Sie sind auf Seite 1von 13







1. What is meant by Cell?
The basic living unit of the body is cell. The function of organs and other structure of the
body are understood by cell organization.
2. State the applications of medical instrumentation system.
 To design experiments & clinical studies.
 To summarize, explore, analyze & present data
 To draw inferences from data by estimation or hypothesis testing
 To evaluate diagnostic procedure
 To assist clinical decision making.
3. Define Transducers.
Transducers are defined as a device which when actuated, transforms energy from
one form to another. Generally, any physical parameters are converted into electrical
4. Name the parameters that dictate the Transducer Capability.
 Linearity
 Repeatability
 Resolution and
 Reliability
5. Define Sensitivity.
6. Classify Electrical Transducers.
Active transducer: A transducer that gives its output without the use of an
excitation voltage or modulation of a carrier signal is called an active transducer.
Passive transducer: A transducer that gives its output using an excitation voltage
or modulation of a carrier signal is called a passive transducer. Generally the active
transducer converts a non- electrical energy into electrical energy and converts an
electrical into non electrical energy.
7. What is Electrode Potential (or) half cell potential?
The interface of metallic ion solution with their associated metal results in an
electrode potential.
8. What are the characteristics of Resting Potential?
The value of potential is maintained as constant. It depends on temperature.
Permeability varies.
9. Define the process of Sodium Pump.
It is an active process, called a sodium pump in which the sodium ions are quickly
transported to the outside of the cell & the cell again becomes polarized and assumes its
resting potential.
10. Define Circulatory System.
It is a type of transport system. It helps in supplying the oxygen and digested food
to different parts of our body and removing CO2 from the blood. The heart is the center
of the circulatory system.
11. What is meant by Action Potential?
Cell has a slightly positive potential on the inside due to imbalance of potassium
ions. This positive potential of the cell membrane during excitation is called Action
Potential and is about 20 mV.
12. What is Electrode Potential?
The voltage developed at an electrode-electrolyte interface is known as Electrode
13. What is the purpose of Electrode Paste?
The electrode paste decreases the impedance of the contact the artifacts resulting
from the movement of the electrode or patient.
14. Give the different types of Electrodes.
Microelectrodes, Depth and needle electrodes and Surface electrodes.
15. Give the different types of Surface electrodes.
i) Metal Plate electrodes
ii) Suction cup electrodes
iii) Adhesive tape electrodes
iv) Multi point electrodes
v) Floating electrodes
16. Define Gauge Factor.
It is the ratio of per change in resistance to per unit change in length.
17. What are advantages of LVDT?
i) Wide range of linearity
ii) Change of phase by 180 deg when the core passes through the center position
iii) Full scale displacement is 0.1 – 250 mm
iv) Sensitivity is 0.5 – 2 mv
18. Define All or Nothing Law.
Regardless of the method of excitation of cells or the intensity of the stimulus, the
action potential is always the same for any given cell.
19. Mention the various Bioelectric Potentials.
ECG, EMG, EEG, ERG are the various bioelectric potentials

20. What are Micro Electrodes?

The electrodes which are used to measure the potential within a single cell is
known as microelectrode.

1. List the requirements of an instrumentation amplifier.

 Low drift
 High i/p impedance, High linearity
 High CMRR
 High noise rejection capability.
2. Mention the characteristics of a DC amplifier.
It may need balanced differential inputs giving a high common mode rejection ratio
(CMRR).It should have extremely good thermal and long term stability.
3. Enumerate the merits and demerits of a dc amplifier.
It is easy to calibrate at low frequencies. It is able to recover from an overload condition
unlike its AC counterpart.
4. Define operational amplifier.
i) It is the high gain dc differential amplifier
ii) It is normally used in circuits that have characteristics determined by external negative
feedback networks.
5. Write the different applications of op-amp.
 Integrator
 Differentiator
 summing amplifier
 Differential amplifier
 Rectifier
 log amplifier
6. What is the need of bio amplifier?
Generally biosignals are having low amplitude and low frequency. So amplifiers are
needed to boost the amplitude level.
7. Define Electrocardiography.
It deals with the study of the electrical activity of the heart muscles. The potential
originated in the individual fibers of heart muscle are added to produce the ECG waveform.
8. What are the different types of ECG lead configuration?
i) Bipolar limb leads
ii) Augmented unipolar limb leads
iii) Chest leads
9. Define Einthoven triangle.
The closed path RA to LA to LL and back to RA is called Einthoven triangle. According
to Einthoven, in a frontal plane of the body, the cardiac electric field vector is a two dimensional
10. What is EMG?
Electromyograph is an instrument used for recording the electrical activity of the muscles
to determine whether the muscle is contracting or not.
11. What are the electrodes used for EMG?
Surface electrodes and Needle electrodes are used for EMG recording.
12. What is EOG?
It is the recording of the biopotentials generated by the movement of eyes.
13. What are the applications of EOG?
i) The effect of some drugs on the eye movement systems can be identified by using
ii) Used to analyze the state of semicircular canals
iii) Diagnosis of the neurological disorders is possible.
vi) The level of anesthesia can be indicated by the characteristics of eye movement.
14.What is ERG?
It is the method of recording and interpreting the electrical activity of the eye.
15. Define Auscultation.
The technique of listening sound produced by organs and vessels of the body is known as
16. What are the types of Microphones used in PCG?
i)Aircouled microphone
ii) Contact Microphone
17. What are the components used as an isolation barrier?
Optical cable and transformers can be used as isolation amplifier.
18. What is Epilepsy?
It is defined as synchronous discharge of large group of neurons often including the
whole brain.
19. What is Evoked potential?
The potentials developed in the brain as the responses to eternal stimuli are called as
Evoked potential.
20. What are the characteristics of delta waves?
It is occurred in cortex of the brain. Its frequency range is 0.5-4Hz.Its occurred in
premature babies and when the person is in deep sleep.

1. What is Spirometer?
It is an apparatus for measuring the volume of air inspired and expired by the lungs.
2. Define Dead Air.
The volume of air that is not available for gas exchange with the blood is known as dead
air .It is less than 30% of the total volume.
3. What is mean by mean arterial pressure?
It is weighted average of systolic and diastolic pressure.
MAP=1/3(systolic-diastolic) +Diastolic
4. What is the use of Plethysmography?
It is an instrument used to measure the volume changes.
5. Define Apnoea.
It is the stoppage of breathing. It leads to arrest of the circulation. It can be occurred at
the condition like head injury, drug overdose.
6. Mention the different methods used for measurements of blood pressure.
i) Indirect or noninvasive method
ii) Direct or invasive method
7. How is the blood pressure measured in the indirect method?
The indirect method of measuring blood pressure involves the use of a
sphygmomanometer and a stethoscope .The sphygmomanometer consists of an inflatable
pressure cuff and a mercury or aneroid manometer to measure the pressure in the cuff. The cuff
is normally manually inflated, with a rubber bulb and deflates slowly through a needle valve.
8. Write the principle of Sphygmomanometer.
The sphygmomanometer works on the principle that when the cuff is placed on the upper arm
and inflated, the arterial blood can flow past the cuff only when the arterial pressure exceeds the
pressure in the cuff. When the cuff is inflated pressure that only occludes the brachial artery,

turbulence is generated in the blood it spurts through the tiny arterial opening during each
systole .The sounds generate by the turbulence, Korotkoff sounds can be heard through the
stethoscope placed over the artery downstream from the cuff.
9. What are the methods involved in direct blood pressure measurement?
i) Auscultator method
ii) Palpatory method
10. What are the methods involved in direct blood pressure measurement?
i) Peritoneaus insertion
ii) Catheterization
iii) Implantation of a transducer in a vessel or in the heart
iv) Other methods such as clamping transducer on the intact artery have also been used.
11. What is the systemic temperature?
It is the temperature of the internal regions of the body. Usually heat is generated by the
active tissues and heat is lost by the body to the environment. But the temperature of the body is
maintained carefully.
12. Define Residual Volume.
It is the amount of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of maximal expiration. It is equal
to 1200ml.
13. What is photo plethesmography?
The light energy is through a capillary blood .As arterial pulsation fill the capillary blood;
the changes in volume of the blood vessels modify the absorption, reflection and scattering of the
light. It indicates the timing of the events such as the heart rate.
14. Give the bandwidth requirement for measuring the blood pressure.
i) The bandwidth requirements are a function of the investigation.
ii) No distortion in the amplitude or phase characteristics
iii) Measurement of the derivative of the pressure signal increase the bandwidth
15. Explain in brief about murmurs.
i) They have a noisy character and last for a long time
ii) It occurs due to the turbulent flow of blood in the heart and large vessels.
iii) HF murmurs have small amplitude
16. What is systolic and diastolic pressure?
Systolic is the contraction of heart muscles. The systolic pressure is120mm of hg.
Diastolic is the relaxation of heart muscle. The diastolic pressure is 80 mm of hg.
17. List the two methods of Pulse measurement.
Transmittance and reflectance methods are used to measure the pulse rate.
18. What is photoelectric plethysmograph?
In this type volume changes in a limp results in the change in the optical density through
and beneath the skin.
19. What are the various factors affect the skin temperature?
i) How fat covers over capillary area.
ii) How the skin portion is exposed to ambient temperature.
iii) Blood circulation pattern beneath the skin.
20. Mention the types of temperature measurement.
i) Systemic temperature
ii) Surface temperature

1. List the different types of blood flow meters.
 Electromagnetic blood flow meter based on the principle of magnetic induction.
 ultrasonic blood flow meters
 determination by radiographic method (NMR based )
 lasers based ultrasonic blood flow meter
 Thermal convection
2. How the blood flow is measured.
The blood flow rate is measure by using the blood flow meter.
3. Write the principle of Magnetic blood flow meter.
It is the based on the principle of Electromagnetic induction. It’s states that when
an electrical conductor is moved through a magnetic field a voltage is induced in the
conductor through a magnetic field a voltage is induced in the conductor proportional to
the velocity of the its motion.
4. What are the two types of Ultrasonic blood flow meter?
i)Transit time type
ii) Doppler type
5. State the principle used in Thermal Convection Method.
A hot object placed in a colder flowing medium is cooled by thermal convection,
This principle is used in thermal convection.
6. Write the two types of Indicator Dilution Method.
i) Open circulation method
ii) Closed circulation method.
7. List the different types of blood cells.
i) White blood cells.
ii) Red blood cells
iii) Blood platelets.
8. What is Hematocrit Determination?
To determine the relative portion of blood cells in a given volume of blood
hematocrit or packed cell volume is used.
9. What is Blood Serum?
The plasma in which the fibrinogen has been removed by the process of
precipitation is called blood serum.
10. What is Fibrinogen?
It is one of the protein, helps in the process of blood clotting and formation of thin
fibers called fibrin.
11. Write the use of White Blood Cells.
It helps to maintain the immune system of the body and fights against the
12. State the principle used in laser based blood cell counting.
The principle used is the angle of scattered light is different for different sized
blood cells.
13. How the blood is measured using Manual method?
It’s performed by using microscope. At first the blood is diluted in the ratio of
1:100 or 1:200 for counting RBC’s and in the ratio of 1:10 or 1:20 for WBC’s.The
diluted blood is then brought to the counting chamber of 0.1 mm deep which is divided
into a number of squares. It is magnified about 500 times and the no of cells present in
particular square can be determined.
14. Write the main role of Blood Platelets.
Blood platelets play a vital role in the mechanism of blood clotting.
15. What is the function of White Blood Cells?
It helps to maintain the immune system of the body and fights against the
16. Write the different types of methods available to count the blood cells?
i) Hematocrit
ii) Manual method
iii) Conductivity method
iv) Laser based cell counting.
17. Write down the characteristics of red blood cells.
It is also known as erythrocytes. They are round disks with a diameter of about 8
micrometer. RBC generated at the bone marrow.
18. What are the elements present in the blood?
The blood consists of fluid called plasma. The plasma fluid occupies 55% of
blood and the other 45% of blood contains blood cells.
19. Write down the characteristics of WBC.
It is known as Leucocytes. It has an average diameter of 10 micrometer. It has cell
20. Write down the characteristics of blood platelets.
It is also called as thrombocytes. They are mass of protoplasm. Have the diameter
of about 2 to 4 micrometer.


1. Write the equation to find pH value.

It is the logarithm of the reciprocal value of H+ ion concentration.
2. Why is glass electrode very much preferred as active electrode in a pH meter?
The glass electrode provides a membrane interface for H+ ions. So that it is
referred as an active electrode in pH measurement.
3. What is the pH value of Arterial blood and venous blood?
pH value of venous blood=7.35
pH value of arterial blood-7.40
4. What is Electrophoresis?
Electrophoresis is defined as the movement of a solid base with respect to a
liquid. It is used to measure the quantity of protein in plasma, urine, etc.It is used to
separate enzymes into their components isoenzymes. It is used to identify antibodies.
5. How does the pH value determine the acidity of alkalinity in blood fluid?
pH is defined as the hydrogen ion concentration of a fluid. It is the measure of
acid base balance in a fluid.
6. What is Photometer?
It is used to determine the concentration of potassium, sodium, calcium and
lithium. It is used in the analysis of blood or urine.
7. List the factors affect the speed of Migration.
i) Magnitude of charge
ii) Ionic strength of buffer
iii) Temperature & time
iv) Type of support media
8. What is Colorimeter?
It is a device used to measure the protein and iron levels in blood.
9. Write the principle used in Colorimeter analysis.
The basic principle used in colorimeter is the absorption and transmittance
property of chemical substances.
10. What is Photometer?
It is a device used to measure the protein and iron levels in blood.
11. What is Auto Analyzer?
It is used to measure blood chemistry and display that on a graphic recorder.
12. What are the points to be considered before using Auto Analyzer?
i) Sterilization is needed for samples and glass tubes. Because any sample may be
contaminated with disease and it can be spreaded to other samples.
ii) Calibration of auto analyzer is very important. It should be maintained by the separate
biomedical technician.
13. List the applications of Electrophoresis.
i) It is used to measure the quantity of protein in plasma, urine, etc.
ii) It is used to separate enzymes into their components isoenzymes.
iii) It is used to identify antibodies.
14. List the types of Support Media used in Electrophoresis.
Cellulose acetate, starch gel and sucrose are used as support media.
15. Define Biosensors.
A biosensor is an analytical device, used for the detection of an analyte that
combines a biological component with a physicochemical detector.
16. What are the elements present in Biosensor?
A biosensor typically consists of a bio-recognition component, biotransducer
component, and electronic system which include a signal amplifier, processor, and
display. Transducers and electronics can be combined, e.g., in CMOS-based micro sensor

17. Write the applications of Biosensors.

Biosensor probes are becoming increasingly sophisticated, mainly owing to a
combination of advances in two technological fields: microelectronics and biotechnology.
Biosensors are highly valuable devices for measuring a wide spectrum of analyses
including organic compounds, gases, ions and bacteria.
18. What is Immobilization of Bioreceptor?
One major requirement for a biosensor is that the bioreceptor molecule has to be
immobilized in the vicinity of the transducer. The immobilization is done either by
physical entrapment or chemical attachment. Note that only minute quantities of
bioreceptor molecules are needed, and they are used repeatedly for measurements.
19. List the some types of Biotransducer used in Biosensors.
The most common types of Biotransducers used in biosensors are
1) Electrochemical biosensors
2) Optical biosensors
3) Electronic biosensors
4) Piezoelectric biosensors
5) Gravimetric biosensors
6) Pyroelectric biosensors.
20. Mention some types of Biosensors.
There are different types of biosensors based on different principles. However,
generally they are categorized as: Optical biosensors, Potentiometric biosensors,
Resonant Biosensors, Thermal-detection Biosensors, Ion-Sensitive Biosensors,
Electrochemical, MOSFET biosensors, fiber optic biosensors.