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# BEKC 2433

## Signals and Systems

CHAPTER 4
Fourier Transform
Lecture Outline
2

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Continuous Time (CT) Fourier Transform
4.3 Properties of Fourier Transform CT
4.4 Discrete Time (DT) Fourier Transform
4.5 Properties of Fourier Transform DT

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

Outcome of the learning
3

##  (LO2, PO2):Analyze the linear time-invariant

(LTI) systems in time-domain and frequency-
domain.

4.1 Introduction
4

##  Fourier transform is one of the method to process a signal

from time domain to a frequency domain
 Fourier transform can solve a non-periodic signal to the
complex frequency components (amplitude and phase)
to generate the frequency spectrum
 Signal is usually taken in the form of time domain. But the
signal processing easier to see and done in the frequency
domain.

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.2 Continuous Time Fourier Transform:
Introduction
5

##  For a periodic signal, Fourier series is used to obtain the

frequency spectrum in the form of spectral lines.
 Fourier series is used for periodic signals.
 Fourier series pair:

𝑥 𝑡 = 𝑎𝑘 𝑒 𝑗𝑘𝜔𝑜𝑡
𝑘=−∞

𝑇
1
𝑎𝑘 = 𝑥(𝑡) 𝑒 −𝑗𝑘𝜔𝑜𝑡 𝑑𝑡
𝑇 𝑡=0

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.2 Continuous Time Fourier Transform:
Introduction
6

##  Consider the periodic signal below:

𝒙(𝒕)
 The train of pulse is periodic
with period 𝑻𝒐 .
𝑨  Hence, the Fourier series
coefficient :
𝐴𝑇 𝑇 𝑘≠0
−𝑻 𝑻 𝒕 × sinc (𝑘𝜔𝑜 )
−𝑻𝒐 𝑻𝒐 𝟐𝑻𝒐
𝑇𝑜 2
𝟐 𝟐
𝑎𝑘 =
𝐴𝑇
𝑘=0
𝑇𝑜

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.2 Continuous Time Fourier Transform:
Introduction
7

##  Figure below represents the plot of the Fourier Series (FS)

coefficient (the spectral lines) for period 𝑇𝑜 .

𝟐𝝅
𝑻𝒐

##  From the figure the FS coefficient are spaced equally along

 As the 𝑇𝑜 increase, fundamental frequency, 𝜔𝑜 decreases.
 Hence the distance between the two coefficients are reduced.

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.2 Continuous Time Fourier Transform:
Introduction
8

representation.

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.2 Continuous Time Fourier Transform:
Introduction
9

𝐶𝑇𝐹𝑇
𝑥 𝑡 𝑋 𝑗𝜔
where
CTFT

→𝑿 𝝎 = 𝒙 𝒕 𝒆−𝒋𝝎𝒕 𝒅𝒕
−∞
Inverse of CTFT

𝟏
→𝒙 𝒕 = 𝑿(𝝎) 𝒆𝒋𝝎𝒕 𝒅𝝎
𝟐𝝅 −∞

## Both CTFT and Inverse CTFT can also be written as:

𝐹 𝑥 𝑡 = 𝑋 𝜔 and 𝐹 −1 𝑋 𝜔 = 𝑥 𝑡

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.2 Continuous Time Fourier Transform
10

Example 4.1
Consider the a single pulse/rectangular function below,
determine the Fourier transform of the continuous-time signal.
A

𝑥 𝑡 =
0 ; 𝑒𝑙𝑠𝑒𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.2 Continuous Time Fourier Transform
11
𝜏 𝜏
Example 4.1 cont. 2𝐴 𝑒 𝑗𝜔2
−𝑒 −𝑗𝜔2
𝑋 𝜔 = [ ]
Solution: 𝜔 2𝑗
2𝐴 𝜔𝜏
Based on Fourier Transform 𝑋 𝜔 = sin
𝜔 2
equation: 𝜔𝜏
∞ 𝑋 𝜔 = 𝐴𝜏 sinc
𝑋 𝜔 = 𝑥 𝑡 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡 2
−∞ 𝜔𝜏
𝜏 𝜔𝜏 sin 2
2
Where sinc = 𝜔𝜏
2
𝑋 𝜔 = (𝐴) 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡 2
𝜏
−2
𝜏 Frequency spectrum:
𝐴𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡 2
𝑋 𝜔 = 𝜏
−𝑗𝜔 −
2
𝐴 𝜏
−𝑗𝜔2
𝜏
𝑗𝜔2
𝑋 𝜔 = [𝑒 −𝑒 ]
−𝑗𝜔

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.2 Continuous Time Fourier Transform:
12
𝜔𝜏
𝜔𝜏 sin
 Form from Fourier transform: sinc = 𝜔𝜏
2
2
2

##  Had a maximum amplitude at 𝜔 = 0 and reduce to 0 as

𝜔 → ∞/−∞
 Resemble sin wave that reduce to 0 at every interval 𝜔 = 2𝜋/𝜏

𝝎
𝒇
BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza
4.2 Continuous Time Fourier Transform
13

Example 4.2
Determine the Fourier transform of the continuous-time signal
and plot the frequency spectrum if :
1 ; −𝜏/4 < 𝑡 < 𝜏/4
(a) 𝑥 𝑡 =
0 ; 𝑒𝑙𝑠𝑒𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒
1 ; −2𝜏 < 𝑡 < 2𝜏
(b) 𝑥 𝑡 =
0 ; 𝑒𝑙𝑠𝑒𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒

𝜏 𝜔𝜏
 Answer: I. 𝑋 𝜔 = sinc II. 𝑋 𝜔 = 4𝜏 sinc 2𝜔𝜏
2 4

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.2 Continuous Time Fourier Transform
14
𝜏 𝜏
Example 4.2 cont. 𝑗𝜔 −𝑗𝜔
2 𝑒 −𝑒 4 4
𝑋 𝜔 = [ ]
Solution 4.2 (a): 𝜔 2𝑗
2 𝜔𝜏 2 𝜏/4 𝜔𝜏
Based on Fourier Transform 𝑋 𝜔 = sin = × sin
𝜔 4 𝜔 𝜏/4 4
equation:

𝜏 1 𝜔𝜏
𝑋 𝜔 = 𝑥 𝑡 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑋 𝜔 = × 𝜏 sin Where
𝜔𝜏
−∞ 2 𝜔 4 𝜔𝜏 sin
4
𝜏 4 sinc = 𝜔𝜏
4
4
4
𝑋 𝜔 = (1) 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝜏 𝜔𝜏
𝜏 𝑋 𝜔 = sinc
−4
2 4
𝜏
𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡
4 Frequency spectrum:
𝑋 𝜔 =
−𝑗𝜔 − 𝜏
4
1 −𝑗𝜔4
𝜏 𝜏
𝑗𝜔4
𝜏
sinc
𝜔𝜏

𝑋 𝜔 = [𝑒 −𝑒 ] 2 4

−𝑗𝜔
−6/𝜏 −4/𝜏 −2/𝜏 2/𝜏 4/𝜏 6/𝜏

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.2 Continuous Time Fourier Transform
15
Example 4.2 cont.
2 2 2𝜏
Solution 4.2 (b): 𝑋 𝜔 = sin 2𝜔𝜏 = × sin 2𝜔𝜏
𝜔 𝜔 2𝜏
Based on Fourier Transform
1
equation: 𝑋 𝜔 = 4𝜏 × sin 2𝜔𝜏
∞ 2𝜔𝜏
𝑋 𝜔 = 𝑥 𝑡 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡 Where
sin 2𝜔𝜏
−∞ 𝑋 𝜔 = 4𝜏 sinc 2𝜔𝜏 sinc 2𝜔𝜏 =
2𝜔𝜏
2𝜏
𝑋 𝜔 = (1) 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡
−2𝜏 Frequency spectrum:
𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡
2𝜏
𝑋 𝜔 =
−𝑗𝜔 −2𝜏
1
𝑋 𝜔 = [𝑒 −𝑗𝜔2𝜏 − 𝑒 𝑗𝜔2𝜏 ] 4𝜏sinc 2𝜔𝜏
−𝑗𝜔

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.2 Continuous Time Fourier Transform
16
Exercise 1
Derive the continuous-time signal from Figure 1 Example 4.1
into the Fourier transform as below,
𝜏
2
𝑋 𝜔 = 2𝑥(𝑡) cos 𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡
0
Solution:
𝜏
Thus, 𝑋 𝜔 = 2
𝜏 𝑥 𝑡 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡
−2
𝜏
0 2
𝑋 𝜔 = 𝑥 𝑡 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡 + 𝑥 𝑡 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡
𝜏
−2 0

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.2 Continuous Time Fourier Transform
17
𝜏 𝜏
−2 2
𝑋 𝜔 = 𝑥 −𝑡 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔 −𝑡 𝑑 −𝑡 + 𝑥 𝑡 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡
0 0
𝜏 𝜏
2 2
𝑋 𝜔 = 𝑥 −𝑡 𝑒 𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡 + 𝑥 𝑡 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡
0 0

If symmetry, 𝑥 𝑡 = 𝑥 −𝑡
𝜏 𝜏
Thus, 𝑋 𝜔 = 2
0
𝑥 𝑡 𝑒 𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡 + 2
0
𝑥 𝑡 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡
𝜏
2
𝑋 𝜔 = 𝑥(𝑡) 𝑒 𝑗𝜔𝑡 + 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡
0

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.2 Continuous Time Fourier Transform
18
𝜏
2 𝑒 𝑗𝜔𝑡 + 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡
𝑋 𝜔 = 2𝑥(𝑡) 𝑑𝑡
0 2

𝜏
2
𝑋 𝜔 = 2𝑥(𝑡) cos 𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡 - It is proven
0

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.2 Continuous Time Fourier Transform
19
Exercise 2
Prove that the Fourier transform of the signal 𝑝 𝑡 in figure is:

𝑝 𝑡
𝑃 𝜔 = −2𝑗 𝑝(𝑡) sin 𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡
0 1

Solution −∞
𝟎 ∞
−∞
From Exercise 1, we know that:
∞ ∞
𝑃 𝜔 = 𝑥 −𝑡 𝑒 𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡 + 𝑥 𝑡 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡
0 0

If odd, 𝑥 𝑡 = −𝑥 −𝑡
∞ ∞
𝑃 𝜔 = −𝑥 𝑡 𝑒 𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡 + 𝑥 𝑡 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡
0 0

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.2 Continuous Time Fourier Transform
20

Thus,
𝜏 𝜏
𝑃 𝜔 = 0
2 −𝑥 𝑡 𝑒 𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡 + 2
0
𝑥 𝑡 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡
𝜏
2
𝑃 𝜔 = −𝑥(𝑡) 𝑒 𝑗𝜔𝑡 − 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡
0
𝜏
2 2𝑗
𝑃 𝜔 = −1 𝑒 𝑗𝜔𝑡 − 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡 × 𝑑𝑡
0 2𝑗
𝜏
2 𝑒 𝑗𝜔𝑡 − 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡
𝑃 𝜔 = −2𝑗 𝑑𝑡
0 2𝑗

𝑃 𝜔 = −2𝑗 𝑝(𝑡) sin 𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡 - It is proven
0
BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza
4.2 Continuous Time Fourier Transform
21

Example 4.3
Determine the Fourier transform of the continuous-time signal
and plot the frequency spectrum if 𝑥 𝑡 = 𝑒 −𝑎𝑡 𝑢 𝑡 , 𝑎 > 0
1 1 𝜔
Ans:𝑋 𝜔 = and 𝑋 𝜔 = ; ∠𝑋 𝜔 = −tan−1
𝑎+𝑗𝜔 𝑎2 +𝜔2 𝑎
Note: the magnitude and the phase plot can be obtained by varying 𝜔 from 0
to 𝜋 in equal step

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.2 Continuous Time Fourier Transform
22
Example 4.3 cont. 1
𝑋 𝜔 =− 0−1
𝑎 + 𝑗𝜔
Solution 4.3: 1
𝑋 𝜔 =
Based on Fourier Transform (𝑎 + 𝑗𝜔)
equation:

𝑋 𝜔 = 𝑥 𝑡 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡
−∞

𝑋 𝜔 = (𝑒 −𝑎𝑡 ) 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡
0

𝑋 𝜔 = 𝑒 −(𝑎+𝑗𝜔)𝑡 𝑑𝑡
0
𝑒 −(𝑎+𝑗𝜔)𝑡

𝑋 𝜔 =
−(𝑎 + 𝑗𝜔) 0
1
𝑋 𝜔 =− 𝑒 − 𝑎+𝑗𝜔 ∞ − 𝑒 𝑎+𝑗𝜔 0
(𝑎 + 𝑗𝜔)
1
𝑋 𝜔 =− [𝑒 −∞ − 𝑒 0 ]
(𝑎 + 𝑗𝜔)
BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza
4.2 Continuous Time Fourier Transform
23

Example 4.4
Determine the Fourier transform of the continuous-time signal if
𝑥 𝑡 = 𝛿(𝑡)

Solution:

𝑋 𝜔 = 𝑥 𝑡 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡
−∞

𝑋 𝜔 = 𝛿 𝑡 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡 = 1
0

##  Answer: 1 (for the case amplitude 1 and no shifting (t0=0))

BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza
4.2 Continuous Time Fourier Transform
24

Example 4.5
Determine the Fourier transform of the continuous-time signal of
the triangular pulse below.

𝜏 𝜔𝜏
Ans: 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑐 2
2 4

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.3 Properties of Fourier Transform: CT
25

1. Linearity
𝐴𝑥 𝑡 + 𝐵𝑦 𝑡 ↔ 𝐴𝑋 𝜔 + 𝐵𝑌 𝜔

2. Time Scaling
𝐶𝑇𝐹𝑇 1 𝜔
𝑥 𝑎𝑡 𝑋
𝑎 𝑎

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.2 Continuous Time Fourier Transform
26

Example 4.6
Repeat Example 4.2 by using the Time scaling properties.
1 ; −𝜏/4 < 𝑡 < 𝜏/4
(a) 𝑥 𝑡 =
0 ; 𝑒𝑙𝑠𝑒𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒
1 ; −2𝜏 < 𝑡 < 2𝜏
(b) 𝑥 𝑡 =
0 ; 𝑒𝑙𝑠𝑒𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒

𝜏 𝜔𝜏
Answer: (a) 𝑋 𝜔 = sinc (b) 𝑋 𝜔 = 4𝜏 sinc 2𝜔𝜏
2 4

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.2 Continuous Time Fourier Transform
27
Using Table 3:
Solution 4.6(a):
1 ; −𝜏/4 < 𝑡 < 𝜏/4
(a) 𝑥 𝑡 =
0 ; 𝑒𝑙𝑠𝑒𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒
𝑻 𝑻

𝟐 𝟐
𝑻=𝝉
𝑡 𝜔𝑇
𝝉 𝝉
𝒂× = 𝑅𝑒𝑐( ) ↔ 𝑇 sinc
𝟒 𝟐 𝑇 2

𝝉
𝟎
𝝉 𝒂=𝟐 Using Table 2:
𝟒 𝟒

Time scaling
Therefore; 𝜔
1 𝜏 1 𝜔
𝑋 𝜔 = 𝜏 sinc 2 𝑓(𝑎𝑡) ↔ 𝐹( )
|2| 2 |𝑎| 𝑎

𝝉 𝝎𝝉
𝑿 𝝎 = 𝒔𝒊𝒏𝒄
𝟐 𝟒
BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza
4.2 Continuous Time Fourier Transform
28
Using Table 3:
Solution 4.6(b):
1 ; −2𝜏 < 𝑡 < 2𝜏
(b) 𝑥 𝑡 =
0 ; 𝑒𝑙𝑠𝑒𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒
𝑻 𝑻

𝟐 𝟐
𝑻=𝝉
𝑡 𝜔𝑇
𝒂 × 𝟐𝝉 =
𝝉 𝑅𝑒𝑐( ) ↔ 𝑇 sinc
𝟐 𝑇 2
−𝟐𝝉 𝟎 𝟐𝝉 𝒂=
𝟏 Using Table 2:
𝟒

Time scaling
Therefore; 𝜔
1 𝜏 1 𝜔
1/4 𝑓(𝑎𝑡) ↔ 𝐹( )
𝑋 𝜔 = 𝜏 sinc |𝑎| 𝑎
|1/4| 2
𝟒𝝎𝝉
𝑿 𝝎 = 𝟒𝝉 𝐬𝐢𝐧𝐜 = 𝟒𝝉 𝐬𝐢𝐧𝐜 𝟐𝝎𝝉
𝟐

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.3 Properties of Fourier Transform: CT
29

3. Time Shifting
𝐶𝑇𝐹𝑇
𝑥 𝑡−𝜏 𝑋 𝜔 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝜏
Proving:

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.3 Properties of Fourier Transform: CT
30

Example 4.7
Obtain the Fourier Transform of the
following signal:

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.2 Continuous Time Fourier Transform
31

## Solution: Using Table 3:

Using Fourier Transform Table,
Compare with the general pulse response
shifted by 𝜏. 𝑻=𝟏
𝑻 𝑻

𝟏 𝑻 𝟐 𝟐
A 𝒂× =
𝟐 𝟐
𝑡 𝜔𝑇
𝒂=𝑻=𝟏 𝑅𝑒𝑐( ) ↔ 𝑇 sinc
𝑇 2
𝒕𝒐 = 𝝉
-T/2 T/2 Using Table 2:
Therefore;
Time shifting
𝑡 − 𝑡0
𝑥 𝑡 = 𝐴 × 𝑅𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝑥(𝑡 − 𝑡0 ) ↔ 𝑋(𝜔)𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡0
𝑇
𝜔𝑇 −𝑗𝜔𝜏
𝑋 𝜔 = 𝐴 × 𝑇sinc 𝑒
2
𝜔(1) −𝑗𝜔𝜏 𝝎 −𝒋𝝎𝝉
𝑋 𝜔 = 𝐴 × (1)sinc( )𝑒 = 𝑽𝟎 𝐬𝐢𝐧𝐜( ) 𝒆
2 𝟐
BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza
4.2 Continuous Time Fourier Transform
32

Solution:
Using Fourier Transform Formula,

𝑋 𝜔 = 𝑥 𝑡 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡
−∞
1
(𝜏+2)
𝑋 𝜔 = (𝑉0 ) 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡
1
(𝜏−2)
1
𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡(𝜏 + 2)
𝑋 𝜔 = 𝑉0
−𝑗𝜔 (𝜏 − 1)
2
𝑉0 −𝑗𝜔𝜏
1
−𝑗𝜔2 −𝑗𝜔𝜏
1
𝑗𝜔2
𝑋 𝜔 = 𝑒 ×𝑒 − 𝑒 ×𝑒
−𝑗𝜔
𝑉0 −𝑗𝜔𝜏 𝑗𝜔1 1
−𝑗𝜔2
𝑋 𝜔 = 𝑒 (𝑒 2 −𝑒 )
𝑗𝜔
BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza
4.2 Continuous Time Fourier Transform
33

𝑉0 −𝑗𝜔𝜏 𝑗𝜔
1
−𝑗𝜔
1 2𝑗
𝑋 𝜔 = 𝑒 𝑒 2 −𝑒 2 ×
𝑗𝜔 2𝑗
1 1
𝑗𝜔 −𝑗𝜔
2𝑗 × 𝑉0 −𝑗𝜔𝜏 𝑒 2 −𝑒 2
= 𝑒
𝑗𝜔 2𝑗
2𝑉 𝜔
= 𝜔0 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝜏 sin( 2 )
𝜔
2𝑉0 𝜔
= 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝜏 [sin( 2 ) 𝜔2 ]
𝜔
2
𝜔
𝜔 2𝑉0 sin
= × 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝜏 [ 𝜔
2
]
2 𝜔
2

𝝎
𝑿 𝝎 = 𝑽𝟎 𝐬𝐢𝐧𝐜( ) 𝒆−𝒋𝝎𝝉
𝟐

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.3 Properties of Fourier Transform: CT
34

## 4. Duality Interchanging t with 𝜔

𝐶𝑇𝐹𝑇 𝐶𝑇𝐹𝑇 ∞
𝑥 𝑡 𝑋 𝜔 ; 𝑋 𝑡 2𝜋𝑥 −𝜔
2𝜋𝑥 −𝜔 = 𝑋(𝑡) 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡
Proof: −∞

1 Then
𝑥 𝑡 = 𝑋(𝜔) 𝑒 𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝜔
2𝜋 −∞
𝐹𝑋 𝑡 = 2𝜋𝑥 −𝜔

or
2𝜋𝑥 𝑡 = 𝑋(𝜔) 𝑒 𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝜔 𝐶𝑇𝐹𝑇
−∞

𝑋 𝑡 2𝜋𝑥 −𝜔
2𝜋𝑥 −𝑡 = 𝑋(𝜔) 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝜔
−∞

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.3 Properties of Fourier Transform: CT
35

Example 4.8
𝐶𝑇𝐹𝑇 1
If 𝑒 −𝑎𝑡 𝑢(𝑡) by using duality properties find what is the
𝑎+𝑗𝜔
1
Fourier transform of
𝑎+𝑗𝑡
𝑥 𝑡 𝑋 𝜔 ; 𝑋 𝑡 2𝜋𝑥 −𝜔
1
Given, 𝑥 𝑡 = 𝑒 −𝑎𝑡
and 𝑋 𝜔 =
𝑎 + 𝑗𝜔
1
Using the duality, if 𝑋 𝑡 ;
𝑎 + 𝑗𝑡

## 𝒙 𝝎 = 𝟐𝝅𝒙 −𝝎 = 𝟐𝝅𝒆−𝒂(−𝝎) = 𝟐𝝅𝒆𝒂𝝎

BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza
4.3 Properties of Fourier Transform: CT
36

5. Frequency shifting
𝐶𝑇𝐹𝑇
𝑥 𝑡 𝑒 𝑗𝜔𝑜 𝑡
𝑋(𝜔 − 𝜔𝑜 )
Where 𝑥 𝑡 is the input signal and 𝑒 𝑗𝜔𝑡 is modulation signal
Proof:

𝐹 𝑥 𝑡 𝑒 𝑗𝜔𝑜 𝑡 = 𝑒 𝑗𝜔𝑜 𝑡 [𝑥 𝑡 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡 ]𝑑𝑡
−∞

𝐹 𝑥 𝑡 𝑒 𝑗𝜔𝑜 𝑡 = [𝑥 𝑡 𝑒 −𝑗(𝜔−𝜔𝑜 )𝑡 ]𝑑𝑡
−∞
𝐹𝑥 𝑡 𝑒 𝑗𝜔𝑜 𝑡 = 𝑋(𝜔 − 𝜔𝑜 )

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.2 Continuous Time Fourier Transform
37

Exercise 3
Determine the Fourier transform of the continuous-time signal if
𝑥 𝑡 = cos 𝜔0 𝑡 using the Fourier transform pair:
𝐶𝑇𝐹𝑇
𝑒 𝑗𝜔𝑜 𝑡 2𝜋𝛿(𝜔 − 𝜔𝑜 )
𝑒 𝑗𝜔𝑜𝑡 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑜𝑡
Solution: 𝑥 𝑡 = cos 𝜔0 𝑡 = +
2 2

2𝜋𝛿(𝜔 − 𝜔𝑜 ) 2𝜋𝛿(𝜔 + 𝜔𝑜 )
𝑋 𝜔 = +
2 2
𝑋 𝜔 = 𝜋 𝛿 𝜔 − 𝜔0 + 𝛿 𝜔 + 𝜔0

Ans: 𝝅 𝜹 𝝎 + 𝝎𝟎 + 𝜹 𝝎 − 𝝎𝟎
BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza
4.2 Continuous Time Fourier Transform
38

Exercise 4
Determine the Fourier transform of the continuous-time
signal if 𝑥 𝑡 = sin 𝜔0 𝑡 using using the Fourier transform
pair: 𝐶𝑇𝐹𝑇
𝑗𝜔𝑜 𝑡
𝑒 2𝜋𝛿(𝜔 − 𝜔𝑜 )
.

Ans: −𝒋𝝅 𝜹 𝝎 − 𝝎𝟎 − 𝜹 𝝎 + 𝝎𝟎
BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza
4.3 Properties of Fourier Transform: CT
39

6. Multiplication
If
𝐶𝑇𝐹𝑇 𝐶𝑇𝐹𝑇
𝑥1 𝑡 𝑋1 𝑗𝜔 ; 𝑥2 𝑡 𝑋2 𝑗𝜔
Then
𝐶𝑇𝐹𝑇 1
𝑥1 𝑡 𝑥2 𝑡 𝑋 𝑗𝜔 𝑋2 𝑗𝜔
2𝜋 1
Proof, we know that

𝐹𝑥 𝑡 = 𝑋 𝑗𝜔 = 𝑥 𝑡 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡
−∞

1
𝐹 −1 𝑋 𝑗𝜔 = 𝑥 𝑡 == 𝑋 𝑗𝜔 𝑒 𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝜔
2𝜋 −∞

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.3 Properties of Fourier Transform: CT
40

6. Multiplication cont.

𝐹 𝑥1 𝑡 𝑥2 𝑡 = 𝑥1 𝑡 𝑥2 𝑡 𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡
−∞

1
𝐹 −1 𝑋 𝑗𝜔 = 𝑥 𝑡 = 𝑋 𝑗𝜔 𝑒 𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝜔
2𝜋 −∞

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.3 Properties of Fourier Transform: CT
41

7. Differentiation 𝑑 𝑗𝜔 ∞
𝑥 𝑡 = 𝑋 𝜔 𝑒 𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝜔
𝑑 𝐶𝑇𝐹𝑇 𝑑𝑡 2𝜋 −∞
𝑥 𝑡 𝑗𝜔𝑋 𝜔 𝑑
𝑑𝑡 𝑥 𝑡 = 𝑗𝜔𝐹 −1 [𝑋 𝜔 ]
𝑑𝑡
Proof: 𝑑
1 ∞ 𝐹[ 𝑥 𝑡 ] = 𝑗𝜔𝑋 𝜔
𝑑𝑡
𝑥 𝑡 = 𝑋(𝜔) 𝑒 𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝜔
2𝜋 −∞
Differentiate both side 𝑑 𝐶𝑇𝐹𝑇
𝑥 𝑡 𝑗𝜔𝑋 𝜔
𝑑 1 𝑑 ∞ 𝑑𝑡
𝑥 𝑡 = 𝑋(𝜔) 𝑒 𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝜔
𝑑𝑡 2𝜋 𝑑𝑡 −∞ In general
𝑑
𝑥 𝑡 =
1 ∞ 𝑑 𝑗𝜔𝑡
𝑋 𝜔 ( 𝑒 )𝑑𝜔
𝑑𝑛 𝐶𝑇𝐹𝑇
𝑑𝑡 2𝜋 −∞ 𝑑𝑡 𝑛
𝑥 𝑡 𝑗𝜔 𝑛 𝑋 𝜔
𝑑𝑡
𝑑 𝑗𝜔 ∞
𝑥 𝑡 = 𝑋 𝜔 𝑒 𝑗𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝜔
𝑑𝑡 2𝜋 −∞

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.3 Properties of Fourier Transform: CT
42

8. Convolution
𝐶𝑇𝐹𝑇 𝐶𝑇𝐹𝑇
𝑥1 𝑡 𝑋1 𝜔 ; 𝑥2 𝑡 𝑋2 𝜔
Then
𝐶𝑇𝐹𝑇
𝑥1 𝑡 ∗ 𝑥2 𝑡 𝑋1 𝜔 𝑋2 𝜔

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.3 Properties of Fourier Transform: CT
43

8. Convolution cont.
Substitute 𝑡 − 𝜏 = 𝑝 in the second integration, we have

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.3 Properties of Fourier Transform: CT
44

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.3 Properties of Fourier Transform: CT
45

Exercise 5
Determine the Fourier transform of the continuous-time signal of
the following signal:

𝜔 𝑗𝑉𝑜 𝜔𝜏2 𝜔𝜏
Ans: 𝑎 𝑉 𝜔 = 2𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑐 ω 𝑏 𝑗𝜔𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑐 2 𝑐 − 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑐 2 ( )
2 4 4

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.3 Properties of Fourier Transform: CT
46

## Solution (a): Using Table 3:

𝑻=𝟐
𝑻
𝒂×𝟏=
𝟐
𝑻 𝟐
−𝟏 𝟎 𝟏 𝒂= = =𝟏 𝑻 𝑻
𝟐 𝟐 −
𝟐 𝟐

𝑡 𝜔𝑇
Therefore; 𝑅𝑒𝑐( ) ↔ 𝑇 sinc
𝑇 2
𝜔
1 (2) Using Table 2:
𝑋 𝜔 = (2) sinc 1
1 2
Time scaling
2𝜔 1 𝜔
𝑋 𝜔 = 2 sinc 𝑓(𝑎𝑡) ↔ 𝐹( )
2 |𝑎| 𝑎

𝑿 𝝎 = 𝟐 𝐬𝐢𝐧𝐜 𝝎

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.3 Properties of Fourier Transform: CT
47
2
Solution (b): A 𝑻=𝟏
Using Table 3:
1 𝑻=𝟏 1 𝟏 𝑻
𝒂× =
𝟏 𝑻 𝟐 𝟐
𝒂× =
𝟐 𝟐 𝒂=𝑻=𝟏
𝒂=𝑻=𝟏 2 𝟏
𝒕𝒐 = 𝑻 𝑻
𝟐
𝟏 −
𝒕𝒐 = − 𝟐 𝟐
𝟐
𝑡 𝜔𝑇
Therefore; 𝑥 𝑡 = 𝐴 × 𝑅𝑒𝑐𝑡 1 + (−𝐴 × 𝑅𝑒𝑐𝑡 2) 𝑅𝑒𝑐( ) ↔ 𝑇 sinc
𝑇 2
𝑇 𝜔 Using Table 2:
𝑡+ 1 (𝑇) 𝑗𝜔1
𝐴 × 𝑅𝑒𝑐𝑡 1 = 𝐴 × 𝑅𝑒𝑐𝑡 2 =𝐴 (𝑇) sinc 1 𝑒 2
𝑇 1 2 Time scaling
𝜔 𝑗𝜔1 1 𝜔
𝐴 × 𝑅𝑒𝑐𝑡 1 = 𝐴 sinc 𝑒 2 𝑓(𝑎𝑡) ↔ 𝐹( )
2 |𝑎| 𝑎
𝑇 𝜔
𝑡−
2 = −𝐴 1 1
(𝑇) −𝑗𝜔𝑇 Time shifting Shift to right
𝐴 × 𝑅𝑒𝑐𝑡 2 = −𝐴 × 𝑅𝑒𝑐𝑡 (𝑇) sinc 𝑒 2
𝑇 1 2 𝑥(𝑡 − 𝑡0 ) ↔ 𝑋(𝜔)𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡0
Shift to left
𝜔 −𝑗𝜔1 𝑥(𝑡 + 𝑡0 ) ↔ 𝑋(𝜔)𝑒 𝑗𝜔𝑡0
𝐴 × 𝑅𝑒𝑐𝑡 1 = −𝐴 sinc 𝑒 2
2
BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza
4.3 Properties of Fourier Transform: CT
48

Solution:
𝜔 𝑗𝜔1 𝜔 −𝑗𝜔1 𝜔
X(𝜔) = 2𝑗𝐴 sinc( 2 ) sin
𝜔
𝑋 𝜔 = 𝐴 sinc 𝑒 2 − 𝐴 sinc 𝑒 2 2
2 2
𝜔
𝜔 sin 𝜔
𝜔 𝑗𝜔
1
−𝑗𝜔
1 = 2𝑗𝐴 sinc( 2 ) 𝜔 2 ×
= 𝐴 sinc( ) 𝑒 2 − 𝑒 2 2
2
2
𝝎
𝜔 1
𝑗𝜔2
1
−𝑗𝜔2 𝑗 = 𝒋𝝎 𝒔𝒊𝒏𝒄𝟐 ( 𝟐 )
= 𝐴 sinc( ) 𝑒 −𝑒 ×
2 𝑗
1 1
𝑗𝜔2 −𝑗𝜔2
𝜔 𝑒 −𝑒
= 2𝑗𝐴 sinc( )
2 2𝑗

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.3 Properties of Fourier Transform: CT
49

## Solution (c): Using Table 3:

A

-T

T 𝑻 𝑻

𝟐 𝟐

𝑡 𝜔𝑇
𝑅𝑒𝑐( ) ↔ 𝑇 sinc
𝑇 2
Using Table 2:
Time scaling
1 𝜔
𝑓(𝑎𝑡) ↔ 𝐹( )
|𝑎| 𝑎
Time shifting
𝑥(𝑡 − 𝑡0 ) ↔ 𝑋(𝜔)𝑒 −𝑗𝜔𝑡0

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.3 Properties of Fourier Transform: CT
50

−𝑗𝜔𝑉0 𝜏2 2 𝜔𝜏
4

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 4 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.3 Properties of Fourier Transform: CT
51
Exercise 6
For the series RL circuit shown below,
𝑉𝑅 (𝜔)
(i) Obtain the frequency response of, 𝐻 𝜔 = of the circuit.
𝑉(𝜔)
(ii) Solve for the voltage 𝑖𝑅 𝑡 if 𝑣(𝑡) = 10𝑒 −3𝑡 𝑢 𝑡 V.

i 2Ω
+ 𝒗𝑹 ̶
+
+
𝑣 𝑡 +
1H v𝒗𝑳
-
-
̶

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 1 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.3 Properties of Fourier Transform: CT
52
𝒊(𝝎) 𝑣𝑅 (𝜔)
i 2Ω 𝟐 𝐻 𝜔 =
𝑉(𝜔)
+ 𝒗𝑹 ̶
𝐕(𝛚)
𝒗𝑹 (𝝎) +
+ 𝑣(𝜔) 𝑉(𝜔)
𝑣 𝑡 𝑣𝑅 (𝜔) = 𝑖(𝜔)𝑅 = 𝑅= ×2
+
- 1H v𝒗𝑳 𝑍𝑇 (2 + 𝑗𝜔)
𝒋𝝎𝑳 = 𝒋𝝎(𝟏)
-
̶ 2𝑉(𝜔)
𝑣𝑅 (𝜔) =
(2 + 𝑗𝜔)

## 𝑣𝑅 (𝜔) 2𝑉(𝜔) 2𝑉(𝜔) 1 𝟐

𝐻 𝜔 = = ÷ 𝑉(𝜔) = × =
𝑉(𝜔) (2 + 𝑗𝜔) (2 + 𝑗𝜔) 𝑉(𝜔) (𝟐 + 𝒋𝝎)

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 1 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.3 Properties of Fourier Transform: CT
53

𝑉(𝜔)
𝑉𝑅 𝜔 = 𝐼 𝜔 𝑅 𝜔 = ×2 Given,
(2 + 𝑗𝜔)
𝑣(𝑡) = 10𝑒 −3𝑡 𝑢 𝑡
10
𝑉(𝜔) =
3 + 𝑗𝜔
10 2
𝑉𝑅 𝜔 = 𝐼 𝜔 𝑅 𝜔 = ×
(3 + 𝑗𝜔) (2 + 𝑗𝜔)

10 2 𝐴 𝐵
× = +
(3 + 𝑗𝜔) (2 + 𝑗𝜔) (3 + 𝑗𝜔) (2 + 𝑗𝜔)

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 1 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.3 Properties of Fourier Transform: CT
54
Using Partial Fraction Method:

10 2 𝐴 𝐵
× = +
(𝑗𝜔 + 3) (𝑗𝜔 + 2) (𝑗𝜔 + 3) (𝑗𝜔 + 2)

20 20 20
𝐴= = = = −20
𝑗𝜔 + 2 𝑗𝜔=−3
−3 + 2 −1
20 160 20
𝐵= = = = 20
𝑗𝜔 + 3 𝑗𝜔=−2
−2 + 3 1

Therefore,
Using Table 3
20 20 Inverse
𝑉𝑅 𝜔 = −
(𝑗𝜔 + 2) (𝑗𝜔 + 3)

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 1 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.3 Properties of Fourier Transform: CT
55
Exercise 7
For the series RL circuit shown below,
𝑉𝑅 (𝜔)
(i) Obtain the frequency response of, 𝐻 𝜔 = of the circuit.
𝑉(𝜔)
(ii) Solve for the voltage 𝑣𝑅 𝑡 if 𝑣(𝑡) = 4𝑒 −𝑡 𝑢 𝑡 V.

i 20Ω
+ 𝒗𝑹 ̶
+
+
𝑣 𝑡 +
500mH v𝒗𝑳
-
-
̶

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 1 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.3 Properties of Fourier Transform: CT
56
𝒊(𝝎) 𝑣𝑅 (𝜔)
i 20Ω 𝟐𝟎 𝐻 𝜔 =
𝑉(𝜔)
+ 𝒗𝑹 ̶
𝐕(𝛚) 𝒗𝑹 (𝝎) +
+
𝑉 𝑡 +
500mH v𝒗𝑳
-
𝒋𝝎𝑳 = 𝒋𝝎(𝟎. 𝟓) -
̶

𝟐
𝐴𝑛𝑠𝑤𝑒𝑟: 𝐻 𝜔 =
(𝟐 + 𝒋𝝎)

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 1 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.3 Properties of Fourier Transform: CT
57

## BEKC 2433 Chapter 1 Azrita/Nur Asmiza

4.3 Properties of Fourier Transform: CT
58

## 𝑨𝒏𝒔𝒘𝒆𝒓: 𝒗𝑹 𝒕 = (𝟒. 𝟏𝟎𝒆−𝒕 − 𝟒. 𝟏𝟎𝒆−𝟒𝟎𝒕 )𝒖(𝒕)

BEKC 2433 Chapter 1 Azrita/Nur Asmiza