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04

OXYGEN DEMAND
env20:
introduction to environmental
engineering

ENGR. ELISA G. ELEAZAR


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Oxygen Demand
DEFINITION AND NOTATION
BOD Biochemical Oxygen Demand
Amount of oxygen utilized by microorganisms in
oxidizing carbonaceous and nitrogenous organic matter

CBOD Carbonaceous Biochemical Oxygen Demand


BOD where the electron donor is carbonaceous organic
matter

NBOD Nitrogenous Biochemical Oxygen Demand


BOD where the electron donor is nitrogenous organic
matter
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Oxygen Demand
DEFINITION AND NOTATION
ThOD Theoretical Oxygen Demand
Amount of oxygen utilized by microorganisms in
oxidizing carbonaceous and/or nitrogenous organic
matter, assuming that all of the organic matter is subject
to microbial breakdown

BOD5 / 5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand


y5 Amount of oxygen consumed over an incubation period
of 5 days

BODU / Ultimate Biochemical Oxygen Demand


L0 Amount of oxygen consumed when all of the
biodegradable organic matter has been oxidized
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Oxygen Demand
DEFINITION AND NOTATION
COD Chemical Oxygen Demand
Amount of chemical oxidant required to completely
oxidize a source of organic matter

CH 2O  O2  CO2  H 2O


  
NH  2HCO  2O2  NO  2CO2  3H 2O
4 3 3
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Oxygen Demand
BOD BOD
Origin Origin
(mg/L) (mg/L)
River 2 Sugar Beet Factory 10,000
Domestic Wastewater 200 Tannery 15,000
Pulp and Paper Mill 400 Brewery 25,000
Commercial Laundry 2,000 Cherry-canning Factory 55,000

A waste contains 100 mg/L ethylene glycol (C2H5O2) and 50


mg/L NH3-N. Determine the theoretical carbonaceous and
SP1
theoretical nitrogenous oxygen demand of the waste.
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BOD Kinetics

oxygen
equivalent of
organics


BODt  L0 1  e kt 
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BOD Kinetics
A midnight dumper discharged a tank truck full of industrial
waste in a gravel pit. The truck was spotted there 3 days
SP2
ago, and a pool of pure waste remains. A laboratory
technician determined that the waste has a 5-day BOD of 80
mg/L with a rate constant of 0.1 per day. Three factories in
the vicinity generate organic wastes: a winery (ultimate
BOD=275 mg/L), a vinegar manufacturer (ultimate BOD=80
mg/L) and a pharmaceutical company (ultimate BOD=200
mg/L). Determine the source of the waste.
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Laboratory Determination of BOD
▫ special BOD bottle (300 mL) made of special
nonreactive glass with a glass stopper with lip
to create a water seal
▫ dark
▫ 20C
▫ 5 days
BOD  I  F  Dil

bottle volume
Dil 
sample volume
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Dilution Estimation
▫ at least 2 mg/L DO remaining
▫ at least 2 mg/L DO used

exp ected BOD


Dil 
DO

The 5-day BOD of a wastewater sample is expected


SP3 to be 800 mg/L based on similar wastewaters. What
dilutions should be used? Assume an initial DO of 10
mg/L.
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Dissolved Oxygen and BOD

A waste having an ultimate CBOD of 1,000 mg/L is


SP4 discharged into a river at a rate of 2 m3/s. The river
has an ultimate CBOD of 10 mg/L and is flowing at a
rate of 8 m3/s. Assuming a reaction rate coefficient
of 0.1/day, calculate the ultimate and 5-day CBOD
of the waste at the point of discharge and 20 km
downstream. The river is flowing at a velocity of 10
km/day.
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Oxygen Saturation

DOsat  K H PO2

DOsat saturation concentration


KH Henry’s Law constant
PO2 partial pressure of oxygen

Henry’s Law Constant: 1.36 x 10-3 mole/L-atm (at 20C)


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Oxygen Deficit

D  DOsat  DOact

D deficit
DOsat saturation concentration
DOact actual concentration
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Oxygen Deficit
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Oxygen Deficit
Plug of stream as a black box and a mixed batch
reactor

 reoxygenation   0  0  deoxygenation 
dO2
dt
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Oxygen Deficit

rate of deoxygenation  k1L

rate of reoxygenation  k2 D

k1 deoxygenation constant, time-


L amount of oxygen needed for decomposition,
mg/L
k2 reoxygenation constant, time-
D deficit in dissolved oxygen
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Oxygen Deficit
D
k2  k1

k1 L0  k1t  k 2 t
e e 
 D0 e  k 2 t

1  k2  D0 k2  k1  
tc  ln   1  
k2  k1  k1  k1 L0 
D oxygen deficit at any time t
D0 oxygen deficit immediately below the pollutant
discharge location
L0 ultimate oxygen demand immediately below the
pollutant discharge location
tc time downstream when the dissolved oxygen is at the
lowest concentration
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Oxygen Deficit
A river traveling at a velocity of 10 km/day has a
SP5 dissolved oxygen content of 5 mg/L and an ultimate
CBOD of 25 mg/L immediately downstream of a
waste discharge. The waste has a reaeration rate
coefficient of 0.4/day and a saturation dissolved
oxygen concentration of 9 mg/L. What is the initial
dissolved oxygen deficit? What is the location of the
critical point, in time and distance? What is the
dissolved oxygen deficit at the critical point? What is
the dissolved oxygen concentration at the critical
point? Will there be fish at the critical point?
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Oxygen Deficit
A large stream has a reoxygenation constant of 0.4
SP6 /g and a velocity of 0.85 m/s. At the point at which
an organic pollutant is discharged, it is saturated
with oxygen at 10 mg/L (D0= 0). Below the outfall
the ultimate demand for oxygen is found to be 20
mg/L and the deoxygenation constant is 0.2 /d.
What is the dissolved oxygen 48.3 km downstream?
04
OXYGEN DEMAND
env20:
introduction to environmental
engineering

ENGR. ELISA G. ELEAZAR