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1

NorthStar 4e Reading & Writing Level 4 Answer Key

UNIT 1 4. Other people probably assume that Daniel’s


relationship to numbers is strange.
5. Other people might expect Daniel to be able
VOCABULARY to follow a schedule.

2, page 5
1. estimate 7. predictable COMPREHENSION, page 14
2. compensate 8. interaction 1. According to Gladwell, achievement is talent
3. retain 9. sum plus preparation. Preparation seems to play a
4. anxious 10. savant bigger role.
5. flexible 11. benefit 2. The Beatles were different from most other
6. disabled 12. image bands because they worked harder and had
more preparation.
3. Daniel Levitin says about success that 10,000
MAIN IDEAS hours of practice is required to achieve the level
of mastery associated with being a world-class
2, page 9 expert in anything.
1. b 4. c 4. Levitin believes success takes so long to
2. c 5. b achieve because it seems it takes the brain this
3. a 6. b long to assimilate all that it needs to know to
achieve true mastery.
DETAILS, page 10
MATH
1. ability READING SKILL
2. ability
3. disability 2, pages 15-16
4. disability 1. “I memorised pi to 22,514 decimal places, and
I am technically disabled. I just wanted to show
LANGUAGE people that disability needn’t get in the way.”
1. ability 2. “There’s too much mental stimulus. I have to
2. ability look at every shape and texture. Every price,
3. ability and every arrangement of fruit and vegetables.
So instead of thinking,’What cheese do I want
MEMORY this week?’, I’m just really uncomfortable.”
1. ability 3. “We shared so much - our love of key dates
2. ability from history, for instance. And our love of books.
As a child, I regularly took over a room in the
SOCIAL INTERACTION house and started my own lending library. I
1. disability would separate out fiction and non-fiction, and
2. disability then alphabetise them all. I even introduced a
3. disability ticketing system. I love books so much. I’ve read
more books than anyone else I know. So I was
NEED FOR ORDER delighted when Kim wanted to meet in a library.”
1. disability “He is such a lovely man,” “Kim says, ‘You don’t
2. disability have to be handicapped to be different -
everybody’s different’. And he’s right.”
4. “When I looked at the numbers I ‘saw’
MAKE INFERENCES, page 11 images. It felt like a place I could go where I
Answers may vary. Suggested answers: really belonged.”
1. Others didn’t think that Daniel was a normal
person. They viewed him as some sort of oddity.
2. Others think that only people who are
handicapped or have disabilities are different.
3. Other people probably think that numbers
cannot be your friends since they are not alive.

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2
NorthStar 4e Reading & Writing Level 4 Answer Key

STEP 1: ORGANIZE, page 16 5. Social interaction is difficult for many people


R1: 1 (paragraph 4), 7 (paragraphs 7-8), 2 with ASD.
(paragraph 1) 6. Scans of the brains of autistic savants
Both: 5 (R1, paragraph 4; R2, paragraph 4) suggest the right hemisphere might compensate
R2: 3 (paragraph 3), 4 (paragraph 9), 6 for damage to the left.
(paragraphs 5 & 13) 7. Autistic savants can usually retain large
amounts of information without a problem.
8. Daniel Tamett memorized pi to 22,514
REVIEW, page 17 decimal places to show people that, although he
1. interaction 7. benefit technically has a disability, it doesn’t stop him
2. assimilate 8. emerging from being successful.
3. savant 9. anxious
4. transform 10. compensate
5. predictable 11. disabled GRAMMAR
6. expertise Bonus Word: persistence
1, page 21
1. likelihood
1, page 18 2. speculation
NOUN VERB ADJECTIVE ADVERB 3. necessity
prediction predict predictable predictably
estimate estimate estimated X
sum sum X X
2, page 23
anxiety X anxious 1. b 5. d 9. e
savant X X X 2. e 6. b 10. a
flexibility flex flexible flexibly 3. a 7. c
interaction interact interactive interactively 4. c 8. d
transformation transform transformable X
transformative
transformed 3, page 24
retainment retain retainable X 1.
benefit benefit beneficial X 1. has got to 5. should
disability disable disabled X 2. must not 6. is able to
1. expertise X expert expertly
2. expert
3. must 7. ought to
assimilation assimilate assimilated X 4. might 8. should not
emergence emerge emerging X
persistence persist persistent persistently 2.
compensation compensate X 1. ought to
2. have to
3. can’t
4. must
2, pages 18-19
1. transformative 6. anxiety
2. flexibility 7. estimate WRITE
3. predictable 8. compensation /
4. persist interaction 1, page 27
5. expertise 9. emerge 1. Autistic savants
2. Autistic savants have specific abilities or skills
and they have certain limitations in other areas
CREATE, pages 19-20 of life.
Suggested answers: 3. All sentences relate to the ideas in the topic
1. Because I know Daniel Tammet well, how he sentence.
will react in certain situations is very predictable.
2. Many people who suffer from ASD are not 2, pages 28-29
flexible. 1. b
3. According to Gladwell it requires at least 2. a
10,000 hours to transform talent into expertise. 3. c
4. A lack of structure can make Daniel Tamett
anxious.

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3
NorthStar 4e Reading & Writing Level 4 Answer Key

3, pages 29-30 4. defeated 10. hopelessness


Suggested answers. Answers will vary: 5. yearned for 11. dilapidated
1. Mozart was considered a genius because of 6. tormented
his many musical talents and abilities.
2. Scientists are interested in the roles that
nature and nurture each play in development. PREVIEW, page 38
3. Malcolm Gladwell has written another non- 1. He is in New York.
fiction bestseller, Outliers. 2. Suggested answer: Even though he was the
teacher, his students taught him a lot about the
world—and himself.
REVISE 3. Suggested answer: He had a successful
teaching career.
1, page 31
1. F 5. F
2. F 6. F MAIN IDEAS
3. F 7. F
4. C 8. C 2, page 41
1970: Frank McCourt begins teaching at Seward
2, page 31 Park High School.
Suggested answers. Answers will vary: 1981: Frank McCourt’s mother dies.
1. Autistic savants have many extraordinary 1994: Frank McCourt begins to write his book.
skills and abilities. 1996: Angela’s Ashes hits the bookstores.
2. Gladwell has written an interesting book, 1997: Angela’s Ashes receives the Pulitzer
which emphasizes the importance of hard work Prize.
in achieving success.
3. Before Daniel received his counting book
when he was 4 years old, he had shown no DETAILS, page 42
interest in mathematics. Answers will vary. Suggested answers:
5. Because Dr. Levitin says that at least 10,000 Event: Frank The McCourt’s wanted
hours of practice are needed to achieve McCourt’s family a better life, so they
success, many people never reach success. returned to Ireland. returned to Ireland.
6. The book that Kim Peek was reading the day Their life was still very
before he met Daniel Tammet at the Library in hard. Three children
Salt Lake City was about autistic savants died. The family
throughout history. remained very poor
7. Many competitors prepare by practicing as and very hungry.
much as ten hours a day before the math 1949 Event: Frank Frank McCourt was 19
competition. McCourt returned to years old. He wanted
the United States. to start a new life.
1970 Event: Frank He began teaching
UNIT 2 McCourt began and using his past to
teaching at Seward connect with his
Park High School. students. His students
VOCABULARY loved his stories, and
as he told his stories
2, page 37 he realized how his
1. His parents had no money. His father past affected him.
abandoned the family. There was not enough 1981 Event: Frank After his mother died,
food. They had a small, old house. McCourt’s mother he realized he had no
2. He enjoyed reading. dies. excuses not to write
3. He was ashamed of his past. his memoirs. While his
mother was alive,
3, page 37 McCourt chose not to
1. misery 7. sordid write about his
2. meager 8. poverty childhood out of
3. shame 9. abandonment respect for his mother.

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4
NorthStar 4e Reading & Writing Level 4 Answer Key

1994 Event: Frank He struggled to write MARLA RUNYAN (R2)


McCourt began to his memoirs. It was 1. blindness, doing schoolwork
write his book. very difficult at first. He 2. mother
had to dig deep into 3. self-reliance, pride, feeling accountable for
his past. her success, not asking for special treatment
1996 Event: Angela’s Frank McCourt finally 4. teaching, public speaking, coaching, writing,
Ashes hit the finished his memoirs becoming an athlete
bookstores. and named it Angela’s
Ashes. Within weeks,
it became a bestseller. REVIEW, page 50
1997 Event: Angela’s Because the book was Suggested answers:
Ashes received the so good, it won a FACING AN DEALING OVERCOMING
Pulitzer Prize. major award, the OBSTACLE WITH AN AN
Pulitzer Prize. Frank OBSTACLE OBSTACLE
McCourt became confused expectations defeated
famous. darkest inquisitiveness exalted
defeated laborious free
disability self-reliance paradise
MAKE INFERENCES, pages 43-44 give up struggle pride
1. confront him with criticism hopelessness yearning for
2. make a connection misery accountable
3. produced a large amount [of pages] without mortified
much thought suffer
4. turned pages, but only looked at them briefly
and not carefully
5. went crazy EXPAND, pages 50-51
6. obtaining the reward 1. synonym / c 6. synonym / c
7. became aware of slowly 2. antonym / a 7. antonym / b
8. work hard and not take the easy way 3. antonym / b 8. antonym / a
9. don’t copy other people’s ideas 4. antonym / b 9. synonym / c
10. equal 5. synonym / a

COMPREHENSION, page 47 GRAMMAR


Cross out:
1. c 4. a 1, page 52
2. b 5. c 1. teaching
3. c 2. writing about his childhood
3. reading
4. the base form of the verb + ing
READING SKILL 5. to give up
6. New York University, to enroll
2, pages 48-19 7. to write
1. indistinct shapes 5. mercy 8. to inspire
2. given 6. extremely difficult 9. to + the base form of the verb
3. complete 7. someone else’s fault
4. felt free 2, page 53
a. Doing, 1 f. to be defined, 4a
b. to run 6 g. to write, 5
STEP 1: ORGANIZE, page 49 c. not going, 2 h. Recounting, 1
FRANK MCCOURT (R1) d. to compete, 5 i. writing,3
1. poverty, abandonment, having to move from e. to describe, 4c j. to write, 4b
country to country, lack of education, shame
2. mother, students
3. humor, reading, writing
4. writing, teaching

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5
NorthStar 4e Reading & Writing Level 4 Answer Key

3, page 54 REVISE
Suggested answers:
1. After his mother died, McCourt felt free to 1, page 58
write his memoirs. 1. c
2. Marla needs to train many months for a 2. c
marathon. 3. b
3. McCourt persuades New York University to 4. b
allow him to go there.
4. Marla enjoys inspiring others. 2, pages 58-59
5. McCourt worried about telling his students 1. Cross out: Her mother could her and speak.
that he hadn’t gone to high school. Explanation: The sentence forces on her
6. The boy’s mother decided to let him mother’s abilities, not Helen’s frustrations.
skateboard. 2. Cross out: In addition, Marla has become a
7. McCourt urged his students to write. bestselling author.
8. It is hard for Marla to see the words on a Explanation: This sentence does not focus on
computer screen. how sports liberated them.
9. McCourt recalled living in Limerick. 3. Cross out: Furthermore, he lives in England.
10. Marla was able to graduate from the Explanation: The sentence focuses on where
University of San Diego with a Master’s degree. Steven Hawking lives, not on overcoming
obstacles.

WRITE
UNIT 3
1, pages 56-57
Suggested answers
1. Overcoming obstacles is the topic. It is in the VOCABULARY
first and third sentences.
2. The world is full of people who have 2, page 65
overcome obstacles and benefited from 1. risk factor 7. consensus
overcoming them. 2. impact 8. advocate
3. Underline: For example, Greg Barton, the 3. potential 9. interpreting
1984, 1988, and 1992 U.S. Olympic medalist in 4. environment 10. reliable
kayaking, was born with a serious disability. He 5. interaction 11. linked
had club feet, his toes pointed inward, and as a 6. aspects 12. revolutionized
result, he could not walk easily. Even after a
series of operations, he still had limited mobility.
Even so, Greg was never defeated. First, he MAIN IDEAS
taught himself to walk, and even to run. Then,
he competed on his high school running team. 2, page 70
He knew, though, he would never become an Answers will vary. Suggested answers:
Olympic runner, so he looked for other sports POSITIVE NEGATIVE
that he could play. Happily, he discovered I. Can revolutionize I. Emotional and
kayaking, a perfect sport for him because it Medicine Physical Impact
required minimal leg and foot muscles. Using his a. can prevent a. Positive result
upper body strength, he was able to master the diseases rather than can be shattering for
sport. Finally, after many years of training and just treat them patient and family.
perseverance, Greg made the 1984 Olympic b. quality of life is b. Positive result
team. better can lead to risky,
These sentences tell how Greg Barton unhealthy decisions.
overcame his obstacles and benefited by II. Information is II. Invasion of Privacy
overcoming them. empowering for patient a. may threaten
4. The concluding sentence is: In short, even a. can change employment and
though that road was paved with obstacles, he lifestyle insurance
was able to overcome them and achieve the b. can choose
impossible. appropriate treatment
It summarizes the paragraph. plan

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6
NorthStar 4e Reading & Writing Level 4 Answer Key

III. Results are not A few months later: Cousins was able to walk
always reliable using a brace
IV. Professional Soon after that: Cousins was able to return to
interpretation is not work
required A few years later: Cousins reached full
a.Patient may recovery
interpret test results 1990: Cousins died
incorrectly.
b. There are other STEP 1: ORGANIZE, page 76
risk factors in addition Genetic Testing (R1): expensive, used in a
to genes. response to potential or existing illness, based
on a cutting edge science, used to prevent and
treat, provides information about the body,
DETAILS, pages 70-71 results are difficult to interpret and can be easily
1. h 5. b 9. g misinterpreted, results may involve family
2. k 6. j 10. i members
3. e 7. d 11. f Both new technique, medical choice, does not
4. a 8. c have to involve a doctor, is becoming part of
standard medical care
Laughter Therapy (R2): little cost, used in
MAKE INFERENCES, pages 71-72 response to existing illness, based on Cousins’
Answers will vary. Suggested answers: reading about mind-body interaction, used as
Nate, Kristen’s brother: Neutral treatment only, changes body chemistry, results
Kristen’s father: Very Strong are easy to interpret, results involve the patient
Brenda Finucane: Neutral only
Robert Green: Strong
Betsy Bank Saul: Weak
Ardis Dee Hoven: Strong REVIEW, pages 77-78
David Agus: Very Strong 1. revolutionize 8. consult
2. advocates 9. linked
3. potential 10. environment
COMPREHENSION, page 74 4. risk factors 11. interaction
Answers will vary. Suggested answers: 5. impact 12. consensus
1. He was diagnosed with a very serious form of 6. skeptical 13. alternative
arthritis. He decided to fight the disease. 7. reliable 14. conventional
2. If negative emotions bring negative changes
to the body, positive emotions should bring
positive changes. Laughter has a positive EXPAND
therapeutic value.
3. Watching funny movies and reading funny 1, page 78
books are examples of laugh therapy. 1. S 6. S 11. S
4. He was able to overcome his disease. 2. D 7. D 12. D
3. D 8. S 13. S
READING SKILL 4. D 9. S 14. S
5. S 10. D 15. S
2, page 75
Sometime before the summer of 1964: 2, pages 78-79
Cousins read the work of organic chemist Hans 1. impact 5. alternative
Selye, The Stress of Life 2. interpret 6. elicit
Summer 1964: Cousins becomes ill 3. treatment 7. diagnosis
Later in the summer of 1964: Cousins was 4. disagreement
diagnosed with a severe form of arthritis and
started his Laughter Therapy program
8 days later: Cousins’ pain decreased, he was
able to sleep better, and his body chemistry
improved.

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7
NorthStar 4e Reading & Writing Level 4 Answer Key

GRAMMAR 2, page 86
Answers may vary. Suggested answers:
1, pages 79-80 THREE PARTS OF NOTES
1. T / F AN ESSAY
2. T / T
3. F / T I. Introduction I. Background
Information:
2, pages 81-82 Thesis Statement: Grandparents suffering
1. F / F 5. T / T From this personal from Huntington’s
2. F / F 6. F / T perspective, I disease
3. F / T 7. T / T believe that home
4. T / F 8. F / F genetic testing Well educated with
should be much Master’s degree in
3, page 82 more strictly biology
1. If she hadn’t chosen the correct treatment regulated, if not
plan, she might not have felt better. prohibited all
2. If Kristen Powers hadn’t always wanted all the together.
information available, she wouldn’t have chosen II. Body Paragraph II. Body Paragraph 1
to be genetically tested. 1
3. If Norman Cousins hadn’t read The Stress of Support/Evidence:
Life by Hans Seyle, he wouldn’t have had some Topic: Devastating Co-workers experience
ideas about the mind-body connection when he effects of home -Without professional
was diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis. genetic testing interpretation led to
4. If Norman Cousins hadn’t been sick, He feelings of impending
wouldn’t have tried to cure himself by using tragedy
Laughter Therapy. OR If Norman Cousins hadn’t -Retesting by doctor led
tried to cure himself by using Laughter Therapy, to correct medication
he wouldn’t have made a complete recovery. and lifestyle changes
5. If David Agus hadn’t had a genetic test, he Body Paragraph 2 Body Paragraph 2
wouldn’t have found out that he was at risk for
cardiovascular disease. OR If David Agus hadn’t Topic: Genetic test Support/Evidence:
had a genetic test and found out that he was at results are not -Genetic testing is in its
risk for cardiovascular disease, his children infallible nor infancy and even
wouldn’t have made him change his diet. definitive professionals don’t
6. If Kristen’s mom hadn’t contacted her understand interaction
biological father, she might not have learned that between genes
Huntington’s disease ran in their family. -False positives
7. If Norman Cousins had been satisfied with his -False negatives
doctor’s treatment plan, he wouldn’t have -Environmental factors
developed his own Laughter Therapy treatment are not taken into
account

PREPARE TO WRITE, page 83 III. Conclusion


KNOWLEDGE IS POWER Restate the Thesis: If we, as a society, truly
Change lifestyle believe that genetic testing has more benefits
Consider different treatments than negative effects, it is our responsibility to
regulate it, so all testing includes counseling and
PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS interpretation by professionals.
Positive test results may cause feelings of doom
Final Thought/Wrap Up: Remember, the key is
MISINTERPRETATION OF RESULTS that to truly be able to make the best medical
Without consultation with doctor, patient may choices, medical professionals need to be
make incorrect decisions involved in any decision.

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8
NorthStar 4e Reading & Writing Level 4 Answer Key

REVISE READING SKILL

2, page 87 2, page 104


Check: 1, 3, 6, 7 1. (Paragraph 4) The problem is that we often
look for human traits when we study animal
behaviour. But what may be clever for us
UNIT 4 needn’t be a viable attribute in other members of
the animal kingdom.
2. (Paragraphs 16 and 17) The British scientists
VOCABULARY, pages 92-93 point out that the bees beat the babies in a
1. controversy 7. apparently learning test because the lab tested
2. category 8. perception characteristics that bees have been perfecting
3. behavior 9. unique during aeons of evolutionary development.
4. obvious 10. approach In comparisons of intelligence among species
5. unconscious 11. acquired it’s hard to avoid dealing trump cards to one
6. cognition 12. achieve species or another.
3. (Paragraph 20) With more emphasis on a
bottom-up method, they would study the
MAIN IDEAS species’ neural networks in attempts to perceive
what uses these networks can have.
2, page 97 4. (Paragraph 23) This [investigations of their
Main Ideas: 2, 5, 8 brains’ neural circuitry] has contributed toward
answering questions about whether some of our
human qualities can also exist in other species
DETAILS, page 98 and help lay the groundwork for better
1. f 5. a comparisons.
2. c 6. g
3. d 7. e
4. b STEP 1: ORGANIZE, page 105
R1 R2
WHAT IS Using Diverse
MAKE INFERENCES, pages 98-99 INTELLIGENCE? extreme meanings
Answers may vary. Suggested answers: perception to for different
1. “apparently,” “most” / The predictions are not invent jobs. species
proven. It is only what Ms. Standley reports. It is (Recognizing
also not clear whether these dogs were trained something
as seizure alert dogs. The use of “most” is and then
vague. Again, there is no documentation. deciding to
2. “thought” / It is based on von Osten’s belief, act.)
not on proof.
3. “wasn’t really” / Hans was counting but not in PROBLEMS Using human Looking for
the way people thought he was counting. WITH standards human
4. “believe,” “obvious,” “as far as I’m concerned,” ASSESSING (Clever Hans traits and
“think” / This is the author’s opinion and it may ANIMAL can count qualities
not be shared by everyone. INTELLIGENCE he is smart; (the use of
5. “to my knowledge,” (not) “hugely,” “some,” He is not tools)
“think” / This is the author’s opinion and she really Brain
admits that it may be based on incomplete counting weight of
knowledge. he is a dumb mammals
animal) For
humans,
COMPREHENSION, pages 102-103 intelligence
1. a 4. a is linked to
2. c 5. a language,
3. b 6. c but we
can’t

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9
NorthStar 4e Reading & Writing Level 4 Answer Key

understand assessing animal intelligence. Because for


animal humans, intelligence is so linked to language,
language the fact that we don’t understand animal
(dolphins) language makes it very hard to accurately
assess their intelligence.
OTHER Forensic Bees: R: Are all of these apparently amazing things
ABILITIES VS. dogs: Instinct that animals are capable of doing really a sign of
INTELLIGENCE Extreme intelligence or are there other explanations for
perception their actions?
Clever Hans: TG: Sometimes there is. For example, forensic
Learned dogs that work at airports looking for explosives
reflexes or illegal drugs aren’t really showing intelligence.
They are just using extreme perception to signal
items they have been trained to point out. They
STEP 2: SYNTHESIZE, pages 106-107 don’t have any idea that these things are bad or
Answers will vary. Suggested answers: dangerous, just that they are rewarded to find
Reporter: Today we lucky to have with us two them.
animal experts, Temple Grandin and Gita GS: Yes, similarly a recent test of intelligence
Simonsen. They are both especially interested in across species (including humans) found bees
the question of animal intelligence. Ms. Grandin, to be smarter than all other species including
how would you define animal intelligence? humans. However, the explanation might not be
Temple Grandin: Let me start by saying that intelligence, but rather it was their instinct that
many people confuse extreme perception with allowed them to outscore everyone on the test.
intelligence. Many animals have extreme R: Thank you both very much. I am afraid we
perception at least compared to humans, but have run out of time. I know I have learned a lot
that alone doesn’t make them intelligent. I think and I am sure our viewers have, too. Thanks
seizure alert dogs are a good example of animal again.
intelligence because they use their extreme
perception to figure out when someone is going
to have a seizure. This is not something they REVIEW, page 108
need to do or have been taught to do, but R1
something that they choose to do. This is what 1. achieve assess accomplish attain
2. acquire obtain need gain
shows intelligence. 3. apparently seemingly allegedly visually
Gita Simonsen: I definitely agree that seizure 4. approach method attempt procedure
alert dogs are showing intelligence, but, in my 5. behavior ability action conduct
opinion, intelligence in animals differs from 6. category section group aspect
7. cognition understanding instinct intelligence
species to species. 8. consensus disagreement debate
R: How can animal intelligence be assessed? controversy
TG: One problem that we have in assessing 9. obvious clear evident possible
10. thought awareness observation
animal intelligence is that we too often use perception
human standards. 11. cautious involuntary unintentional
GS: Yes, I agree. For example, those animals unconscious
that are able to imitate human behavior and 12. unique singular normal solitary

show human-like traits are thought to be R2


13. confront remind challenge present
intelligent. 14. discern differentiate figure out dislike
TG: In the case of the “counting” horse, Clever 15. sensory auditory visual habitual
Hans, many people judged him to be intelligent 16. trait characteristic path feature
when they thought he was able to correctly solve 17. viable usable applicable achievable
mathematical problems. However, as soon as
they realized that he was getting unconscious
cues from the audience, he was considered a
“dumb” animal. I don’t agree with them. I think
Clever Hans was showing intelligence because
he was able invent a job for himself.
GS: That’s a good point. However, let me say
one more thing about the problems with

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10
NorthStar 4e Reading & Writing Level 4 Answer Key

EXPAND, pages 108-109


1 2 3 4 5 6
ROOT MEANING READING WORD MEANING OTHER
and WORDS
PARAGRAPH WITH THE
SAME ROOT
1. Mind R1-6 psychologist Someone Psychic
psych- who is trained
to study the
mind
2. know/learn R1-2, 10 cognition understanding; cognizant
cogni- R2- 3, 13 recognizing/ identifying/
recognize identify;
cognitive relating to
thought
3. dict- say/tell R1-2 predict to say dictation
something will
happen
4. act- do R1-10 actions something actor
R2-25 active done; busy,
doing
something
5. taken R1-2 perceptual relating to misconception
cept- R2-14 concepts perception;
idea
6. number R2-23 numerous many numeral
numer-
7. nov- new R1-2 novel new novice
8. feeling R1-4 sense feeling about
sens- R2-3 sensory something;
relating to
sensation
9. one R1-3 percent an amount century
cent- hundred equal to a
particular
number of
parts in every
100 parts
10. know R1-6 unconscious unintentional; scientist
sci- R2-7 sciences study of
physical world
11. nerve R2-20 neural of nerves neuron
neur-

2, pages 110-111
GRAMMAR 1. incorrect / corrections: in which
2. correct / alternative: in which
1, PAGE 110 3. incorrect / corrections: which/that
1. that humans lack 4. incorrect / correction: whose
2. a person about to have a seizure 5. correct / alternative: that
3. the afternoon he was able to figure out how 6. correct / alternative: which
Clever Hans was able to answer the questions 7. incorrect / corrections: who/that
4. that, who, when / nouns 8. incorrect / corrections: in which/where

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11
NorthStar 4e Reading & Writing Level 4 Answer Key

3, pages 112-113 Answers will vary. Suggested answers:


Answers will vary. Suggested answers: 5. Clever Hans really was intelligent, even if he
1. Cleve Hans was trained by a retired school couldn’t count, because he was able to train
teacher who had taught science for many years. himself to appear to count.
2. The afternoon when Cleve Hans was ready to 6. Animals that recognize things and choose to
perform in front of an audience was cold and act on them are showing true intelligence.
rainy.
3. Binti the gorilla is best known for an amazing
incident which / that occurred on August 16, REVISE
1996.
4. I spoke with a man who / that had trained 1, pages 119-120
dolphins and killer whales. Answers will vary. Suggested answers:
5. Psychologists study many animals which / 1. We shouldn’t just look for human traits when
that live in zoos. studying animal intelligence because they are
6. I saw my friend whose dog could predict not a good indicator of true animal intelligence.
seizures before they started. 2. Bøckman feels that until we can understand
7. We saw the dolphin which / that performed animal language we cannot assess their
some spectacular feats. intelligence because of the connection for us
8. The psychologist who developed a new test between intelligence and language.
for animal intelligence had studied at the 3. Many studies focusing on the neural circuitry
University of Berlin. OR The psychologist who in the brain are helping scientists to better
had studied at the University of Berlin developed compare traits across species including “human
a new test for animal intelligence. like” traits in animals.
9. The morning when the dogs saved Mrs.
Standley was sunny ands hot.
10. The contraband which / that was discovered UNIT 5
by the forensic dog was in an old brown
suitcase.
VOCABULARY, pages 124-125
1. b 5. c 9. b
WRITE 2. a 6. b 10. a
3. b 7. c 11. b
1, pages 115-116 4. c 8. a 12. c
1. Gita Simonsen is the author of the article How
Smart are Animals?
2. Scientists are facing problems in assessing MAIN IDEAS
animal intelligence.
3. Tests are based on the animals ability to 2, page 130
imitate human behavior, on proportional brain Answers will vary. Suggested answers:
weight, tests are assumed to be flawed if Marriage: Marriage is not seen as a lifelong
humans do not come out on top, and the small commitment. People assume they will have
size of some animal brains makes it hard to many marriages to a wide variety of people who
study neural pathways.. will enhance their lives.
4. Simonsen concludes that scientists need to Family structure / Relationships: Because
develop better tools, methods and theories for people live for hundreds of years there can be
comparing the brain skills in different species, 10 or 20 generations of the family living at the
but we are well on our way. same time.
Careers: People will change their careers many
2, pages 116-117 times and their careers will be vastly different.
1. a Longevity: No one seems to know how long the
2. b human lifespan can be with the Process, but so
3. b far, no one has died in the 400 years since the
4. a Process was invented.

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12
NorthStar 4e Reading & Writing Level 4 Answer Key

DETAILS, page 131 3. c


Answers will vary. Suggested answers: Evidence: He says he wants the marriage to go
TOPIC MARILISA LEO on forever.
MARRIAGE First marriage Has been 4. c
married Evidence: She thinks from time to time of the
Assumes she’ll seven times. men she will marry after she and Leo have gone
be married their separate ways. Perhaps she’ll stay with
again to a Leo for ten years, perhaps for fifty. No one stays
variety of men. married forever. Fifteen, twenty years, that’s the
FAMILY Has to deal Has great usual. Sixty or seventy tops. She even has
STRUCTURE/ with multiple relationships thought about the jobs of her future husbands.
RELATIONSH stepchildren, with all of 5. a
IPS much older his ex-wives Evidence: Marilisa is disturbed by the idea of
than her, and and having the same husband for hundreds of years,
ex wives. children. but, at the same time, is disturbed by the idea of
CAREERS Has not yet Has had at having many different husbands. She also
chosen a least fifteen worries about the “vast amount of time” that is in
career, but or twenty front of her.
knows she has careers, all
lots of time to of them very
decide and that different. READING SKILL
she will have
the opportunity Does this so 2, page 137
to have many he always Answers will vary. Suggested answers:
careers. has a 1. Will a doubled lifespan cause overpopulation?
challenge— What benefits will come from a doubled
doesn’t get lifespan?
bored. 2. How will marriage and family be affected by a
LONGEVITY Has had her Faithfully longer lifespan?
first Prep, but does his Will people stay married to the same person
has not yet Process and their whole lives or have multiple marriages?
undergone the has been 3. At what age will people retire?
Process. alive for Will there be enough jobs for young people?
almost four
Sees an hundred
unlimited future years. STEP 1: ORGANIZE, page 138
Answers will vary. Suggested answers:
Still vigorous EFFECT
and Marriage Positive Marriage Negative
youthful. Effect Effect
R1 you will be able to R1 extremely large
have many different age difference
MAKE INFERENCES, pages 131-133 and interesting between spouses
Answers will vary. Suggested answers: spouses
1. c
Evidence: She didn’t look a day over thirty and R2 you won’t feel you R2 multiple brief
was constantly around. In addition, Leo still was have to stay in a marriages
fond of her. He thought Katrin and Marilisa could loveless marriage out
become friends, but Marilisa thought that would of inertia
be very difficult.
2. b Careers Positive Careers Negative
Evidence: He winks and laughs at her and Effect Effect
jokes about being able to play with her when R1 you can “reinvent” R1 no negative effects
Leo is done with her. yourself by changing
careers and finding a
fresh challenge

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13
NorthStar 4e Reading & Writing Level 4 Answer Key

R2 economic R2 fewer job openings;


productivity will go up; corporations and Toward Immortality
you can try different universities will Suffixes Example Definition Example
careers stagnate without from Text or of a New
youthful talent and Synonym Adjective
ideas with the
Family Structure Family Structure Same
Positive Effect Negative Effect Suffix
R1 No positive effects R1 have to deal with Paragraphs 1–
multiple ex-wives / 2
husbands and -al personal individual minimal
stepchildren Paragraphs 3–
R2 more quality time R2 large age 4
with loved ones; watch difference in siblings -ic emphatic forceful narcotic
future generations would create different -ical practical sensible tropical
grow up set of social Paragraphs 5–
relationships 7
-less loveless without love homeless
-ing remaining still left smoking
REVIEW, page 139 Paragraphs
Answers may vary. Suggested answers: 10–13
Positive Negative Neutral -ly inevitably Without happily
awesome chilly disparate doubt
fond impetuous immeasurably -ed limited restricted skilled
punctually insufferable inevitably -some worrisome troublesome awesome
vigorous loveless tolerable -ant constant steady elegant
emphatic presumptuous ultimately -ful youthful young hopeful
worrisome utterly
radically
GRAMMAR
EXPAND, pages 139-141 1, page 142
Answers in the last column may vary. Suggested 1. Yes, it happened three years ago.
answers: 2. No, he has been an architect . . . not he is.
Death Do Us Part 3. Yes, they are still searching because the verb
Death Do us Part
Suffixes Example Definition Example of is in the continuous form, searching, and the
from Text or a New sentence states since the beginning of recorded
Synonym Adjective history, which is when they started searching.
with the 4. simple past in a, present perfect in b, and
Same Suffix
Paragraphs
present perfect continuous in c.
1-2
-ing shimmering sparkling speeding 2, pages 144-145
-ive impulsive impetuous active 1. have been searching 8. discussed
Paragraphs 2. has been 9. has been doing
3-5
-able insufferable intolerable comfortable
3. have not been 10. have had
-al ideal perfect Traditional 4. took 11. have enjoyed
Paragraphs 5. attended 12. completed
6-15 6. didn’t actually start 13. has been working
-ent Ancient very old different 7. have gone
-ous serious sincere curious
Paragraphs
26-33
-ible permissible allowable invisible
-ic romantic passionate emphatic
Paragraphs
34-38
-y misty foggy dirty

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14
NorthStar 4e Reading & Writing Level 4 Answer Key

3, page 146 UNIT 6


1. has met 6. have been studying
2. visited 7. have figured
3. has had 8. attended VOCABULARY
4. has been talking 9. has been doing
5. met 10. has written 1, page 156
1. decision 7. sell
2. modestly 8. boring
WRITE 3. pride 9. appreciate
4. amusement 10. saddened
1, pages 148-149 5. uncertain 11. respond
1. Circle: My life has been an endless roller 6. order 12. scared
coaster ride filled with immeasurable happiness
and sadness. 2, pages 156-158
2. The next paragraphs will probably be about 1. donate / challenge / manage
this happiness and sadness. Reasons: personal; medical research
3. TOUCH: shakes awake 2. passion / thrilled / inspired
SMELL: bitter coffee, burnt toast Reasons: environmental and personal
SIGHT: alarm robot, meteor shower 3. passion / satisfaction / inspired
TASTE: sour milk, bitter coffee Reasons: religious and personal
SOUND: loud crack 4. proposal / devoting
Reasons: mandatory and personal
5. admiring / determined
REVISE Reasons: political and personal

1, page 150
His home is being compared to a lonely cloud MAIN IDEAS
because it floats in the sky.
2, page 162
His punctuality is being compared to a Swiss Answers will vary. Suggested answers:
watch because a Swiss watch is precise and 2, 3, 5
dependable.

2, page 150 DETAILS


Paragraph 1: Waterfalls are being compared to Answers will vary. Suggested answers:
cascades of diamonds because they shimmer. THE BENEFITS OF EXAMPLE OF JUSTIN
Paragraph 2: Leo is being compared to a boy COMMUNITY LEBO
because he looks so young. SERVICE
Paragraph 34: Unknown husbands are being Encourages people to Justin spent his free
compared to swords that fall between Marilisa use their free time time in the summer
and Leo because they will destroy her marriage. constructively. making bicycles for the
children at the
3, page 151 Kilbarchan Home for
The metaphor is They are vague chilly Boys.
phantoms. She uses this metaphor because Opens volunteers’ Justin built bikes for all
both her unknown future husbands and eyes to the great kinds of people in need:
phantoms are not real and they are scary like variety of people in women in a women’s
ghosts. need by providing shelter, people with
opportunities to meet AIDS, and people in a
4, page 151 new and different housing project.
An example of personification is: The words types of people.
skewer her. She uses this personification One successful Justin continued to
because hearing the words hurts, as it would community service build bikes after the
hurt if something sharp were pressed into a experience leads to Kilbarchin project.
person. performing other
services.

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15
NorthStar 4e Reading & Writing Level 4 Answer Key

Volunteers learn they Justin learned that his READING SKILL


can help solve real bikes helped fulfill the
social problems and needs of the boys at 2, page 168
needs. Kilbarchin and the other Some Take the Time Gladly
people who received Paragraph and Persuasive words that
them. number of words or evoke negative
Helps people to find Justin found out he phrases emotions
out who they are, what could take on a big 1 (2) grumble
their interests are, and project and complete it. indignation
what they are good at. He found out he was 2 (1) resistant
good at rebuilding 7 (1) frustrating
bikes.
9 (2) ridiculous
opposing
MAKE INFERENCES, page 163
Problems with Mandatory Volunteering
1. a 4. b
Paragraph and Persuasive words that
2. b 5. c
number of words evoke negative
3. c
emotions
1 (1) terrible
COMPREHENSION, page 167
Answers will vary. Suggested answers: 3 (5) not a good
worse
FOR AGAINST
resentful
MANDATORY MANDATORY
not want
VOLUNTEERING VOLUNTEERING
negative
1. Constructive 1. Volunteering is
5 (2) oxymoron
way to spend time. a personal
opposed
choice.
2. It’s an
STEP 1: ORGANIZE, page 169
extracurricular
activity (personal JUSTIN LEBO (R1)
choice). Paragraph Issue
2. Gets kids 3. Many students 22 Dedication to work
involved in the already 23 Time commitment
community. volunteer. 24 Personal enrichment
3. Some people 4. Students may
would not know become resentful SOME TAKE THE TIME GLADLY (R2)
how great an and never Paragraph Issue
experience volunteer again. 2 Time commitment
volunteering is 5 Personal enrichment
unless it were PROBLEMS WITH MANDATORY
required. VOLUNTEERING (R2)
5. Many students Paragraph Issue
don’t have time. 2 Personal choice,
6. The quality of Dedication to work
work can suffer. 3 Personal choice, Time
commitment
4 Time commitment

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16
NorthStar 4e Reading & Writing Level 4 Answer Key

REVIEW 5. supports / Supporters believe mandatory


volunteering can benefit the community despite
2, page 171 the fact that critics feel that mandatory
1. donations 7. opposition volunteers may do a bad job and therefore
2. inspired 8. pride cause more harm than good.
3. passionate 9. admired
4. challenge 10. fulfilling
5. proposed 11. indignant WRITE
6. resentful
1, pages 180-181
1. He / She is against cutting school sports.
EXPAND, pages 172-173 2. Arguments to Cut School Sports: low team
1. a 5. c 9. c participation, low audience participation, high
2. b 6. c 10. b cost
3. c 7. c 3. Counter Arguments: many teams have high
4. b 8. b participation numbers so cut back on number of
teams, audience participation numbers are not
the only way to measure student support and
GRAMMAR interest there is a devoted fan base; sports help
spread school spirit, cost is worth the long term
1, page 176 benefits
1. He chose to work on bikes and donate them. 4. Answers will vary.
They learn to love it and continue after the 5. Answers will vary.
school requirements are fulfilled.
It is a good idea to get students to go out into
the community. REVISE
2. The concessions introduce a negative
opinion. 1, page 184
3. No. If the sentence starts with a concession, Introduction 1
there is a comma. If the concession is in the Thesis: It is important to support the proposal
middle of the sentence, there is no comma. for a mandatory community service program so
4. The other clauses express the writer’s main that young people will learn the value of giving to
idea. others. / Technique 1

2, pages 177-178 Introduction 2


1. supports / Supporters of mandatory Thesis: This is why I support a program of
volunteering say it is a good way for students to mandatory community service in our university. /
get valuable experience even though they are Technique 3
not paid.
2. supports / Critics of mandatory volunteering Introduction 3
maintain that a school should not require a Thesis: A mandatory community service
student to do anything after school except program in our school will give students a
homework, though they say that volunteering is valuable experience and also help solve
better than just sitting around watching TV or important problems in our community. /
playing video games. Technique 2
3. supports / Although opponents argue that
volunteering is a personal choice, and so it 3, pages 185-186
shouldn’t be mandatory, supporters note that Conclusion 1
schools have many required classes that may Restatement of thesis: I believe that if students
not be a student’s personal choice. try volunteering, many of them will discover that
4. opposes / Critics worry that a bad community service can be an enjoyable and
volunteering experience will stop people from rewarding experience. / Technique 3
volunteering again in the future in spite of the
fact that supporters maintain that most student Conclusion 2
volunteers have successful experiences and Restatement of thesis: Isn’t this called a win-
many continue to volunteer later in life. win situation? / Technique 2

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17
NorthStar 4e Reading & Writing Level 4 Answer Key

software allowed him to take note of those that


Conclusion 3 generated the most discussion.
Restatement of thesis: Last year I started 5. F/ paragraph 7
tutoring an elementary school student whose Rewrite: The participants were six to eight
parents don’t speak English. At first, he was students from around the world including some
resentful that he had to stay after school and do from Princeton.
more schoolwork. Truthfully, it was also hard for 6. F/ paragraph 9
me knowing he did not want to be there. But as Rewrite: His audience became as visible to him
the year progressed, I got to know him and the as the students in a traditional lecture hall as he
kind of books he liked to read. He began to look got to know them by sampling their comments
forward to our weekly sessions and was eager on the forums and in the live, seminar-style
to see what books I had brought for him. Now discussions.
we are not just reading friends but we are real 7. T/ paragraph 11
friends. I know I have made a difference in his 8. F/ paragraph 13
life and he has certainly made a difference in Rewrite: Professor Duneier’s next online course
mine. / Technique 1 will be in February.

UNIT 7 MAKE INFERENCES, pages 196-197


1. Concerned
2. Very concerned
VOCABULARY 3. Very concerned
4. Very concerned
2, page 191 5. Somewhat concerned
1. anticipation 7. collaboration 6. Not very concerned
2. diversity 8. analyze 7. Not very concerned
3. crucial 9. significantly 8. Somewhat concerned
4. issue 10. via 9. Concerned
5. virtual 11. subsequent
6. assumption 12. enhance COMPREHENSION, page 201
1. Tommy discovers a book, which is important
because they no longer existed at that time; all
MAIN IDEAS reading is done from a computer screen.
2. Margie is excited about the discovery.
2, PAGES 194-195 3. Margie thinks they had fun in the “old days.”
1. b 4. Answer will vary. Possible answer: He may
2. c fear that books would disappear.
3. a
READING SKILL

DETAILS, PAGE 195 2, page 202


1. T / paragraph 2 15 Margie 29 Margie
2. F/ paragraph 5 16 Tommy 30 Tommy
Rewrite: Within a few hours of the first class 17 Margie 31 Margie
having ended, it was obvious from the number of 18 Tommy 32 Margie’s mother
comments and questions that students were 19 Margie 33 Margie
interested. 20 Tommy 34 Margie’s mother (Mrs. Jones)
3. F/ paragraph 4 21 Margie 35 Margie
Rewrite: The fact that professor Duneier 22 Tommy 36 Tommy
recorded his lectures in an empty classroom 23 Margie 37 Narrator
made it difficult because there was no audience 24 Tommy 38 The mechanical teacher
to provide crucial interpersonal cues. 25 Margie 39 Narrator
4. F/ paragraph 6 26 Tommy 40 Narrator
Rewrite: Although it was impossible to answer 27 Margie 41 The mechanical teacher
all the student comments and questions, the 28 Tommy 42 Narrator

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18
NorthStar 4e Reading & Writing Level 4 Answer Key

STEP 1: ORGANIZE, page 202 5. adjust 13. analyze


READING READING 6. collaboration 14. dispute
ONE TWO 7. virtual 15. disappointed
1. Is Yes. A human Yes. A 8. diversity 16. overall
there a teacher who mechanical
teacher? If teaches via the teacher.
yes, describe Internet. EXPAND, page 205
the teacher. NOUN VERB ADJECTIVE ADVERB
2. Where Anywhere In a special adjustment adjust (well) X
does the there is an room in the adjustability adjusted
“school” take internet house. adjustable
place? connection. analysis analyze analyzable X
anticipation anticipate anticipated X
3. When Whenever the At the same anticipative
does “class” student has time every assumption assume assumed X
take place? free time. day except assumable
Once a week Saturday and collaboration collaborate collaborative collaboratively
there are live Sunday. X X crucial crucially
disappointme disappoint disappointing disappointingl
on-line chats. nt disappointed y
4. Are Yes. The No. dispute dispute disputed X
students teacher and diversity diversify diverse diversely
exposed to a classmates. enhancement enhance enhancing X
enhanced
variety of
issue issue X X
academic sector X X X
opinions? significance signify significant significantly
5. What They can meet The county X X subsequent subsequently
options are in face-to-face inspector can X X virtual virtually
there for study groups adjust the
students who or post mechanical
don’t questions in teacher. GRAMMAR
understand or forums.
who need 1, page 207
more support? 1. Direct speech has commas and quotation
6. When They can With marks.
and where do socialize via neighbors, 2. The verb tenses used in direct speech will
students forums after school change in indirect speech. For example, simple
socialize with whenever they time and present in direct speech will change to simple
friends or are on-line or during past in indirect speech. In addition, pronouns
classmates? in face-to-face breaks. and possessives change to keep speaker’s
study groups. original meaning. The word that may also be
7. What It was an They don’t added in indirect speech.
do the incredible like it.
students experience 2, pages 209-210
and/or teacher and created an 1. c 5. b
think about the indescribable 2. a 6. a
learning emotional 3. b 7. c
experience? relationship 4. c
with
classmates 3, page 210
1. Tommy said that his father knew as much as
his teacher.
REVIEW, pages 203-204 2. The inspector told Margie’s mother that he
1. anticipation 9. enhanced thought the geography sector had been a little
2. assumption 10. significantly too difficult.
3. crucial 11 sector 3. He added that he’d slowed it up to a ten-year
4. via 12. issue level.

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19
NorthStar 4e Reading & Writing Level 4 Answer Key

4. Tommy said that was the old kind of school 3, pages 219-220
that they had had hundreds and hundreds of Answers may vary. Suggested answers:
years before. 1. I am taking five courses this semester. I
5. Margie told Tommy that her mother said a am happy with all my teachers. However, my
teacher had to be adjusted to fit the mind of English and history teachers are definitely my
each boy and girl it taught. favorites. They are both extremely enthusiastic
6. Tommy told Margie that she could read the and knowledgeable about their subjects. For
book with him again the next day. example, my English teacher, Mr. Dadio, has
recently received an award for his teaching.
Similarly, my history teacher, Ms. Mantell, also
WRITE clearly knows her subject. In fact, she has
written history textbooks that are being used by
2, pages 214-215 many school systems. They both have good
1. Point by Point senses of humor. Mr. Dadio likes to joke with the
2. Block students, which helps us relax. In the same way,
3. Point by Point Ms. Mantell’s witty comments also help reduce
the stress many students feel because of our
school’s demanding curriculum. Both teachers
REVISE insist that we work hard, and we do. However,
the type of work that they give is different. Mr.
1, page 216 Dadio expects us to read complete novels in
1. similar: while, in the same way only a couple of days, and he grades us on our
different: in contrast, whereas essays comparing the characters or plots. In
2. the amount of time spent in class, teachers, contrast, Ms. Mantell expects us to read a
availability of teachers, expectations about chapter every two classes, and, instead of
homework grading us on papers, she gives us tests are that
are usually short answer or multiple-choice
2, pages 217-218 questions. Despite their differences, they are
1. MOOC students are taught and submit papers both excellent teachers.
via the internet; Likewise, Tommy and Margie 2. Each new level of education brings new
also are taught via the computer. challenges and demands to students. Moving
2. Professor Duneier liked the MOOC’s course from high school into college can be especially
delivery method in the same way the MOOC difficult because of the freedom students
students were excited about the new use of experience in college along with a new set of
educational technology. expectations.
3. Professor Duneier wasn’t sure he could In high school students usually live at
effectively teach his students. Similarly, Margie home and their parents take care of all their
doubted a man could teach effectively. physical needs such as food and housing.
4. Margie wanted to go to a traditional school; on Students do not usually have to shop for their
the other hand, students today are tired of food, take time to pay bills, or even do their own
traditional school and want to incorporate laundry. Parents are also there to help with and
distance learning in their education. make sure that the student’s homework is done.
5. Many of Professor Duneier’s MOOC students During the school day, students rarely have free
chose his course instead of a traditional time. They go directly from one class to the
sociology course. In contrast, for other students, other. Teachers are always around to tell the
the choice was his MOOC or no sociology students what to do. Finally, the work itself is not
course at all. so challenging. Students can often complete
6. While The Fun They Had describes the future their homework and reading in a short time.
as it was imagined in 1951, “Teaching the World On the other hand, in college, Students
from Central New Jersey” describes a present often live away from home in dorms or
that may seem futuristic to some people. apartments. They may be responsible for
shopping, paying bills and laundry. They also
may have to cook their own meals. Their parents
are not around to help with homework or even to
check that it has been done. In contrast to
students in high school, students in college may

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20
NorthStar 4e Reading & Writing Level 4 Answer Key

have a lot of free time between classes, but as anything that disrupts your work or family life.
must discipline themselves to use this time In this case smartphone use could be seen as
productively for homework and other an addiction. Still others say it is a dysfunction
assignments. Most importantly, college requires not an addiction.
a higher level of thinking and a lot more work Part III: Because smartphones provide an
than high school. almost continuous stream of messages and
3. My old school in Lima was very small. alerts as well as easy access to compelling
On the other hand, my school In New York is information sources. They create an
gigantic. There were only about 75 students in environment of almost constant interruptions
my Lima school, and we all knew each other and distractions. Because of this, we are not
well. The teachers knew every student by name. able to maintain our attention, to engage in
In contrast, in New York there are over 1400 contemplation and reflection, or even to be
students, and the immense halls are filled with alone with our thoughts.
unfamiliar faces, male and female. However, My Part IV: You can be conscious, strong, and
school in Lima was only for boys; girls went to disciplined. You should also take “predictable
another school. In Lima, we spoke only Spanish time off”. Another solution is to slowly wean
at school while here we mostly speak English yourself off email, web browsing, and social
but sometimes Spanish. The teachers in Lima media.
were very good and always were able to answer
any question that we had. Likewise, in New York
the teachers are also excellent. Use of DETAILS, pages 231-233
technology is another difference between the 1. c 5. a 9. a
two schools. We had very little technology in 2. a 6. b 10. b
Lima. There were only a couple of computers in 3. b 7. c
the whole school, and students rarely got to use 4. c 8. b
them. In contrast, in New York, every student is
given a laptop at the beginning of ninth grade,
and assignments are posted on class websites. MAKE INFERENCES, pages 233-235
In fact, I often email my homework and Answers will vary. Suggested answers:
questions to teachers. I like school in New York, 1. Smartphones can cause people to be rude.
but sometimes I miss the intimacy of my old This shows that according to his definition,
school. smartphones are not truly addictive because
they only satisfy one part of his definition, the
harmful impact on your life. He does not talk
UNIT 8 about any physical withdrawal.
2. Smartphones create bad habits.
This is not just the author’s opinion, but is
VOCABULARY, pages 226-227 substansciated by research.
1. b 5. b 9. a 3. Smartphones make our thinking more
2. c 6. b 10. c superficial.
3. b 7. b 11. b The author’s idea is supported by an expert in
4. a 8. a 12. a the field.
4. There is a solution to smartphone obsession.
Statistics compiled over a four-year period
MAIN IDEAS support the author’s conclusion.

2, page 231
Answers may vary. Suggested answers: COMPREHENSION, page 238
Part I: Some signs of compulsive use of Answers may vary. Suggested answers:
smartphones are continuously using the 1. The only thing he could think about was his
smartphone to check email, read blogs, check iPhone and he was oblivious to the beauty
twitter etc. even on weekends or when you are around him.
on vacation. 2. the family decided they were going to be
Part II: It is unclear. According to some experts, electronics-free for a week.
we are not seeing smartphone addiction now,
but the potential is there. Others define addiction

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21
NorthStar 4e Reading & Writing Level 4 Answer Key

3. that they did something every day and got out GRAMMAR
of the cabin to explore.
4. they slowed down and became more 1, page 245
connected with their surroundings. 1. get back/ turn off/ give up
2. Get, in this sentence, would mean arrive. Get
back means return.
READING SKILL 3. Turn means rotate, but turn off, in this
sentence, means to stop the iPhone from
2, page 239 functioning.
Suggested answers: 4. Give means to offer, give up, in this sentence,
1. Being electronics-free (life without electronics) means to stop using (the iPhone).
2. The slowing down of time
3. The benefits of their electronic-free week 2, pages 247-248
1. ignore 9. return to
2. persuade 10. invent
STEP 1: ORGANIZE, page 240 3. examine 11. meet
Suggested answers: 4. become popular 12. cancel
PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 5. conduct 13. become
Continuous checking Predictable time off 6. postpone 14. Extinguish / stop
Self-discipline 7. discard 15. start
Anxiety if lost or Slowly diminish use 8. like 16. appear
unavailable Wean yourself away
Constant availability Turn off alerts 3, page 249
Make specific times 1. think back on 7. turn on
smartphone-free 2. turn into 8. turning in
Avoid using web 3. take to 9. throwing (my life)
browsers away
Use at inappropriate No texting and driving 4. come up with 10. talk (me) into
times Make commitment not to 5. get together with 11. weaned (myself)
use phone in certain away from
situations 6. going back 12. turned out

REVIEW, pages 242-243 WRITE


1. trigger 9. twitching
2. diminish 10. dysfunction 1, page 251
3. wean / away from 11. temptation EFFECT: People cannot concentrate or think
4. relent 12. conscious deeply.
5. urge 13. literally
6. devices 14. compulsive 4, page 254
7. anxiety 15. influx Cause I. The Boston Group participated
8. dependency in an experiment run by Leslie
Effect Perlow, PhD.
(becomes A. Took Predictable Time Off
EXPAND, pages 243-244 cause) 1. Increased efficiency
1. compulsion 7. blinded to Multiple 2. Increased collaboration
2. search 8. commitment effects (1- 3. Better work-life balance
3. addiction 9. steals / contemplation 3) II. Writer’s plan to manage own
4. trigger 10. can’t stand smartphone use by using multiple
5. ignoring me 11. shun strategies
6. repeatedly A. Slowly diminished time
Multiple between checking
causes (A- B. Stopped using phone for
D) web browsing
C. Stopped using phone for
social media

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22
NorthStar 4e Reading & Writing Level 4 Answer Key

D. Stopped using phone for distractions, people cannot concentrate or think


texting and emailing while driving deeply.
Multiple 1. Overall effect 4. C / E
effects (a- a. Concentrating better There are approximately 40,000 medical apps
d) b. More aware of available today for smartphones and tablets; as
surroundings a result, it is like having a health expert at your
c. More relaxed fingertips.
d. More focused use of There are approximately 40,000 medical apps
smartphone available today for smartphones and tablets;
thus, it is like having a health expert at your
fingertips.
REVISE 5. C / E
Because Smartphone apps can remotely turn on
1, page 256 and off the heat in your home when you are out,
Answers may vary. Suggested answers: homeowners can save money and help to cut
The writer of the unplugged article wanted her down on the use of fossil fuels.
family to enjoy an electronics-free vacation; Smartphone apps can remotely turn on and off
therefore, she took them to a remote island in the heat in your home when you are out, so
the wilderness of British Columbia. On the first homeowners can save money and help to cut
day of the vacation her son couldn’t enjoy the down on the use of fossil fuels.
beauty of their surroundings because he was 6. E / C
suffering from acute iPhone withdrawal. On the Many people use tablets and e-readers for most
other hand, her husband and daughter were of their reading; for this reason, the number of
doing fine. They had found things to do that hardcover and paperback books being sold has
didn’t rely on electronics, so they suffered no declined.
withdrawal symptoms. As time passed, her son Because of the fact (that) many people use
forgot about his iPhone. As a result, he was able tablets and e-readers for most of their reading,
to enjoy himself at the beach and reading. He the number of hardcover and paperback books
was also able to have fun hiking and swimming being sold has declined.
since he was no longer thinking only about this
iPhone.

2, pages 256-257
1. C / E
Employees at usemyphone.com started taking
predictable time off; as a result, there was
increased efficiency and collaboration among
employees.
Because employees at usemyphone.com
started taking predictable time off, there was
increased efficiency and collaboration among
employees.
2. E / C
It is easy to stay in contact with people even
when they are not at home since many people
have smartphones phones.
Many people have smartphones phones;
therefore, it is easy to stay in contact with people
even when they are not at home.
3. E / C
Smartphones create an environment of constant
interruptions and distractions; consequently,
people cannot concentrate or think deeply.
Due to the fact that smartphones create an
environment of constant interruptions and

Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.