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pr::

f i

tlodernWheeled

Armoured Personnel

Carriers

Nowhere has the spread, of armament manufachtring

capability become more apparent than in the production of

wheeled armoured, vehicles. With manufacture rangring from

the superpowers to the Third World, the prospective putchaser faces a bewildering choice of equipment, from the

simplest to the most sophisticated.

Most of the wheeled armoured personnel carriers described rn the flrst

part of this feature (for example the Soviet BTR-152 BTR-60, BTR-70, the

South African Ratel and the BLR from Spain) have been developed

specifically to meet the requrrements of the home market, although in many cases these vehicles have been exported in substantial numbers, Most of the vehrcles discussed in this second part, however, have been developed with company money as a private venture, In these cases the manufacturer detects a gap in the marketplace and designs a vehicle to

meet this requirement, A typrcal vehicle of this type is the Belgian SIBMAS 6x6 vehicle, which can be used for a wrde range of roles

including that of an armoured personnel carrier, The Malaysian army had a requirement lor a new armoured personnel carrier, and the many

vehicles evaluated in Malaysia included the Belgian SIMBAS, West

German Condor, Brazihan EE-11 Urutu, US Cadillac Gage Commando,

Belgian BDX and the West German Transportpanzer I; the tracked

Scorpion was also tested. After exhaustrve trials of all of these vehicles,

the SIMBAS 6x6 and Condor 4x4 types were selected, plus a small

number of Alvrs Scorpion CVR(T) and Stormer APCs. Many countries are now holding competitions for new armoured vehicles, and these can

be an expensive undertakrng for the manufacturer as trials are not

normally subsrdrzed by the prospectrve customer, For some years after the end of World War II, many countries were

equipped with surplus armoured vehicles from the United States and

Unlted Kingdom; indeed, in 1984 there are strl1 many countries that use

the oid American half track armoured personnel carrier, In the 1950s

''::

r.

Pqrt2

The wheeled armoured vehicle is inherently less massive than

comparable tracked vehicles, and its

air and helicopter portability has

found it a place in the evolving

military doc trine of s peedy deployment and rapid intervention.

and 1960s many countries purchased new vehicles from European cr _ S manufacturers, and there are still several companies whose entire pr: - duction is now devoted to exports. ln recent years, however, a number ::

countries who have in the past purchased their armoured vehicles :-

Europe or elsewhere have established flourishrnet automotive ini:-.-

tries, and many of these are now turning therr attention to the design a:-:

development of varrous types of armoured flghting vehicles, For exa:r-, ple, ENGESA of Brazrl orrginally started to convert 6 X 4 and 4 x 2 vehic-es

into all-wheel drive confignrration for civilian use. These. proved s:

successful that the Brazilan army took an interest and the company:he:- converted many army trucks into full 6x6 configuration, In the 1960s::e

USA stopped export of military equipment to many

countries, and Brazil then dectded to design

South America:-

its own family of 0r:

armoured vehicies which would share many common components. I:re

result was the EE-g Cascavel armoured car and the EE-ll Un:-.

armoured personnel carrier, which have been adopted not only by ::::

Brazilian army and marines but also by many other countries all over -:_:

world, especially ln the Mrddle East, By early 1984 ENGESA had bi' :

well over 3 000 EE-9s and EE 1ls,

In the future even more countnes, including Egypt, are expecied ::

enter the wheeled armoured personnel carrier market,

The extra mobilityof thewheeledAPC is of considerablevalue to those

nations with long borders to patrol. The Dragoon is typical of the new breed o{

ptivate venture developments selling to smaller armed forces throughout the

world.

.

-3,

IHE NETHERLANDS

DAF YP-408 armoured personnel carrier

Since well before World War II DAF

has been

a major supplier of wheeled

vehicles to the Royal Netherlands

army, and in 1958 it built prototypes of

an erght-wheeled armoured person-

nel carrier, With a number of modiflca-

tions and the

cules JXLD petrol engine by a more

replacement of the Her-

powerful DAF dlesel engine, this was

accepted for service as the DAF YP-

408, the first production vehicles

being

delivered in 1968 and final deliveries

takinq place in 1968, A total of 750 vehi- cles were built for the Dutch army and

flve are used by Surinam these latter

being passed on when the Dutch with-

in the 1970s. In the Dutch army

drew

the YP-408 is now raprdly being re-

placed by the YPR-765, which is the

Dutch version of the FMC Armoured

Infantry Fighting Vehicle, and lt rs ex-

pected that all YP-408s will have been

phased out of sewice by 19BB at the

latest,

The hull of the YP-408 is of all-

welded

steel construction which

varies in thrckness from B mm

(0.315in) to lSmm (059in), The en-

gdne rs at the front, the commander and

driver are to the rear of the engrne

compafiment, and the troop compart-

ment is at the rear, The diesel engrne is

coupled to a manual grearbox with five

forward and one reverse gear and a two-speed transfer box. The YP-408

has a total of erght road wheels (four on

each side), but only sx of these are

makinq the YP-408 an Bx6

powered,

vehicle; it is the second pair of road

wheels which

ts unpowered. Steering

on the front four

is power-assisted

wheels, and the tyres have reinforced side walls that enable the vehicle to be

driven for a distance of 50km (31

miles) at a reduced speed after they

have been punctured.

The driver is

seated on the left wrth the commander/

machine-gmnner to his right. The 12.7-

mm (0,5-1n) M2 machine-gmn can be

traversed

from *B'to *70'.

through 360" and elevated

The 10

fully equipped troops enter

and leave the YP-408 through two

doors in the hull rear, and are seated

flve down each srde facing each other,

Hatches are provided over the top of

the troop compartment. Standard

equipment includes a heater, but the

YP-408 lacks an NBC

system and

amphibious capability, If required,

infra-red equipment can be fltted for

the driver and the machine-gnrnner.

The basic armoured personnel car-

rier is called the PWI-S(GR), thrs stand-

ing for the Pantser Waqen

Standaard(Groep); the platoon com-

mander's vehicle rs the PWI-S(PC)

and has a crew of mne and additlonal

equrpment; and the

Infanterie-

communications

battalion

vehicle is the PWCO this having a

or company commander's

crew of sx, additional commumcations

equipment anC mapboards. The

ambulance model, which is unarmed

is the PW-GWT which can cary two

stretcher patients and four seated pa- tlents plus its three-man crew (driver

and two medical orderlies). The PW-V

freight carrier can transport 1500 kg

(3,307 lb) of freisht. The PW-MT has a seven-man mofiar team and tows a

French 120-mm (4,72-rn) Brandt mortar

and 50 mortar bombs More recent

versions are the PWRDR radar carrier,

which is fiited with the British Marconi

Avionics ZB 298 gnound surveillance radar, and the PWAT anti-tank vehicle

which has the Huqhes TOW ATGW

system,

Specification

YP-408

Crew: 2f l0

Combat weight: 12000 kg (26,455 lb)

Powerplant: one DAF Model DS 575 6-cylinder diesel developing 165 hp

(123 kW)

Dimensions: length 6 23 m (20 ft 5.3 rn); width 2 40 m (7 ft tO 5 in); heiqht (includins MG) 2,37 m (7 ft 9.3 in)

Performance: maximum road speed

B0 kn/h (50 mph); maximum road range 500 km (311 miles); fording 1,2 m (3 fi I I int; gradrent 60 per cenr:

vertical obstacle 0.7 m (2 ft 4 in);

trench

1,2 m (3 ft l1 in)

SWITZERLAND

MOWAG Roland armoured personnel carrier

The MOWAG Roland 4x4 is the smal-

lest vehrcle currently produced by the

MOWAG company of Kreuzlngen,

Switzerland,

and is used mainly in the

internal security role, The flrst pro-

totype was completed rn 1963, the first

productron vehicles belng completed

the following year, Known operators of

the Roland include Argentina, Bolivia,

Chile, Greece, Iraq, Mexico and Peru

The hull of Roland rs of all-welded steel

armour construction that provides the

crew with complete protection from

7,62-mm (0.3-in) small arms fire, The driver is at the front the crew compart-

ment in the centre and the englne at

the rear on the left side; there is also an

right side of the hull that

aisle in the

leads to a door in the hull rear. The

driver has a roof hatch, and there is a

single door in each side of the hull, In

each of the three doors is a flring port

(with a vision block above) which

allows three of the embarked infantry- men to frre their rifles or sub-machine

emns from within the vehicle in safety,

r242

The YP-408MT tows a French-built

Brandt I 20-mm mortar, and fransporls lft e s even- man m ottar

team as well as up to 50 mortar

bombs. The machine-gun is a Browning M2 HB I 2.7-mm and is operated by the vehicle commander.

First produced in 1968, the 8x6 DAF

YP-408 is soon to be replaced by the tracked FMC infantry fighting vehicle. With a crew oI two, the YP-

408 can transportup to I 0 fully-

equipped infantrymen, but has no

NBC protection or amphibious

capability.

The basicRolandwas desigmed from the outsetfor relatively easy conversion to a number ofroles,

including those of personnel, cargo

or ammunition carrier,

r ec onn ais s ance, c ommand and

communic ations post or, as illustrated, for the ambulance role.

MOWAG Roland APC (continued)

In the centre of the roof is installed

the main armament;

simple cupola

mounted 12.7-mm

this is normally

a

wtth an externally

(0,S-in)

or 7,62-mm

(0,3-in) machine-gun. One of the

alternative

statrons is a tufiet

is a remotely-

machine-

on top of whrch

weapon

controlled 7.62-mm (0.3-in)

gun fired from within the turret.

The petrol engine is coupled to a

manual gearbox with four forward and

one reverse gear and a two-speed

transfer case, More recent production

Rolands are offered with an automatic

gearbox to reduce driver fatignre, When used in the internal security

role, the Roland is normally fitted with

blade at the front

of the hull, a public address system,

wire mesh protectton for the head-

an obstacle-clearing

lamps and sometimes the vrslon blocks

as well, a srren and flashing lights,

Another optron is MOWAG bulletproof cross-country wheels. These consrst of

metal discs on each side of the tyre, the

outside ones having ribs which assist

the vehicle when crossing through

mud.

In the late

1960s the company

de-

signed and burlt another 4x4

armoured personnel carrier called the

MOWAG Grenadier, which can carry

a total of nine men including the com-

mander and driver. This model was

sold to a number of countries but is no longer offered, having been replaced by the Piranha range of 4x 4, 6 x 6 and B x B armoured vehicles, Typical arma- ment installations for the Grenadier in-

cluded a one-man turret armed with a

20-mm Hispano-Suiza cannon and a

turet with twin BO-mm (3, 1S-in) rocket-

launchers

bious, being propelled in the water by

a propeller

The vehrcle is fully amphi-

under the rear of the hull.

Waterborne steerlng is accomplished

by turning the steering wheel in the normal manner to move two parallel rudders mounted to the immediate

rear of the propeller,

Specification

Roland

Crew:3+3

Combat weight: 4700 kq (10,362 lb)

Powerpiant: one V-B perrol engine

developing 202 hp ( 151 kW)

Dimensions: len glh 4. 44 m (14 ft 6, B in); width2,01 m (6 ft 7 in); heisht (with

turret) 2,03 m (6 ft B in)

Performance: maximum

road speed

I l0 lcr/h (68 mph); maximum range

550 km (341 miles); fording 1,0 m (3 ft

3 4 in); gradient 60 per cent; vertical

obstacleO.4 m(1 ft4 in); trenchnot applicable

The anti-tankRoland is armed wtth

three M es s erschm it t-B ol kow - B I o hm

M am ba wire - guid e d a n ti - ta n

k

m jssrTes. The e qu ipment is m ou n t ed

directly onto the remote-controlled 7.6 2 - mm machine-gun turret.

MOWAG MR 8 series armoured personnel carriers

Since the end of World War ll the

MOWAG company has manufactured

a wide range

armoured

of tracked and wheeled

fighting vehicles aimed

mainly at the export market, and has

also built prototypes of armouredvehi- cles for foreign governments. For ex- ample, MOWAG built some of the pro-

totypes of the West German Marder

mechanized infantry combat vehicle, In the 1950s a 4x4 series ofarmoured

vehicles were designed and burlt

under the company designation

MOWAG MR 8, and this was subse-

quently adopted

border

police

by the West German two confiqwations,

in

the SW I and the SW2. The first batch of

20 or so vehicles was supplied drrect

by MOWAG, but main production was

undertaken in West Germany by

Henschel and Bilssinq. Total

tion in West Germany amounted to ab- out 600 vehicles.

produc-

The SWl (geschiitzter Sonder-

wagen Kfz 9l) rs the armoured person- nel carrier model and accommodates

five men plus the commander and

a slightly

different hull top and is fitted with a one-man turret armed with a 20-mm

driver while the SW2 has

Hispano-Suiza cannon plus four

smoke-drscharqers

side of the turret to frre forwards,

mounted on each

The same basrc hull is used for both

the SWI and SWZ, with

slight differ-

ences to the rool In the SWl the com-

mander and driver are seated at the front of the hull wrth a windscreen rn

front of each man; these windscreens

can be quickly covered

by armoured

shutters with integral vision blocks,

The drrver also has a roof hatch above

his position for driving in the head-out

position, The troop compartment is at the rear of the vehicle with the engine compartment to rts left, In each side of

the hull is a two-part door that opens left and right: each door has a vision

block and a firing port, Over the top of

the troop compartment are two roof

hatches and an unusual cupola, The

latter rs fixed but split down the middle

so that it can be opened vertically if

required; in each half are three fixed vision blocks, When the cupola ts in

the normal position complete visibility

is possible through 360".

Unlike more recent MOWAG

wheeled armoured vehicles, the MR B

series vehicles have no amphibious

capabrlity and are not fitted wtth an

NBC system or any type ofnight vision equipment, althouqh both of the latter

been fltted if so requrred

MOWAG continued to develop the

by the user.

could have

MR 8 series

for other export markets,

and these vanants included the MR

8-09 sporting a one-man turret armed

with a 20-mm cannon, the MR 8-23 that

had a two-man tufiet armed with a 90-

mm (3,54-in) gnrn and a 7,62-mm (0,3-

in) co-axral machine-gmn, and the MR

9-32 fitted with a 120-mm (4,72-in) mor-

tar at the rear of the hull. The last ver-

sion had an open-top hull, and before

the mortar could be fired it had to be lowered to the grround, TWo multiple rocket-launchers were also designed and built, one with a launcher fitted

with 20 145-mm (5. 7-in) barrels and the

other with

projectors

two B0-mm (3 1S-in) rocket

fed by an automatic loader

which enabled a cyclic rate of 500

rounds per minute to be achreved, None of these models entered produc-

tion,

Specification

MR8

Crew: 2f 5

Combatweight:8200

kg (18,078 lb)

Powerplant: one Chrysler Type R 36 1 6-cylinder petrol engine developing

161 hp (120 kW)

Dimensions: length 5 31 m (17 ft 5 in); wrdth 2.2 m (7 ft 3 in); herqht (hull)

LBB m (6 ft 2 in)

Performance: maximum road speed B0 krr/h (50 mph); maximum range 400 km (248 miles)j fording 1.1 m (3 ft 7 in); gradient 60 per cent; vertical

obstacleO,4 m(1 ft4 in); trenchnot

applicable

W e s t G er m an Bundesgren z s chu tz

(BGS, or Federal Border

Police)

parade with their armoured but

unarmedMRS(modelSWl)

TheSW2modelof theMR 8, alsoused

by the BSG, differs in being armed

with anHispano 20-mm cannon and having a crew offour instead of

personnel carriers. The first Swiss-

built models were delivered in I

60, subsequently built in the Federal Republic.

9 5 I

seven. Smoke drschargers are mounted on each side of the 2a-mr:,

turret.

SWITZERLAND

MOWAG Piranha armoured personnel carrier

The MOWAG Piranha rangre of 4x4,

6 x 6 and B x B armoured personnel car- riers was desigrned by MOWAG in the

late 1960s, and the first prototype was

completed in Switzerland in 1972, with

flrst production vehicles followingr four

years later. As with all recent

MOWAG vehicles, the Piranha family

was a private venture and developed

without government support.

In 1977

Canada decided to adopt the 6 x 6 ver-

sion and production was undertaken in

Canada by the Diesel Division of General Motors Canada, 491 being

built for the Canadian Armed Forces

between 1979 and 1982. Canada uses

three versions ofthe 6x6 Piranha: the

76-mm (2.99-in) Cougar Gun Wheeled

Fire Support Vehicle which has the

same two-man turret as the British Combat Vehicle Reconnarssance

(Tracked) Scorpion; the Grizzly

Wheeled Armoured Personnei Car-

rier, which has a one-man turret armed

with a 12,7-mm (0.S-in) and a 7,62-mm

(0.3-in) machine-gun and has a three-

man crew consisting of commander,

lully equip-

ped troops; and the Husky Wheeled Maintenance and Recovery Vehicle,

which supports the other vehrcles rn the field. In addition to being used by Canada, the Piranha rangte of vehicles is used also by Chile (licence produc- tion), Ghana, Liberia, Niserra and Sier- ra Leone, and in 1983 the 6x6 model was evaluated by the Swrss army as an

gmnner and driver plus sx

antr-tank vehicle fitted with the

Hughes TOW anti-tank system, After evaluating a number of different vehi-

cles both tracked and wheeled, the

USA selected the 8xB version of the Piranha to meet its requirement for a

Lrght Armored Vehicle (LAV) and the

first of these was completed for the US

Marine Corps

a two-man

in late 1983, These have

power-operated turret

armed with a Hughes Helicopters 25-

mm cannon (as fltted to the Bradley)

and a co-axial 7.62-mm

(0,3-tn)

machine-gun, Variants required by

the US Marines include a logistics sup- port vehicle, a command vehicle, a re-

pair vehrcle, a mortar carrier and an

antl-tank model, The US Army with-

drew from the programme early in

1984.

The hull of the Piranha is of all-

welded steel construction which pro- vrdes protection from small arms fire, On the sx-wheeied version the driver

is at the front on the left with the com-

mander to his rear and the engine to

the right, The troop compartment is at

of the hull, and entry to this is

the rear

gained via two doors rn the hull rear,

Armament depends on the role, but

from a single-man turret up

can range

to a

two-man power-operated turret

armed with a 90-mm (3,54-in) Cockertll

Qnrn. If a healry weapon such as this is fltted, however, the commander is nor- mally in the turret and a reduced num- ber of troops rs carried, All members of the Piranha family

are fully amphibioLrs, being propelled

in the water by two propellers at the

rear of the hu1l. Optional equtpment

includes such thrngrs as night vision

equipment, an NBC system. an air-

conditioning system (essential in the

Middle East) and so on.

Specification

Piranha (6 x 6 version without armament)

Crew:2* 12

combar weight: 10500 kq (23, t4B Ib)

Powerplart: one Detroit Diesel 6V-537 developing 300 hp (224 kW)

Dimensions:lenqth

width2.50 m(B ft2.4 in); heisht 1,BS m

(6 ft I in) Performance: maximum road speed

5.97 m (19 ft 7 in);

100 lcr/h (62 mph); maximum rangte

600 km (373 miles)t fording amphibious; gnadtent 70 per cent;

verticalobstacle0.S m(1 ftB in);

trench not applicable

The 4x4version of the Piranha has a

maximum load of I 0 infantrymen

and, as here, canbe armedwith a

remote-

control led 7.6 2 - mm

Armed with the Belgian Cockerill

90-mm grun, the 6 xG Piranhais c ap able of fu lfiLLing the intantry

suppott role so often required ofthe

machine-gan mount. All of the

Piranha family are fully amphibious,

being driven by twin propellers in

water.

mgdeyn intantry fighting vehicle.

Such a large weapon is mounted at

the expense of the number of troops

carried.

ffi

%rn" Dragoon armoured personnel carrier

In the late 1970s the US Army Miiitary

Police issued a requirement for a vehr-

cle which would be arrportable in a Lockheed C-130 Hercules transport

aircraft and be suitable for both air

base protection

and convoy

escort,

but the

The requrrement lapsed,

Verne

Corporation

with its own

went ahead and

money built two pro-

totypes of a vehicle which was even-

tually called the Verne Dragoon. In

appearance the Dragoon is very simi'

lar to the Cadillac Gaqre V-100 and V-

150 range of 4x4 multi-mission vehi-

cles, but shares many common compo-

nents with the M]l3A2

full-tracked

armoured personnel carrier and the

MB09 6 x 6 S{on truck, which are used all over the world, From the M11342

uses the enqdne, starter,

the Dragoon

periscopes, bilge pumps, switches,

electrical

and hydraulic components

(to name but a few), with the obvious

logrstical advantages.

The hull of the Dragoon is of al1-

welded steel construction which pro-

vides the crew with complete protec-

tron

mm

splinters, The driver is seated at the

from 5,56-mm

Q.22-in)

and 7,62-

(0,3-in) small arms

fire and shell

front on

the left with another crew

Continued on page 1246

Although

apparently very similar to the weII established Cadillac Gage Commando range, the Dragoon is rtgsigned for

Armyinventory. As is usual today, avariety of weapons can be titted,

maximumlommonafitywith the existingUS

including the Arrowpointe 90-mm turret with the Mk I I I Cockerill 90 -mm gun.

1244

USlightArmoured

VehicleProgramme

For manyyears the US Marine Corpsftashad to operatewith

much older equipment than the US Army, often under

conditions less than suitable

changing military doctrines of the 1980s, however, have seen

to army-oriented designs. The

maj or changes in procurement policy.

Undet test at the Marine

Ccrps

Combat C enter, 71ren gr4'me

Pa,::-.

in Caffiornia, the GM Canada

Piranha has beenseJecfed rtnnerc:

the MV competition. The vehicle is

the 8 x 8 model of the Swiss MOWAG

Piranha built under Ecence in

Canada.

Recent events in the Middle East and Central America have shown the need for the United States of America to have units that can be quickly deployed by air

anywhere in the world. The US Army and US Marines have many excellent armoured vehicles, but many of these are very heavy and it would take many weeks to transport a complete armoured or mechanized dlvlsion from the

continental USA to say Persian Gulf (for example) and by this time it could well

be too late. For this reason it was decided to establish

the Rapid Deployment

Force (now renamed Central Command) which can quickly call on US Army. US

Navy, US Air Force and US Marine Corps units. Some of these units are standard

divisions with their intend to form unlts

East within perhaps two or three days. ln 1981 the US Army and US Marine Corps issued a request for proposals to

some 20 manufacturers of tracked and wheeled vehicles in the West for the

required Light Armoured Vehicles, for in order to get the vehicle into service as quickly as possible it had been decided to use an existing vehicle rather than to design a new vehicle from scratch as the latter process could take anything up to

10 years. ln June '1981 seven firm proposals were received, and late in that year

three companies were awarded contracts to supply vehicles for testing. Alvis of

heavy equipment, but the US Army and US Marine Corps with much lighter equipment that could be in the Middle

the

pion 90 powered

vehicle and three Stormerarmoured personnel carriers to meetthe requirement

United Kingdom, teamed with Martin Marietta of the USA, built one Scor-

by a diesel engine to meet the requlrement for an assault gun

for the light assault vehicle. The Stormers also had the diesel engine and were

fitted with a two-man power-operated turret armed with a 25-mm Chain Gun as

installed in the lV2 Bradley lnfantry Fighting Vehlcle. Cadillac Gage was awarded two contracts, one for the 6x6 V-300 Commando and the other for the stretch-

ed V-150 S Commando. Three V-150 S vehicles were supplied, all with a two-man turret, one with the 90-mm (3.54-in) Cockerill Mk lll gun and the other

two with the 25-mm Chain Gun. Three V-300s were also supplied, one with a 90-mm (3.54-in) gun and the other two with the 25-mm cannon. General Motors

of Canada suplied four BxB versions of the MOWAG Piranha vehicle, some

fitted with the 90-mm (3.54-in) Cockerill Mk lll gun and the orhers with a 25-mm Chain Gun, all in a two-man turret. After tests in the USA by US Army and US Marine crews, the General Motors Canada B x B vehicle was selected, and late in 1 982 the company was awarded a contract worth $30 million for the supply of the first 60 LAVs for the US Marine Corps, the first of these being delivered on schedule late in 1983. At that time it

was stated that the f ive-year contract for the LAV would be worth some $477 milljon and cover the suply of 969 vehlcles with an option on a further 598 vehicles. Early in 1984, however, the programme suffered a major setback when the US Army decided to wlthdraw from the whole LAV project. The US Marines remain committed to the LAV and intend to form at least three Light

Armoured Assault Battalions (one each at 29 Palms,

California; Camp Lejeune,

North Carolina; and Camp Pendleton, California) with a single company on Okinawa in the Far East.

The US Ma-r ne

nalssance in force,

Corps will use the LAV for a variety of roles including recon-

attack, exploiting a breakthrough and