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ASSOCIATION FRANÇAISE DES TUNNELS

ET DE L’ESPACE SOUTERRAIN

Organization member of the AFTES


www.aftes.asso.fr

AFTES
Recommendations

Catalogue of disorders in
underground structures
GT14R7A1
AFTES

CATALOGUE OF DISORDERS
IN UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES

Presented by:
Jacques CHEZE, (Interdepartmental agency for sanitation in the Paris conurbation ) - Working Group Animateur
Assisted by Alain RACHER, (SIAAP) Vice-Animateur
and Jean-Jacques SICSOUS, (SADE) Task responsible
Classification research done by the ‘Disorder catalogue’ subgroup led by Guy RIVALLAIN of the SNCF Engineering Division
and consisting of
Arsène LE BRAS from the RATP (Paris metro) until his retirement, then replaced by Jean-Marie ROGEZ from the RATP
Christian CHOQUET from CETU (Tunnel design centre)
Patrick BENEFICE from EDF (French electricity agency) until his transfer, then
replaced by Vincent de LALEU from EDF
Olivier VION was responsible for drafting the document and computer layout.
The authors wish to thank all those people who helped them in their work particularly when searching through archives.
The photographs used in this document were taken from archives at the RATP, the CETU, the EDF, the city of Paris and the SNCF.

AFTES welcomes comments on these Guidelines

CONTENTS

Pages Pages

PREAMBLE - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 170 4 - DISORDERS AFFECTING ADJOINING AREAS,


FOREWORD - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 170 PORTALS AND RELATED ELEMENTS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 178
4.1 - SHAFTS AND CHIMNEYS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 178
1 - STRUCTURE AND LAYOUT OF THE CATALOGUE - - - - 171
4.2 - NATURAL OR ARTIFICIAL SUBTERRANEAN
2 - DISORDERS IN UNLINED TUNNELS - - - - - - - - - - - - - 171 CAVITIES NEARBY - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 178
3 - DISORDERS IN LINED TUNNELS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 172 4.3 - PORTALS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 178
3.1 - ALTERING OF LINING MATERIALS - - - - - - - - - - 172 4.4 - WING WALLS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 178
3.2 - DEFECTS AFFECTING THE STRUCTURE
AND GEOMETRY IT’S - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 173
3.3 - HYDRAULICS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 176

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Catalogue of disorders in underground structures

PREAMBLE
Why do we need a new ‘catalogue of disorders in underground The advantage is that consultants may now print whatever
structures’? documentation they need without having to manipulate an
After all, a very well-known version, even though it was excessively voluminous reference book.
published in the 1980s, was available and appeared to meet the In addition, users will be able to complete their personal docu-
needs of professionals. mentation by enriching the basic catalogue with information
The answer is that various partners had expressed the need to drawn from their experience.
review the existing document in order to complete it, to add We are convinced that this choice of technology will be appre-
some details for instance in terms of vocabulary used, to add ciated for the wealth of material if offers and the easier access.
illustrations in order to clarify the text as some indications were
considered to be too general. These partners, all concerned However, in order to give non-specialists an overview and
enable them to read up on disorders encountered in different

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with maintenance and repair, were the owners, the prime
contractors, the specialised design and engineering offices, the structures, the following pages give the complete list of disor-
contractors, the manufacturers of testing equipment and desi- ders but under only 2 headings: the description of the disorder
gners of repair products. and possible consequences on structures and on their use.
The working group which brought together renowned specia- Since the sheets were drawn with the same layout for all of the
lists in the maintenance of underground structures, thus headings, this partial structure may be too succinct or synthetic
undertook this revised version which quickly turned into a in which case the reader is of course free to consult the CD-
complete reworking of the initial document. ROM. The catalogue does include a few photographs but most

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The authors soon realised when making the new catalogue that
each type of disorder should have its own technical sheet. The
pathologies were thus described using a standard summary
form with 12 headings . The textual description was reinforced
with illustrations and photographs.
Because of the images, a printed version would have been too
expensive and so a CD-ROM was chosen instead.
of the iconography is on the CD-ROM.
Furthermore, it should be noted that some sheets were reused
and adapted from the corresponding sheets in the Civil engi-
neering inspection guide for road tunnels (from disorders to
diagnosis), published by the CETU in 2004.
FT
FOREWORD
This catalogue includes most of the defects, anomalies or and to initiate or take suitable measures depending on the
disorders encountered in underground structures. rapid diagnosis they will have made using the catalogue.
Since it is not possible to cover all aspects of this field, the Those illustrations which were chosen were necessarily the
authors recorded those defects which are most often observed result of a subjective selection by the authors. The idea was to
or most characteristic of underground structures. The terms improve the readers’ understanding of problems observed by
means of sketches or to facilitate classification of defects by
were chosen in an attempt to standardise the language used. comparing them with a photograph.
The choice of headings for each sheet was made to enable Nevertheless, readers should take great care when interpreting
readers to go beyond a simple observation of the disorder while phenomena as the many complex factors at work in this type of
giving them possible lines of investigation. When faced with a engineering structure mean that each tunnel should be consi-
given situation, users will thus be able to classify the disorders dered as a particular case and dealt with accordingly.
A

1 - STRUCTURE AND LAYOUT OF THE CATALOGUE


The idea was to a make a computerised document with a On each page of a disorder, you will find:
format which could be consulted on Internet but also on a - the name of the disorder (as a heading): its usual or common
CD-ROM. This would enable interactive consultation with name.
hypertext linking. This is the first time that an AFTES recom- - the description or visual appearance: the way in which the
mendation has been published in this form. observer will see the disorder.
The disorders are presented in a form of individual sheets enri- - the pre-diagnosis method: the way in which it should be
ched insofar as possible with at least one illustration. In addi- identified or discovered if it is not visible.
tion, for some disorders, specific information may be given to - parameters to be recorded: physical or measurable aspects
complement the more general information given in the sheets. related to it.

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Catalogue of disorders in underground structures

- corresponding disorders: first steps toward diagnosis. - solutions: a few ideas as to treatments which may be applied
- the possible origins or cause of the disorder: this should inter- to eliminate the disorder or slow down its evolution.
preted according to existing knowledge of the structure. - the managers: main networks affected by the disorder in
- aggravating factors: elements likely to increase the risk. question.
- possible consequences and evolutions: to enable ranking of On the complementary information page, you will find:
disorders encountered for the purpose of managing a network - one or more photographs characteristic of this type of
of given structures. disorder.
- risks: a short description of incidents or accidents which - (and/or) one or more diagrams explaining its behaviour.
might affect users or the structure itself. At the end of the catalogue you will find a list of the
- criticality: a criterion related to the rate of evolution for the main non-destructive tests which can be used along with some
purpose of planning an intervention. practical information.

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- surveillance and investigations: short and medium-term
measures or observations to be taken.

2 - DISORDERS IN UNLINED TUNNELS

CLEAVING- LOOSENING OF SHISTOSE SLABS considerable volume and come from remote parts of the

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Description: Cleaving: spalling of sedimentary rocks (limes-
tone or marl layers) in small irregular, more or less bumpy
slabs.
Loosening of schistose slabs: unbonding of metamorphic rocks
with schistosity, in other words, cleaving planes giving the rock
a layered appearance.
Consequences: superficial crumbling which might lead to the
tunnel.
In gypsum layers , there is a possibility of subsidences working
their way up underneath the tunnel floor until they break
through.
LOOSE BLOCKS WHICH CAN BE REMOVED
Description: Blocks breaking off from the surrounding terrain
due to cracks or open joints.
FT
loss of cohesion of the ground . Intensifying of bending and
loosening of rocky beds. Consequences: Gradual creation of overbreaks, ‘chapels’ after
cave-ins or removal.
ARENISATION
UNSTABLE BLASTING CONES
Description: The altering of granite into a crumbly sandstone
product (called arenite or clayey sand when it has clay in it)
occurring according to the fault lines in the surrounding
terrain.
Consequences: Loss of cohesion of clayey sand affected by
flowing water or traffic loads.
Loss of strength in the altered parts of the surrounding terrain
KARST TYPE CAVITIES
Description: Widened
joints, pipes, caves, found in
A

soluble rocks such as limes-


tone or gypsum. Though Description: Cracks radiating outwards around a blasting
they are easy to identify cone.
when the tunnel cuts Consequences: Frequent block instability (increasing deterio-
through them, these cavities ration of the tunnel).
may be somewhere nearby
and affect the structure LOOSENING AND BENDING OF SLABS
without having been
detected. Description: Slabs loosening or bending, layer boundaries
exposed, no, or very slight inclines.
Consequences: The spilling Large slabs of rock fallen from the surrounding terrain ,
(sometimes sudden) of medium to strong inclines.
materials from clefts. This
material may take up a Consequences: Rupture of the visible slab and falling of some-
times large masses. Gradual creation of overbreaks.

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Catalogue of disorders in underground structures

TEARING ROCK CORNER - OVERBREAKS - FAULT


UNSTABLE ROCK BRIDGES Description: Clear discontinuity in ground with variable
Description: - Tearing rock corners are geometrically shaped thickness. Faults may or may not contain ground rubble.
rock prisms which are likely to fall. Consequences: Infiltration of water through the fault acting as
- Overbreaks may have geometric shapes when they are caused a drain
by falling rock corners or rounded shapes when they are caused
by gradual alteration of surrounding ground. ROCK SCALING
- Unstable rock bridges are determined by corners whose edge Description: Separation of slivers with thin and sharp edges
is at the crown perpendicular to the tunnel axis. from the surrounding terrain – mechanical origin.
Consequences: - Corners and rubble bridges: cave-ins. Consequences: Ultimate enlargement of section – Falling or
- Overbreaks: the instability disappears in principle after a projecting of slivers – Weakening of zones concerned.
cave-in except for unstable ground.

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3 - DISORDERS IN LINED TUNNELS

3.1 - ALTERING OF LINING MATERIALS SELECTIVE ALVEOLUS EROSION

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3.1.1 - Masonry linings of rubble stone or
brick
DISJOINING
Description: Enlarging of joints through gradual loss of mortar
– The mortar may be solid, crumbly, or even sandy.
Consequences: If the masonry has a protective coating, damp-
Description: The rubble stone
(or brick) appears to be set back
from the mortar joints which
stand out. The bottom of the
cupule or cavity is always clean
and solid.
Consequences: Lateral and/or in-
depth extensions.
FT
ness increases and the coating starts to crack.
FLAKING
Description: Limited altering of the rubble stone itself, with 3.1.2 - Concrete linings
exposure of layers on the surface. The layers are fragile and SCALING
always thinner than one centimetre.
Description: This is a rupture which occurs in the form of one
Consequences: Slight or none. or more shear cracks delimiting different sized scales. It is a
EXFOLIATION structural disorder.
Description: Limited altering of the rubble stone itself. Consequences: Extension of the risk as the disorder is both
Although outwardly intact, very thin layers of less than a centi- extensive and intensive. Even though it is not associated with a
metre form parallel to the intrados and these can only be deformation of the vault (which frequently occurs) the pheno-
detected if a hollow sound is heard when tapping with a menon is critical.
hammer. Natural falling of some layers causes cavities on the
surface of the vault.
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Consequences: Lateral and/or in-depth extensions through


coalescence of initially isolated zones.
SCALING – SPLITTING OF RUBBLE STONES
Description: Breaking of rubble stones (or bricks), forming
scales about a centimetre thick which fall off and are gripped in
a ‘vice’ between adjacent rubble stones (or bricks). It is usually
not possible to remove the scales by hand. The surface of the
break is clean and shell-like (not flat but smooth) – The
phenomenon may include several adjoining rubble-stones as
well as their mortar joints. It is a structural disorder which is
independent of the quality of the stones (or bricks).
Consequences: Lateral and/or in-depth extensions. Even
though it is not associated with deformation of the vault (a
frequent occurrence), the phenomenon is critical.

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Catalogue of disorders in underground structures

SPALLING ON REINFORCEMENT ALTERING OF CONCRETE - SWELLING


Description: Rusted steel is exposed (concrete coating or Description: Early stage: deposits of calcareous exudates resul-
cement milk fallen off). Fallen or lifting scales which neverthe- ting from internal dissolution.
less remain in place. Advanced stage: crumbly appearance. It is distributed in more
Consequences: Gradual extension of oxidation and hence or less soft pockets which may occur where mortar coats
unsticking along the reinforcement. overlap for instance. The swelling results in crazing of the
concrete.
EFFLORESCENCE ON MORTAR AND CONCRETE Consequences: Gradual increase in porosity, loss of cohesion,
Description: White filaments which look like ‘hair’, which are increased penetration of aggressive agents, sliding of aggre-
extremely weak, taste salty, cover the whole of the joint or gates, thinning of coating by regressive erosion.
cover various areas of coating or concrete. They are formed by GRAVEL NESTS
extrusion through the pores of the substratum (porous mortar
or concrete). Description: Areas of aggregates without fines, either visible or

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They appear or disappear very rapidly depending on the hidden by a thin coat of cement milk.
surrounding hygrometry in particular. Consequences: Deepening of the pocket through gradual
Consequences: The presence of sulphates (of calcium or falling of the aggregates. Exposing of reinforcement.
sodium) indicates that there may be ettringit (trisulfo-alumi-
nate) in the mortar. This is an expanding salt which may cause 3.1.3 - Other lining and support structures
swelling of the lining.
Significant internal swelling may weaken the lining or cause CORROSION OF CAST IRON OR STEEL

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coating to come unstuck. Masonry is very vulnerable to this
disorder.
Description: Components have a rust colour. Expansion of
metal. Thinning of uncorroded parts. Loss of metal in bolt
heads.
Consequences: The disorder generally evolves slowly with loss
of metal.
SPECIFIC DISORDERS OF SHOTCRETE
Description: Crazing. Defects in coating of the wire mesh,
FT
sometimes visible locally. Great variations in thickness, espe-
cially on rock (points). Superficial spalling on welded mesh or
oxidised bolt heads. Lack of adherence of coating to
substratum or rock substratum altered (parts which sound
hollow when tapped). Partial rupturing and falling.
Consequences: Unstable slabs, disintegration
SPECIFIC DISORDERS OF COATING
Description: Lack of adherence to substratum (areas which
sound hollow when tapped ). Lack of coating on part of the
vault surface leaving the masonry exposed. Crazing.
Consequences: Increasing disorder through lack of adherence
CONCRETE CHIP and continuity of superficial coating. Falling of coating.
A

Description: Identified by the loss of a fragment of the lining DISORDERS AFFECTING RIBS
flush with a sharp part or sharp edge (in particular in concre- Description: a/ More or less pronounced deformation of vault
ting joints). reinforcing ribs.
Consequences: Extension and weakening (if the concrete is b/ Oxidising of ribs.
likely to deteriorate further). Consequences: a/ Breaking of ribs and cave-ins.
Instability of the affected structure (if the cause is accidental b/ loss of thickness due to corrosion.
and the structure is light).
In the case of reinforced concrete, corrosion of reinforcement.

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Catalogue of disorders in underground structures

SLIDE CRACKS
Description: Two longitudinal cracks parallel to the vault axis
and framing the keystone; compression of abutment resulting
in bursting of the coating or the lining. Possibly two cracks
parallel to the junction between the side wall and the invert.
Consequences: Increase in the disorder, disturbance of opera-
tions in case of infiltration.
TRANSVERSE CRACKS
Description: Their average plane is perpendicular to the tunnel
axis – they may affect all or part of the section.
In masonry: they generally occur in the mortar joints or
connections between arches.

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In formed concrete: the openings are generally wider than
those due to normal shrinkage.
Consequences: Weakening of areas adjacent to the crack.
Increase in opening – Unevenness.
OBLIQUE CRACKS
Description: Also known as biased cracks, the average plane is

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3.2 - DEFECTS AFFECTING THE
STRUCTURE AND IT’S GEOMETRY

3.2.1 - Cracks
LONGITUDINAL CRACKS
obliquely inclined to the tunnel axis. There is rarely only one
crack but often many which relay each other.
In masonry: they generally occur in mortar joints and resemble
staircase steps.
In formed concrete: the openings are generally wider than
those due to normal shrinkage.
Consequences: Weakening of areas adjacent to the crack –
Forming of small unstable panels located between several
FT
Description: Their average plane is parallel to the tunnel axis. cracks which relay each other.
Masonry: they generally occur in mortar joints (opening of Rupture of the structure.
masonry line joints).
Formed concrete: the openings are generally bigger than those
due to normal shrinkage.
Consequences: Weakening of joining areas around the crack
and then of the vault.
Increase in opening – Appearance of new cracks – Falling of
blocks.
A

ECHELON CRACKS - CHEVRONS


Description: Y-shaped cracks or parallel cracks often with
unevenness (protrusion or withdrawal).
Consequences: Evolution in the extension of the cracking
network – Longitudinal tipping of a tunnel section (divergence
through bending).

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Catalogue of disorders in underground structures

PEAK-SHAPED CRACKS Accidental: the lining has been weakened or even locally disor-
Description: These delimit whole lining panels – They can ganised which accelerates its degradation.
extend from the base of the sidewall up to the crown. FLATTENING – FLAT SURFACE
Consequences: Instability of the cracked panel – Infiltration of Description: a/ Flattening: increase in the radius of curvature
water – Sudden falling of the unstable zone. of the upper part of the vault.
HALF-MOON CRACKS b/ Flat surface: deformation which only affects one side of the
vault between the floor and the abutment, by increasing the
Description: In concrete lined tunnels only. Regular curved radius of curvature; in cross-sections which have a lancet
crack, generally located at the crown or at the abutment at the shape, the intrados appears to be almost straight.
end of the ring section, having its origin and end on the same
transverse concrete joint. Consequences: Intensification of deformations, falling or
scaling of rubble stones, rupture.
Consequences: Destabilisation of the panel.

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CRACKS IN A PLANE PARALLEL TO THE WALL
Description: Widening of masonry side wall – opening of
joints in the side wall – Invisible in a concrete lining.
Consequences: Buckling of the side wall.
NICHE CRACKS
Description: Vertical cracking parallel to the wall at the junc-

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tion of niches and tunnel lining.
Consequences: Generally not very important.
Consolidation is necessary if disorders affect the stability of the
niche or lead to significant influx of water.
CRACKS FORMED BY SHRINKING
Description: Thin cracks whose length increases over time
(visible when bigger than 0.1 mm). The edges of the crack are PINCHING
FT
never uneven.
Formed concrete: opening rarely greater than 3 mm. Description: Deformation into a lancet shape of the upper part
Shotcrete: the normal shrinking (<1mm) is very difficult to of the vault with closing of the abutments and upward shifting
distinguish. of the keystone.
Consequences: This type of crack can lead to influx of water (if Consequences: Intensification of deformations, falling or
the extrados is not sealed), and corrosion of reinforcement. scaling of rubble stones, rupture.
If the section is deformed, one of the cracks may open or close. WIDENING - BULGING
Description: Localised bulging of the wall. Fairly characteristic
3.2.2 - Deformation of side walls, it can sometimes occur higher in the cross-
section.
SUBSIDENCE OF SIDE WALL Consequences: Localised deterioration or falling of rubble
Description: Longitudinal cracking in side wall, framed by stones as they gradually become unstuck.
oblique or transverse cracks.
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Consequences: Slow deformation; if the phenomenon is not


countered, then the vault will ultimately be destabilised.
GENERAL DEFORMATION OF THE SECTION
Description: Overall deformation of lining
Consequences: Weakening of load bearing capacities of the
platform. Severe reduction of clearance – Rupture of lining.
UNEVENNESS OF MASONRY LINE
Description: One or more consecutive lines of rubble stones
are offset with respect to the normal section of the intrados,
either too far back or too far forward.
Consequences: Done during the construction: none.

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Catalogue of disorders in underground structures

RISING OF INVERT
Description: Localised rising of the invert. Longitudinal crac-
king and sometimes transverse cracking of the invert with
unevenness.
Consequences: Dislocation of the invert. Collapse of the
gallery through loss of the strut effect between the side walls.
SUBSIDENCE OF INVERT
Description: Disorders on the traffic platform (disappearance
of ballast, cracking of the road or rail surface).
Cracking of the side walls at the junction between the invert
and the side wall.

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Consequences: Disorganisation of the traffic platform (defor-
mation of roads, subsidence of the road or rail surface .
Slow deformation; if the phenomenon is not halted, then the
vault may ultimately be destabilised.
Pollution of the platform (upwelling of mud).

3.2.3 - Falling of materials


FALLING OF BRICKS ONE BY ONE

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Description: Lack of a vault component.
Consequences: Likely point for influx of water; Disruption of
adjacent bricks.
FALLING OF BRICKS IN PANELS
Description: Collapse of independent panels of bricks
Consequences: Disappearance of the vault effect – Instability
intense disorders are often located on the vault where the
temperature is highest.
FT
of adjacent zones makes tunnel operation risky. Extension of Consequences: Decrease in strength of the structure. After
unstable zones – Ultimately destruction of the structure. repair, risk of distributing loads related to the juxtaposition of
structures with different stiffness.
FALLING OF RUBBLE STONES
Description: Lack of vault components. 3.3 - HYDRAULICS
Consequences: Disruption of the lining. Collapsing of the HYDRAULIC EROSION
masonry ring sections – Destruction of the structure. Description: Undermining of the invert (lined or otherwise)
FALLING OF CONCRETE PANELS and/or at the base of the side walls of hydraulic and sewage
galleries.
Description: Falling of concrete lining components.
Consequences: Intensification of undermining with risk of
Consequences: Collapse of the gallery through loss of lining destabilising the side walls when the lining of the invert contri-
effect. butes to the stability of the section. Leaks of water with risk of
flooding in case of thin surrounding envelope.
3.2.4 – Anomalies related to work
A

WEAKENING OF A REPLACED AREA MALFUNCTIONS IN WATER COLLECTION ON THE


PLATFORM
Description: Areas where there is a break in the continuity of
the curve following repair work (point of unevenness in the Description: Stagnation of water on the road or rail surface or
masonry) which has perturbed the distribution of loads. in the ballast. Blocking of lateral cunettes, gratings over wells,
collectors, gutters with longitudinal slits.
Consequences: Weakening of remodelled parts.
Destruction through excessive localised loads. Infiltrations detected in other underlying structures.
Consequences: Local flooding of the road or rail surface (with
3.2.4 – Disorders caused by fires ice during periods of freezing) or streams of water causing the
tunnel to be closed. Deterioration of the structure of the
DISORDERS CAUSED BY FIRE
invert.
Description: A wide range of symptoms depending on the type
of lining, the temperature and duration of exposure to fire: ALLUVIAL DEPOSITS
colour pink to red, terra-cotta appearance, crazing, scaling, Description: Partial obstruction of the gallery by deposits of
splitting, forming of craters, superficial fusion. The most alluvial materials with variable granulometry.

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Catalogue of disorders in underground structures

Consequences: Partial obstruction (loss of loads) or total


obstruction of the gallery. Entrapment of abrasive materials in
pipes and turbines of the hydraulic galleries.
EFFECTS OF FREEZING
Description: Stalactites and ice sheets – Surface folds – Ice.
Splitting or crumbling of the lining – Bursting of drainage
pipes – Expulsion of movable joints. Rising of the platform.
Consequences: Reduction in tunnel section affecting the road
or rail invert or falling of lining elements. Ice on the road or
rail surface.

INFILTRATION OF

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WATER
Description: a/ Infiltration of
water through a defect in the
lining (crack or hole) or a
construction device (joint,
weep hole).
b/ Infiltration of water from
surrounding ground (fault,

E joint, stratigraphic joint,


whole of the surface).
Consequences: a/ Deterio-
ration of the lining (eluvia-
tion, erosion) and possibly
cleavage.
b/ Dissolving, eluviation or
Consequences: a/ Extension, increasing thickness of deposit
which might cause slabs to fall.
b/ Increasing sulphate aggression.
INFILTRATIONS BETWEEN INSERTED OR POURED
CAISSONS
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erosion of ground and
Description: Infiltrations through joints between caissons or
possibly cave-in. Ice on road or rail surface.
between caissons and structures framing poured concrete.
OBSTRUCTION OF DRAINAGE SYSTEM Consequences: Increase in flow – Entrapment of fines –
Description: Filling of weep holes (in side walls), of drains, Undermining of the extrados.
pipes, gutters by solid materials
INFILTRATIONS THROUGH JOINTS BETWEEN
Consequences: Local loading, spots of damp. Loss of functio- SEGMENTS AND/OR THROUGH SEGMENT HOLES
nality.
Description: Infiltration of water creating calcite deposits.
UPWELLING MUD Consequences: Corrosion of fixed installations and electrical
Description: Small craters consisting of fine particles with equipment.
flowing or trickling water on the road or rail surface – Muddy Disturbance to operation depending on the situation and the
pools extent of the disorder.
Consequences: Pollution of the ballast – Instability of roads - BLOCKING – DEFECTIVE VALVES
A

Interruption of traffic
Description: Presence of limestone concretions (calcite) or
CONCRETION corrosion of metal parts causing a loss of efficiency or even
total blocking of a valve.
Description: a/ Stone concretion: solid and sometimes thick
calcite crystallisation, with variable hues (revealing impurities) Consequences: Cleaving of the gallery lining during rapid drai-
and adhering to the wall, seeping through cracks, porous zones ning due to excessive hydrostatic pressure in the ground.
or damp joints.
b/ Sulphate concretion: crystallisations of gypsum, hard,
brittle, often blackish (soot), sometimes shiny in joints or
cracks.

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Catalogue of disorders in underground structures

4 - DISORDERS AFFECTING ADJOINING AREAS,


PORTALS AND RELATED ELEMENTS

4.1 - SHAFTS AND CHIMNEYS 4.3 - PORTALS


DETERIORATION OF LININGS WATERTIGHTNESS DEFECTS
Description: The same disorders as those affecting linings of Description: Infiltration of water – dripping on portal zones -
normal tunnel sections. carbonatization.
Consequences: Rapid extension upwards of zones in which Consequences: Forming of stalactites at the tunnel entrance - ice.
masonry has collapsed. - Unstable area for railway platform.

4.2 - NATURAL OR ARTIFICIAL SUBTER- DETERIORATION OF PORTAL WALLS

S
RANEAN CAVITIES NEARBY Description: Cracking – moving of crowning stones – unstic-
DISORDERS RELATED TO THE PRESENCE OF king of tunnel walls
SUBTERRANEAN QUARRIES Consequences: Falling of blocks below the structure – deterio-
Description: Localised subsidence of the platform – ration of the tightness – Direct flowing of water – Eluviation
Horizontal cracks in the side walls – Geometrical defects. of the structure portal
Consequences: Geometrical deformation of the structure with BLOCKING OF SCREE CLEFTS
subsidence of side walls or the invert which could destroy the Description: Presence of large blocks – significant vegetation.

E
tunnel.
SUBSIDENCE
Description: Opening or beginning of a cavity on the ground
over a tunnel - Opening or beginning of a cavity under the
invert of a tunnel.
Consequences: Deformation of the structure which might ulti-
mately destroy it.
Consequences: Piercing of seals around portals.
Obstruction of drains – Deterioration of tunnel walls.
FT
4.4 - WING WALLS
DISORDERS AFFECTING WING WALLS
Description: Localised deformation (bulging – swelling).
Altering of rubble stones and joints Oblique cracks.
Consequences: Weakening – Lack of ground shoring. Rupture
of wall.
A

TUNNELS ET OUVRAGES SOUTERRAINS – HORS-SERIE N° 3 – 2005


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