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DIRE DAWA UNIVERSITY

INSTITUTION OF TECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER

ENGINEERING

STREAM: COMMUNICTIONENGINEERING

FINAL REPORT OF INTERENTSHIP PROGRAM

HOST COMPANY NAME: HARARI MASS MEDIA


Internship Period: October 7 – January 7

PREPAREDBY: JUNED NUREDIN

Submission date: December 2

ADVISOR; MR TITO
DECLARATION

I have been functioning since: October 7 – January 7 at HMMA for the Company due to my
internship time. I was performing all the given tasks in proper and peace way having good
relationship with all senior workers and engineers. Based on those experiences I wrote this report
paper due to the requirement of the campus. . All the information written in this report are
obtained from what i have seen in my internship time and to read different book regarding Radio
transmission and Television broadcast as well as the maintenance . During this time I have spent
most my time by knowing and understanding the overall radio and Television. Also i have done
some work tasks.

I
Acknowledgement

I would like to acknowledge the university industry linkage officer Mr. Berhanu for facilitating
the internship by giving the chance to find the internship hosting company. Also I would like to
thanks Mr. Taime; a head of Electrical and Computer Engineering in Dire Dawa University
Institute of Technology who provide me such valuable opportunity of being with other team
institute of technology. I have to express my heartily gratitude to the HARARI MASS MEIDIA
AGENCY for hosting me to apply this internship there. Next I would like to thanks the
transmitters’ operation and maintenance Directorate Director Mr.Salah, in the maintenance room,
radio and television studio and Mr.Mustefa M. For their support and guidance and also for
providing me devices and manuals . I would also like to extend thanks to the technicians of the
television and radio transmission workers who give me much knowledge on his or her position. I
would like to thank all of the Harari mass media organization workers and staff for enabling me
to visit their organization to observe their daily operation. At the last but not least, I need to
express my heartfelt thanks to all workers of radio, TV and maintenance rooms and all
technicians for their special supports during my internship period. And also I would like to thank
my advisor Mr.TITO for his support me with his knowledge and idea.
II

Executive Summary

This report is written for partial fulfillment of internship program which was planned to help
apparent students to understand practical knowledge of engineering projects, their design,
implementation, evaluation and management in general.

This report includes my host company’s background, vision, mission, work flow, the overall
function, process, products and organizational structure.

Also the company works is included; radio transmission, television broadcast and maintenance
room Preventive maintenance and troubleshooting. Overall benefits of internship are practical
skill, theoretical skill, communication skill, team play skill, leadership skill, work ethics and
entrepreneurship.
III

Table of contents

List of contents page no

Declaration………………………………………………………………………………………....I

Acknowledgment…………………………………………………………………………………II

Executive summary………..……………………………………………………………………. III

CHAPTER ONE ….......................................................................................……………………..1

1.1 Background………………………………………………………………. …………………..1

1.2 Objectives………………………………………….……………………... ………………….2

1.2.1 General objective……………………………………………… ……………….....2

1.2.2 Specific objective……………………………………………………......................2

1.3 Agency main service……………………………………………………… ………………...3

1.3.1 Agency customers and stake holders……………………………………………….3

1.3.2 User of the service………………………………………………….…………….....4

1.4 Overall organization and work flow……………………………………………………..….5

1.5 How I get in to the company………………………….……………….. ………...................6

1.5.1 I participate in the company................................................................................…...6


1.6 The work flow in the section………………………………………………………………….6

1.7 Tasks performing…………………………………………………………………..…………7

1.7.1Radio transmission…………………………………………………………………..7

1.7.2TV transmission……………………………………………………………………...9

IV

1.7.3 Maintenance Section .........................................................................................................30

1.8 How good I have been of performing work task……………………….…………………..15

1.8.1 Challenge I have facing while perform……………………………………………………

1.8.2 Measurement to challenges ……………………………………………………………

1.8.3 Safety and economy ………………………………………………………………………

1.9 Improving practical skill……………………………………….………………………..15

1.9.1 Improving theoretical skills………………………………….………… …. ………... 16

1.9.2 Improving interpersonal communication skills ......................................................


……….16

1.9.3 In terms of improving my Team playing skills ......................................................... …….16

1.9.4In terms of improving my Leadership skills....................................................................16

1.9.5 In terms of understanding work ethics and related issues. ......................................................17

1.9.6 In terms of improving my Entrepreneurship skills ................................................................17

CHAPTER TWO…………………………………………………………………………………………..

2 COMPARISON STUDY OF M-QAM ON DIGITAL RADIO COMMUNICATION …….

2.1 Abstract.........................................................................................................................

2.2 Literature reviews.………………………………………………………………..…..….…...3


2.3 Statement of problem ………………….……………………………………………..……...4

2.4 Objective…………………………..…………………………………………………………..5

2.5 Methodology…………………………………………………………………..……………....7

2.6 result and discussion ………………………………………………………………………..18

2.9 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION .................................................................................. 34

VI
2.91Conclusion .......................................................................................................................................... 34

2.92 Recommendations............................................................................................................................. 34

REFERANCES ………………………………………………………………………………
LIST OF F IGURE

Lists of Figures

Figure 1. 1 Block diagram of work flow of company..................................................................... 5

Figure 1.2 work flows in the section

Figure 1. 3 Model of Radio broad casting systems......................................................................... 7

Figure 1. 4 Audio Mixers .............................................................................................................10

Figure 1. 5 control and studio room.............................................................................................. 11

Figure 1. 6 Radio Transmitters......................................................................................................13

Figure 1. 7 TV, FM Antennas....................................................................................................... 14

Figure 1. 8 Control room ...........................................................................................................22

Figure 1. 9 how audio taken from anchor to uplink...................................................................... 22

Figure 1.9.1 Block diagram of how video taken from camera to uplink. ....................................23

Figure 1.9.2 Video Tape Recorders (VTR).................................................................................. 24


Figure 1.9.3 Satellite Receiver dish, uplink and downlink ..........................................................26

Figure 2.1………………………..Analog modulation

Figure 2.2………………………..Frequency modulation

Figure 2.3………………………..Phase modulation

Figure 2.4………………………..basic QAM modulator diagram

VII

Figure 2.5……………………....... Basic QAM demodulator diagram

Figure 2.6………………………..Signal constellation diagram

Figure 2.7………………………..Noise variance

Figure 2.8……………………….. Scatter plot of 8QAM

Figure 2.9……………………….. Gray code signal constellation of 32-QAM

Figure 2.9.1………………………..bertool of 16 QAM

Figure 2.9.2………………………..performance of M-QAM for varying M

Figure 2.9.3………………………..BER comparison diagram

Figure 2.9.3....................................Random symbols

CHAPTER ONE
1.1 Background
Harari Mass Media Agency (HMMA) is establish based on proclamation number 113/98 as
Regional media agency in 2007 G.C. It organized structurally with resource and human Power in
August 2007 G.C. It started its work on March 9, 2008 by the name of Harari Mass Media
Agency with the radio transmission, after one year delay on March 9, 2009 G.C it started
Television broadcasting, then the name changed from Harari FM radio to Harari Mass Media
Agency (HMMA). Now HMMA is one of the TV broadcasting and FM radio transmitting
Stations in Ethiopia that covers the Harari region and some other parts of Oromia. The time
schedule allotment programs according to time of the day and duration of each program.
Programs are scheduled to take care of a variety of programs such as drama, sports, and
documentary, cultural displays discussions and a host of others. Radio and television program
production process encompasses many peoples which established on the good bonded team spirit
through harmonious working relationship. The team members consists of skilled producer,
director, set designer, lighting technician, camera man, floor manager, performers, technical
director and sound recorders, the editor, the lighting crew, the actors and actresses or the
artists.HMMA designs its program to meet aspirations and interest of people’s to encourage and
creating trade relationships among urban with rural societies as well as to announce and
promoting the varieties of cultures in the compound.

11.2 Objectives of the agency

1.2.1 General objectives


 By announcing the government policies, strategies and rules to societies; to make
societies participation in development work and equal need from development.
 To initiate societies in giving free suggestion and to make them near to information and
to know current information and working for main issues of countries, administration in
order to enable agreements.
 To enable administration societies participate in socio-economic, political and to support
in making democracy as a culture.

1.2.2 Specific objectives

 To achieve Station’s purpose


 To accompany Program objectives.
 To satisfy Audience interests.

Vision

 The Harari Mass Media Agency will be the competitive media in the country by
providing quality, timely and balanced information, News, educational and entertainment
programs, has also institutional, DS TV programs (football and different sport programs)
to the public with better quality and balanced information by using modern media
technology and modern efficient internal structure of management system.

Mission

It has the mission of using Harari Television and Radio program, website informing
educating and entertaining the public with timely. Promote the culture, Nation and Nationalities
of Ethiopia, to encouraging the public to speak out democratically, encouraging the growth of
democratic values, political, economic, and social activities of the people.

 To announce good governance, democracy and giving place for them.


 To collect problems arise from society and give to the body who need solution for them;
then announce result of problem to the society and
 To make media conference between administration and living society and to reach

Values

 To be source of current and correct information.


 To give priority for question of customers and societies.
 Individual workers quality and role are key for their mission.
 They play their role for reduction of poverty, good governance, democracy and
development success.
 They play great role for altogether agreement and direct build of development strategies.
 By learning practical we will do for success and altogether qualities.

1.3 The agency’s main services.

 Collecting information
 Plan and preparation
 Strengthen information
 Editing information
 Transmit information
 Storing information documentation

1.3.1 Agency customers and stake holders

1.3.1.1 Customers

 Radio and Television listener and watcher


 Governmental organization
 Nongovernmental organization (NGO)
 Aires time renter e

1.3.1.2 Stake holders

 Harari Administration
 Civic societies
 Government Institute
 Telecommunication and other institution
 Ethiopian broadcasting corporation

1.3.2 USERS OF SERVICES

When I see the purpose of HMMA it gives much service. Apart from others mentioned
somewhere in the report, it gives latest information and this is a must to be competitive and
informed citizen in this fast running world. Keeping this in mind HMMA gives such services for
all Harari region and some other parts of The Oromia as far as its coverage range bounds.

The organization has also future plan such as;


 To improving the quality of news and programs
 To reaching 100% coverage across the other region with both radio & TV
 To improving use of ICT
 To improving media technology

1.4 Work the company flow

BRAORD OF INSTITUTE

COMMUNICATION B/N
HIGHER DIRECTOR PEOPLE AND World

HIGHER EXECUTIVE
DIRECTOROF BRANCH OF DIRECTOR OF BRANCH OF BRANCH OF
EDUCATION DIRECTOR ENTERTAINMEN TECHNOLGY
DIRECTOR
PROGRAM T PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT

ALL OVER ODITER HUMAN DEVELOPMENT LAW AFAIR


SERVICE SERVICE OF
PLAN, RESOURSE AND OF MARKET SERVISE
RESEARCH TRAINING AND
AND PROMOTION
FINANCE
Fig .1.1 Block diagram of work flow of company

1.5 How i get to the company

Dire Dawa University gives me a chance chooses from a list of hosting companies for my
internship. The curriculum of the university states that student should participate in the internship
program for four month. To facilitate the program, the university established an independent
office that is the university industry linkage office. The UIL facilitates and searches internship
place for the interns as a preparation for internship program. Several months before the
internship semester, the UIL contacts make links with different companies and organization that
are able to host the internship program there by announcing the internship program. I choice
HMMA for internship program. After, i have reach the company firstly I got the company’s get
keeper and i greet him. After greeting i ask him too late me the head office of the company and i
got the head manager of the company. Then after i vest a polite greeting for him he did the same
greeting for me. After a short greeting, he asked me delightfully why i want to contact with him.
Frankly, i told the reason and give the internship placement later for him. He read the later
and allowed me to do the internship and Harari Company.

1.5.1 I participate in the company are:-

 Radio transmission
 Television broadcasting
 maintenance room

1.6The work flow in the section

Harari mass media

Radio transmission TV broadcasting

Studio room Control Editing Recording Transmission Studio Control Editing Server
room room room room room room room

Fig 1.2 work flow in the section

Work piece or tasks performing

1.7 RADIO STUDIO AND TRANSMITTER ROOM

1.7.1 Radio Broadcasting

Radio broadcasting is the transmission or signals distribution of sound using the electrical
energy. The first task of radio broadcasting systems is to change sound into electrical energy.
This electrical energy is called Audio signals. The equipment that changes this energy is called
Transducers. The second jobs of radio broadcasting system are to process or change audio
signals. So that can broadcast them. The piece of equipment that changes one or more aspect of
audio signals called signal processors. The other part, transmitter and antenna that processed
audio signal are carried to receiver as receiver signals. The process of joining the audio signal
and receiver signal is done through modulation. The above process can be shown below using
diagram;

Input Power Audio Detector RF Amplifier Tuner


Transducer Amplifier Amplifi
Fig 1.3 Model of Radio
er broad casting systems

Let us see the term in diagram one by one:-


 Input transducer: is the equipment that changes one form of energy to the others. There
are many types of equipment that convert energy in broadcasting systems. For example,
Microphones
 Signal processor: is the equipment that changes one or more aspects of an audio signals
size. There is several equipment in broadcasting that produces signal processors, such as
pre –amplifier, mixer, power amplifier, audio amplifier, effect of unit and so on. This
equipment is called source equipment.
 Detector: is a device that recovers information of interest contained in a modulated
wave.
 RF Amplifier: is a type of electronic amplifier used to convert a low power radio
frequency signal into a larger. It also used to increase the power of the signal and the
range of radio wave.

1.7.1.2 How Radio Transmitters Work?

1.7.1.3 Origination

When a sound is first played, it is picked up by a microphone and translated into a sine wave that
represents the sound. The carrier waves start out with no information inscribed in them until they
are modified by the information from the electrical information from the microphone. These
Electromagnetic waves are more effective than mechanical waves, because electrical waves can
travel in a vacuum while mechanical waves need a medium to travel in. Electromagnetic waves
travel at the speed of light, which is faster than the mechanical waves that travel at the speed of
light.
1.7.1.4 Transmission

Radio transmission occurs when intelligence--sound or pictures--are transformed into sine waves
and transmitted. Transmission can occur with amplitude modification (AM) or frequency
modification (FM). Amplitude modification changes the size of the sine waves to represent the
information and is most commonly used for transmitting AM radio stations and the image for
televisions. Frequency modification alters the length of the sine waves to transfer information
and is often used for FM radio stations and the sound of television stations. FM is preferable
because it is resistant to static. The sine waves are broadcast by a radio tower. The more powerful
the radio tower, the larger the area that the signal can be picked up.

1.7.1.5 FM Transmitter

Information being transferred, i.e. the modulating signals a signal from some low frequency
source. It is being amplified in low frequency amplifier and then led into the high frequency
oscillator, where the carrier signal is being created. The carrier is a high frequency voltage of
constant amplitude, whose frequency is, in the absence of modulating signal, equal to the
transmitter's carrier frequency FS. In the oscillatory circuit of the high frequency oscillator a

Capacitive diode is located. It is a diode whose capacitance depends upon the voltage between its
ends, so when being exposed to low frequency voltage, its capacitance is changing in accordance
with this voltage. Due to that frequency of the oscillator is also changing, i.e. the frequency
modulation is being obtained.
The carrier frequencies of the radio diffusion FM transmitters (that emit the program for "broad
audience") are placed in the waveband from 88 MHz to 108 MHz, the maximum frequency shift
of the transmitter (during the modulation) being ±75 kHz. Because of that the FM signal should
be drawn much "thicker", but it would result in a black-square-shaped picture.

1.7.1.6 RADIO STUDIO

In Radio studio transmission, there are three rooms:

A) Production room
B) Studio and Control room and
C) Transmitter room

A) Production room
Harari Radio production has three major classes

 Production room A

 Production room B

 production room C
In each production rooms there are one computer, one microphone, one headphone, GPS clock
(global position system) and production record light.

B) Control room
In radio studio all programs reaches to audience by the help control room or technicians room.
But the control room and studio are in one room. IN this room there is much electronic
equipment such us;

 The sound mixer, the telecom, Audio amplifier, Rack and three computers three
microphone, four headphones, are found in the control and studio room.

10

The sound mixer mixes the sound from different sources such as telecom, microphone and
technician computer. It has 12 channels and 12 feeders. The first 3 feeders are used for
microphones, the next 2 used for CD player, the sixth is used for PMD 570 (equalizer), the
seventh is for CD-R, the eight is for M200 (marantz)flash player, the next 2 feeder for DAD1 and
DAD2, the eleventh is for cassette player and the last is used for Telos.

 Telos: - is used to take telephone to the mixer

 Equalizer:-is used to equalize the signal which is also called gain

 Rack consist of:- CD-R (HHB CDR), flash player (marantz), effective processor
(TCM),ENCODAD cassette player (TASCAM) WBS POD, equalizer (PEQ)

i. Audio mixer
An audio mixer is an electronic device that channels incoming audio signals while maintaining
control over such effects as volume level, tonality, placement, and other dynamics for music
production. In professional sound mixing an audio mixer is sometimes called soundboard,
mixing console, or mixer.

Figure 1.4Audio Mixer

Interface equipment: - this allows connection of voice & data into transmitters & receivers, from
external sources. It also controls the flow of the information, timing of propagation on the
system, controls monitoring of the transmitter & receivers.

The interfacing equipment has so many controllers. Like: -

 Program 1: is used to transmit data on air.

 Program 2: is used for recording purpose.

 Program 3 :is used to on/off equalizer

Each channel on a mixer or soundboard is dedicated to a separate track.

ii. Audio amplifier.


An audio amplifier is an electronics amplifier that amplifies low power audio signal to a level
suitable driving loudspeakers and is the final stage in a typical audio playback chain

Fig 1.5 controls and studio room

C) Radio transmitter room

Harari FM radio transmitter has only, 5kw frequency modulation Rack is also found in the
transmitter room, which is located at the side or next to the transmitter and consists of
modulation monitor (used to show the wave form), oscilloscope (recognizes the wave of the
signal frequency), audio processor, audio control switch, Distribution amplifier, patch panel
are some component on the rack.

I. Section one consist of:-power, transformer and rectifier

II. Section two consist of:- oscillator- used to generate carrier frequency

o Buffer amplifier- used amplifies the oscillator out put


o RF amplifier:-to amplifies the generated RF signal

o Band pass filter:-to pass the required frequency (101.4MHz) and rejects the other
frequency

o Audio input:-makes the audio suitable for processing

o A/D converter:-used to change the audio signal into digital form, to pass modulation
encoder

In transmitter of radio sub-section we also observed radio transmitter, modulator, distribution


monitors, jumpers, etc.

1.7.1.7 Components of Radio


A radio links consists of the following components:-

• Transmitter

• Receiver

• Antenna

• antenna support structure(guys wire)

• cabling

• interface equipment

• Mixer & etc.

Let we brief for the above components:-wave, at radio frequency.

Transmitter:-is a device that converts a voice or data signal into modified (modulated) higher
frequency signals & feeds it to antenna, where it is radiated into free space as an electromagnetic
wave at radio frequency
Fig. 6 Radio Transmitters

Antenna:-is a device used to radiate or detecting electromagnetic waves. There are many
different designs of antennas available. Each one radiates the signal in different manner. The type
of antennas used depends on the application & area of coverage required.

Receiver:-is a device that converts the radio frequency signal (fed to it from antenna detecting
the electromagnetic waves from free space) back into voice.

There are many antennas used in the agency. Such as:

• Antenna (used for 5kw power transmitter)

Antenna support structure:-is used to mount antenna in order to provide height advantages,
which generally provides increased transmission distance & coverage.

It may vary in construction from three meter wooden pole to a thousand-meter steel structure.
Fig 1.7 TV, FM Antennas

Advantage of FM over AM radio communication

The "AM band" (0.53-1.7 MHz) is much lower in frequency and signals can travel farther,
following the curve of the earth and also via skipping between the earth and the edge of the
atmosphere. Unfortunately, the lower frequencies also limit the bandwidth that each station can
use or would require fewer stations. It high cost to build it, have unwanted signal or noise.

The "FM band" (88-108 MHz) is in a frequency range that is basically line of sight from the
tower since it does not follow the curve of the earth well. There a much wider range of
frequencies that can be used. And wide band widths each station use .it have noisy less and low
coverage area.
1.7.2 TELEVISION STUDIO

1.7.2.1 TV BROADCASTING
TV broadcasting is the transmission of electromagnetic audio visual signals

On this part we are more focused television:

• Transmission
• coverage

1.7.2.2 TELEVISION STUDIO


TV studio has five main rooms, which are:

1. Studio room.

2. Editing room

3. Control room

4. Transmitter room

Studio room; is a studio in which an anchor is reading his (her) news which has high quality
of both audio and video, it is digital system. In this studio, there are electronic equipment such as
two standing cameras, microphones, speaker, monitor, deem light and teleprompter which is
connected with computer and anchor table and lamps, each lights uses 800w.

• Two standing camera: is attached to the computer input.

• Monitor screen: is monitor that tells to anchor to controls the time given to him.

• Trail cable or multicore cables: Are the cables used to take the command from master control
room to camera man anchor & controllers in the production room.
The lighting system in studio is so different from other control. There are about 650-1000w
lights in the studio. There are four (4) types of lighting system in studio.

Such as:-

• Key light:-is the light that is brightens in front of the anchor at 45 degree.

• Feel light:-is the light that used to ignore the shadow of the key light at 45 degree.

• Back ground light:-is the light that is lighting at the back of the anchor. &

• Back light:-is also the light that is light b/n anchor &the back ground lights.
• The light in studio depending on the resistor values (threshold) values. The video light is
controlled by feeder. There is also floor & light manager in studio again if we start from
color in the studio is Green color

• Green

• Blue color.

Green color is on the back of the anchor (journalist) & it is highly reflective than blue. Blue is
half over lapped the green color, this why blue is less reflective than green. So they use blue, due
to green is very high reflective.

There are also two of rooms which are editing and controlling process is under taken.

Such as:-

A. Editing room &

B) Control room.

A) Editing room:-is a room in which an anchor is editing his (her) information/data and transfer
to control room there are many electronic equipment in these room such us; speaker,
microphone, one digital camera, seven computer; all this computer are connected to control room
by network .

B) Control room

In television transmission there are two sources. Such as:-

• Camera (Video) &

• Audio.

In control room depending on the source there are two system of controlling

These are

a. Audio Controlling system


b. Video Controlling system

a. Audio Controlling system

In audio controlling process there are different electronic devices.

a. The audio mixer is an electronic device which is used to adjust sound. It is connected
with the vision control room. It also has a wireless receiver microphone which comes
from the anchor.There is also an electronic device called Telecom (tele printer), which is
used to connect audio mixer and phone

b. Video Controlling system is the master controlling system has so many equipment in the
control room.

Such as:-

VTR

Piracy machine:-have so many components inside in it like:

• Router mapper

• Video mixer

• Modulator

• UP Link

• Video Server(nexio)

• Patch panel (jumper)

. Camera control unit (CCU)


• light controller

• Radio rider (camera controller)


• Vector scope (color controller)

• CG(character generator)

• SPG(signal pulse generator); which is connected to any material exist in the studio

Router mapper: -is used to connect camera source & VTR (video tape recorder)

●vision mixer:-is used to mix different videos come from different sources like VTR (video tape
recorder), icon station (CG) and nexio, it is an electronic device used for the Chroma effects and
has twelve inputs.

Fig1. 8 Control room

i) How Audio taken from the anchor to control room

The audio comes from the anchor (journalist) taken to the control room by tactual cables, and
inters UHF, & then feed into the Audio mixer input, Then fed into the mixer output & finally go
to the UP LINK.

The block diagram of Audio is as follows How Audio taken from anchor to uplink
Ultra High Frequency Audio mixer UPLINK
Audio from
anchor Modulator
Fig1. 9 how audio taken from anchor to uplink

ii) How Video taken from the camera to control room


The video that comes from the camera taken by the tactual cables &inters the pay rack as block
diagrams below:-

Camera Camera control unit Patch panel Router mapper


Video mixer

Patch panel

modulator

Fig1. 9.1Block diagram of how video taken from camera to uplink uplink

Video have four (4) sources. Such as:-

• Camera

• VTR

• Video server &--

• CG (Character Generator)
Fig 1.9.2 Video Tape Recorders (VTR)

iii) How Video embedded Audio


Audio functionality plays a critical role in embedded media processing. While audio takes less
processing power than video processing. But it is to be considered equally important. The most
common digital representation for audio is Pulse-Code-Modulation (PCM) signal.

In this representation, analog amplitude is encoded with the digital level for each sampling
period. The resulting digital wave is a vector of snapshots taken to approximate the input analog
wave.

All A/D converters have finite resolution, so they introduce quantization noise that is inherent in
digital audio system. A PCM representation of an analog sine wave converted using ideal A/D
convertors, in which the quantization manifests itself as stair case effect.

iv) Audio Analog to Digital Converters


There are many ways to perform A/D conversion; one of the traditional approaches is a
successive approximation scheme, which uses a comparator to test the analog input signal
against number of inter D/A conversions to arrive at the final conversion.

The most Audio A/D conversion is Sigma-Delta convertors Instead of employing successive
approximations to create wide resolution.
Generally the process starting from production control room up to control room end.
TV TRANSMITTER ROOM

Harari T V transmitter uses only 1kw power. These 1kw powers are obtained from two power
amplifiers each amplifier produces 500w

Some component in TV transmitter and their function listed below:

● Audio processor: is used as equalizer that is used for sound control (decreasing or increasing
sound)

● Exciter:-is the main component and plays the great role in TV transmitter. Exciter has contains
video control, audio control, modulator, RF and oscillator

In exciter audio is in form of FM and video is in form of AM

In TV transmitter we have seen five sections those are:

1. Power section

2. RF section

3. Control section

4. Video section and

5. Audio section

1.7.2.4 TRANSMISSION OF HARARI TV BROADCASTING

HarariTv broadcasting is also one of the types of transmission like radio transmission. This is
called Terrestrial transmission

Terrestrial TV transmission is normally limited to little more than a line of sight propagation
path. The transmission service area for particular site, Ariel height & power is reasonable
predictable. Geographical location is chosen & channels selected so that channels may be re-used
when separated by an adequate distance. # I also used two types of modulation as radio on
television. Such as: - AM & FM. We use FM for audio, While AM for video. That is why the
television Audio communication is more accurate & reliable than radio communication.
Terrestrial Transmission: is a transmission occurred by using modulation. Like AM, FM, Micro
wave etc.

Amplitude Modulation (AM):-is the form of modulation used for radio transmission for
broadcasting.

Uplink

Up-link room is the place where up-link process of program is directed. When the program that
delivered from the studio is up-linked to Antenna

Video
Embedded Modulation ANTENNA
Pcm multiplexer BPF HPA
P
Audio Encoder
at
c
h
P
FIG 1.9.3Uplinka block diagram
n
el
Up-link: its definition is that the link from a ground station up to antenna

Encoder:-used for changing digital to pulse.

Modulator:-by receiving pulse from encoder and changing to RF signal is used to adjust
SR (symbol rate), FEC (frequency error correction), and polarization

When an up link is being received by spacecraft. In uplink room they use a device known as
spectrum analyzer. The agency uses L-band frequency is;

Uplink frequency: Is the link frequency from a ground station up to the Antenna.
Uplink frequency= HPA (high power amplifier) + LNB (L-band frequency) or output modulator
frequency

HPA frequency is= 4900MHz and output modulator frequency is=1051MHz

Local oscillator frequency (2225MHz) is constant.

HPA (high power amplifier)

Then uplink calculated as follows

Uplink frequency = 4900MHz + 1051MHz =5951MHz

The maximum frequency for the uplink is 6GHz in c-band. For the following reasons, uplink
frequency is greater than down link frequency.

• On the earth station we have to penetrate the atmosphere to reach the satellite station.
So we need a lot of power to be generated. Hence uplink is at higher frequency with
higher power.

• As the frequency is increased the amount of interference caused by the atmosphere


reduces, as higher frequency signal has more signal energy in it. So it can penetrate
the atmosphere more easily.

• Unwanted distortion like rain, fog, other frequency in neighborhood, etc. cause
distortion.

UPS (uninterrupted power supply)

UPS (Uninterrupted Power Supply) is found in co rider of studio which consists of AVR and
UPS.

AVR (Automatic Voltage Regulator) is an electronic device which is used to regulate the value of
the voltage forwarded by the EEPCO. It regulates by taking nominal value: Therefore, it
regulated power.
UPS (Uninterrupted Power Supply) is an electronic device which is used when there is power off
for short time that means until the power line is connected or the generator is on. UPS has three
parts, which are: Converter (A|D), inverter (D|A) and battery.

Convertor is used for converting the Ac power to DC power then the DC power sorted on the
Battery then when the power is off automatically the power within the battery converted to AC
power again by the Inverter and the transmission is continued without interactions of power loss

Coverage
The transmission path is not flat, however & the service area is terrain limited. Hills, valleys,
buildings, trees, etc. plus the earth’s curvature, all prevents free space condition over typical
transmission paths. The radio horizon is dependent on the site elevations, transmit &receive areal
heights. In a week the agency can transmit 91 hours. Radio can cover 100% of harari region and
the TV is also within a week, for 56 clocks can cover of Harer region. And they were
transmitting in three languages. Such as: - Hareri, Amharic and AfaanOromia.

How studio of Harari Mass Media Agency built


The wall of the studio is corrugated. It must be accosted & built by Gypsum. Or it must be soft
material like female wig in the Gypsum. And it must have hole on the flat top of the gypsum,
b/se the sound comes from the microphone hit & inter into the gypsum hole. This implies there is
no signal reflected back & inters the microphone again. This accusation of theWall is used to
ignore the interference of the sound & noise that inters the microphone as feedback.

1.7.3 Maintenance Section


Broadcast maintenance technologists (employers) install, test, inspect, modify, repair and
maintain radio and television broadcasting systems. All audio, video, computer and other
technical equipment in studios and at remote locations or transmitter facilities must be regularly

Tested, adjusted, cleaned and inspected. When a problem is detected, broadcast maintenance
technologists repair and restore equipment to proper operating condition. Broadcast maintenance
technologists maintain and repair a wide
Variety of standard and high definition equipment, including:

• television cameras
• video switching and mixing equipment
• audio mixers
• video and audio recorders and servers
• video and audio effects equipment
 editing equipment
• microphones and sound equipment
• lighting equipment
• microwave equipment and satellite receivers and transmitters
• computer and networking equipment
• remote broadcast equipment
• transmitters and transmission equipment for FM radio and television
• Analog and digital equipment and converters.

In general, broadcast maintenance technologists:

• construct, assemble, wire and install items such as control panels, chassis, cabinets and
related equipment
• build or modify special broadcast equipment
• design and document systems using computer aided drawing programs and cable
database management systems
• Ensure that the power levels and frequency of the station's broadcast signal meet
government regulatory requirements and that broadcast signals are consistently clear and
reliable set up equipment at remote locations.

Working Conditions

Maintenance technologists generally work indoors. They frequently work with small hand tools
and electronic test equipment. It’s advisable for any equipment to be maintained both at when
giving operation (the material is on normal position) and when the material is failed to be
operate. Thus, there are two types of maintenance to be carried out in any organization. These
are:

I. Preventive Maintenance

The process of updating pre computed views without having to rebuild them. Typically
performed by computing the set of changes to the detail table and propagating those changes to
the view. Therefore, incremental maintenance tends to be much faster and uses system resources
more efficiently.

II. Corrective Maintenance


The process of updating pre computed views by rebuilding them from either the detail table or a
finer-granularity view that contains the same aggregations. Rebuilding in this context means that
all the rows are deleted from the view, and then a complete set of new rows is inserted. This kind
of maintenance is done whenever incremental maintenance is not feasible or optimal. Rebuild
maintenance can be performed from either the detail table or a finer-granularity view.

The radio transmitter frequency of HMMA is 101.4MHz

Cabling:-is used for connection links. There are three main types of cabling used in connecting
radio system. Coaxial cables are used for all radio frequency connections.

The FM signal from the high frequency oscillator is being preceded to the power amplifier that
provides the necessary output power of the transmission signal.

1.8 How good I have been of performing work task


As I am stranger for tasks, it was good to develop our abilities .To some extent there is
also confusion in our work. When I take the percentage of goodness of my work almost
80% is good as much as possible. However, there are some failures. There are also some
factors that cause failures as I am stranger for the companies.
1.8.1Challenge

 Being stayed in the agency throughout the day was too much difficulty. I.e. from 2:00
to clock to 11:00 O clock.
 Sometimes I also move long journeys to work which was very boring. I.e. too far
from the agency. Sometimes I am not reaching on time
 The other challenges that was faced me was there is luck of reference and computers
in the agency.

1.8.2Measurement to challenge

 I must try to be punctual and able to achieve punctuality easily after some time.
 Since in the agency I must give a chance to handle problems that seems
challenging and also it was eliminated by adaptation.
 Accepting any challenges which were occurring.
 Wake up early to get transport.

1.9 Improving practical skills


I have gained from the internship experience is improving my professional knowledge. Before
this apparent ship I have little experience undertaking any engineering problems as a
professional. Also the problems I have given and I was required to come up with a solution
using different parameter

I have studied a lot in order to carry out the different assignments. I have also asked our
supervisor.
All these i have helped me extremely by upgrading my theoretical knowledge. The main
advantage from this internship is in terms of improving over practical skill. Since I
Was not experience in practical skills starting from observing the overall the conditions I
Have been learning theoretically up to this level but this internship has offered me to see
what The main advantage from this internship is in terms of improving over practical
skill.
1.9.1Improving theoretical skills

I am benefited from knowledge and skill of introduction to communication, digital logic design
and from courses of electronics one and two, about the electronics devices like amplifiers and
from the knowledge work shop safety rules and installations. From introduction to
communication we benefited skills of modulation types (AM, FM) and the wave forms of audio
and video. The internship helped me to match the theory with practical.
1.9.2 Improving interpersonal communication skills

To achieve more qualified, accurate and neat work, interpersonal communication plays a great
role. Without effective communication skill, achieving the work that i need is so difficult. During
the first days of my meeting, I am only communicating with my supervisor within a very short
time, later I became as one of the employers. So, as I have expressed I am working on improving
my communication skills.

1.9.3In terms of improving my Team playing skills

In terms of team playing skill, i have improved my perception towards team work. Even if I was
not working as a team with the other workers who were in the office, I have observed all the
things being performed in the technical office section of the company.

1.9.4 In terms of improving my Leadership skills

One of the major responsibilities in workshop and process rooms is leadership. Without
effective and highly organized leadership one industry cannot bring any change and
developments. So, during the internship time I improve how to good leadership such as:-

 Provide proper and good interpersonal communication


 Maintain an accurate and good quality of work.

1.9.5 In terms of understanding work ethics and related issues

It is clear that each and individual workers have their own different back ground which makes
him/her observe things differently from others. But, the presence of some ethical values shared
by all other workers is obvious. It is very vital in communication world. Due to the job character,
it is must to meet different Personnel’s. For successful accomplishment of tasks good
communication is obligatory. Good Communication is significant for anyone who is at work site
to gain the required benefits. I got following benefits due to communication skills.

 Get information about each work piece.


 Understand the behavior of the worker.

 Know the worker honesty on their work. IN addition, if I ask something new for me the

Company advisor is very willing to explain it in detail.

1.9.6In terms of improving my Entrepreneurship skills

Entrepreneurship is defined as special human talent that help to manage those factors of
production such as labor machinery and capital and takes risks of making loses. An
entrepreneurship is required to establish meaningful relationship between activity and authority
which is intimately related to planning function.

An adequate salary structure together with healthy physical and social working conditions is
the basic requirement for organizational efficiency and effectiveness.

In generally in my internship period I have gained knowledge of how to create private owned
job before and after my training. Be a good decision maker during the setting up of business
activities. Experience gained from entrepreneurship is:-

 Be a good decision make one setting up of the business ideas.

 To solve a problem.

 punctuality and responsibility


Chapter Two

Abstract
All type of signal in air is analog in nature, so we have to analysis this signal. This
means message signal travels with carrier frequencies that are analog in nature. So I have to
analysis the carrier frequencies parameter like amplitude, phase, and carrier frequencies that are
in analog nature. Knowing this, for the signal to transfer from transmitter part to the receiver it
has to be modulated. So QAM is a massive technology used for the transfer of data at high data
rate. So this project concerns on the comparison of M-QAM for the digital radio application. So I
mainly focus on digital QAM for high data transfer rate. I also went to see which type of QAM
modulation is applicable for a given area and conditions.
INTRODUCTION

There are different types of modulation techniques used in digital communication.


Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) is one of those modulation techniques. Which is
widely used for modulating data signals onto a carrier used for radio communications.
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation, QAM is a signal in which two carriers shifted
in phase by 90 degrees are modulated and the resultant output consists of
both amplitude and phase variations. In view of the fact that both amplitude
and phase variations are present it may also be considered as a mixture of
amplitude and phase modulation. It is widely used because it offers advantages over
other forms of data modulation such as PSK, although many forms of data modulation operate
alongside each other. Which is used to modulate both analog and digital data, based on its
constellation points, it might be 4-QAM, 8-QAM, 16-QAM, 32-QAM, 64-QAM, and 128-QAM. 4-
QAM (QPSK) is the earliest technique and is used for low data rate applications as compared to
the other QAM techniques. Although QAM appears to increase the efficiency of transmission for
radio communication systems by utilizing both amplitude and phase variations, it also has have
some disadvantages that makes it less attractive to mobile communication like : the need of
linear filter which is less efficient and high power consumption and noise between points.

1.3 Statement of problem

We know that there are different types of modulation techniques. But using Quadrature
amplitude modulation (QAM) for digital transmission for radio communications applications is
able to carry higher data rates than ordinary amplitude modulated schemes and phase modulated
schemes. The additional thing for the motivation of the use of quadrature amplitude modulation
comes from the fact that a straight amplitude modulated signal, i.e. double sideband even with a
suppressed carrier occupies twice the bandwidth of the modulating signal. This is very wasteful
of the available frequency spectrum. QAM restores the balance by placing two independent
double sideband suppressed carrier signals in the same spectrum as one ordinary double sideband
suppressed carrier signal.
1.4 Objective

1.4.1 GENERAL OBJECTIVE

The general objective of this project is to understand the comparison of the M-QAM on digital
radio communication and data application.

1.4.2 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE

 to compare bit error rate on different noisy environment;

4-QAM

8-QAM

16-QAM

32-QAM

METHODOLOGY

The methodologies to be used to achieve objectives of the project are:


Conceptual survey: includes reading the concepts involved in the work.
Literature survey: Exploring the previous work done in this area and bringing connectivity to
the present work.
System modeling and simulation: includes mathematical modeling of the system and
simulating the modeled system using MATLAB.
Performance Evaluation: includes evaluating and comparing the performance of different
QAM modulation techniques.

Analysis and Interpretation of the results: which modulation technique has a high bit error
rate on the basis of noise will be explain based on the result.

1.2 Literature review

Review of modulations

Modulation is defined process by which some characteristics of carrier signal varied


according with modulating signal. Here characteristics of carrier signal like phase, angle,
amplitude and frequency. And the modulating signal means the massage signal which in binary
form. Digital modulation techniques, consider digital to analog conversion. And the
demodulation or detection analog to digital conversion. The modulation of digital signal
information can be transmitted by using cable, microwave system, satellite at different
frequencies. As per practical implement approach several type of delay, noise in
analogous waveform which is transmitted. All type of modulation techniques, as concern
with practical approach considering baseband signal and carrier frequency.

Generally there are two types of modulation

Analog modulation- Analog signal is to be modulated. It can be

 Amplitude modulation(AM): As the name implies, this form of modulation


involves modulating the amplitude or intensity of the signal.
Fig.3.1

36

Amplitude modulation was the first form of modulation to be used to broadcast sound, and
although other forms of modulation are being increasingly used, amplitude modulation is still in
widespread use.

 Frequency modulation,(FM):This form of modulation varies the frequency in line with


the modulating signal.
FIG 3.2

Frequency modulation has the advantage that, as amplitude variations do not carry any
information on the signal, it can be limited within the receiver to remove signal strength
variations and noise. As a result is form of modulation has been used for many applications
including high quality analogue sound broadcasting.

 Phase modulation,(PM): As the name indicates, phase modulation varies the phase of
the carrier in line with the modulating signal.

FIG 3.3
Phase modulation and frequency modulation have many similarities and are linked - one is the
differential of the other. However phase modulation lends itself to data transmissions and as a
result its use has grown rapidly over recent years.

Digital modulation-digital signal is to be modulated which is less susceptible to noise.

Digital modulation can be classified as

1. Binary phase shift keying (BPSK)-is also called 2-QAM in which the phase of the RF carrier
is shifted 180 degree in accordance with a digital bit stream. A “one” causes a phase transition,
and a “zero” does not produce a transition. In BPSK modulator, phase of carrier is varied
represent binary 1 or 0. Both peak amplitude remains constant as phase changes. For example, if
we start a phase of o degree to represent binary „1‟, then we can change the phase to 180 degree
to send binary ‘0’.

2. Quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) - It is also called 4-QAM. In this type of modulation
the binary bit stream or massage signal is pass through line coding like bipolar NRZ signal
represent at binary values 0 and 1 respectively then multiplied with two term real and
imaginary carrier signal carry the information bit stream.

3. Amplitude shift keying (ASK)-In ASK modulator level of amplitude can be used to represent
binary logic 0s and 1s.Wecan think of carrier signal as an ON or OFF Switch. In modulated
signal logic 0 is represented by the absence of carrier, thus giving

OFF/ON keying operation and hence the name given mathematically equation of ASK.

4. Frequency shift keying (FSK) -In frequency shift keying, the frequency of carriers shifted
according to the binary symbol. The phase of carrier is unaffected. That is we have to different
frequency signals according to binary symbols. Let there be a frequency shift by ohms. In this
figure we show here the two frequencies are use carry the symbol or binary bit .
Suppose, we consider here the one frequency that ids carry binary bit „1‟ and second frequency
carry the symbol the „0‟.input bits that in form of 0 and 1 carry the both frequencies without any
interference and get modulated .carrier signal carry the signals in phase.
QAM is also a special type of amplitude modulation, i.e. double sideband even with a suppressed
carrier occupies twice the bandwidth of the modulating signal. This is very wasteful of the
available frequency spectrum. QAM restores the balance by placing two independent double
sideband suppressed carrier signals in the same spectrum as one ordinary double sideband
suppressed carrier signal. In digital communications this arrangement is popular. It is used
because of its bandwidth conserving (and other) properties.

QAM is a signal in which two carriers shifted in phase by 90 degrees are modulated and the
resultant output consists of both amplitude and phase variations. In view of the fact that both
amplitude and phase variations are present it may also be considered as a mixture of amplitude
and phase modulation.

It is not used for multiplexing two independent messages. Given an input binary sequence
(message) at the rate of n bit/s, two sequences may be obtained by splitting the bit stream into
two paths, each of n/2 bit/s. This is akin to a serial-to-parallel conversion. Because of the halved
rate the bits in the I and Q paths are stretched to twice the input sequence bit clock period. The
two messages are recombined at the receiver, which uses a QAM-type demodulator. The two bit
streams would typically be band limited and/or pulse shaped before reaching the modulator.

TYPES OF QAM

QAM can be classified into two

I. ANALOG QAM
II. DIGITAL QAM

QAM is both an analog and a digital modulation scheme. It conveys two analog message signals,
or two digital messages, by changing (modulating) the amplitudes of two carrier waves, using the
amplitude-shift keying (ASK) digital modulation scheme or amplitude modulation (AM) analog
modulation scheme. The two carrier waves, usually sinusoids, are out of phase with each other
by 90° and are thus called quadrature carriers or quadrature components, hence the name of the
scheme. The modulated waves are summed, and the final waveform is a combination of both
phase-shift keying (PSK) and amplitude-shift keying (ASK), or in the analog case is a
combination of phase modulation (PM) and amplitude modulation. In the digital QAM case, a
finite number of at least two phases and at least two amplitudes are used. PSK modulators are
often designed using the QAM principle, but are not considered as QAM since the amplitude of
the modulated carrier signal is constant. QAM is used extensively as a modulation scheme for
digital telecommunication systems. Arbitrarily high spectral efficiencies can be achieved with
QAM by setting a suitable constellation size, limited only by the noise level and linearity of the
communications channel.

1) Analog QAM

The analogue versions of QAM are typically used to allow multiple analogue signals to be
carried on a single carrier. For example it is used in PAL and NTSC television systems, where the
different channels provided by QAM enable it to carry the components of chroma or color
information. In radio applications a system known as C-QUAM is used for AM stereo radio.
Here the different channels enable the two channels required for stereo to be carried on the single
carrier.

Fig 3.4

2) Digital QAM

Digital formats of QAM are often referred to as "Quantized QAM" and they are being
increasingly used for data communications often within radio communications systems. when
used for digital transmission for radio communications applications is able to carry higher data
rates than ordinary amplitude modulated schemes and phase modulated schemes. As with phase
shift keying, etc, the number of points at which the signal can rest, i.e. the number of points on
the constellation is indicated in the modulation format description, e.g. 16QAM uses a 16 point
constellation. Radio communications systems ranging from cellular technology as in the case
of LTE through wireless systems including WiMAX, and I use a variety of forms of QAM, and
the use of QAM will only increase within the field of radio communications.

QAM and other Modulation Techniques

When using QAM, the constellation points are normally arranged in a square grid with equal
vertical and horizontal spacing and as a result the most common forms of QAM use a
constellation with the number of points equal to a power of 2 i.e. 4, 16, 64. As there are
advantages and disadvantages of using QAM it is necessary to compare QAM with other
modulation techniques modes. Some radio communications systems dynamically change the
modulation scheme dependent upon the link conditions and requirements - signal level, noise,
data rate required, etc.

3.3 Performance measurement of modulation techniques

As maintained above the main reason QAM is needed is its high data rate. By using higher order
modulation formats, i.e. more points on the constellation, it is possible to transmit more bits per
symbol. However the points are closer together and they are therefore more susceptible to noise
and data errors. Normally a QAM constellation is square and therefore the most common forms
of QAM 16QAM, 64QAM and 256QAM.The advantage of moving to the higher order formats is
that there are more points within the constellation and therefore it is possible to transmit more
bits per symbol. The downside is that the constellation points are closer together and therefore
the link is more susceptible to noise. As a result, higher order versions of QAM are only used
when there is a sufficiently high signal to noise ratio.

3.3.1 Data rate

Since the data rate has directly relationship with the number of constellation points the system
with high constellation points will have high the higher data rate. To achieve high data rate high
BW will be needed. High frequency spectrum (BW) also cause high interference on the signal.
So to increase the data rate we have to achieve the error probability low.
3.3.2 BER

The most widely used performance measures for performance evaluation is the bit error rate
(BER). In digital transmission the number of bit errors is the number of received bits of a data
stream over a communication that have been altered due to noise, interference distortion bit or
synchronization errors.
42
The BER can be estimated from following Equation. The BER gives the upper limit for the
signal because some degradation occurs at the receiver end.

The bit error rate or bit error ratio (BER) is the number of bit errors divided by the total number
of transferred bits during a studied time interval. BER is a unit less performance measure, often
expressed as a percentage
The bit error probability (Pe) is the expectation value of the BER.The BER can be considered as
an approximate estimate of the bit error probability. This estimate is accurate for a long time
interval and a high number of bit errors. In a communication system, the receiver side BER may
be affected by transmission channel noise interference, distortion, bit synchronization
Problems, attenuation, wireless multipath fading, etc. In a noisy channel, the BER is often
expressed as a function of the normalized carrier-to-noise ratio measure denoted Eb/N0, (energy
per bit to noise power spectral density ratio), or Es/N (energy per modulation symbol to noise
spectral density).
The table below compares various forms of modulation:
Table 1

QAM application

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation has been adopted by most wireless communication standards
such as WiMAX and LTE. It provides higher bit rates and consequently higher spectral
efficiencies. It is usually used in conjunction with Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
(OFDM) which provides a simple technique to overcome the time varying frequency selective
channel. Eg. 256 QAM is used in DVB (digital video broadcasting) and 4096 QAM may be used
as C2 (cable two).
45

36
37
38

Conclusion

During my four month internship program I have got a chance to alleviate our practical skill and
adapted the real world or working environment. In addition to gaining a good experience, a
university internship allowed me to make valuable industry relation. And it is very crucial or
essential to land the jobless after graduation.
Generally, the internship program made the generation who Join University for the future give
them good understanding with both theoretical and practical knowledge’s before their
graduation. Engineering department of HMMA which include radio studio room, TV
broadcasting room and maintenance. In which radio and TV fulfill communication system, from
source to antenna. Maintenance room has also preventive maintenance and corrective
maintenance.

39

Recommendation

Also I recommend that my university; The University had weak relationship with the Agency, so
the university better to should have strong relation with Agency.

In agency the communication stream practice is depend on the data communication system,
such as data base and Antenna. But I not taken during my internship period I do not get
special dedication from the coordinators. In HMMA radio studio room there is poor
installation of the wire around control room. Throughout four month I do not have got any
computer access to do our report and to get more knowledge on communication system in
related with what they have told us there is no more references manual

There maintenance room is to narrow, this implies I can’t identify the material which I want to
do. They do not have excess human resource. For example in transmitter room, in camera
maintenance room and etc. The office is not given for intern. Because of this the intern stand
outside till their supervisor comes.

Generally, I recommend that; the host company must fulfill what I have mentioned the above
weakness of them.

these courses, because of this I challenged on some classes.

33

Reference

●From interviewing

●http://www.ask com/question/downlink-satellite-frequency

●Lati B.P. Modern digital & analog Communication systems volume 3rd edition

www.Hararimedia.org
Comn link from aground based antenna to a satellite in orbit

Appendix

Note in the figures above, M represents the size of the Signal constellation .

To modulate a signal using quadrature amplitude modulation(QAM):

1. Define and set up your QAM modulator object.

2. Call step to modulate a signal according to the properties of


comm.GeneralQAMModulator. The behavior of step is specific to each object in the toolbox.

Construction

H = comm.GeneralQAMModulator creates a modulator System object,H. This object modulates


the input signal using a general quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) method.
H = comm.GeneralQAMModulator(Name,Value) creates a QAM modulator object, H, with each
specified property set to the specified value. You can specify additional name-value pair
arguments in any order as (Name1,Value1,...,NameN,ValueN).

H = comm.GeneralQAMModulator(CONST,Name,Value) creates a General QAM modulator


object, H. This object has the Constellation property set to CONST, and the other specified
properties set to the specified values.

Constellation Signal constellation

Specify the constellation points as a vector of real or complex double-


precision data type. The length of the vector determines the modulation order.
The step method inputs requires integers between 0 and M–1, where M
indicates the length of this property vector. The object maps an input integer
mto the (m+1)st value in the Constellation vector.

OutputDataType Data type of output

Specify the output data type as one of double | single | Custom. The default is
double.

Let's see the signal constellation of M-QAM for any value of M with (M=2^n).

The signal gray code constellation of 8 QAM is illustrated below.

% Create 8-QAM Gray encoded modulator

hMod = modem.qammod('M',8,'SymbolOrder','Gray');

% Create a scatter plot

scatterPlot = commscope.ScatterPlot('SamplesPerSymbol',1,...

'Constellation',hMod.Constellation);
% Show constellation

scatterPlot.PlotSettings.Constellation = 'on';

scatterPlot.PlotSettings.ConstellationStyle = '.';

title('constellation for Gray coded 8-QAM ');

xlable('In-phase');

ylable('Quadriture');

hold on;

k=log2(hMod.M);

forjj=1:hMod.M

text(real(hMod.Constellation(jj))+0.15,...,

imag(hMod.Constellation(jj)),...

dec2base(hMod.SymbolMapping(jj),2,k));

end

hold off;
fig4.5

When we create a 32-QAM scatter plot for example the constellation points will increase to
32.Which is complex than the previous. But it will have higher data rate. let's see its signal
constellation.

% Create 32-QAM modulator


hMod = modem.qammod(32);
% Create a scatter plot
scatterPlot = commscope.ScatterPlot('SamplesPerSymbol',1,...
'Constellation',hMod.Constellation);
scatterPlot.PlotSettings.Constellation = 'on';% Shows constellation

scatterPlot.PlotSettings.ConstellationStyle = 'rd';
title('Scatter plot');

xlable('In-phase');

ylable('Quadriture');
hold on;
forjj=1:hMod.M
text(real(hMod.Constellation(jj)),imag(hMod.Constellation(jj)),...
[' ' num2str(hMod.SymbolMapping(jj))]);
end
hold off;

fig 4.6

During constellation of M-QAM as the number of constellation points increases the error
probability will also increase under noisy environment.

Let’s use a BERTool to run simulations random signal to be modulated using QAM by using
commdoc_gray.m.This is used to see the effect of single constellation error (BER) with respect
to noise (EbNo).

editcommdoc_gray
editbertooltemplate

%Save the BERTool template (bertooltemplate) under the filename my_commdoc_bertool to


avoid overwriting the original template.copythecommdoc_bertool file, replace

% use the Set up parameters. i.e. copy setup code


% the users code is to be inserted
% Setup
% Define parameters.
M = 16; % Size of signal constellation
k = log2(M); % Number of bits per symbol
n = 1000; % Number of bits to process
nsamp = 1; % Oversampling rate
% In the my_commdoc_bertool file, replace(copy simulation)
% use the simulation

totErr=rand(1);

%update totErr and numBits.


n=1000;
totErr=rand(1);
totErr = totErr + number_of_errors;% Update totErr
numBits = numBits + n;% Update No of bitts;
xlable('Eb/No');
ylable(BER);
EbNo = 10; % In dB which isdirect assignment of EbNo
%save simulation resultinmy_commdoc_bertool

bertool % open BERtool


Then by clicking Monte Carlo tab we can enter the parameters in MATLAB. By running the
project we get the following:
Fig 4.7

Let's also have a random signal so that it computes the BER for integer values of EbNo between
0 and 7. BER Tool solves the problem by managing a series of simulations with different values
of Eb/N0, collecting the results, and creating a plot. You provide the core of the simulation, which
in this case is a minor modification of the example in .modulating random signal.

%% Range of variables
Mvec = [4 8 16 32];% the values of M to consider;
EbNovec=[0:7];% values of EbNo to consider
%% Preallocate space for results.
number_of_errors = zeros(length(Mvec),length(EbNovec));
bit_error_rate = zeros(length(Mvec),length(EbNovec));
%% Simulation loops
foridxM = 1:length(Mvec)
foridxEbNo = 1:length(EbNovec)
x=[4 8 16 32];
z=rand(1,6);%random error computation
Mvec=16;
EbNovec=7;
end % End of loop over EbNo values
end % End of loop over M values
M = Mvec(idxM); % Size of signal constellation
EbNo = EbNovec(idxEbNo); % In dB
%% BER Computation
biterr(x,z)=x-z;% Comparison of x and z to obtain the number of errors and
% the bit error rate.
[number_of_errors(idxM,idxEbNo),bit_error_rate(idxM,idxEbNo)] =biterr(x,z);
markerchoice = '.xo*';%%to Plot the Curve.
plotsym = [markerchoice(idxM) '-']; % Plotting style for this curve
semilogy(EbNovec,bit_error_rate(idxM,:),plotsym); % Plot one curve.
drawnow; % Update the plot instead of waiting until the end.
hold on; % Make sure next iteration does not remove this curve.
markerchoice = '.xo*';%%to Plot the Curve.
plotsym = [markerchoice(idxM) '-'];% plotting style for the second curve;
semilogy(EbNovec,bit_error_rate(idxM,:),plotsym);% plot the second curve
drawnow; % Update the plot instead of waiting until the end.
hold on; % Make sure next iteration does not remove this curve.
markerchoice = '.xo*';%%to Plot the Curve.
plotsym = [markerchoice(idxM) '-'];% plotting style for the third curve ;
semilogy(EbNovec,bit_error_rate(idxM,:),plotsym);% plot the third curve
drawnow; % Update the plot instead of waiting until the end.
hold on; % Make sure next iteration does not remove this curve.
markerchoice = '.xo*';%%to Plot the Curve.

plotsym = [markerchoice(idxM) '-'];% plotting style for the fourth curve ;


semilogy(EbNovec,bit_error_rate(idxM,:),plotsym);% plot the fourth curve
drawnow; % Update the plot instead of waiting until the end.
title('Performance of M-QAM for Varying M');
xlabel('EbNo (dB)'); ylabel('BER');
legend('M = 4','M = 8','M = 16','M = 32',...

By running the above in MATLAB we obtain

Fig 4.8

As declared above the two controversial ideas in modulation are noise and data rate. Let's have
the program to compute the BER of QAM in MATLAB. Since we are considering a noisy
environment as the number of constellation points increases the error probability also increases.

% Generate a random binary data stream


% Define parameters.
M = 16; % Size of signal constellation
k = log2(M); % Number of bits per symbol
n = 3e4; % Number of bits to process
nsamp = 1; % Oversampling rate
hMod = modem.qammod(M); % Create a 16-QAM modulator
%% Signal Source
% Create a binary data stream as a column vector.
x = randint(n,1); % Random binary data stream
% Plot first 40 bits in a stem plot.
stem(x(1:40),'filled');
title('Random Bits');
xlabel('Bit Index');
ylabel('Binary Value');
% prepare to modulate;
%% Bit-to-Symbol Mapping
% Convert the bits in x into k-bit symbols.
xsym = bi2de(reshape(x,k,length(x)/k).','left-msb');
%% Stem Plot of Symbols
% Plot first 10 symbols in a stem plot.
stem(x(1:10),'filled');

figure; % Create new figure window.


stem(xsym(1:10));
title('Random Symbols');
xlabel('Symbol Index'); ylabel('Integer Value');
%To modulate using 16-QAM;
y = modulate(modem.qammod(M),xsym); % Modulate using 16-QAM
% Add white Gaussian noise ;

noise=rand(1);

% Transmitted Signal
ytx = y;
%% Channel
% Send signal over an AWGN channel.
EbNo = 10; % In dB
snr = EbNo + 10*log10(k) - 10*log10(nsamp);
ynoisy = awgn(ytx,snr,'noise');
%% Received Signal
yrx = ynoisy;
% Create a scatter plot;

% Create scatter plot of noisy signal and transmitted


% signal on the same axes.
h = scatterplot(yrx(1:nsamp*5e3),nsamp,0,'g.');
hold on;
scatterplot(ytx(1:5e3),1,0,'k*',h);
title('Received Signal');
legend('Received Signal','Signal Constellation');
axis([-5 5 -5 5]); % Set axis ranges.
hold off;
% Demodulate signal using 16-QAM.
zsym = demodulate(modem.qamdemod(M),yrx);
%% Symbol-to-Bit Mapping
% Undo the bit-to-symbol mapping performed earlier.
z = de2bi(zsym,'left-msb'); % Convert integers to bits.
% Convert z from a matrix to a vector.
z = reshape(z.',numel(z),1);
%% BER Computation
% Compare x and z to obtain the number of errors and
% the bit error rate.
[number_of_errors,bit_error_rate] = biterr(x,z)
Her is the result from MATLAB witch shows as the BER from of the M-QAM.

FIG 4.9
FIG 4.10