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TABLE OF CONTENT

NO CONTENT PAGES
1.0 Introduction
2.0 Findings
3.0 Conclusion
4.0 References
1.0) INTRODUCTION

Communication is the process of transmission of information of an originator to a receiver


by means of the use of a message that it goes from one to another across a channel.
Furthermore, communication is any act by which one person gives to or receives from another
person information about something.

Communication reduces misunderstandings and promotes harmony among personnel.


Sharing of knowledge through such communication keeps everybody up to date on project
progress. Better involvement throughout the team translates into success on all levels.
Communication is one key element which has to apply in every company or enterprise.

As a Project Manager, there is several projects that is failed or unsuccessful. So, there
must be a reason why some projects is failed. Why do projects fail?

One major reason why several projects is fail because of lack or poor communication in
a team. Effective communication is the key to success. Communication is effective when the
receiver of a message understand the message exactly the way the sender wants him to
understand. If not, the message is consider to fail.

The ability to communicate clearly can be the difference between success and failure in
project management. A strong leader will not just relay messages from one level to another. A
strong leader will make sure the message sent is clear and understand by the receiver.
2.0) FINDINGS

2.1) THE IMPORTANT OF COMMUNICATION IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Importance of Effective Communication

Communication is the main factors that holds a project team together. Communication
is not just talking. It is also a listening skill which required to listen instruction rightly. Without
clear, timely, unambiguous communication, even a small team working together will have
major problems. In the case of a virtual team, poor communication will render an already
challenging situation nearly impossible to control.

The project status needs to be tracked and monitored effectively using various tracking
tools. He or she should ensure timely and appropriate generation and collection of information.
He or she should follow email ethics during formal written communication. Being precise and
clear while communicating helps achieve better understanding. The law of success says:

35% Hard skills + 65% soft skills = 100% success

As a project manager, one should know there are potentially hundreds of


communication channels. The larger the project, the greater opportunity for communications
to break down. Effective communication includes a well-designed infrastructure and the
processes, messages, and documents that use that infrastructure to exchange information
among project stakeholders and keep them aligned with the project goals and informed of the
project's progress.

A project team is generally quite a diverse group of people. Project teams are usually
thrust together to deliver a bespoke and unique benefit to an organisation, something new and
different to the day to day activities undertaken. This diversity provides a further
communication challenge for the project manager. Project leadership calls for clear
communication about goals, responsibility, performance, expectations and feedback.

Successful project management communication is about being there for


everyone, being in touch with the real challenges of the project, understanding the real issues
within the team who must deliver the project as well as understanding the issues of the
sponsors who the team delivers the project for. Being present, visible and engaged with
everyone is important – during the good times and the challenging times. Communication is
not only about speaking to and hearing from people, it’s about understanding the complete
message.
What language to use, how to convey the message with respect to tone, feeling and
body language all play an important role in the communication process. If these are used
incorrectly, the result is often a confused message and misunderstanding of the real issues.
So a successful project manager can only maximize the effectiveness of communication within
the team by being prepared to lead by example. A big part of leadership is to be present, and
be prepared to communicate with all stakeholders at their respective levels.

Projects often ‘fail’ because we simply fail to clearly articulate the vision and the
project’s success criteria. This vision must be successfully communicated to each stakeholder
and team member. The whole team should be able to visualize the end result, in order to work
towards a common goal.

Regular reporting of the project’s progress and status is crucial to the success of the
project. Communicating this to all stakeholders in a clear and precise manner is paramount,
so that all understand what the key messages are. Diagrams, charts, graphs and tables should
be maximized here. The well known saying “a picture is worth a thousand words” is no less
true than when communicating project progress or status.

Effective and efficient project management communication is delivered by first


considering the needs of the audience you are intending to communicate with, put yourself in
their shoes and anticipate what they need to understand, and then provide that understanding
only. Strong presentation skills are essential for communicating project progress and status.
The audience needs to be engaged during these presentations to check that the key
messages have been received and understood.

Communication plays an integral role in keeping a project on task. The project


manager is charged with guiding all aspects of the project, including the communication plan.
The specifics of communication, including the method and frequency, vary depending on your
project's needs. Understanding the purpose of the project communication plan helps a
manager realize the plan's goals.
Expectations

The project communication plan sets the standards for how and when communication takes
place. As the project manager, you want to set the tone for all communication concerning the
project. This allows you to maintain control of the project and ensure all stakeholders receive
the necessary information. Set standards for how participants communicate, including email,
meetings, phone calls and memos. For regular communication such as meetings, timing is
another consideration. Schedule weekly project meetings to keep participants updated on
progress.

Consistency

A solid communication plan increases the consistency of how the project is handled. The
participants who follow the plan should communicate consistently with one another. You also
need to ensure that all stakeholders have the same information on the project requirements
and changes. If some stakeholders aren't informed of changes, you risk mistakes or delays in
the project work.

Productivity

Regular communication allows the employees working on the project to remain productive.
When they are kept in the loop on project happenings, employees will feel more comfortable
with their duties. They are equipped with the necessary information to keep working rather
than stopping frequently to seek out information they are missing. The employees are also
better able to work together with proper communication, allowing for collaboration and
effective performance on the project.
Outcome

A communication plan enables you as the project manager to lead the team to the desired
project outcome. Without proper communication with all stakeholders, you might fail to meet
the requirements of the project. You need clear communication from the stakeholders to figure
out exactly what they want and need from the project. For example, if you are developing a
software program for a third party, regular communication with the third party is imperative to
figure out exactly how they want the software to work. Continued communication ensures that
the final product will meet the expectations when it is delivered.

Benefit Of Communication In Project Management

Communication between employees is a process that helps people mange, create and sustain
organizational operations. Organizational communication happens in many forms, including
conversations, letters, emails, memos and websites. Each of these types of communications
are appropriate for different types of situations. For example, letters are more formal than
emails and emails are formal than conversations. All forms of communication may be used to
impart authority, delegate responsibility and provide vital information.

Fraternization

Employees may use communication to become familiar. This familiarity may eventually lead
to friendship. Friendship among employees may be good for the company because it helps
employees work together, know each other’s strengths and weaknesses and learn to trust
each other. On the other hand, employee friendship can be a distraction, with employees
spending work hours chatting instead of being productive. Conflict over friendships and
relationships may be more disruptive than other types of workplace conflicts.

Communication Strategy
Through the creation of a communication strategy, business leaders reduce the
disadvantages of communication and increase the advantages. Businesses have a variety of
communication needs that vary according the organization’s size, industry and structure.
Elements of organizational communication strategy include communications technology,
communication plans and the delegation of communication responsibilities. The hierarchy of
authority controls many aspects of communication. For example, the executives communicate
with department heads, who communicate with managers or project leaders, who
communicate with lower-level employees.

Why Is Project Communications Management Important?

Project managers who communicate effectively deliver projects on time and within
budget more often than those who do not. By keeping stakeholders engaged and
project team members motivated, as well as by providing appropriate clarity and detail,
successful project managers manage project communications to assure
understanding of critical project components, such as scope, schedule, budget,
objectives, and deliverables.

Successful project managers practice project communications management by using


a variety of frequent informal and formal communication channels that rely on clear
language and relevant topics to the audience.
2.2 THE CHALLENGES OF COMMUNICATIONS WITHIN THE PROJECT

1. Failure to Listen

The inability to listen is a huge problem. Often you will see co-workers interrupting speakers
or planning what they will say next instead of effectively listening. Other distractions are when
team members roll their eyes at comments or just discount their worker’s premise and still
others just forget to pay attention, they are too distracted or have a short attention span.
Obviously these all reflect on their failure to listen.

2. Locale or Distance to Office

Due to the high incidence of globalization, distance learning, or freelance contributions, many
communications are conducted by email, memo, or short video conferencing. When offices
are located away from its contributors, the detachment and inability to interact is a huge
communication barrier. Projects get stalled or are often misunderstood.

3. Culture Differences

The office has become a melting pot stocked with people of diverse backgrounds and cultural
customs. People tend to “hang" with others familiar to their culture or habits. When these
individual groups assemble, managers face the challenges of small group dynamics and team
communication issues.

4. Attitude & Ego

Too often teamwork stops because of someone’s ego. They refuse to admit they might be part
of the problem.Conflicts also arise because of inequity, and rather than make the situation
more equal, someone becomes defensive instead of taking responsibility.

5. Authority or Hierarchy Problems

A worker may feel reticent about approaching and talking to their manager. Someone may be
quietly stewing about an issue and never broach the subject. Another may think that the
discussion is too personal
6. Poorly Written Communication

Poorly written materials, incorrect syntax, bad grammar and items out of context are all too
frequent in interoffice business publications and lead straight to confusion.

7. Gender Bias

The battle over which gender makes the best leader is taking the focus away from the real
issue. Then too, sometimes workers only want to relate to people of the same gender

8. Focus or Listening Problems

Inability of employees to interpret the information or provide adequate focus leads to team
communication issues. The gap in age, the hole left by a boomer generation retiring, and other
societal weaknesses make this communication barrier very real.

9. Knowledge-Inadequate Knowledge

Group functions may suffer setbacks due to ineffective education or lack of understanding or
other inadequate knowledge foundation

10. Cliques, Groups and Friendships

A tight and exclusive grouping of individuals who bond together for one reason or another can
be problematic if they are not objective
2.3) METHOD TO MANAGE OR OVERCOME THE CHALLENGES OF COMMUNICATION

1. Failure to Listen

The inability to listen is a huge problem. Often you will see co-workers interrupting speakers
or planning what they will say next instead of effectively listening. Other distractions are when
team members roll their eyes at comments or just discount their worker’s premise; and still
others just forget to pay attention, they are too distracted or have a short attention span.
Obviously these all reflect on their failure to listen.

Try This: Stress the importance of listening before you begin a discussion. Talk about how
inattention keeps people from learning the different points of view and that they wouldn’t like
that happening to them. Suggest that they focus on the person and the point they are making;
to write notes later; and to keep their own contributions brief and relevant. Stress that they
maintain eye contact with each speaker involved.

2. Locale or Distance to Office

Due to the high incidence of globalization, distance learning, or freelance contributions, many
communications are conducted by email, memo, or short video conferencing. When offices
are located away from its contributors, the detachment and inability to interact is a huge
communication barrier. Projects get stalled or are often misunderstood.

MEETING

Try This: Conduct meetings on a regular schedule. When the team assembles, touch base
with all members to solicit feedback. Try to schedule live interaction for important issues and
do not rely on emails or memos to do the job. When the conference call or meeting is over,
ask each participant to summarize the meeting’s content and post it where all members can
read it and agree.
3. Culture Differences

The office has become a melting pot stocked with people of diverse backgrounds and cultural
customs. People tend to “hang" with others familiar to their culture or habits. When these
individual groups assemble, managers face the challenges of small group dynamics and team
communication issues.

AUDIO – VISUAL MEDIUM

Try This: People often cling to “like-minded" individuals or want to share space with others in
their culture. Try to mix them together or have assigned seats to break them up. Make sure
that during brainstorming sessions, everyone is contributing—even if you have to walk the
floor to listen. If someone is reticent, ask them for feedback. The most important thing
however, is to repeat back what you’ve heard. Make sure that your understanding is clear. By
reframing your understanding, it allows others to know you are listening and fosters
communication.

4. Attitude & Ego

Too often teamwork stops because of someone’s ego. They refuse to admit they might be part
of the problem. Conflicts also arise because of inequity, and rather than make the situation
more equal, someone becomes defensive instead of taking responsibility.

SPOKEN WORDS

Try This: The nature of some workers may not be likely to change due to an attitude problem
or ego. Someone may think that a discussion doesn’t go their way and often confuse
cooperation with “winning an argument." The team manager should try to turn the conversation
back to where it belongs, on the issues at hand. Mutual understanding or coming to a
resolution that reflects everyone’s needs is often difficult and needs to be softened with a
consistent goal message, and making sure that your facial expressions, gestures and tone of
voice match the message. Sometimes people just need to agree to disagree and follow the
program as directed.
5. Authority or Hierarchy Problems

A worker may feel reticent about approaching and talking to their manager. Someone may be
quietly stewing about an issue and never broach the subject. Another may think that the
discussion is too personal.

STAFF MEETINGS

Try This: Try to segregate or make an appointment to speak with the co-worker face-to-face if
possible. Ensure that confidentiality of the discussion is of utmost important to you. Set-up the
talk before problems escalate, if possible; and put questions in the context of why you are
asking. For example, “I would like to learn more about the research on the needs of the client
prior to publication, is this a good time to ask some questions? Then suss out the error and
correct the problem.

6. Poorly Written Communication

Poorly written materials, incorrect syntax, bad grammar and items out of context are all too
frequent in interoffice business publications and lead straight to confusion.

Try This: Make sure to proofread the copy and always have another set of discriminating eyes
check for mistakes. For important directives or changes of any kind, run them by the best
editor in the office.

7. Gender Bias

The battle over which gender makes the best leader is taking the focus away from the real
issue. Then too, sometimes workers only want to relate to people of the same gender.

LOUD SPEAKER

Try This: Don’t wait for an invitation to speak. Speak loudly and make sure your viewpoints
are expressed; establish eye contact, and own your space. Never issue disclaimers, engage
in demeaning yourself—and avoid unwarranted apologies.
8. Focus or Listening Problems

Inability of employees to interpret the information or provide adequate focus leads to team
communication issues. The gap in age, the hole left by a boomer generation retiring, and other
societal weaknesses make this communication barrier very real.

CORRESPONDENCES

Try This: Make eye contact with the person and try to find some common ground to initiate the
discussion using the group focus technique. Don’t acquiesce to “dumbing down" but use
analogies to help explain difficult principles.

9. Knowledge-Inadequate Knowledge

Group functions may suffer setbacks due to ineffective education or lack of understanding or
other inadequate knowledge foundation.

Try This: Occasionally the use of industry jargon is the culprit and a simple question and
answer "in plain English" will correct the problem. Often a weakness in education becomes
quite apparent in annual performance reviews. Extra efforts will need to be made to guarantee
that all persons know and understand what they are told. But some things even additional
training won’t satisfy.

10 Cliques, Groups and Friendships

A tight and exclusive grouping of individuals who bond together for one reason or another can
be problematic if they are not objective.

Try This: Avoid any character reference or label and don’t try to analyse what you think ‘they
know.’ It is too easy to fall into faulty perceptions. Stress that in a business environment all
workers need to try to assimilate so that differences can be minimized and that with
cooperation, the task at hand will move quicker and with less angst. Don’t be afraid to seek
assistance from people who demonstrate effective communication skills.
3.4) IMPACT OF COMMUNICATIONS IN PROJECT

Communication is the process of transmission of information to a receiver. Which is


the uses of communication is important in any project because projects are often complicated
with various layers of details, requirement, and decisions. These are the impact of
Communication in project.

Objective of An Enterprise Can Be Establish

Communication is important in achieving success for any enterprise. Communication


can help the enterprise to operate smoothly without any disputes. Of course in each step often
requires a new task to be discuss which is discussion can help in solving the new task. So
that, an objective of an enterprise can be achieved by involving the communication in any
enterprise. For example, objective of the contractor company is to be a greatest contractor
company in Malaysia. So, the contractor need to perform in project with help by the labours
through the good communication.

Give affective control to the employer

By using the good communication, the employer have a affective control towards his
manpower and enterprise. Effective communication is the key to success. Good
communication from the employer must be clear and easy to understand by his manpower.
The message from the employer also must not be complicated. Make sure the message is
send by the employer must be understood by the manpower. When the employer has an
effective control towards his manpower, the employer’s enterprise can be more perform due
to his good communication in controlling his manpower.
Human resources is organized in such a way that the goals are realized

Human resources is not easy to organize in any enterprise or company. Detail


management need to be done to organize human resources. Moreover, big enterprise or
company is harder to organize in human resources management. Communication is one of
the best method that can be use in organizing the human resources in enterprise or company.
The communication process is the steps we take in order to achieve a successful
communication. With communication, the message from each staff or manpower in the
company can be received and understand by the staff or manpower.

Method of communication that can be used in construction is meeting, briefing groups,


correspondence and spoken words. For example, the contractor wants to brief to all the
manpower about the concrete works for that day, the contractor need to use briefing groups
method to brief about the works to the manpower. The message from the briefing must be
clear and understand by the receiver which is the manpower. So that, the works in site for that
day can be perform by the manpower.

The employer can create a climate conducive to direct, lead and motivate

Best company is the company that have a best teamwork between staff and the
employer. The employer need to lead their staff in achieving success for the company. Best
employer must know how to lead and conduct their staff through any work. The employer need
to use communication in leading the staff or manpower. The employer also need to motivate
their staff because motivated staff will perform on their works. Communication really give an
impact in project management. Effective communication can help the company to be more
success.

Link of plan can be develop to achieve.

With communication, the employer much more easier to develop a link of plan in
company . Communication can help in developing the link of plan towards any objective. So,
the employer can have a discussion in making a link of plan by communicate between the
employer and the employee.
2.5) THE BEST APPROACHES OF COMMUNICATION FOR THE PROJECT

1) Oral communication

This method is the most common used in the construction activities. This approach is very
suitable to give instructions to labourers and staffs. This is because this method is easier to
understand among the staff and workers. For example, face-to-face, the site supervisor will
give an order to worker directly. So, the worker will do the order immediately. Besides that,
the meeting is one of the oral communications that is best approaches to be used in
construction industry. This is because the design team or staff can solve any problems that
occur during the construction. Besides solving problem, meeting also can be a medium for all
consultants to discuss about the construction, the improvement to be added for the project
and the performance of the main contractor. Furthermore, another best oral communication
for this project is briefing groups. The example of briefing groups is safety and health briefing
and tools and kits briefing. This briefing usually been done every day before the workers start
their works. This is important because to make sure the workers aware and safe at the site
during the construction activity. This is also can reduce the rate of accident in the site.

Advantages and Disadvantages

Advantages Disadvantages
Instant Can be easily forgotten

Easy No physical evidence of the message


Can be repeated or rephrased until the Might be changed unintentionally
message is understood
More than one language may be spoken on
site
Different accents or slang may not be
understood by everyone
2) Signal Communication

Furthermore, non-verbal communication also is one of the best approaches in the


construction project. This is because the distance between the sender of the message and
the receiver is too far such as the sender is located at the ground floor and the receiver at the
top of the building. In this situation the best communication is by using the body movement or
signal. The signal or body movement is important especially during the usage of crane or the
other machineries. The signal communication also has being used around the world. It can be
carried out at the safe place in the site.

Advantages and Disadvantages

Advantages Disadvantages
Internationally standardised, so same Can be misinterpreted
signals used around the world
Can be carried out at a safe distance People may display the wrong signal or
forget signals when in operation
Can reduces the risk of accidents If signalling from a distance, the driver may
not be able to understand
No verbal communication
3) Written Communication

Moreover, written communication also one of the best approaches of communication in


construction industry. This is because every event that happen in construction activity is
needed a written document such as letter of acceptance, variation of price and tender
document. The written document is important because it will be the evidence and appendix
for the construction project. As the example Letter of Acceptance, this letter will be the
evidence that the contractor have been awarded as the main contractor for this project. Other
example is quotation form. This form is used by contractors and consultants to get the
quotation form the supplier for the current price of the materials and the quotation will be the
evidence.

Besides, this written communication method also one of the medium that can be used by
the staffs or workers to communicate with the employer. For example, staffs which are want
to release their position. They need to give a resignation letter to the employer. Furthermore,
employers also can communicate with their by using this approach. One of the example is the
employers give the staff a promotion letter to show them that they have gave excellent service
for the company. This letter also will promote them an increased in salary or employers want
to give the staff a new better position for the company.

Advantages and Disadvantages

Advantages Disadvantages
Physical evidence Takes longer to arrive, read and understand
than some other methods of communication
Can be passed to others without being Can be misunderstood
changed
Can be copied Can be lost
Can be ready again if not understood If poorly written, the reader may not be able
to understand it