
partment, The diesel engine is cou- vehicles for patrolling nuclear undergoing trials with the US Ninth commu nications, and adv ance d
pled to an automatic transmission with weapons storge areas in Alaska and Infantry division. Roles include the battlefield d irection fin ding.
frve forward and one reverse gear and the continental United States, More re-
a single-speed transfer case, and cently it rs reported that Venezuela has
steering is hydraulic on the front axle, placed an order for a number of Dra-
The Dragoon is fully amphibious, goons,
being propelled in the water bY its
wheels at a speed of 4,8 lcrr/h (3 mph), Specification
with three bilge pumps extracting any Dragoon
water that seeps in through the door Crew:typically 3*6
and hatch openings, Combat weight: typically 12700 kg
When being used as a basic (27,998lb)
armoured personnel carrier the Dra- Powerplant: one Detroit Diesel Model
goon is normally fitted with an M113 6V-53T diesel developing 300 hp
type cupola with a pintle-mounted (224kW)
12.7-mm (0.5-in) or 7,62-mm (0,3-in) Dimensions:lenqth 5.588 m (18 ft 4 in);
machine-gun to allow the maximum wldth 2,438 m (B ft 0 in); heiqht (hull
number of troops to be carried, Other top) 2, 133 m (7 ft 0 rn) but varies with
armament installations are available, weaponfit
however, including two-man power- Performance: maximum road speed
operated turrets armed with a 25-mm I 16 km/h (72 mph): maximum road
cannon or a 90-mm (3,54-in) qn,7,62- range 1045 km (650 miles); fording
mm (0,3-in) co-axial and 7.62-mm (0,3- amphibious; crradient 60 per cent; S een on de ployment to Egypt, the commanders a highly mobile,
in) antr-aircraft machine-euns, More vertical obstacle 0,99 m (3 ft 3 in); long- r ange vide o optic a I armour ed observ a tio n c apacity,
specralized versions include com- trench not appLicable surveill ance v e hicle offers giving real- time communication.

E [LaiU"" Gage V-150 Cornmando armoured personnel carrier

In the early 1960s the Cadillac Gage Singapore. Somaiia, Sudan, Taiwan, sides and rear. A very wide range of the command staff to work ln the uP-
Company of Detroit, Michigan, started Tharland Tunisra, TurkeY United armament installations can be fltted, right position, a riot control vehicle
to design a multi-purpose armoured States and South Vietnam, The stretch- including a one-man turret with va- and a recovery vehicle,
vehicle which was flnally unveiled in ed model of the V- 150, the V- I50 S, was rious combinations of 7.62-mm (0 3-in)
1963 as the Cadillac Gage V-I00 Com- entered in the Lrght Armored Vehicle and 12.7-mm (0.5-in) machine-guns; a Specification
mando, Trials were so successful that (l,AV) competrtion together with the tvvo-man power-operated turret with V-150 Commando
the type entered production the fol- new 6x6 Cadllac Gage V-300 Com- 90-mm (3.54-in) or 76-mm (2.99-in) qun Crew: 3*9
lowing year for the export market, The mando, but thr.s competttion was won and 7,62-mm co-axial and 7.62-mm Combat weight: 9B8B kq (21,800 lb)
conflict in South Vietnam soon showed by the Canadiar B x B vehicle based on (0,3-in) anti-aircraft machine-gmns; and Powerplant: one V-B diesel
that there was an urgent need for a the Swiss Pranha. a turet wrth 2O-mm cannon and 7,62- developins202 bhp (151 kW)
wheeled vehicle for patrolling air The V-150 Commando rs called a mm co-axial and 7,62-mm anti-aircraft Dimensions: lenqth 5 689 m ( 18 ft B tn):
bases, fuel dumps and other high risk multi-mrssion vehrcle as it can be used machine-guns, There rs also an antt- width2.26 m(7 ftS in); height(hulltopl
areas as well as escorting convoys for a wide range of roles. In the basic aircraft vehicle with a 20-mm Vulcan 1,981m(6ft6in);
from one base to another, and soon armoured personnel carrier model it six-barrelled anti-aircraft weapon, a Performance: maximum road speed
significant numbers of vehicles were has a three-man crew (commander, mortar carrier with an Bl-mm mortar, BB,5 kn/h (55 mph); maximum range
shipped to South Vietnam for use by erunner ano drtver) and can carry nine an anti-tank vehicle with the Hughes 643 lan (400 miles); fording
the South Vietnamese army and the fully equipped troops, who enter and TOW anti-tank guided weapon, a com- amphibious; qradient 60 per cent;
United States forces (including the leave the vehlcle vra doors in the hull mand vehicle with rarsed roof to allow vertrcal obstacle 0,609 m (2 ft 0 tn)
military police and US Air Force).
The first model was powered by a
Chrysler petrol engine, and was fol- Developed from the V- I 00 of I 962,
lowed by the much larqer V-200 Com- theV-150 entered production in
1 97 1. A wide range of armament can
mando wrth a more powerful engine,
greater weight and increased load- be fitted, including the two-man 25-
carryrng capabrlity. The V-200 was mmgunturret,
sold only to Singapore and ts no longer
offered by the company, In the early
1970s the V-100 and V-200 were re-
placed in production by the V-150
Commando, which is still the current
production model, The V-150 intro-
duced a number of improvements, the
most significant of which rs the installa-
tion of a diesel engine which qives the
vehicle a much increased ranqe ofac-
tion as well as reducing the rtsk of fire,
So far over 4,000 V-100, V-I50 and V-
200 armoured vehicles have been
burlt, and known purchasers have ln-
cluded Bolivia, Botswana, Cameroun,
Dominican Repubitc, Ethiopia, Haiti,
Gabon, Guatemala, Indonesia,
Jamaica, Kuwait, Malaysia, Oman,
Panama, Phllippines, Saudi Arabra,

Cadillac Gagev-100 again, a round trip of about 225 kn (i4O mies.
and this is what happened on a typical convcl-

Commcmdo inAction escort run in May 1968. The drivers of :he

trucks and their escort gave their vehicles a
final check and received their briefing, whtch
covered everything from convoy escort proce-
Very often the greatest threats faced by US-forces inVietnam dures to the latest lntelligence on the enem-v
Before the convoy moved out the road aheaa
weie ambushAnd sabotage, and to provide the security was swept for mines and strongpoints were
needed both the army and air force looked to a vehicle that established at key points, There were 157 ven:-
had not been designed for US service at all' cles in the convoy, the slowest being placed as
usual at the head of the convoy so thai -:e
long, and the Viet Cong would carefully select remainder would keep pace. The road',";rs
The V-100 Commando (4x4) multi-misston tarmac, but was pocked wlth many holes ?c:-
armoured vehicle was designed by the Cadil- the best kill zone to lay their ambush. Often
thev mined the roads, but the Amertcans nor- previous enemy attacks and from the conli:::-
lac Gaqe company speciflcally for the export
marketibut in iiie ig00s the USA became more maily swept the roads for mtnes a short time bounding of tracked and wheeled veluc-=s
heavily lnvolved ln the fighting in South Viet- before the convoy passed, and light alrcraft which it was never deslgned to handle
nam ahd Commandos were soon used by the and heiicopters watched for any signs -of Earlyproblems
US Army for convoy escort work' by the US Air enemy activity The favourite trlck was to hit
the flrit and last vehicles, thereby blocking the The convoy then moved out, toQtether wll1 :.s
Force for patrolling the vast arfields with thelr
highly vulnerable aircraft, fuel dump-s rye9lon road, and then systematically to shoot up the Cadiilac Gage V-100 Commando armowej
whole convoy prior to melting back into the vehicles, As usual, thrngs began to go wrong -:-
stdra6'e areas and so on, and by the South Viet-
dense jungle before help could arnve The the form ofbroken down vehicles and flat tyres
namese army,
in South Vietnam there were hundreds of speed of the convoy was dictated by the speed dust was an ever present problem, and scc:
camps and outposts that had to be supplied oi the slowest vehrcle and the problem became covered men and vehicles with a fine layel
witLr ammunttion, food, water, fuel and other so bad that MI13 tracked armoured personnel About 14 km (9 miles) south of Kontum the cc:,-
essenttal supplies. Apart from the more iso- carriers and M48A3 tanks with 90-mm (3 54-1n) voy commander, Ist Lieutenant Troy, radroed
iated outposts and fire support bases that were quns had to be taken away from offenstve op- that the convoy had been ambushed, The cc:-
often on the tops of hlIls, most of these were 5ratrons against the Vier Cong in order to voy had rn fact been attacked by a whole bat:a-
supplied by road, As the war dragged on these escort the convoys, The 18th Mthtary Police iion of North Vietnamese troops, being rake:
Brigade was then depioyed to South Vietnam to not only by rifle and machine-gmn fire but al--al
vairiable and essential convoys came under
ever increasing attack from the Viet Cong undertake convoy escort and other essential by mortars and B-40 antitank rockets, Ti,=
roles, thereby releasing front-hne battalions for road was soon blocked with burning vehicies
Some of the convoys were over i.6 km ( i miie)
their main function, hlitrng the enemy and the convoy commander decided to :ui:-
The Central Highiands of South Vietnam lay the remaining trucks back whiie taking hs i--
Vietnam saw theIJS forces usingwheeled armour within the US 4th Infantry Divrsion area of op- l0O Commandos into the klll zone so that,-
on a large s cale tor the tir st time s ince W orld W ar could engage the enemy with 7,62-mm (0.3--:-
erations, and one of the roles of the 4th Military
II. The e adillac-Gage Commando saw service on
Police Company of thls divsion was to escort machine-gnrn fire from the one-man turrets ;i
convoy escort and base patrols,largely in Military soon as the convoy commander had radi:::
Police hands. convoys irom Plerku up to Dak To and back
Commando inAction

that he was being ambushed, helicopter

grunshrps andartillery flre were directed onto
the expected enemy positions, A further two
V-100s manned by the Mihtary Police then
moved into the kili zone to engage the North
Vietnamese. Soon M48 tanks and Mi13
armoured personnel carriers from the South
Vietnamese 3rd Armored Cavairy arrived,
attacking and overrunning the North Viet-
namese position, while the artrllery and tactical
air support (fixed-wing and helicopters)
attacked as they started to withdraw.
In addrtion to engaging the enemy, the V-
100s went up and down the convoy rescuing
trapped and rnjured truck drivers, ferrying
them to safety and then returning once more
lnto action, At times some of the Military Pollce
left the safety of their vehicles to engage the
enemy on foot, As in jungle, wlth its short en-
gagement distances, this was the only way to
ensure the deieat of the enemy. By about 14.30
the battle was essentially over and the North
Vietnamese had wrthdrawn, leaving behind
over 120 bodies, The US losses were 16 dead,
including three Mrlitary Police, and many
trucks, but not one V-100 Commando was lost,
Once the road had been cleared of damaged
and disabled vehicles the Commandos
escorted the remainder of the convoy safely to
their destination,
Trailvehicle Commandohas beendeveloped through a series carry the trail officer.
Another role of the V-100 in South Vietnam of models and with a variety of weapon scft emes. In additlon to escorting convoys, V-100s
was to act as a trail vehrcle, The 218th Milltary The developedversion, theV-150, has an 81-mm were also used in South Vietnam rn place o:
Police Company had to escort convoys from mortar version with the weapon mounted in the jeeps. Once a V-100 of the 66th Milrtary Police
troop compartment.
the malor port of Cam Ranh Bay (this is still Company was checking the speed of trucks or.
operational in 1984, but with visiting Soviet a road near Cu Lam Nam. This was standari
warshipsl) to Ban Me Thuot and back, a journey protection to the convoy; third, it prevented practice as there were many accidents be-
whrch took about lwo days if everything went to non-convoy vehicles from intermingling with cause the trucks were driven too fast, 24 kn&
plan, Each convoy would have a traii V-i00 the convoy and therefore stretching the convoy (15 mph) being the normal recommendeci
manned by Military Police which would carry out even more; and fourth, it restored move- speecl in towns and villages and 40 km&
out four mdn roles; first, rf a vehicle broke ment whenever the convoy was stopped by (25 mph) on roads, Suddenly one ol the trucks
down the whole convoy couid clearly not wait trafflc jams, The trail V- I00 was normally back- was htt by a B-40 rocket which was followed by
for it to be repaired so the V-100 would stay ed up by a 2,5-ton 6x6 recovery vehicle sult- machine-gun and rifle fire from a mixed North
behind and cover the vehicle while it was abiy armoured and an MI51 4x4 series jeep Vietnamese and Viet Cong ambush, Within a
berng repaired; second, it provided rear-area armed with machine-gmns, which would also few minutes more V-100 Commandos of the
66th Military Police Company were on the
scene, lncluding a vehrcle called Tftor which
had a three-man crew consisting of driver, qun-
ner (who manned the twin 7,62-mm/0,3-1n
machine-guns) and commander, This was hit
by an RPG rocket, however, and its crew were
soon rescued by another V-100 called F/ash,
Another V-100, calledlerron, was used to res-
cue occupants of the burnlng vehicles, some of
whom were wounded, while Afom, Iron Man,
Captain America and Spiderman all engaged
the enemy, who then wlthdrew. In many parts
of South Vietnam the jungle was cleared back
from the sides of the roads to give the vehrcles
in the convoy a better field of fire and to stop
the Vret Cong gettrng too close to the roads,
Many of the trucks were fitted with armoured
fuel tanks and cabs, and some had the quadru-
.-r , ;f.'-.'"d"q pie 12,7-mm (0 S-in) M55 anti-aircraft gun
mountrng on the rear deckrng to give fire sup-
port rn an ambush sltuation, M42 twin 40-mm
and MI63 20-mm self-propelled anti-aircrafi
gm systems were also used in certain parts of
the country for convoy escort duties,
In 1968 a convoy ofvehicles tried to get from
Long Binh to Cam Ranh Bay, but was soon

Such has been the success of tie Commando that

virtual copies have been manufactured in
Portugal. This ChaimiteV-Z)l is armed with a I 2.7-
mm M2 HB machine-gun along with a 7.62-mm
Modern Wheeled Armor:red Persorurel Carrie:s
W h e n th e C om m an d o w a s fi r s t bu"l:. a ! i --:-':: ;-:
would have been mote suited to an MEl. c:: ::. :.e
two decades since, the APC has beco;iie
increasingly versatile. This Commando's a:=e:
with a Cockerill Mk III grun.

cover on the north side of the road and crcss= i

to the south; when they were haif-way acr:ss
the fields the helicopter gnrnships arri.;ed ::
the scene, The V-100s continued to engaqe
Vret Cong, some vehicles even running c *:=e
ammunition and having to stop at nearby t=-
bases to replenish their supplies before re:r:--
rng to action once again. When the battle ;,-as
finally over, 43 bodies were counted, and qua:-
trties of weapons and equipment were cap-
tured, including 7,62-mm (0 3-in) AK-47 assa*.
rifles, I0 rounds of 60-mm mortar ammunili::-
and anti-tank rockets and their launchers, i:
was standard practice, the captured weapc-
and ammunition were taken away and cies-
troyed so that they could not fall into enei:-,-
hands again.
The V- 100 Commando has also seen actior- :-
the Lebanon and during rrot-control situaiic:.
in Turkey, One of the earliest operators af:e:
the US Army was the Royal Thal army in So:-:-
Vietnam. The flrst unit to be equipped wrth i=
V-100 was the Royal Thai Army Voluntee:
Force Armoured Cavalry Regiment, which re-
ceived training from the US 720th Mllita:;
wiped out wrth a heavy loss of life, and for two lead V-100 returned fire from its twrn M73 Police Battalon.
years no attempt was made to run any more machine-guns and made a U-turn at the front of By 1984 most of the American V-100s (desig-
convoys along the route. In 1970, however, the the convoy, and then sped back dovm the line nated M706 by the US Army) were no longer:-
sttuation had improved overall to such an ex- of trucks firlng at the enemy as it went, the service, although some are used at Nelhs i::
tent that it was decided to try to run another commander signalling to the trucks that they Force Base in Nevada to act as Soviet vehic-es
convoy, a dlstance of 483 km (300 miles) with should lncrease their speed to get through the in the command and control role for simulaie:
the 4th Transportation Command taking care of kill zone as quickly as possible. Once the con- air-defence artillery systems,
the trucks and the 720th Military Police Battal- voy had passed, some of the V-100s remained
tron (A and C Companies) taking care of the behind and continued firrng at the enemy posi- The tend in the modernAPC is towards larger
escort, which comprised three V-100s and tions, for while some of the enemy were usrng turret weapons, and for general-purpose use tie
three jeeps armed wlth machine-guns. The camouflaged posltions others were liring while V-l50with a 25-mmHughesChainGun is typical.
convoy started from Long Binh which was ln standing, and these latter made easy targets for Even with the two-man turret, the Commando stili
Military Region 3, and then crossed into Mllit- the Commandos, The enemy then broke from functions as a troop carrier.
ary Region 2 which had the 97th Military Police
Battahon, but the original escort stayed all the
way through to Cam Ranh Bay which was
reached wrthout a single shot being fired,
There were the usual punctures and problems
wrth brakes on the trucks, but no major break-
In another incrdent near Quan Loi, an ele-
ment of C Company of the 720th Military Police
Battalion was escortrng a northbound convoy
when an ambush was sprung by North Viet-
namese regulars and Vlet Cong. Instead of
hitting the front and rear of the convoy, the
ambushers struck the centre with concen-
trated rifle, machine-gun and rocket-propelled
grenade fire, and one of the first vehicles to go .4:
up in flame was a petrol tanker. The convoy
could not turn back, so the escort of miIltary 'v
police concentrated on gettrng the remainder
of the convoy through the ambush, The Com-
mandos engaged the treehne near the ambush
area with their twin 7.62-mm (O 3-in) machine-
qnrns, which soon had the desired effect and
enemy fire started to slacken, The enemy lost a
confirmed six dead, and other casualties were
probably taken away by the Viet Cong,
On another occasion V- I00 Commando veht-
cles from B Company of the 504th Military
Police Battalion were escorting a convoy of
trucks near An Khe, but about 16 km (10 miles)
from the base it was ambushed in a kill zone
about 400 to 500 m (440 to 550 yards) long, The
Commando in Action



''- ..|.-f.--..i*"--%€
:*.-:r.*--,:::{,' lk.

";' :..::. : ..1'

..::,.1:.::,::... ..1,.
: :.]*-.----:.*...'...-.'-.'*..'. U1:
Operating in the convoy escortrole
in Vietnam in tle Jale J960s, the M706
Commando' B itnd F aith' was
manned by MPs af the I6th MP
Group, 93rd M :! t a ry Police B attalion.

InMP service the Commandowas

armedwith twin i4 73 7.62-mm tank
machine-guns tn a ane-man turret.


: .. -
+jrrr , : .:1.
.- | :s-
€rr -*nF *- t
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I 23C

-: {ifiiL { TAnY fsLrilr

i"aiU"" Gagre V-300 Commando armoured personnelcarrier
in the iast 20 years the Cadillac Gage
Company of Detroit, Michigan has
turret desiened and built by Cadillac
Gage. Among the two-man installa-
tions rs a turet armed with a 90-mm
built some 4,000 of its Commando
range of 4x4 multr-mission vehicles in (3,54-in) Cockerill Mk III gnrn, or British
three modelsr the V-100, V-150 (cur- ROF 76-mm (2,99-in) gmn or 25-mm
rent production model) and V-200 In Hughes Helicopters Chain Gun, or 20-
recent years however, there has been mm cannon; there is also a one-man
a trend to 6xO vehrcles with their in- turret with a 20-mm cannon, and in all
creased load-carryinq capabilities, of these a 7.62-mm (0,3-in) machine-
and for this reason in 1979 the company gn-rn ts mounted co-axial with the main
as a private venture butlt two pro- armament and a similar weapon can
totypes of the Cadillac Gage Comman- usually be mounted on the rooffor anti-
do V-300 6x6 vehicle which can be aircraft defence, The one-man turret
used for a wide range of roles, includ- can have single or hvin 7,6?:mm (0.3-
ing use as an armoured personnel car- in) machine'gnrns or a combination of
rier. In ]982 Panama placed an order 762-mm (0,3-in) and 12.7-mm (0,S-in)
for 12 V-300 vehicles, which were all machine-guns, A simple alternative to
delivered the following year, Four the turets is a ring mountinq with a
different models were selected by ?.62-mm (0.3-in) or 12,7-mm (0 S-in)
Panama: a fire-support vehicle with 90- machine-gun.
mm (3,54-in) Cockerill gnm, a recovery Variants of the V-300 tnclude an
vehicle, and tv\to types fitted with diffe- ambulance with a higher rool an anti
rent machine-gmn installations, Cadil- tank vehicle fitted with the same TOW
Iac Gage also supplied three V-300s launcher as fitted to the M9Ol Im-
for the US Army and US Marine CorPs proved TOW Vehicle (lTV), and an
Lrght Armoured Vehicle (LAV) com- BI-mm mortar carrier.
petition; of these one was fitted with a T'he vehicle is fltted with a front- The Hughes Helicopter 25-mm Chain and smoke dl'schargers have been
two-man turet armed with a 90-mm mounted winch and is fullY amPhi Gunhas been fitted to lheV-300 mounted onthe side. Anextra
(3,54-in) Cockerill Mk III qmn, while the bioLrs, beingrpropelled in the water by Commando. The two'man tuftet has machine-wn can be fitted on top of
other two were fltted with a two-man its wheels at a speed of 5 km/h (3 mph), a co-axial 7.62-mm machine-gun, the turret.
turret armed with the Huqhes Helicop-
ters 25-mm Charn Gun as installed in Specification Dimensions: length 6,40 m (21 ft 0 in); 93 kn/h(58 mph); maxrmumroad
the FMC M2 and M3 trackedvehicles. V-300 Commando wldth 2,54 m (B ft 4 in); heisht (hulltop) range 700 km (435 mrles); fording
In the end, however, the LAV prog- Crew: 3+9 (commander, gunner, 1,98I m (6 ft 6 in) but vanes with amphibious; gradient 60 per cent;
ramme was won by General Motors of driver and 9 iniantry) weapon fit vertrcal obstacle 0,609 m (2 ft 0 tn);
Canada with an BxB version of the Combat weight: typically 13 137 kq Performance: maxtmum road speed trench not applicable
MOWAG Piranha, (28,962 rb)
The layout of the V-300 is quite diffe- Powerplant: one VT-504 V-B
rent from that ofthe V-150, The driver turbocharged dtesei develoPtng
is seated at the front left with the en- 235 hp (175 kW)
grne to his right, The engdne is coupled
to a futly automatrc Allison MT-643
transmission with four forward and one
reverse gear and a two-speed transfer
case. In addition to his roof hatch the
dnver also has a small hatch in the Ieft
side of the hull, The troop compart-
ment is at the rear, and the troops enter
and leave via the two doors in the hull
reari in addition there are hatches in
the roof and firing ports with a vision
block rn the sides and rear.
The V-300 can be fltted with a wide
range of armament installations, all in a

TheV-300 has beendeveloped as a

privateventure by Cadillac Gage.
H eaviest of the wide range of
we apons oper able is the C ockerill
Mk III 90-mm gun, mounted in a
Cadillac Gage two-man turret. For
air defence a 7.62-mm machine'gan
is pintle mounted.

re= USA

Cadillac Gage Commando Ranger armoured personnel

Developed to meet USAF base
security requirements, the Ranger is
l ais'o tasked with escorting ordnance
-TheUS Air Force has Liundreds ofvast
bases spread all over the world and in
recent years these have become
possible targets for terrorists and other
fringe groups as these bases not only
coniain highly expensive aircraft and/
or missiles but also radais and other
surveillance devices, fuels and all
types of ordnance ranging from
ammunition and conventional aircraft
bombs up to nuclear warheads To
protect these assets the US Air Force
issued a requirement for a vehtcle
which it called a Security Pohce
Armored Response/ConvoY Truck
which in addrtion to carrying out pat-
rols on atr bases, would also escort
convoys carrying ordnance to and

Q6rl il 1 ag Qags Commando Ranger APC (continued) Modern Wheeled Armoured Personnel Ca:ri,ers
,:--:- bases, or even from the storage assistance, and suspensron front and
..-:-: on the airfield to the aircraft it- rear consists of leaf springs and dou-
::_ ble-acting hydrauhc shock absorbers.
-::er studyinq a number of propos- The commander and driver are sea-
-:: early 1979 the US Air Force
-.=-=:.ed ted to the rear of the engine, each
the Cadillac Gage Comman- being provided with a bulletproof win-
:o Ranger atmoured personnel cat, dow to his front and a rearward-
:-=: :c meet its requirements. The first openingr side door that has a bullet-
-, ::se was handed over in the foilow- proof vision block and a firing poil
-:-:: .'ear, and by. 1984 some 700 had undemeath; in addition there is a firing
:==: dehvered. The US Air Force port between the driver's and com-
:-. . the vehicle the Peacekeeper, and mander's windscreens,
--:s have also been made by the The six men sit three down each
-:::Dary to Luxembourg (these are side rn the rear, and enter via two
-,: rnly armouted vehicles operated doors in the hull rear, Each of these
:',- .his country) and more recently doors has a frring port, and the left one
:-:.e have been sold to Indonesia also has a visron block, In each side of
: ]ether wrth a number of Cadillac lhe lroop compartment is a visron
3rge Commando Scout 4x4 recon- block and a flring port, In the roofis a
:-:-asance vehtcles, hatch on which a varrety of light arma-
-he Commander Ranger is based ment installations can be fitted, includ-
-:- a standard Chrysler truck chassis ing a simple shield with a 7.62-mm (0 3- Specification TheRanger interior is insuiated and
:--:ably modified and with a shorter in) machine-gmn or a tunet with twin CommandoRanqer air - conditioned, less e ning cr ew
-'".-:-eelbase. (The wheelbase of a vehi- 62-mm (0, 3-in) machine-gn.rns. Crew:2+6
7, fatigae considerably. The interior
:-: rs the distance behveen the flrst Standard equipment rncludes inter- Combat weight: 4536 kg ( 10,000 lb) can be fitted for command and
--i last axles, ) The fuIl armoured body nal lightrng. an ar-condrtionrng sys- Powerplant: one Dodqe 360 CID V-B communication equipment or for two
:::vrdes the crew with protection tem, a heater, two-speed wtpers and a petrol engine developing 180 hp crew and six passengers.
:::r small arms fire and shell splinters. windscreen defogger. Optional equrp- (134 kW)
- :-: engine is at the front of the vehicle ment includes 24-volt electrics in Dimensions: lenqth 4.699 m ( 15 ft 5 in)
-: coupled to an automatic transmis- place of the notmal l2-volt system, and width2.019 m(6 ft7,5 in); height 556 km (345 miles); fording0,457 m
:,:: wlth three forward and one re- a winch. Specialized versions include 1.981 m (6 ft 6 in) ( t ft 6 in); gradient 60 per centt venrcar
::se gear and a two-speed transfer a command vehicle and an ambu Performance: maximum road speed obstacle0,254 m(10 in); trenchnot
--=.= Steering is rntegral with pump lance. I 12.5 kn/h (70 mph); maximum range apphcable

iiumtrer'Pig' armoured personnel carri
World War II was over, the Brit-
:: army drew up its-requrrements for
= :omplete new generation of
-,'.-:eeled mihtary vehicles includrngr a
--::n truck which was eventually pro-
-::ed by Humber/Rootes, in the early
-li0s the Alvis Saracen 6xO armoured
;ersonnel carrier started to enter ser-
,,1e, but as there would clearly be
:slfficient of these to go around it was
:::ided to build an armoured person-
:-:l carrier on the Humber FVI600
::res truck chassis. This armoured
;:rsonnel carrier was not designed to
::erate with tanks, but rather to trans-
!.:r't the infantry,from one part of the
:a:tlefleld to another, where they
-r: dd dismount and fight on foot. Ab-
-:, i,700 vehicles were eventually
: lt, the bodies being provrded by
3i{N Sankey and the Royal Ordnance
: r:tory at Woolwich, By the 1960s the
:-,-432, also designed and built by Above: The FV I 609 model of the
3-{N Sankey was entering servlce ln Humber one-ton amoured
:---reasing numbers so the Humber personnel carrier entered service in
Pigs' were phased out of service and the early 1 9 50 s. With an open top,
;-::ed in reserve or scrapped, The capacitywas two crew and up to
lle-up in Northern lreland in the late eight troops.
-:iOs meant that many of these vehi-
:-=s were returned to service, and in ment, (two in each side and one in
,::4 these remain in use wrth the Brit- each of the rear doors). The ambu-
'.: army in Northern lreland, lance member of the familv is the
Many of the Pigs rn Northern lreland FV1613, which has a rwo-man crew
:::,'e now been specially modified for and can carry three stretcher or eight
'.e rn the internal security role, berngt seated patients, and the radio vehicle
--ed with additional (0.3-in)
armour protec- is the FVI612. The anti-tank version
-::r to stop 7,62-mm armour- was called the Hornet/Malkara, or
,:-:rcinq rounds and barricade- FVI620, and had two Malkara long
::noval equipment at the front of the range anti-tank gnrided missiles in the
,-,i]. ready-to-launch position, This model ts
The basic armoured personnel car- no longer in service with the British
:-:: model is the FVl61l, and normally Army.
:..nes six or eight men in the rear with
-:-e commander and driver sitting at Specification Dimensions: 1eng|h4.926 m (16 ft2 rn); The'Pig', as it has come to be.b:ca:
..3 fuont to the rear of the engrine, Both FVI6lI'Pis' width 2,044 m (6 ft B 5 1n); heisht 2. 12 m had been withdr awn from s e r,= ce
:e commander and drler
are pro- Crew:2+6 (or 2+B) (6 ft I 1.5 in) bu t heigh te ning ciuil dis o r i e : ::.
door in the side, and there
with a Combatweight: 5790 kq(i2 765 lb) Performance: maximum road speed Northern lreland reguireo' :s :'e=-=
::e twin doorsrn the rear, A total ofsx Powerplant: one Rolls-Royce 860 Mk 64 km/h (40 mph); maximum range Some500arestil1rn user.n -e
-rng ports/observatron blocks are 5A 6-cylinder petrol engdne 402 kTn (250 miies); trench not internal seanrity role in Ukter.
;:cvided in the rear troop compart- developing 120 bhp (89 kW) apphcable
Since / 969 the British Army's involvement in Northern lreland has become an thrown into the road, and all door and window
established fact. To the authorities, the problems of a divided lreland seem seals were at least partially protected to pre-
insoluble, but to the soldier on the ground Ulster consists of large portionsof vent the petrol from improvised petrol bombs
routine-inspired boredom and a life under a constant blanket of tension. getting into the interior. All the windows were
reinforced with extra glass panels and all were
covered with wire mesh screens to avoid the
The patrol started, as all such patrols seemed The three vehicles were a single Pig and two worst effects of the juvenile stone{hrowers
to start, with a short and informal parade in the Land Rovers, The largest party of eight men who always seemed to be around, even durrng
back of the one{ime police station ln which the moved lnto the Pig and strapped themselves school term time. Each Land Rover also had
battalion was headquartered during what was ln. Everyone was familiar with the o1d Pigs, one feature that was so commonplace to the
its fourth Operation 'Banner' tour. Many of the which to the untrained spectator always looked soldlers that they hardly noticed its presence.
soldiers on the three-vehicle patrol had seen odd with their large barricade ram on the front This was a high steel post fixed to the side of the
and heard it all before during previous tours, and the mesh screens along the sides to give driver's cab, although some carried this item on
but they had learned that among ail the routine some protection from bombs. Closer scrutiny the front bumper, At the top of this post was a
that was provided there was always some de- would have revealed the heavy doors and the curved and sharp edete whose function was to
tall that had to be noted and new personnel and thick slabs of extra armour, proof against high- caich and cut any wire that might be strung up
things to watch for. As it ended the usual velocity buIlets, but to the soldiers it was all old across a street between two lamp-posts. In the
routine of synchronlzing watches and double- hat as they arranged themselves in the high early days of the Troubies some youths had
checking radio frequencles went along the seats in the back, their heads in the restraining Iearned that such wires were invtsible to any
usual smooth lines, and all was ready, headrests that would probably save their vehrcle occupant who might be poking his
The parade broke up into the three main necks if the Pig was turned over by a mine. head out of a roof hatch, Some nasty injurles
groups and as the men left for the vehicles out The smailer Q[oups of five men went to the had been inflicted by this simple means and
in the yard every weapon was checked to see two Land Rovers. At first sight they seemed to the steel post was now a standard fixture on
that it was loaded and that the correct number be normal Land Rovers apart from the hard every army vehrcle,
of CS and smoke grenades were being carried tops but, aqain, closer scrutiny revealed One ofthe Land Rovers had an odd bump ln
by each man. In the yard the strange 'caged' changes from the norm, For a start the hard
atmosphere imposed by the high antl-mortar tops really were hard, for they were made of
bomb wire mesh fences seemed to affect ev- special armour, part of a kit purposely pro- May 1 98 I , and the funeral of a hunger striker has
passed. Williams Street, Derry is tense, and the
ery man. Each instinctively looked up to the sky duced for the Land Rovers in their internal role inevitable strain spills over into violence. An army
as he went through the door of the building, and in Northern Ireland. There was more armour patol is attacked with petrol bombs, and the
had a swift look around as he moved to the under the vehicle to protect the occupants monotony of patrolling has suddenly become a
vehicles. agalnst the effects of mines and/or bombs very de sirable ex is tence.
Modern Wheeled Armoured Persorurel Ca:nners

',' €

tf@ =:
*r'= ,b

rool lts purpose was revealed insrde for the

::re still happened. The explosion of a booby-trapped cat adds its
bump was a Clarlbel aerral, Claribel had been Every soldier on the patrol wore a 'flak jack- quota ofwreckage to troubled Ulster streets. An
Ceveloped especrally for use in Northern Ire- et', a bulky and restricting garment but seme- army patrol approaches cautiously, as such eve,: s
have all too olten become the bait in a trap for
-and, and was a specral radar that could detect thing that mrqht save him from rnjury rf a home-
unwary security forces.
re flight of an incoming bu1let or rocket and made nail bomb was thrown at him, The jacket
:dicate the direction from which tt came, Nor- might even stop a bullet under certarn cir-
:ally all that the soldrers rnsrde the vehicle cumstances and at least one soldier in the Pig
',';ould hear wouid be the sound of the shot and owed hrs life to his flak jacket, although he
iave no means of telling from what drrection it suffered a badly bruised rib cage for weeks
:ight have come. The introduction of Claribel, afterwards, Each man had his steel helmet
a small and simple devrce, had led to some handy but these were being replaced by a new
spectacuiar arrests of snipers who had thought riot helmet with a perspex visor thai could be
rat they had got away after their shot, and thus closed down over the face for extra protectron
]aribel was one of the soldiers' best friends, against stones, Each man, including the single
When everyone was aboard, the huge steel officer leading the patrol, carried the standard
Jaies of the yard slid open and the patrol be- LlAl 7 62-mm (0 3-in) rifle fltted with a SUIT
;an. The headquarters was not far from the srght for more accurate shooting under low
',',reckage of the old Bogside together wrth all light conditions, and one man in each vehicle
re slum dwelirngs and therr hate-filled grafftti, carried a riot gun for flring baton rounds at
.: the immediate vrcinity was an unpleasant selected troublemakers in a crowd,
ljace to be, even on a normal peaceful day.
the patrol out things were even more Ontheroad
:rpleasant, Most passers-by did not give them As always, everyone was keyed up, Even the
= second look, but as soon as the vehicles most experienced Northern ireland hands
::cved out two or three children tmmediately could feel the tensron as the three vehtcles
:= off into the maze of streets off the main road moved along rain-soaked streets towards their
- warn that the patrol was out, The old practice foot patrol start point, Patrols could not be con-
,, banging dustbin lids on the approach of a ducted from vehicles alone, so the soldiers had
: -:rol had largely dred out but now and again it to de-bus at some preselected point and make
Derry Patrol

their constant observation of therr surround-

rngs, for at any time a sniper might open up,
krds or no kids. The very atmosphere in some
streets was hostrle, but in others the soldiers
moved on through completely apathetic house-
holders, But it was always nottceable that the
older kids kept well away and stood watching
It wes a quiet patrol, and after about an hour
of moving cautiously through the soft rain and
through the remains of what had once been a
busy and heavily populated district the patrol
once more came upon its three vehicles wait-
ing at the end of the street with the drlvers
alieady in their seats and with their shotgmn'
Qnrardsholding their rifles at the high port and
ready for instant action, This time the boarding
procedure went through the well-rehearsed
drill with no problems, and the soldiers settled
down into their usual routine of mickeytaking
among themselves as they tried to make them- Saracen armoured personnel carriers in Ulster mained, although at a much lower level, for
selves comfortable despite being tlghtiy strap- early in 1 97 1 . The first years of the troubles saw while the patrol had been completely unevent-
ped into their seats while their clothing was soldiers in conventional helmets, withvisors ful, as most of them were to a brain-bending
added later. Modern helmets have been purpose- degree, there was always the next one that
soaking wet from the ratn, desrgned.
As the patrol moved through lts iast stages could produce the unseen bullet or the sudden
the soldiers could see little of the outslde world, explosion that might cause injury or death, This
The Land Rover had no side vision ports and So the doors remained closed unttl the vehi- could not be forgotten as the patrol did thetr
the Pig had only small ports through which a cles were once more back in the headquarters individual best to grab a cup of tea and some-
riot gun or rifle could be shoved for aiming. yard, It had been a typical patrol ln Derry, thing to eat after a quick clean-up, Then it
Sometrmes the rear occupants could keep the Tension had been there throughout and was would be time for a rest on bunks crammed into
door open for extra visron or some fresh air but hardly relaxed until the soldiers were once crowded rooms that had once been prisoners'
this patrol had been in Derry too long to want to more in the room where they started some cells.
see much more of the surroundings. The men hours before, But before that they all had to go Outside the vehicles were aiready refuelled
were all too lamiliar with the place and its through one of the more important parts of the and ready for the next patrol, for the routine
hostility and, like all soldiers everl'where, all whole patrol and that was the clearing of their never ended, As one patrol flnished, another
they wanted was for their stint to end, A tour of rifles, Each soldier had to remove the maga- started,
472 months was quite enough for them as their zine from his rifle and work the bolt several
training started well before they had to leave times to clear any round that might be stlll in the
Many armoured Land Rovers are in use in
their comfortabie quarters in a quiet West Ger- chamber, Too many accidents had been Northern lreland. They are, however, vulnerable
man town, Once they got back there would be caused by soldiers neglecting this simple pro- to attack from more sophisticated terrorist
a speli of welcome leave to enjoy, and then it cedure as they started to relax once their patrol weapons, as thisvehicleshows. Hitby aSoviet-
would be back to the normal BAOR training ended, maderocket, the driverwas killed andhis partner
that was their real job, With the rifles cleared the tension sttll re- seriously injured.
ffi etui, Saracen armoured personnel
After the end of World War II the
Fightinq Vehrcles Research and De-
relopment Establishment (FVRDE)
Cesigned in the UK a compiete family
cf wheeled armoured vehicles known
.s the FV600 series whrch included the
iV601 Saladin armoured car and the
FV603 Saracen armoured personnel
:arrier The requirement for the latter
-,vas much
more urgent because ol the
puerrillas being encountered in
iu4alaya, so development of this version
.cok precedence, and the flrst pro-
:ltypes were completed in early 1952,
production vehicles following by De
:ember of the same year. Production
:f the whole FV600 series was under
-aken by Alvis Lrmited at Coventry,
and l,B3B vehicles had been com-
pleted by the time production came to
:r end rn 1972. Tlroughout the 1950s the
Saracen was the only real armoured
personnel carrier in sewrce with the
3ritish army used in the Far East and
East (for example Aden and operated turet with a 7,62-mm (0.3-in) developing 160 hp (119 kW) Firstproducedin 1952, theFY 603
tbya) as well as in the United Kinq- machine-gun (this turet is identical Dimensions: Ienqth 5.233 m (lZ fi Z in) SaracenAPC was amember of a
jom and with the Brrtish Army of the wrth that fitted to some Feret scout wrdth 2 539 m (B fi 4 rn): herght family of 6x6 vehicles.The tunet
?.iine, From the early 1960s replace- cars), and over the rear part of the (overall;2.463 m (B fr I in) mounts a 0.3)-calibre machin*gn.
rent of the Saracen in the BAOR troop compartment is a 7,62 mm (0,3 Performance: maxr mum r oad speed
siarted by the FV432 full-tracked in) Bren hght-machine gun for air de- 72 knln (44.7 mph); maximum ioad Versions of the Saracen include the
armoured personnel carner, which fence. range 400 km (248 milesr fording FV 604 commandvehicle, seen
:as better cross-country performance, Steering is hydraulically assisted on 1 07 m (3 ft 6 rn); gradient42 per cent; landing from a Mexefloat while on
:nproved armour protectron and lon- the front four wheels, and the vehicle verticalobstacle 0.46 m (I it 6 inl; exercise with the I 3/ I I H ussars in
ger operational range. in 1984 the can be driven with one wheel missing trench 1.52 m (5 ft O rn) Cyprus. Notice the extensive
Saracen remained in service with the from each side. Some vehicles sup- external stowage, the auxiliary
tsritish army in Northern lreland, plied to the Middle East were not fltted generator on the front wing and the
;rhere it is used in internal security with a rool Iack of the machine-gun turret.
:perations, with the Territorial Army There were not many variants of the
and in Hong Kong. Sales ofthe Saracen Saracen as the FV602 ambulance was
-,vere also made to Indonesia, cancelled fairly early on in the de-
Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Nigeria, velopment programme, The FV604 is a
Jatar, South Africa, Sudan, Thailand command vehicle, while the FV6I0 rs
.ne United Arab Emirates and Uganda. also a command vehicle with a much
Although the FV6O3 Saracen had the higher roof to allow the command staff
same automotive components as the to work standing up. The FV6II is an
FV601 Saladin 6x6 armoured car, rts ambulance model and also has a high-
-ayout was quite drfferent with the en- er rool The FV610 was also fitted with
Jrne at the front and troop compart- the Robert surveillance radar but this
ment at the rear The driver is seated never entered service; the same fate
-n the centre, wrrh the sectron com- befell the 25-pdr self-propelled qrun
mander to his ]eft rear and radio oper versron and a roller-type mrne-
ator to his right rear. To their rear are cleanng vehicle.
:he eight infantrymen, who are seated
cn indrvrdual seats (four down each Specification
srde of the hull facing inwards). The Saracen
loops enter and leave via twin doors Crew:2+ 10
,n the hull rear, and frring ports are Combatweight: 8640 kq (19,048 lb)
-orovrded in the sides and rear. On the Powerplant:one Rolls-Royce BB0 Mk
-crward part of the roof is a manually- 6A B-cylinder petrol enqrine

ffi brrv Sankey Suron armoured personnel The GKN -S ankey AT I 05 has been
designed to meet an army
requirement for a wheeled APC in
carrier the 1980s and I990s.The turreted
AT 1 05E can carry up to I 0 traps .
-: the early 1970s GKN Sankey buill
-:e ATI00 4x2 and ATI04 4x4 vehi-
:les as a private venture, these being
:med mainly at the intemal securrty
::le. The former never entered pro-
:rction, but about 30 AT104s were
:ult for the Dutch state po[ce and
-:'cyal Bruner Malay Regiment, These
,','ere followed by the GKN Sankey
4T105 which was subsequently called
-:-e Saxon, Thrs is a completely new
:esign and uses many common auto-
:,3trve components from the Bedford
:.:K 4x4 4-tonne truck, which is the
. andard vehicle in its class in the Brit-
.: army and many other armed forces
.lcund the world, Production of the
-r-I105 started by 1976 and by l9B4
-:cut 200 had been sold to Bahrarn,
!--r-wait, Malaysia and Oman. The Brit-
:: army purchased three for evaiua-
:r1 purposes in the 1970s and in 1983
GIG.I Sankey Saxon (continued)

piaced an order for 50 further vehicles.

The first of these were delivered early
in t9B4 and are issued to rnfantry batta-
lions in the United Kingtdom who, in
time of war, will be sent to West Ger-
many to reinforce the British Army of
the Rhine (BAOR). At present these
battahons use standard Bedford MK
4 x 4 trucks for this purpose. The British
army requirement is for up to 1,000
AT105s, and these may also be issued
to Terrrtorial battalions as well as Reg-
ular battalions.
The ATl05 Saxon has a hull of all-
welded steel constructron that pro-
vides complete protectlon aoalnst
small arms flrcj and shell splinters, in-
cluding 7,62-mm (0,3-in) armour-
prercing rounds; rndeed the vehicle is observation; a 7.62-mm (0,3-in) ambulance and various anti-dot ver- The AT I 0 5P, seen outside the UK
one ofthe best armouredvehicles ofits machine-qun ts mounted on a DISA sions, includinq one with an obstacle- Ministry of Defence, has a
type available rn the world today, Both mount for ground and antt-aircraft fire, clearing blade at the front of the hull, commander's cupola with pintle-
Ieft-hand and right-hand drive models A wide range of other armament tn- GKN Sankey has also desiqned the mounted 7.62-mm GPMG. The
are available, the driver being stallations can be fltted, tncluding tur- Simba ranqe of armoured vehicles cupola can be removed and
seated right at the front of the vehicle ret-mounted 7,62-mm (0.3-in) and 12 7- which can be used as armoured per- replaced by one of a number of
with the engine to his left or right. The mm (0,5-in) machine-gmns or anti-riot sonnel carrtets or as weapon carriers altemative armament installations.
troop compartment is at the rear of the weapons, If requtred flrinq ports and,/ wrth a wide range oi armamenT ln-
hull, and twin doors are provided in the or vision blocks can be installed in the stallations up to 90mm (3.54in) in
hull rear and a single door in each side troop compartment, An unusual fea- calibre, Dimensions:length 5, 169 m (i6 ft
to allow for the rapid exit of troops ture of the Saxon is that tts mudguards 11,5 in); width 2 489 m (B ft 2 in); heighl
British army vehicles do not have the are of liqht sheet steel construction Specification 2,86 m(9 ft4,6 in)
left door installed as external bins are which wl]l blow off in the event of the Saxon Performance: maxtmum road speed
fitted for the stowage of personnel kit vehrcle hrtting a mine so that the blast Crew:2x8 96 krn/h (60 mph); maxtmum range
and supplies. The commander's cupo- is not contained under the hull, Combat weight: 10670 kg (23,523 lb) 510 km (317 mites); fording 1,12 m (3 ft
Variants of the Saxon proposed bY Powerplant: one Bedford 500 6- B in); gnadient 60 per cent; vertical
la in the roof of the Saxon is flxed and
fitted with an observation block in the manufachrer include a command cylinder diesei developing 164 bhp obstacle0.4l m(1 ft4 rn); trenchnot
each of the four sides for all-round vehicle, a mortar carrier, an armoured (122 kW) applicable

ENGESA EE- l I Urutu armoured personnel carrier

In1970 the Braztlian company EN- fire their weapons from wrthin the tem and varrous radio installations Combatweight: 13000 kq (28,060 ]b)
GESA, which had for some years been vehicle rfrequired The infantry sit on A whole range of versions of the Powerplant: one Detroit Diesel 6V-53N
successfully convedlng 6x4 and 4x2 seats down each side ofthe hull facing basic vehicle has now been destgned 6-cylinder diesel developing 2 2 hp1

trucks into 6x6 and 4x4 models for each other, and these seats can be by the company, including ambu- (r5B kw)
increased cross-country mobility, folded up to allow cargo to be carried lance cargo, command recovery, Dimensions: length 6. 15 m (20 ft 2 in);
turned its attention to the development The EE-]] rs fu1ly amphibrous beinqt anti-tank and antr-aircraft vehicles, width 2,59 m (B ft 6 in); height (without
of a range of 6 x 6 wheeled vehicles to propelled in the water at a speed of The anti{ank model has MILAN or armament) 2.09 m (6 ft 10,3 in)
meet the requirements of the Brazilian B krr/h (5 mph) by two propellers at HOT ATGWs while the anti-aircraft Performance: maxtmum road speed
armed forces. In 1970 prototypes of the the hull rear, Before the vehicle enters has a French ESD turret with twin 20- 90 km,.tr (56 mph); maximum road
ENGESA EE-g Cascavel armoured car the water a trim vane is erected at the mm cannon and a suweillance radar. range 850 lrn (528 mlles); fording
and ENGESA EE-II Urutu armoured front of the hull by the driver who does When fitted wrth the two-man 90-mm amphibious; gradrent 60 per cent;
personnel carrier made their flrst so without leavLng his seat, and the (3,54-in) tu-rret the EE-l1 is known as vertical obstacle 0.6 m (1 ft 1 1.6 in);
appearance, Production of these electric bilge pumps are switched on the Urutu Armoured Fire Support trench not apphcable
started in 1974 at a new plant at Sao The EE-II Mk 2 is avarlable wrth a Vehicle (AFSV), and this is known to
Jose dos Campos and by early 1984 Detroit Dresel or a Mercedez-Benz be used by Tunisia The recovery
some 3,000 EE-9s and EE-1 ls hadbeen diesel engilne coupled io an automalic vehicle has a hydraulically-operated
built, most of them for export, especial- transmission, although the origrnal EE- crane for changing components in the
ly to the Middle East. I I Mk I had a manual transmission. All field, and a winch for recoverinq other
The layout of both vehicles is quite models now have a central tyre press- vehicles. The ENGESAEE-I I Urutu armoured
drfferent although they both share ure regmlatron system that enables the personnel carrier has a crew oftwo
many common automotive compo- orrver to adjusr the tyre pressure to sult Specification and can carry up to 12 IullY armed
nents such as engine transmission and the type of ground being crossed, and EE-II inf antrymen. B asic arm ament is a
suspension. In the EE-l1 the driver is optional equipment includes a winch, Crew: 2* 12 (commander, driver and 12.7-mm (0.50-in) M2 HB heavY
seated at the I?ont on the left side with night vrsron equipment an NBC sYs- 12 infantry) machine-gan.
the engine to his right and the troop
compartment to his rear, The troops
can enter the vehicle vra a door in the
srde of the hull or through two doors in
the hull rear, Over the top of the troop
compartment are four roof hatches,
two on each side, which open out-
wards, while forward of this is the main
armament rnstallatron, This can ranqe
irom a prntle- or rinq-mounted 12 7-
mm (0,5-in) M2 HB machine-gun, via a
hnret armed with a 20-mm cannon and iil
a co-axial 76}mm (0.3-in) machine- ,:)j:!!l
gmn, right up to a two-man turret armed iai.i..*e
with a 90-mm (3,54-in) gmn, 7.62-mm
(0.3-in) co-axiat and 7,62-mm (0,3-in) ilF
anti-aircraft machine-gnrn ThiS turret
is similar to that fitted to the EE-9
armoured car, but has no bustle and
the 90-mm (3 54-in) gun has a reduced
recoil lenqth, Firing ports and/or vision
blocks can be installed tn the troop
compartment to enable the troops to
Left: The EE-I I, in production since Above:The 3,000 or moreUrutus
1974 has been successful in the manufactured have canied awide
export market. This version is variety otweapon systems. This
equipped with a Swedish-designed model is equipped with a
H agglund s turre t armed with a Euromissile MILAN ATGW system
20-mm cannon from Hispano. A 7.62- and a7.62-mm Ml9l9 machine-gun.
mm machine-gan can also be fitted.


SIBMAS armoured personnel carrier

:. the mrd-1970s the Belgran company
I N Constructions Ferroviaires et
l.lStalliques started development, as a
:rvate venture, of a 6x6 armoured
;:rsonnel carier which would have a
---'-mber of common and proven com-
:,ercial components. The first SIBMAS
:rototype was completed in 1976, the
=-=:ond followinq in 1979, One of these
-,:1s tested by the Royal Malaysian
=::1y rn competition wrth a number of
;:ricles submltted from other Euro-
;:an, North Amerrcan and South
-r-nerican companies. In the end
Llalaysia selected two vehicles to
::-eet its requirements, namely the
l.:ndor 4 x 4 from Thyssen Henschel of
'',-est Germany and the Belgian SIB-
l.-AS 6x6. The order for the latter,
;1ued at about t50 million, was placed
:- -98l, and the first vehicles were del-
,;:red in i983. Two versions have
:een ordered by Malaysia: 24 exam-
;-:s of the SEMAS Armoured Recov- vehrcles. Powerplant: one MAN O-cylinder The SIBMAS 6x6 APC was desigmed
ery Vehicle (ARV) and 162 examples The basrc model rs r.i1l,v amph-bictis turbocharged d,Lesel developrng as aprivateventure.Itcan be armd
:: :re SEMAS Armoured Fire Support without preparatron. berg propelied 320 hp (239 kW) with the French SAMM TTB I 20
Tehicle 90 (AFSV-90). The latter has a in the water by its r.;heels a: a speed of Dimensions: length 7.32 m (24 ft 0 in) 20-mm two-man turret.
-Ti:-man turret designed and built by 4kn/h (2.4 mph). The SiBMAS can wrdth2.50 m(B ft2.4 in); heiqht(hull)
l.::kerill and armed with a 90-mm also be fltted with tvro propellers at the 2.24m(7 ft4.2n)
: :l-mm) Cockerill Mk lll Sun, 7,62- hull rear to prol,'1de a maxrmum water Performance: maxrmum road speed Themajor exporf success to dafefor
:,::: (0.3-in) co-axial and 7.62-mm (0.3- speed of 11 km/h (6.8 mph). Other 100 kn/h (62 mph); maximumroad the SI BMAS has been the I 86 vehicle
anti-aircraft machine-gun, and optional equipment includes night vi- ranqe 1000 kn (621mlles); fording sold to Malaysia. Most of thevehicies
, :C with an OIP frre-control system. sion equipment, an aLr-conditionrng amphrJcious; grradrent 70 per cent; have been the C ockerill Mk II I armed
-ne hull of the SIBMAS is of all- system, a heater and an NBC system. vefircalobstacle0.6 m(l ft 11.6 in); AFSV-91 version, for use as
r:-ded steel constructron which pro- Other armament installations can trenchl.Sm(4ft11in) Armoured F ire S uppor t Ve hicle s.
'-r:s the crew with complete protec- also be fitted includrnqi the French
:::- from small arms fire and shell ESD turret w'rh twin 20 mm antr-
:. :iers, The driver is seated at the aircraft cannon and a surveillance
:::t of the vehicle, with the crew com- radar, the Lynx 90 turret with a 90-mm
_::-::ment in the centre and the engrne (3,54-in) gun, the Serval 60/20 turret,
:: -ie rear of the vehicle on the left and a wide range of liqtht armament
.-:: an aisle connectrng the troop installations such as twrn 7 62-mm (0,3-
:-:-pafiment with a door in the hull in) machrne-giuns The main armament
:=- being frtted on the right side. instailatron is normally mounted to the
- ::s are provided rn each side of the rear of the driver's position, and a 7 62-
: arrd there are hatches over the mm (0,3-in) machine-gun can be
: - :p compartment, Depending on the mounted over the aisle at the right rear
:,: iel, flring ports/and or vision blocks of the vehicle, More specialized ver-
::-- oe fitted in the sides and rear of the sions of the SIBMAS include ambu-
-- . : compa.rtment, The engine is cou Iance, command and cargo vehicles,
;,=j -,nth
to a fully automatic ZF transmis-
i::- sx forward and one reverse
-=- and a hydrodynamic torque con- Specification
:=::er. Steering is power-assisted on SIBMAS
:: lont wheels, and if required the Crew:3* 11
:=---:le can be fitted with a hydrauli- Combatweisht: 14500 kqto 16500 kg
:=--;-cperated winch to assist in self- (31,967 to 36,376 Ib) dependingon role
:-::-;ery or in the recovery of other andarmament
ffi fffi iibxlv"lkyrarmouredpersonnelcarrier General Motors Model 4-53T diesel
In the early 1970s Technologry Invest-
ments of Ireland designed and built coupled to a fully automatic AT-545
the prototype of a 4x4 armoured per- transmission with four forward and one
sonnel carried called the Timoney, reverse gear, TVro basic models ofthe
and after trials wrth several prototype Valkyr are being offered, an armoured
vehicles the Irish army flnally ordered personnel carrier and a weapons pEt-
10 vehicles in two batches of ive. In iorm which has a slightly lower profile
1976 Beherman Demoen of Belgium and has already been experimentally
obtained a licence from Technologry fitted with a variety of weapons statlons
Investments to manufacture the includrnq a French turret armed with a
TLmoney armoured personnel carrier 90-mm (3 54-in) gmn and the Belgian
in Belqium, The Belgian government CM-90 Cockerill turret armed with the
placed an order for a total of 123 vehi- 90-mm (3,54-in) Cockerill Mk III gun,
cles under the desrgnation BDX, and 7,62-mm (0,3-in) co-axial and 762-mm
these were all burit behveen 1978 and (0,3-in) anti-aircraft machlne-gnns
1981, Of the 123, 43 were delivered to When used as an armoured Person-
the Belgian air force for the defence of nel carrier the vehicle normaily has a
air bases, while the remarnder wete two-man crew consisting of the com-
supplied to the Gendarmerie. All of the mander/machine-gunner and driver,
au force vehicles have a 7,62-mm (0.3- and can carry l0 fully equipped troops,
in) machine-gmn, while the Gendar- who can rapidly leave the vehicle via
merie vehicles comprise 13 fitted with twin doors in the hull rear. If required
an 8l-mm mofiar, 4l in the armoured the Valkyr can be fltted with firing
personnel carrier role and the remain- ports and/or vision blocks and a wide
inq 26 fittedwith a front-mounted dozer iange of optrons includinq air-
blade. conditioning riot-control equipment
The BDX was also tested in a num- and night vislon devices, It is fully
ber of other countries including amphibious, being ProPelled in the
Malaysia, but the only order obtained water by its wheels, althouqh as an
was placed by Argentina, which option waterjets can be fitted to pro-
ordered five vehicles for use in the vide a much higher water sPeed
internal security role, In addition to armoured Personnel
More recently Vickers Defence carrier and fire-support vehicle mod- Combatweight: 10700 kq(23 590 Ib) The Vickers V alkyr, while based
Systems of the United Kingdom have els, a wide range of other variants are Powerplart: one Chrysler V-B water- upon the Timoney/BDX desigm, is of
undertaken further development of the possible such as forward ambulance' cooled petrol engrne developing significantly improved capability. As
BDX which has resulted in the Valkyr, command post vehtcle. mortar carrier' 180 hp (i34 kW) has become the normwithmodern
whose first two prototypes were com- and anti-tank vehicle fitted with turet Dimensions: Ienqrth 5.05 m ( 16 ft 7 rn); APCs, the V alkyr can be fitted with a
pleted in l9B2 and the third in 1984. mounted ATGWS, width2.50 m(B ft2,4 in); heiqht(hull wide range of weaponsystems.
The Valkyr has many siqnificant im- top) 2.06 m (6 lt 9 in)
provements over the original vehicle Specification Performance : maximum road speed fording amphibious: gradient 60 per
and is consrdered by many to be a new BDX 100 kn/h (62 mph); maximumrange cent; vertical obstacie 0.4 m ( 1 ft 4 in);
vehicle. It is powered by a Proven Crew: 2+ l0 (road) 500 to 900 km (3 iO to 560 miles); trench not applicable


Tipo 6614 armoured personnel carrier

Some years aqo Fiat and OTO- each side of the hull (rncluding one tn fire extingmishing system and a front- width2 50 m(B ft 2 4 rn) herght (hull
Melara designed and built prototypes the door) and one on each side of the mounted winch with a capacitY of top) 1,78 m (5 ft L0 rn)
of a 4x4 armoured car (the Tipo 6616) rear ramp. Over the top of the troop 4500 kq (9 22i lb) and 40 m (131 ft) of Performance: maximum road sPeed
and a 4 x 4 armouted personnel carrier compartment is a two-part roof hatch cable. This last would be used to re- 100 kr-r,41 (62 mph): maxrmumrange
(Tipo 6614), both of which had identic- that opens to each srde, while to the cover other vehicles or to assist in self- 700 l:n (435 mrles); fordrng
al automotrve components although front of thrs is the main armament ln- recovely. arnphibious: gradient 60 per cent;
their layouts were quite different, stallation, This ts normally an M113- vertical obstacle 0.4 m (L ft 4 in);
Many of the automotive components of type cupola with a single-piece hatch Specification trench not apphcable
these vehicles are taken from standard cover thal opens Io the rear. peri- Tipo 6614
scopes for all-round observations and Crew: 1* l0 S een fording a s tream, the WPe 66 I 4
commercial vehicles to keep costs to a
minrmum as well as maktng spare a 12,7-mm (0,5-in) M2 HB machine- Combat weight: 8500 kq ( 18,739 lb) APC (left) shares many comgonents
parts easier to obtain on a worldwtde gun. A turet armed with twin 7.62-mm Powerplant: one Model 8062, 24 with the Type 66 I 6 armoured car.
basis, The Tipo 6616 is used in small (0,3-in) machine-Quns can also be in- supercharqed liquid-cooled diesel The APC can transport I 0 men in
numbers by the Italian police and stalled. One of the more unusual ver- developinq 160 hp (119 kW) addition to the driver, with usual
known export customers include sions offered has a multiple rocket Dimensions: lenqth 5,86 m (19 ft 2 7 in) armament being a I 2.7-mm MG.
Libya, Peru, Somalia and Tunisia, It is Iauncher this consistinq of an Itaiian
estimated that about 400 vehicles at 48-round 51-mm system which can be
least had been burlt by 1984, and li- f,red by remote control at a rate of l0
cence production is also undertaken tn rounds per second, Other vartants in-
the Republic of Korea by Asia Motors clude a mofiar carrier which is known
Incorported, who call the vehicle the to be used by Peru, an ambulance and
KM900, a command vehrcle,
The hull ofthe Tipo 6614 armoured The Fiat engine rs couPled to a
personnel carrier is ofall-welded steel manual gearbox wrth five forward and
constructron that varies tn thickness one reverse gtear and a two-sPeed
lrom 6 mm (0,24 in) to B mm (0.315 in), transfer case, The Tipo 6614 is fully
and this provides prolection against amphrbious, being proPelled in the
7 62-mm (0,3-in) small arms f,re and waier by its wheels at a sPeed of
light artillery splinters, The driver is 4,5km/h (2,Bmph), and before the
seated at the very front of the vehicle vehicle enters the water the four elec-
on the left side with the engine to his trically-operated bilge pumps are
riqht, The troop compartment is to- swrtched on to pump out any water that
ward the rear, and the 10 fully equip- enters the vehicle through the door or
ped troops, including the commander, ramp seals, As usual a range of option-
sit on individual bucket type seats that al equipment is available apart from
can be quickly folded up, The troops the different weapon stations, these in-
enter and leave via a door in each side cluding various types of passive night
of the hull, or over a power-operated vision equipment, a spare wheel and
ramp in the hull rear A total of 10 firing holder (often mounted on the roof of
ports is provided, wrth a vision block the troop compartment), smoke dts-
above eacn four ol these ports are tn charqers, an air-conditioning system, a

Armed Forces of the World

US ArrnUParO
lnfantryweapons There are numerous sub-variants of the M60, some can throw a 1.5-kg (3.3-lb) HE bomb about 4575 m
The basic service rifle of the US Army is the 5.56- mounted on helicopters and vehicles. The baslc (5,000 yds), fhe M224 will replace the heavier
mm M1641 . Most have been produced by Colt, weapon is a belt-fed machine-gun with an air-cooled 81-mm M29 mortar but a new generation 81-mm
though some have been manufactured as far away barrel. There are f eatures of the M60 which have not mortar is also being sought. The new weapon may
as South Korea. and the type is now virtually a stood up too well in service, but the type will remain well be the British L16, but the latter's delayed trials
standard rif le worldwide. As a result of recent NATO standard for years to come.
Perhaps the most famous of American machine-
programme and political difficulties may mean that
the M29 and its later M29A1 variant will have to
ammunition trials the current 5.56-mm cartridge is
due to be replaced by the Belglan SS109 cartridge guns is the 12.7-mm (0.5-in) Browning HB (Hearry soidier on for some time to come. A point of interest
which requlres a different rifling pitch, so existing Banel) M2 machine-gun. This superlative weapon is that American soldiers refer to their mortars as
M1641s will have to be replaced or modified. has been in lnventory for decades and is still in 'cannons'.
Already an M 1 642 version is on the stocks. At f irst, production. The main reason for lts longevity is quite Though not primarily an infantry weapon, the
the M16 had teething troubles and acquired a simply reliability and a round that remains among largest mortar used by the US Army is the '107-mm
reputation for jamming. but these are now history. the best of available anti-personnel weapons. The (4.2-in) M30, a modernized version of the World War
The 5.56-mm round is said by some not to be a power of the ammunition is such that it can be used ll weapon with the same bore diameter. This diff ers
particularly powerf ul 'man-stopper', but it ls easy to against almost any vehicle except a tank, and special from others of its kind by firing a spin-stabilized
handle and produces low recoil. armour-piercing ammunition is produced. The M2 projectile from a rifled barrel, other mortars firing a
The 5.56-mm (0.223-in) cartridge is also used for can be mounted on a trlpod, and also on vehicles and fin-stabilized bomb from a smooth-bore barrel. The
the Squad Automatic Weapon (SAW). chosen as the light river craft. M30 can fire a 10-kg (22-lbJ HE bomb to a range of
fire-support weapon for the infantry squad. Soon to The US Army's array of grenades ranges f rom the 6800 m (7,435 yds), and is so heavy that it is usually
enter service, the SAW is a development of the basic MGB hand grenade to the complex family of carried in a special version of the M113 armoured
Belgian FN Minimi light machine-gun, a compact 40-mm projected grenades. These latter grenades personnel carrier.
weapon with ammunition feed from a side-mounted can be fired from the shotgun-like M79 grenade- The infantry is well supplied with anti-tank
box magazine. launcher or the M203 device mounted beneath the weapons, but trials are under way to select a more
M14 rifles in 7.62-mmx51 NATO calibre are still barrel of the M'1 641 rif le. The weapon is accurate as powerful, portable anti-tank weapon to cope with
found in some National Guard units. The M14 is a far as 400 m (440 yds), making these launchers
modernized version of the M1 Garand of World War very useful squad weapons indeed. There is now a
A 4. 2 -in mortar the momen t alter it has been fired.
ll. lts modified sniper version, the M21, is still in move to procure automatic launchers for the 40-mm These mortars are normally carried and fired from
front-line service with specialized personnel. grenade under the designation M19. an M106 carrier, which carries the crew and 88
The standard US Army machine-gun is still the To lob projectiles to greater ranges, the US Army mortar bombs. Under development is a terminally
7.62-mm (0.3-in) M60, used in the light and heavy uses mortars. The smallest is the 60-mm M224 guided in m ortar, which will home on to enemy
4.2 -

machine-gun roles on a bipod or trrpod respectively. Lightweight Company Mortar, a new weapon that tanks and attack their tops.
Armed Forces of the World

the coming generation of main battle tanks, which

will have thicker armour. Current weapons include
the M47 Dragon medium anti-tankweapon, a heavy
missile-launcher requiring a muzzle-mounted bipod
to allow the operator to aim and fire accurately. The
Dragon missile is wire-guided and aimed by a
tracker unit mounted on the launcher tube. Range ls
about 1000m (1,095yds), now seen as insuffi-
cient, although the Dragon will remain in service for
some time. lnflight corrections are transmitted to
the misslle along the guidance wires, and correc-
tions are made by firing tiny rocket iets arranged in
Men of the 82nd Airborne Division during the Troopers of the 2/7th United States Cavalry on a
rows along the missile body, the iets 'kicking' the invasion of Grenada late in I 983. The leading Search and Destroy mission inVietnam in I 968.
missile toward its lntended path. trooper is armed with a 7 .62-mm M60 GPMG to They are armedwith theColt5.56-mm M16 rifle,
The smaller 66-mm M72 family of rocket- provide fire support for the other troops armed which initially gave a lot of trouble due to incorrect
launchers carries its rocket in a telescopic tube, the with standard 5.56 mm M I 6 rifles. The M60 is used maintenance, but these problems were eventually
tube being unopened until required for use. Sighting in avariety of other applications. solved.
the M72 is simple. and once the weapon has been
fired the tube is discarded. The M72's main problem capabilities. The new variant is the l-TOW (lmproved operatlonal limitations, some of which have been
ls that its warhead is now too small for the tank TOW) which is said to be capable of piercing the carried over to its intended replacement, the FIM-92
targets it is likely to encounter. Attempts have f rontal armour of the latest types of Soviet tank. ln Stinger. The main problem with both is that they
already been made to replace the M72. One project, its basic form TOW is fired from a tube-launcher tend to 'chase' after an aircraft target, the main
the Viper, an updated variant of the M72, has been mounted on a tripod. A tracker unit on the launcher source of infra-red emissions being the aircraft's
proposed but found wanting. The Britlsh LAW B0 is is used to keep the sight cross-hairs on the tank exhaust. Thls can mean that a fighter-bomber is
one candidate in the current US Army trials. target, and once f ired the TOW missile is automatic- engaged only after it has passed and dropped its
Still held in reserve and used by the National ally guided by signals sent along the guidance wires. ordnance. The other drawback to both is cost. Each
Guard, but unlikely to be employed again in anger, The high-speed TOW mlssile has a range of 3750 m missile costs thousands of dollars. The US Army is
are the 106-mm (4.17-in) recoilless rifle, often (4,100 yds). lt can be mounted on vehicles and is currently conducting tests to iind a'fire-and{orget'
carried on a Jeep, and the Bg-mm (3.5-in) bazooka. extensively used from helicopters. anti-aircraft missile system suitable for infantry use.
Most powertul and best known of infantry-based Anti-aircraft defence for the infantry is provided
anti-tank weapons is the TOW heavy anti-tank partially by the Browning M2 heavy machine-gun on
An inlantry squad cancarry severalof the M7242
weapon system. Although not normally carried by a special mounting or f rom vehicle pintles, but also lig ht an ti- t ank we apo n, as it weighs oniy 2 -3 6 kg
soldiers, TOW (Tube-launched, Optlcally-tracked, by special anti-aircraft missiles. One in-service (5.2 lb).lts MI8 wathead can penetrate
Wire-guided) is the most important US Army anti- infantry system is the FIM-43 Redeye. a basic 305 mm(12 in)of atmour, aadjtcanalsobeused
tank weapon and is currently undergoing a pro- shoulder-launched system firing an infra-red seek- to good effect against enemy infantry, as was
gramme to improve the missile's armour-plercing ing weapon, Although effectlve. Redeye has severe demons t ated in Vietn atn.