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07

WATER TREATMENT
env20:
introduction to environmental
engineering

ENGR. ELISA G. ELEAZAR


2
Outline
• Characteristics of Untreated Water
• Water Treatment Processes
• Coagulation and Flocculation
• Hardness Removal
• Sedimentation
• Filtration
• Disinfection
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Introduction
• Purpose of Water Treatment
▫ to provide potable water that is palatable
• Potable Water
▫ water that is healthy for human consumption
▫ free of harmful microorganisms and organic
and inorganic compounds
• Palatable Water
▫ water that is aesthetically acceptable to drink
▫ free from turbidity, color, odor and taste
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Characteristics of Untreated Water
MAJOR CONSTITUENTS FOUND IN WATER
Major Inorganic Constituents Ca2+, Cl-, F-, Fe2+,Mn2+, NO3-,
Na+,SO42-, HS-
Minor Inorganic Constituents Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni, Zn, As
Naturally Occurring Organic Naturally occurring organic
Compounds matter
Anthropogenic Organic Synthetic organic chemicals and
Constituents emerging chemicals of concern
(benzene, methyl tert-butyl ether,
tetrachloroethylene,
trichloroethylene, vinyl chloride,
etc)
Living Organisms Bacteria, algae, viruses
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Characteristics of Untreated Water
Physical Characteristics
• Turbidity
▫ measures the optical clarity of water
▫ caused by scattering and absorbance of light
by suspended particles in the water
▫ reported in terms of nephelometric turbidity
units (NTU)
▫ NTU < 5 is ususally acceptable
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Characteristics of Untreated Water
• Particles
▫ solids larger than molecules but are generally
not distinguished by the naked eye
▫ may absorb toxic metals or synthetic organic
chemicals
 Suspended Particles – larger than 1 m
 Colloidal Particles – between 0.001 and 1 m
 Dissolved Particles – smaller than 0.001 m
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Characteristics of Untreated Water
• Color
▫ Apparent Color – measured on unfiltered
samples; includes the color imparted by
turbidity
▫ True Color – measured on samples that passed
through a 40 m filter; includes color imparted
by dissolved constituents
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Characteristics of Untreated Water
• Taste and Odor
▫ originate from dissolved natural organic and
inorganic constituents and biological sources
▫ may also come from water treatment processes

• Temperature
▫ affects physical and chemical parameters of
water, such as density, viscosity, vapor pressure,
surface tension, solubility and reaction rates
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Characteristics of Untreated Water
Inorganic Constituents
Constituent (Source) Problem in Water Supply
Calcium and Magnesium Above 60 mg/L can cause hardness
(natural)
Chloride (saltwater Above 250 mg/L can impart salty
intrusion / trapped brine) taste
Below 50 mg/L can be corrosive to
some metals
Fluoride (natural / water Toxic to humans at 250-450 mg/L
treatment processes) Fatal at concentrations above 4.0 g/L
Iron (natural / geological Can impart brownish color to laundry
formations) and bathroom fixtures
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Characteristics of Untreated Water

Constituent (Source) Problem in Water Supply


Manganese Can impart a dark brown color
At concentrations around 0.4 mg/L, can
impart an unpleasant taste to water and
can stain laundry and fixtures
Nitrate (urban and May produce infant methemoglobinemia
agricultural runoff)
Sulfur (natural / Imparts objectionable odors to water
organic (reduced form)
decomposition) Corrosive to concrete structures and pipes
(sulfates)
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Characteristics of Untreated Water
Constituent (Source) Problem in Water Supply
Cu, Cr, Ni, Hg, Sr, Zn, As (natural) Health concern
As, Pb (human activities) Health concern
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Characteristics of Untreated Water
Organic Constituents
Constituent Source/s
Natural Organic Complexation of soluble organic material
Matter (NOM) derived from biochemical degradation of
vegetation
Measured as total organic carbon (TOC)
Synthetic Organic Anthropogenic activities associated with
Chemicals (SOCs) industrial activity, land use by
agriculture, urban runoff, municipal
effluents from wastewater treatment
plants
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Characteristics of Untreated Water
Microbial Constituents

• Pathogens
▫ microorganisms that cause sickness and disease
• Coliform
▫ indicator microorganisms used to monitor
microbial water quality
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Characteristics of Untreated Water
Microbial Constituents
Pathogen Type Health Effects
Vibrio cholerae Bacteria Classic cholera: diarrhea and
vomitting without fever followed
by dehydration; abnormally low
blood pressure and temperature;
muscle cramps, shock, coma
Salmonella Bacteria Enteric fever, headaches, malaise,
(several species) abdominal pain
Shigella Bacteria Bacillary dysentery: abdominal
dysenteriae pain, cramps, diarrhea, fever,
vomitting, blood and mucus in
stools
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Characteristics of Untreated Water
Pathogen Type Health Effects
Escherichia coli Bacteria Diarrhea
Poliovirus Types Virus Fever, severe headache, stiff neck
1,2,3 and back, deep muscle pain, skin
sensitivity
Human Virus Severe infection in lungs, eyes,
adenovirus Type urinary tract, genitals, some strains
2 affect intestines
Rotavirus A Virus Severe diarrhea and dehydration
Cryptosporidium Protozoa Severe diarrhea, abdominal pain,
parvum Type I nausea or vomitting, fever
Giardia lamblia Protozoa Sudden diarrhea, abdominal
cramps, bloating, cramps, weight
loss
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Water Treatment Processes
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Water Treatment Processes
• Removal Processes
Constituent Unit Process/es
Turbidity and Particles Coagulation and Flocculation,
Sedimentation, Filtration
Inorganic Constituents Softening, Aeration, Membranes
Organic Constituents Membranes, Adsorption
Pathogens Sedimentation, Filtration, Disinfection
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Coagulation and Flocculation
• used to remove particles and a portion of dissolved
organic matter
• followed by sedimentation and/or filtration

• Coagulation
▫ charge neutralization step that involves the
conditioning of suspended, colloidal and dissolved
matter by the addition of chemicals

• Flocculation
▫ Aggregation of destabilized particles and
formation of larger particles (floc)
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Coagulation and Flocculation
Chemical Coagulants
• Coagulant – chemical added to destabilize particles
and accomplish coagulation

• Factors Affecting Coagulant Selection


▫ characteristics of coagulant
▫ concentration and type of particulates
▫ concentration and characteristics of NOM
▫ water temperature
▫ pH
▫ cost and availability
▫ dewatering characteristics of solids produced
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Coagulation and Flocculation
Chemical Coagulants
• Key Properties of a Coagulant
▫ trivalent cation
SCHULZE-HARDY RULE
 One mole of a trivalent ion can reduce the charge as

much as 30 to 50 moles of a divalent ion and as


much as 1,500 to 2,500 moles of a monovalent ion.

▫ nontoxic
▫ insoluble in the neutral pH range
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Coagulation and Flocculation
• Types of Coagulants
Type Examples
Inorganic Metallic Coagulants Aluminum sulfate (alum)
Sodium aluminate
Aluminum chloride
Ferric sulfate
Ferric chloride
Prehydrolyzed Metal Salts Polyaluminum chloride
Polyaluminum sulfate
Polyiron chlordie
Organic Polymers Cationic, anionic, nonionic
polymers (MW 104-107 g/mole)
Natural Plant-Based Materials Moringa oleifera
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Coagulation and Flocculation
Coagulant Addition Using Alum
Al2 SO4 3 14 H 2O  6HCO3  2 Al OH 3s   3SO4
 2
 14 H 2O  6CO2

Alum, being a weak acid, consumes alkalinity


(HCO3-). If the natural alkalinity of water is not
sufficient, it may be necessary to add lime or soda
ash to react with the alum to maintain the pH in
the appropriate range (5.5).
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Hardness Removal
• Carbonate (Temporary) Hardness
▫ associated with alkalinity anions: CO32- and
HCO3-
• Noncarbonate (Permanent) Hardness
▫ associated with nonalkalinity anions: SO42- and
Cl-
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Hardness Removal
• Hardness
▫ caused by divalent cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+)
▫ secondary standard
Rain

Topsoil Bacterial Action  CO2

Subsoil
CO2  H 2O  H 2CO3

Limestone
CaCO3( s )  H 2CO3  CaHCO3 2
MgCO3( s )  H 2CO3  Mg HCO3 2
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Hardness Removal
• Chemicals
▫ Quicklime 90% CaO
▫ Hydrated Lime 70% CaO
▫ Soda Ash 98% Na2CO3

• Mechanism
▫ Excess Lime Treatment
▫ First Stage Recarbonation
▫ Second Stage Recarbonation

Recarbonation is done to reduce pH and


precipitate excess Ca
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Hardness Removal
Soda-Lime Process Reactions
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Hardness Removal
• Ion Exchange

CaHCO3 2  2 NaR  CaR2  2 NaHCO3

TH desired
% Bypass  100 *
TH initial
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Hardness Removal
• Breakthrough
▫ occurs when the effluent concentration equals
the influent concentration

tB 
V ex cap 
Q H i 
A home water softener has 0.1 m3 of ion exchange
SP4 resin with an exchange capacity of 57 kg/m3. The
occupants use 2,000 L of water daily. If the water
contains 280 mg/L hardness as CaCO3 and it is
desired to soften it to 85 mg/L as CaCO3, how much
should be bypassed? What is the time between
regeneration cycles?
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Sedimentation
• Sedimentation
▫ process in which the majority of the particles
will settle by gravity within a reasonable time
and be removed
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Filtration
• Filtration
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Disinfection
• Primary Disinfection
▫ inactivation of microorganisms in the water
• Secondary Disinfection
▫ maintaining a disinfectant residual in the water
distribution system
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Disinfection
• Disinfection Kinetics
Chick’s Law

dN
  KN
dt
N concentration of microorganisms
K rate constant
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Outline
• Characteristics of Untreated Water
• Water Treatment Processes
• Coagulation and Flocculation
• Hardness Removal
• Sedimentation
• Filtration
• Disinfection
07
WATER TREATMENT
env20:
introduction to environmental
engineering

ENGR. ELISA G. ELEAZAR