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MK. METODOLOGI DESAIN

MK. METODOLOGI DESAIN
MK. METODOLOGI DESAIN

Pragmatic Philosophy

Pragmatism:

“Doctrine that knowledge should be used to act on things. An idea is indeed true if it has a practical efficiency”

“Doctrine that knowledge should be used to act on things. An idea is indeed true if

Pragmatic Design

Pragmatic Design
Pragmatic Design
Pragmatic Design
Pragmatic Design
Pragmatic Design
Humans developed, among other skills, since pre-historics times, the skills most unique to be a

Humans developed, among other skills, since pre-historics times, the skills most unique to be a designer concerned with spatial ability, capacity for visualizing, generating three dimensional built forms, interior spaces and the spaces between the built forms, with which they built settlements all over the earth in different and difficult climatic conditions and terrain.

forms, with which they built settlements all over the earth in different and difficult climatic conditions
Through practical hand on approach, using whatever material was available, trial and error process and

Through practical hand on approach, using whatever material was available, trial and error process and discovery, living in caves, using flint for tools and weapons they developed more than 40,000 years ago, a pragmatic approach to design.

in caves, using flint for tools and weapons they developed more than 40,000 years ago, a

Vernacular dwelling types are a classic examples of Pragmatic Design

Vernacular dwelling types are a classic examples of Pragmatic Design

Oleh Broadbent , proses desain secara pragmatis ini dipandang sebagai cara pertama yang dilakukan manusia dalam menciptakan suatu karya arsitektural.

Sekalipun demikian metode pragmatis ini tetap dipergunakan juga dimasa sekarang, khususnya dalam kaitan dengan upaya pemanfaatan material-material baru.Teknologi konstruksi yang baru juga sering didasari pada proses pragmatis ini.

upaya pemanfaatan material-material baru.Teknologi konstruksi yang baru juga sering didasari pada proses pragmatis ini.
Before 19 th Century
Before
19 th
Century
Stone Click to add text… …
Stone
Click to add
text… …

Historical introduction

In the After 1800s Late 20 th Century Future Metallic Steel & Glass Smart Materials
In the
After
1800s
Late 20 th
Century
Future
Metallic
Steel & Glass
Smart Materials
Surfaces
Click to add
text… …
Click to add
text… …
Click to add
text… …

Architectural design process

Architectural design is

“The method of organizing materials and forms in a specific way to satisfy a definite purpose”.

Kurt Dietrich, (2008)

“The method of organizing materials and forms in a specific way to satisfy a definite purpose”.

Architectural design process

1 Materials Texture 5 2 Colour architectural design 6 Space elements 3 Line Mass 7
1
Materials
Texture
5
2
Colour
architectural
design
6
Space
elements
3
Line
Mass
7
4
Shape

Architectural design process

1. 2. 3. Form Material Selection Material Selection Form Material Selection & Form Form is
1.
2.
3.
Form
Material Selection
Material Selection
Form
Material Selection & Form
Form is driven in the
first proposal by the
architect. The materials
are then explored to
realize the shape.
Materials selection can
drive the design
process selection.
The basic approach
for designing, driven
both form and
material together, is
pure creativity and
intensive effort.

Architectural design process

Buckminster Fuller’s ‘Bucky Balls’ is a good example shown in figure.

‘Bucky Balls’ is a good example shown in figure. Fuller developed structures that postulate the possibility

Fuller developed structures that postulate the possibility of unknown elements.

is a good example shown in figure. Fuller developed structures that postulate the possibility of unknown

The role of materials in architecture

Technical functionality

The role of materials in architecture Technical functionality Steel cable & Nylon membrane High tensile steel
The role of materials in architecture Technical functionality Steel cable & Nylon membrane High tensile steel
Steel cable & Nylon membrane High tensile steel cables with truss-like compression members supporting a
Steel cable & Nylon membrane
High tensile steel cables with truss-like compression
members supporting a glass reinforced (PTFE)
room membranes. A rubberized nylon membrane
supported by internal pressure.

Functions of Material Selection in Building Design

Historical introduction

Symbolism Appropriateness Physical Properties Technique
Symbolism
Appropriateness
Physical Properties
Technique
Symbolism
Symbolism

Particular materials carry specific connotations within cultures and regions

Symbolism Particular materials carry specific connotations within cultures and regions
Symbolism Particular materials carry specific connotations within cultures and regions
Appropriateness There are three primary areas that must be evaluated in selecting appropriate materials and
Appropriateness
Appropriateness

There are three primary areas that must be evaluated in selecting appropriate materials and assemblies.

1. Material Compatibility with Climatic, Cultural, and Aesthetic Conditions

2. Applicability of Material to Occupancy and Size of Building, Including Durability, Structural, and Fire Protection Requirements

3. Environmental Impact of Obtaining Raw Materials, Processing and Fabricating Building Materials, Transportation Impact, and Recycling Issues

of Obtaining Raw Materials, Processing and Fabricating Building Materials, Transportation Impact, and Recycling Issues
Physical Properties A number of physical properties must be taken into account in the material
Physical Properties
Physical
Properties

A number of physical properties must be taken into account in the material selection process.

be taken into account in the material selection process. 1. Strength 2. Mass and Thickness 3.

1. Strength

2. Mass and Thickness

3. Physical and Visual Density

4. Texture

5. Color

6. Temperature

7. Pattern

process. 1. Strength 2. Mass and Thickness 3. Physical and Visual Density 4. Texture 5. Color
process. 1. Strength 2. Mass and Thickness 3. Physical and Visual Density 4. Texture 5. Color
process. 1. Strength 2. Mass and Thickness 3. Physical and Visual Density 4. Texture 5. Color
process. 1. Strength 2. Mass and Thickness 3. Physical and Visual Density 4. Texture 5. Color
process. 1. Strength 2. Mass and Thickness 3. Physical and Visual Density 4. Texture 5. Color
process. 1. Strength 2. Mass and Thickness 3. Physical and Visual Density 4. Texture 5. Color
process. 1. Strength 2. Mass and Thickness 3. Physical and Visual Density 4. Texture 5. Color
process. 1. Strength 2. Mass and Thickness 3. Physical and Visual Density 4. Texture 5. Color
process. 1. Strength 2. Mass and Thickness 3. Physical and Visual Density 4. Texture 5. Color
process. 1. Strength 2. Mass and Thickness 3. Physical and Visual Density 4. Texture 5. Color
process. 1. Strength 2. Mass and Thickness 3. Physical and Visual Density 4. Texture 5. Color
process. 1. Strength 2. Mass and Thickness 3. Physical and Visual Density 4. Texture 5. Color
process. 1. Strength 2. Mass and Thickness 3. Physical and Visual Density 4. Texture 5. Color
process. 1. Strength 2. Mass and Thickness 3. Physical and Visual Density 4. Texture 5. Color
process. 1. Strength 2. Mass and Thickness 3. Physical and Visual Density 4. Texture 5. Color
Technique includes the fabrication process, the detailing of how materials and systems are joined and

Technique includes the fabrication process, the detailing of how materials and systems are joined and erected, and the craft employed to execute the work.

1. Fabrication

2. Detail

3. Craft

4. Weathering (pelapukan)

Technique
Technique
erected, and the craft employed to execute the work. 1. Fabrication 2. Detail 3. Craft 4.
erected, and the craft employed to execute the work. 1. Fabrication 2. Detail 3. Craft 4.

1.Fabrication

Fabrication refers to how a material was created, processed, and assembled. Fabrication techniques range from handcrafted to mass produced to prefabricated. Materials carry traces of their making and assembly that can be used to create surface modulation and richness

Materials carry traces of their making and assembly that can be used to create surface modulation
Materials carry traces of their making and assembly that can be used to create surface modulation

2.

Detail

Construction details determine how individual material elements or systems are joined. Construction details should relate to the overall architectural intentions of a building

elements or systems are joined. Construction details should relate to the overall architectural intentions of a
elements or systems are joined. Construction details should relate to the overall architectural intentions of a

3.

Craft

The quality of design and construction workmanship is crucial to the success and longevity of a project. The employment of well-trained and experienced trades people is the best way to assure a high level of building craft

The employment of well-trained and experienced trades people is the best way to assure a high
The employment of well-trained and experienced trades people is the best way to assure a high

4.

Weathering

The passing of time has an immense impact on the appearance and life span of building materials. Thus, future weathering must be carefully considered during material selection, building detailing, and construction.

Thus, future weathering must be carefully considered during material selection, building detailing, and construction.
Knowledge is Useful (berguna) Knowledge is embodied (diwujudkan) in Models
Knowledge is Useful (berguna) Knowledge is embodied (diwujudkan) in Models

Knowledge is Useful (berguna) Knowledge is embodied (diwujudkan) in Models

Knowledge is Useful (berguna) Knowledge is embodied (diwujudkan) in Models
Method is the continual corroboration of analogs against in order to improve the correspondence of

Method is the continual corroboration of analogs against in order to improve the correspondence of the analog to emerging events

Metode adalah pembenaran terus-menerus terhadap sebuah analog-analog (sesuatu yang diperbandingkan) untuk memperbaiki persesuaian analog dengan peristiwa yang muncul

sebuah analog-analog (sesuatu yang diperbandingkan) untuk memperbaiki persesuaian analog dengan peristiwa yang muncul
Procedure is the utilization corroborated models to govern intervention in actual situations Prosedur adalah pemanfaatan

Procedure is the utilization corroborated models to govern intervention in actual situations

Prosedur adalah pemanfaatan model yang dikuatkan untuk mengatur intervensi dalam situasi aktual

in actual situations Prosedur adalah pemanfaatan model yang dikuatkan untuk mengatur intervensi dalam situasi aktual
Truth is relative. Analogs are merely conventional abstractions, which have no reality status. They are

Truth is relative. Analogs are merely conventional abstractions, which have no reality status. They are used to produce tentatively substantiated representations of observable events.

Kebenaran itu relatif. Analog hanyalah abstraksi konvensional, yang tidak memiliki status realitas. Mereka digunakan untuk menghasilkan representasi tentatif dari peristiwa yang dapat diamati.

memiliki status realitas. Mereka digunakan untuk menghasilkan representasi tentatif dari peristiwa yang dapat diamati.
Beauty is the function of serviceability Keindahan adalah fungsi servis

Beauty is the function of serviceability

Keindahan adalah fungsi servis

Beauty is the function of serviceability Keindahan adalah fungsi servis
Meaning is derived from use Arti (=makna) berasal dari penggunaan

Meaning is derived from use

Arti (=makna) berasal dari penggunaan

Meaning is derived from use Arti (=makna) berasal dari penggunaan
Reality is perpetual change. Prediction is simulation. For every efect, there is a cause Realitas
Reality is perpetual change. Prediction is simulation. For every efect, there is a cause Realitas

Reality is perpetual change. Prediction is simulation. For every efect, there is a cause

Realitas adalah perubahan terus-menerus. Prediksi adalah simulasi. Untuk setiap efek, ada penyebabnya

there is a cause Realitas adalah perubahan terus-menerus. Prediksi adalah simulasi. Untuk setiap efek, ada penyebabnya
Predictive Modeling 1. Diagnose by identifying and defining the problem 2. Consider alternative courses of

Predictive Modeling

1. Diagnose by identifying and defining the problem

2. Consider alternative courses of action

3. Select a course of actions

4. Evaluate the consequences of actions

5. Identity general findings

Pemodelan prediktif

1. Diagnosa dengan mengidentifikasi dan menentukan masalahnya

2. Pertimbangkan tindakan alternatif lainnya

3. Pilih suatu tindakan

4. Evaluasi konsekuensi tindakan

5. Mengidentifikasi Temuan umum

tindakan alternatif lainnya 3. Pilih suatu tindakan 4. Evaluasi konsekuensi tindakan 5. Mengidentifikasi Temuan umum

CONCEPT OF BIOMIMETIC

CONCEPT OF BIOMIMETIC

APPROACHES TO BIOMIMICRY

There are two approaches to Biomimetic design

APPROACHES TO BIOMIMICRY There are two approaches to Biomimetic design
APPROACHES TO BIOMIMICRY There are two approaches to Biomimetic design
APPROACHES TO BIOMIMICRY There are two approaches to Biomimetic design
APPROACHES TO BIOMIMICRY There are two approaches to Biomimetic design

APPROACHES TO BIOMIMICRY

APPROACHES TO BIOMIMICRY The approach requires designers to identify problems and biologists to match these to
APPROACHES TO BIOMIMICRY The approach requires designers to identify problems and biologists to match these to

The approach requires designers to identify problems and biologists to match these to organisms that have solved similar issues.

DaimlerChrysler’s Bionic Car

have solved similar issues. DaimlerChrysler’s Bionic Car • More fuel efficient due to aerodynamic body mimicking

More fuel efficient due to aerodynamic body mimicking BOX FISH

More material efficient due to mimicking tree growth patterns form structure.

The car not new approach to transportation but improvement to existing technology

growth patterns form structure. • The car not new approach to transportation but improvement to existing

APPROACHES TO BIOMIMICRY

APPROACHES TO BIOMIMICRY The approach requires to have relevant biological or ecological knowledge and research rather
APPROACHES TO BIOMIMICRY The approach requires to have relevant biological or ecological knowledge and research rather

The approach requires to have relevant biological or ecological knowledge and research rather than design problem

Lotus inspired’s Lotusan Paint

rather than design problem Lotus inspired’s Lotusan Paint • Lotus flower emerges clean from swampy waters.

Lotus flower emerges clean from swampy waters.

Lotusan paint enables buildings to be self cleaning.

Biology can influence humans in ways outside predetermined design problem.

This will result in previously unthought-of technologies or systems or approach to design solutions.

design problem. • This will result in previously unthought-of technologies or systems or approach to design

PRECEDENT ANALYSIS

PRECEDENT ANALYSIS
Name of Inspiratio building n 1.Eiffel Tower Thigh bone 2.L’institute Du Monte Arabe Iris of
Name of Inspiratio building n 1.Eiffel Tower Thigh bone 2.L’institute Du Monte Arabe Iris of
Name of Inspiratio building n 1.Eiffel Tower Thigh bone 2.L’institute Du Monte Arabe Iris of

Name of

Inspiratio

building

n

1.Eiffel Tower

Thigh bone

2.L’institute Du Monte Arabe

Iris of eye

3.Waterloo

International

Pangolin

Terminal

Termite

4. Eastgate Centre, Harare

mound

Material

s used

Exposed

iron

Steel,

glass &

Aluminiu

m

Steel &

glass

Concrete

Application in design

The outward flares at base resemble the upper curved portion of femur.

The internal wrought iron braces closely follow design of original trabeculae within femur.

Cladded with screens with automated

lens to control light

The glass panel fixing that makes up the structure mimic the flexible scale

arrangement of Pangolin.

The building is designed with a unique ventilation system, which draws outside air and cools or warms it depending on temperature.

The central open space draws more air with help of fans and is pushed up through ducts located in the central spine of the buildings,

Problem solved

Can withstand bending and shearing effects due to wind

Ventilation problem solved

Controls the amount of sunlight entering the building, keeping it cool and flooding room with natural light.

Ability to move in response to the imposed air pressure forces when trains enter and depart.

Temperature remains regulated all year around without using conventional air- conditioning or heating systems.

Level of

Biomimicry

Organism level

Organism level

Organism level

Behaviour

level

air- conditioning or heating systems. Level of Biomimicry Organism level Organism level Organism level Behaviour level
Name of Inspiratio Material Application in design Problem solved Level of Biomimicr building n
Name of Inspiratio Material Application in design Problem solved Level of Biomimicr building n
Name of Inspiratio Material Application in design Problem solved Level of Biomimicr building n
Name of Inspiratio Material Application in design Problem solved Level of Biomimicr building n

Name of

Inspiratio

Material

Application in design

Problem solved

Level of

Biomimicr

building

n

s used

 

y

 

Protects spectators from elements

5.Beijing

“Cushion system” adopted where façade is in-filled with translucent ETFE panels just like a nest is insulated by small pieces of material.

National

Stadium

Bird’s nest

Steel,

ETFE

Provides acoustic insulation,

Reduces maintenance cost

Reduces dead load,

Behaviour

Level

Filters sun rays

CH2 uses ventilation strategy similar to termite mould using natural convention, ventilation stacks, thermal mass, phase change material and water for cooling

The epidermis provides primary sun and glare control while creating a semi-closed micro- environment.

The wavy design helps it

efficient collection and channelling out of heated air.

The façade is composed of dermis and epidermis, which provides microclimate

6. Council

House 2,

Termite

mound

Concrete,

recycled

Ventilation stacks are implemented on the north

Behaviour

level

Melbourne

timber

and south facades of the building

The vaulted ceiling also allow more filtration of natural light to the deeper parts of the space.

Shower towers provide a reduction of 4-13 degrees C from the top of the tower to the bottom.

The ceilings are wavy shaped to optimise surface area to increase thermal mass capacity

The west façade is covered with system of timber louvers to optimize the penetration of natural light and views.

 The west façade is covered with system of timber louvers to optimize the penetration of