Sie sind auf Seite 1von 17

S/S 8846

FPFM 87L‐21‐67N‐1
RELAY SETTINGS RED670

132KV UG+OHL 8846 SET-1 PROTECTION RELAY RED670 ABB

1 SET-1 UG+OHL 8846 to 9025 1 & 2 FPFM RELAY RED670

FUNCTIONS: 87L , 21 & 67N.


1.1 SYSTEM DATA

CT & VT DATA:
132KV CT1-1 Ratio = 1200 / 1A
CT Class = PX
CT Knee Point Voltage = 2100 V
CT Magnetizing Current ( mAmp ) = 66.7 mA
CT Resistance (Ohms) = 3 Ω
Maximum Through Fault Current, IK1max = 40000 A
Rated VT Primary Voltage ( PH-PH ) = 132000 V
Rated VT Secondary Voltage ( PH-PH ) = 115 V
Rated VT Primary Voltage ( PH-N ) = VPH-PH / √3 = 76210.2 V
Rated VT Secondary Voltage ( PH-N ) = VPH-PH / √3 = 66.3953 V
Factor for Primary Impedance to Secondary Impedance Conversion, UZ = [ US / UP ] x [ IP / IS ]
UZ = 1.04545
System reactance /Resitance ratio = 50 (As provided in P.R)

1.2 LINE PARAMETERS


1.2.1 LINE DATA FOR 8846 TO 9025 A & B

UG Cable parameters for Section-1 (CONDUCTOR TYPEXLPE 1 x 2000 mm sq)


UG Cable length, L1 = 0.35 Km
UG Cable Positive Sequence Resistance, R1 = 0.014 Ω / Km
UG Cable Positive Sequence Reactance, X1 = 0.237 Ω / Km
Primary Impedance per km = RL1 + jXL1 = RL1 + Jxl1
= 0.014+0.237i Ω / Km
Total Primary positive seq.Impedance, Z1L1 = [R1 + jX1] x L2
Z1L1 = 0.0049+0.08295i Ω

UG Cable Zero Sequence Resistance, R0 = 0.057 Ω / Km


UG Cable Zero Sequence Reactance, X0 = 0.089 Ω / Km
Primary zero seq.Impedance per km = RL0 + Jxl0 = RL0 + Jxl0
0.057+0.089i
Total Primary Zero Sequence Impedance, Z0L1 = [R0 + jX0] x L1
Z0L1 = 0.01995+0.03115i Ω
UG Cable Capacity = 267 MVA
Total UG Cable Charging Current = 1.70786 Ampere/km
UG Cable Charging Current Primary side = 0.59775 Ampere
OHL parameters for Section-2(OHL)(CONDUCTOR TYPE-ACSR CONDOR 2x402 sq)
OHL length, L2 = 7.5 Km
OHL Positive Sequence Resistance, R1 = 0.04467 Ω / Km
OHL Positive Sequence Reactance, X1 = 0.17093 Ω / Km
Primary Impedance per km = R1 + JX1
= 0.0446666666666667+0.170933333Ω / Km
Total Primary positive seq.Impedance, Z1L2 = [R1 + jX1] x L2
Z1L2 = 0.335+1.282i Ω

Prepared by: DAR Engineering DWG : CE-736211


1 REV 00
S/S 8846 FPFM 87L‐21‐67N‐1
RELAY SETTINGS RED670

OHL Zero Sequence Resistance, R0 = 0.3128 Ω / Km


OHL Zero Sequence Reactance, X0 = 0.90147 Ω / Km
Primary zero seq.Impedance per km = = R0 + JX0
0.3128+0.901466666666667i
Total Primary Zero Sequence Impedance, Z0L2 = [R0 + jX0] x L2
Z0L2 = 2.346+6.761i Ω
OHL Line Capacity = 276 MVA
Total OHL line Charging Current = 0.08966 Ampere/km
OHL line Charging Current Primary side = 0.67246 Ampere

UG Cable parameters for Section-3 (CONDUCTOR TYPE-XLPE 1 x 2000 mm sq)


UG Cable length, L3 = 2.8 Km
UG Cable Positive Sequence Resistance, R1 = 0.01357 Ω / Km
UG Cable Positive Sequence Reactance, X1 = 0.2375 Ω / Km
Primary Impedance per km = R1 + jX1 = R1 + JX1
= 0.0135714285714286+0.2375i Ω / Km
Total Primary positive seq.Impedance, Z1L3 = [R1 + jX1] x L3
Z1L3 = 0.0380000000000001+0.665i Ω

UG Cable Zero Sequence Resistance, R0 = 0.05857 Ω / Km


UG Cable Zero Sequence Reactance, X0 = 0.08786 Ω / Km
Primary zero seq.Impedance per km = RL0 + Jxl0 = RL0 + Jxl0
0.0585714285714286+0.0878571428571429i
Total Primary Zero Sequence Impedance, Z0L3 = [R0 + jX0] x L3
Z0L3 = 0.164+0.246i Ω
UG Cable Capacity = 276 MVA
Total UG Cable Charging Current = 1.70786 Ampere/km
UG Cable Charging Current Primary side = 4.78201 Ampere

1.2.2 TOTAL PRIMRAY & SECONDARY VALUES:


Total Line Length LT = L1
Total Line Length LT = 10.65 Km

Total Primary positive seq.Impedance, ZL1 = [R1 + jX1]


ZL1 = 0.3779+2.02995i Ω

Total Primary Zero Sequence Impedance, ZL0 = [R0 + jX0]


ZL0 = 2.52995+7.03815i Ω
=
Total line Charging Current Primary(Ic) = 6.05222 A

Prepared by: DAR Engineering DWG : CE-736211


2 REV 00
S/S 8846 FPFM 87L‐21‐67N‐1
RELAY SETTINGS RED670

1.2.2 TOTAL PRIMRAY & SECONDARY VALUES:


Total Line Length LT =L
= 10.65 Km
Line total positive sequence impedance, ZL1 = 0.3779+2.02995i Ω
Line total zero sequence impedance, ZL0 = 2.52995+7.03815i Ω
Line total positive sequence impedance magnitude, ZL1 = 2.06483
Line total zero sequence impedance magnitude, ZL0 = 7.47905
Line angle θ = 79.4544 degree
Line total positive sequence impedance ( secondary ) = UZ x ZL1
0.395077272727273+2.12222045454545i
=

Line total zero sequence impedance ( secondary ) = UZ x ZL0


2.64494772727273+7.35806590909091i
=
Line positive sequence resistance, r1 Primary = 0.3779 Ω
Line positive sequence reactance, x1 Primary = 2.02995 Ω
Line zero sequence resistance, r0 Primary = 2.52995 Ω
Line zero sequence reactance, x0 Primary = 7.03815 Ω
Total line Charging Current secondary(Ic) = 0.00504 A

1.2.3 LINE DATA FOR 9025-8846 FDER(SHORTEST LINE SECTION)


OHL length, L = 10.65 Km
OHL Positive Sequence Resistance, R1 = 0.03548 Ω / Km
OHL Positive Sequence Reactance, X1 = 0.19061 Ω / Km
Primary Impedance per km = RL1 + Jxl1
= 0.0354835680751174+0.190605633Ω / Km
Total Primary positive seq.Impedance, ZL1 = [R1 + jX1] x L
ZL1 = 0.3779+2.02995i Ω

OHL Zero Sequence Resistance, R0 = 0.23755 Ω / Km


OHL Zero Sequence Reactance, X0 = 0.66086 Ω / Km
Primary zero seq.Impedance per km = = RL0 + Jxl0
0.237553990610329+0.660859154929577i
Total Primary Zero Sequence Impedance, ZL0 = [R0 + jX0] x OHL Length
ZL0 = 2.52995+7.03815i Ω
Line total positive sequence impedance ( secondary ) = UZ x ZL1
0.395077272727273+2.12222045454545i
=

Line total zero sequence impedance ( secondary ) = UZ x ZL0


2.64494772727273+7.35806590909091i
=

Line positive sequence resistance, r1  = 0.3779 Ω


Line positive sequence reactance, x1  = 2.02995 Ω
Line zero sequence resistance, r0  = 2.52995 Ω
Line zero sequence reactance, x0 = 7.03815 Ω

Prepared by: DAR Engineering DWG : CE-736211


3 REV 00
S/S 8846 FPFM 87L‐21‐67N‐1
RELAY SETTINGS RED670

1.2.4 LINE DATA FOR 9025-8846 FDR (LONGEST LINE SECTION)

OHL length, L = 10.65 Km


OHL Positive Sequence Resistance, R1 = 0.03548 Ω / Km
OHL Positive Sequence Reactance, X1 = 0.19061 Ω / Km
Primary Impedance per km = RL1 + Jxl1
= 0.0354835680751174+0.190605633Ω / Km
Total Primary positive seq.Impedance, ZL1 = [R1 + jX1] x L
ZL1 = 0.3779+2.02995i Ω

OHL Zero Sequence Resistance, R0 = 0.23755 Ω / Km


OHL Zero Sequence Reactance, X0 = 0.66086 Ω / Km
Primary zero seq.Impedance per km = = RL0 + Jxl0
0.237553990610329+0.660859154929577i
Total Primary Zero Sequence Impedance, ZL0 = [R0 + jX0] x OHL Length
ZL0 = 2.52995+7.03815i Ω

Line total positive sequence impedance ( secondary ) = UZ x ZL1


0.395077272727273+2.12222045454545i
=
Line total zero sequence impedance ( secondary ) = UZ x ZL0
2.64494772727273+7.35806590909091i
=

Line positive sequence resistance, r1  Primary = 0.3779 Ω


Line positive sequence reactance, x1  Primary = 2.02995 Ω
Line zero sequence resistance, r0   Primary = 2.52995 Ω
Line zero sequence reactance, x0  Primary = 7.03815 Ω
2 A. Differential Protection :
Setting guidelines
The line differential protection in RED670 gets information about currents from all line terminals and evaluates this information in
three different analysis blocks. The results of these analysis are then forwarded to an output logic, where the conditions for trip or no
trip are checked.
The three current analysis are:
1.Percentage restrained differential analysis
2.2nd and 5th harmonic analysis
3.Internal/external fault discriminator

1. Percentage Restrained Differential Operation


The line differential function is phase segregated where the operate current is the vector sum of all measured currents taken separately
for each phase. The restrain current, on the other hand, is considered as the greatest phase current in any line end and it is common for
all three phases.
The characteristic of the restrained differential function is shown in figure A. The restrained characteristic is defined by the settings:
a. IdMin
b. EndSection1
c. EndSection2
d. SlopeSection2
e. SlopeSection3

Prepared by: DAR Engineering DWG : CE-736211


4 REV 00
S/S 8846 FPFM 87L‐21‐67N‐1
RELAY SETTINGS RED670

Figure A: Restrained differential function characteristic

2.1 Basic Differential Current IdMin ( Section-1)

This setting shall take into account the fundamental frequency line charging current, and whether a power transformer is included in
the protected zone or not.
The positive sequence line charging current is calculated according to the following equation:

Line charging current refer to secondary side (calculated above) = 0.0050 A

The differential current IdMin is the minimum differential current at which the relay will pickup. Its value must be greater than the
line Charging current.
Differential Current IdMin > Ic = 0.0050 x IB
If the charging current compensation is enabled, the setting of IdMin shall be: IdMin>Ic, and if it is disabled: IdMin>2.5xIc. In many
cases, the charging current will be quite small which will make the lower limit of the setting range i.e. 20% of IBase the practical
limit of sensitivity.
Differential Current IdMin = 0.2 x IB
2.2 EndSection1 set as a multiple of IBase

The default value 1.25 is generally recommended. If the conditions are known more in detail, other values can be chosen in order to
increase or decrease the sensitivity.
End section-1 = 1.25 x IB
2.3 EndSection2 set as a multiple of Ibase
The default value 3.00 is generally recommended. If the conditions are known more in detail, other values can be chosen in order to
increase or decrease the sensitivity.
End section-2 = 3.00 x IB
2.4 SlopeSection2 set as a percentage value: [Operate current/Restrain current]·100%
The default value 40.0 is generally recommended. for Slope Section -2
SlopeSection 2 = 40.00 %
2.5 SlopeSection3 set as a percentage value: [Operate current/Restrain current]·100%

Due to expected CT saturation during high through fault currents, a second slope is employed. This slope is typically set at 80%
SlopeSection 3 = 80.00 %

Prepared by: DAR Engineering DWG : CE-736211


5 REV 00
S/S 8846 FPFM 87L‐21‐67N‐1
RELAY SETTINGS RED670

2.6 2nd and 5th harmonic analysis :

The set value is the ratio of the second harmonic of the differential current to the fundamental frequency of the differential current.
Transformer inrush currents cause high degrees of second harmonic in the differential current. The default value of 15% serves as a
reliable value to detect power transformer inrush currents as the content at this phenomenon is always higher than 23%.
Also CT saturation causes second harmonics of considerable value on the CT secondary side, which will contribute to the
stabilization of the relay at through fault conditions.
It is recommended to maintain a setting of 15% even no power transformer is included in the protected zone.

= 15.00 %
The set value is the ratio of the fifth harmonic of the differential current to the fundamental frequency of the differential current.

5th Harmonic In Rush restraint ratio, I5 / I1 = 30.00 %

2.7 High Current stage IdUnre :


Values of differential currents above the unrestrained limit will give a trip disregarding all other criteria i.e. irrespective of the
internal/external fault discriminator and any presence of harmonics. It is intended for fast tripping of internal faults with high fault
currents. The recommended setting is 120% of the highest through fault current that can appear on the protected line. Consequently,
to set this value properly, a fault current calculation in each specific case needs to be carried out.

Calculations for External through phase faults:


Primary Value of Source Impedance, ZSP = Vp / [√3 x IKmax1]
ZSP = 1.90 Ω
2
Resistive Component Of Source Impedance, RSs1 = ZSP / √ [ 1 + (X/R) ]
RSs1 0.04
2
Reactive Component Of Source Impedance, XSs1 = ZSP x (X/R) / √ [ 1 + (X/R) ]
XSs1 = 1.90
Source Impedance In Complex Form, ZSp = = RSs1 + j XSs1
= 0.04+1.9i
Zero Sequence Source Impedance, Z0Sp = = 1.5 x ZSp
= 0.06+2.85i
Earth Fault Loop Source Impedance, Zsep = [ 2 x ZSp + Z0Sp ] / 3
= 0.0466666666666667+2.21666666666667i
Primary Source Impedance, ZSp = 0.04+1.9i
total Primary line Impedance, ZL1 = 0.3779+2.02995i
Total Primary line Impedance , Ztp = ZSp + ZL1
= 0.4179+3.92995i

Prepared by: DAR Engineering DWG : CE-736211


6 REV 00
S/S 8846 FPFM 87L‐21‐67N‐1
RELAY SETTINGS RED670

Total Primary line Impedance , Zt Magnitude = 3.95211


Through fault current Itmax = kVs / [√3 x Zt)]
Through fault current Itmax = 19283.4 A
Through fault current Secondary side Ifth = 16.0695 A

High Current stage IdUnre = 120 % x Ifth


= 19.2834
High Current stage IdUnre = 19.28 x IB

3 EARTH FAULT IMPEDANCE COMPENSATION FACTORS

Total line length = L1


= 10.65 Km
Positive sequence impedance Z1 = 0.3779+2.02995i
Positive sequence resistance R1 = 0.3779 Ω
Positive sequence reactance X1 = 2.02995 Ω
Zero sequence impedance Z0 = 2.52995+7.03815i
Zero sequence resistance R0 = 2.52995 Ω
Zero sequence reatance X0 = 7.03815 Ω
Earth fault compensation factor Real Part = RE / RL = 1/3 x ( R0 / R1 - 1 )
= 1.898
Earth fault compensation factor Imaginary Part = XE / XL = 1/3 x ( X0 / X1 - 1 )
= 0.822

4 IMPEDANCE PROTECTION:
4.1 Distance protection ZM
The setting for distance protection functions are done in primary values. The instrument transformer ratio that has been set for the
analogue input card is used to automatically convert the measured secondary input signals to primary values used in the distance
protection function

4.2 ZONE-1 Forward Reach


Zone-1 Forward reach is set at 75% of the line impedance ZSZONE-1 = 0.75 x Z1S
Zone -1 pos seq.impedance Z1SZONE-1 = 0.283425+1.5224625i
R1Z1 = 0.28343 Ω
X1Z1 = 1.52246 Ω
Line Zone-1 Impedance Z1mag = 1.54862
Line Zone-1 angle θ = 79.6411 degree
0.75 x Z1S
Zone -1 zero seq impedance = 1.8974625+5.2786125i
R0Z1 = 1.89746 Ω
X0Z1 = 5.27861 Ω
Line Zone-1 Impedance Z1mag = 5.60929
LineZone-1 angle θ = 70.4738 degree

Prepared by: DAR Engineering DWG : CE-736211


7 REV 00
S/S 8846 FPFM 87L‐21‐67N‐1
RELAY SETTINGS RED670

4.3 ZONE-2 Forward Reach

a) Zone 2 reach has been proposed as 125% of the protected line :

Zone -2 pos seq.impedance Z1SZONE-2 = 1.25 x Z1S


Zone -2 pos seq.impedance Z1SZONE-2 = 0.472375+2.5374375i
R1Z2 = 0.47238 Ω
X1Z2 = 2.53744 Ω
Line Zone-2 Impedance magnitude Z1mag = 2.58103
Line Zone-2 angle θ = 79.6411 degree
1.25 x Z1S
Zone -2 zero seq impedance = 3.1624375+8.7976875i
R0Z2 = 3.16244 Ω
X0Z2 = 8.79769 Ω
Line Zone-2 Impedance Z0mag = 9.34881
LineZone-2 angle θ = 70.4738 degree

b) Zone 2 reach has been proposed as 100% of Main line and 50% shortest line:

= 100% of the Main Line + 50 % shortest line


Zone -2 pos seq.impedance Z1SZONE-2 = 0.575438636363636+3.09106022727273i
R1Z3 = 0.57544 Ω
X1Z3 = 3.09106 Ω
Line Zone-2 Impedance Z1mag = 3.14417 Ω
Line Zone-2 angle θ = 79.6411 degree
= 100% of the Main Line + 50 % shortest line
Zone -2 zero seq impedance = 3.85242386363637+10.7171829545455i
R0Z2 = 3.85242 Ω
X0Z2 = 10.7172 Ω
Line Zone-2 Impedance Z0mag = 11.3886 Ω
LineZone-2 angle θ = 70.4738 degree

4.4 ZONE-3 Forward Reach

Zone 3 reach has been proposed as 120% of Main line and next longest line:

= (120% of the( Main Line + Longest line ))


Zone -3 pos seq.impedance Z1SZONE-3 = 0.90696+4.87188i
R1Z3 = 0.90696 Ω
X1Z3 = 4.87188 Ω
Line Zone-3 Impedance Z1mag = 4.95558
Line Zone-3 angle θ = 79.6411 degree
(120% of the( Main Line + Longest line ))
Zone -3 zero seq impedance = 6.07188+16.89156i
R0Z3 = 6.07188 Ω
X0Z3 = 16.8916 Ω
Line Zone-3 Impedance Z0mag = 17.9497

Prepared by: DAR Engineering DWG : CE-736211


8 REV 00
S/S 8846 FPFM 87L‐21‐67N‐1
RELAY SETTINGS RED670

LineZone-3 angle θ = 70.4738 degree

4.5 ZONE-4 Forward Reach

Zone 4 reach has been proposed ad 100% of UG1 with zero time

Zone -4 pos seq.impedance Z1SZONE-4 = 100% of UG1


= 0.0049+0.08295i
R1Z4 = 0.0049 Ω
X1Z4 = 0.08295 Ω
Line Zone-4 Impedance Z1mag = 0.08309
Line Zone-4 angle θ = 86.5166 degree
100% of UG1
Zone -1 zero seq impedance = 0.01995+0.03115i
R0Z3 = 0.01995 Ω
X0Z3 = 0.03115 Ω
Line Zone-4 Impedance Z0mag = 0.03699
LineZone-4 angle θ = 57.2958 degree

5 RESISTIVE REACH SETTING FOR PH-PH FAULTS (RFPP)

The Arc Resistance can be found by using Wan Warrington Formula


1.4
RARC = 28710 x L / I
The arc resistance will be higher at low fault currents. Thus a minimum fault current I = 2 kAmp can be assumed to calculate the
maximum arc resistance
Minimum Fault current IFMIN = 2000 A
Length of the ARC, L = 10 m
ARC Resistance, RARC = 6.864 Ω

Limitations for RFPP shall be defined by the load impedance. The maximum load current on the transmission line has been
considered as 125% nominal loading of transmission line to cover emergency loading of the protected line in case of parallel line
tripping. The minimum load impedance presented to the relay may be calculatd as:

=
Minimum load impedance Zload Rated voltage / Maximum load current
MVA Rating of Line (SEC provided data) = 267 MVA
Maximum load Current Iload =
MVA rating of Line/√3 x rated Voltage
Maximum load Current Iload = 1167.82 A
Overloading of OHL Iload1 = 125 % ILoad
Overloading of OHL Iload1 = 1459.78 A
Zload = Vph / √3 x Iload1
Minimum load impedance, = 52.2068 Ω
Load impedance Angle θ (PF Considered as 0.85) acos (PF)
Load impedance Angle θ = 31.79 degree
Load impedance
= 48.5965560777209+19.0769119776451i

5.1 Zone-1 Resistive Reach

RFPP1 (Resistive reach of zone1 for Ph-Ph faults) ≥ 1.3x ( Rarc+R1Z1)


Rarc = 6.864 Ω

Prepared by: DAR Engineering DWG : CE-736211


9 REV 00
S/S 8846 FPFM 87L‐21‐67N‐1
RELAY SETTINGS RED670

RLZ1 = 0.28343 Ω

≥ 1.3x ( 6.8640+ 0.2834)


= 9.2916 Ω

As per Application manual ≤ 3 x X1Z1


≤ 4.56739 Ω

Set Resistive value should be less than 3 x X1Z1 to avoid the over reaching problem

Set propsed vaule for Zone-1 Resistive Reach RFPP1 = 4.0 Ω

5.2 Zone-2 Resistive Reach

RFPP2 (Resistive reach of zone2 for Ph-Ph faults) ≥ 1.3x ( Rarc+R1Z2)


Rarc = 6.864 Ω
RLZ2 = 0.47238 Ω

≥ 1.3x ( 6.8640+ 0.4724)


= 9.5373 Ω

As per Application manual ≤ 3 x X1Z2


≤ 7.61231 Ω
Set Resistive value should be less than 3 x X1Z2 to avoid the over reaching problem

Set propsed vaule for Zone-2 Resistive Reach RFPP2 =7 Ω

THE PROPOSED VALUE IS OK

5.3 Zone-3 Resistive Reach

RFPP3 (Resistive reach of zone3 for Ph-Ph faults) ≥ 1.3x ( Rarc+R1Z3)


Rarc = 6.864 Ω
RLZ3 = 0.90696 Ω
≥ 1.3x ( 6.8640+ 0.907)
= 10.1022 Ω

As per Application manual ≤ 3 x X1Z3


≤ 14.6156 Ω
Set Resistive value should be less than 3 x X1Z3 to avoid the over reaching problem

Set propsed vaule for Zone-3 Resistive Reach RFPP3 = 14 Ω

THE PROPOSED VALUE IS OK


5.4 Zone-4 Resistive Reach
RFPP4 (Resistive reach of zone4 for Ph-Ph faults) ≥ 1.3x ( Rarc+R1Z4)

Prepared by: DAR Engineering DWG : CE-736211


10 REV 00
S/S 8846 FPFM 87L‐21‐67N‐1
RELAY SETTINGS RED670

Rarc = 6.864 Ω
RLZ4 = 0.0049 Ω
≥ 1.3x ( 6.8640+ 0.0049)
= 8.9296 Ω

As per Application manual ≤ 3 x X1Z4


≤ 0.24885 Ω

Prepared by: DAR Engineering DWG : CE-736211


11 REV 00
S/S 8846 FPFM 87L‐21‐67N‐1
RELAY SETTINGS RED670

Set Resistive value should be less than 3 x X1Z4 to avoid the over reaching problem

Set propsed vaule for Zone-4 Resistive Reach RFPP4 =5 Ω

6 RESISTIVE REACH SETTING FOR PH-E FAULTS


The performance of distance protection for single-phase-to-earth faults is very important, because normally more than 70% of the
faults on transmission lines are single phase-to-earth faults. At these faults, the fault resistance is composed of three parts: arc
resistance, resistance of a tower construction, and tower-footing resistance. The arc resistance can be calculated according to
Warrington"s formula:
Rfmin =Rarc+Rtf (The min. fault resistance correspons to min fault level)

Tower Footing Resistance Rtf =5 Ω


Rfmin = Rarc+Rtf
Rfmin = 11.864 Ω

6.1 Zone-1 Resistive Reach


RFPE1 (Resistive reach of zone1 for Ph-E faults)

≥ 1.3 x( Rarc+Rtf+R1Z1)
Rarc
= 6.864 Ω
Rtf
= 5 Ω
RlZ1
= 0.28343 Ω
≥ 1.3 x( 6.864+5+0.2834)
RFPE1 (Resistive reach of zone1 for Ph-E faults) = 15.7917 Ω

As per Application manual ≤ 4.5 x X1Z1


≤ 6.85108 Ω
Set Resistive value should be less than 4.5 x X1Z1 to avoid the over reaching problem

Set Propsed value for Zone-1 Resistive Reach RFPE1 =6 Ω

6.2 Zone-2 Resistive Reach


RFPE2 (Resistive reach of zone2 for Ph-E faults)

≥ 1.3 x( Rarc+Rtf+R1Z2)

Rarc = 6.864 Ω
Rtf = 5 Ω
RlZ2 = 0.47238 Ω
≥ 1.3 x( 6.864+5+0.4724)
RFPE1 (Resistive reach of zone1 for Ph-E faults) = 16.0373 Ω

As per Application manual ≤ 4.5 x X1Z2

Prepared by: DAR Engineering DWG : CE-736211


12 REV 00
S/S 8846 FPFM 87L‐21‐67N‐1
RELAY SETTINGS RED670

≤ 11.4185 Ω

Set Resistive value should be less than 4.5 x X1Z2 to avoid the over reaching problem

Set Proposed for Zone-2 Resistive Reach RFPE2 = 10 Ω

THE PROPOSED VALUE IS OK

6.3 Zone-3 Resistive Reach

RFPE3 (Resistive reach of zone3 for Ph-E faults)

≥ 1.3 x( Rarc+Rtf+R1Z3)

Rarc = 6.864 Ω
Rtf = 5 Ω
RlZ3 = 0.90696 Ω

≥ 1.3 x( 6.864+5+0.907)

RFPE3 (Resistive reach of zone3 for Ph-E faults) = 16.6022 Ω

As per Application manual ≤ 4.5 x X1Z3


≤ 21.9235 Ω

Set Resistive value should be less than 4.5 x X1Z3 to avoid the over reaching problem

Set Propsed value for Zone-3 Resistive Reach RFPE3 = 21 Ω

THE PROPOSED VALUE IS OK

Prepared by: DAR Engineering DWG : CE-736211


13 REV 00
S/S 8846 FPFM 87L‐21‐67N‐1
RELAY SETTINGS RED670

6.4 Zone-4 Resistive Reach

RFPE4 (Resistive reach of zone 4 for Ph-E faults)

≥ 1.3 x( Rarc+Rtf+R1Z4)

Rarc = 6.864 Ω
Rtf = 5 Ω
RlZ4 = 0.0049 Ω

≥ 1.3 x( 6.864+5+0.0049)

RFPE4 (Resistive reach of zone3 for Ph-E faults) = 15.4296 Ω

As per Application manual ≤ 4.5 x X1Z4


≤ 0.37328 Ω
Set Resistive value should be less than 4.5 x X1Z4 to avoid the over reaching problem

Set Prosed value for Zone-4 Resistive Reach RFPE4 =5 Ω

7 Phase Selection with Load encrochment (PDIS,21) calculations

For normal overhead lines, the angle for the loop impedance for phase to earth fault defined as:
Φloop = arctan((X1L+XN)/(R1L+RN)

line pos seq. Reactance(X1L) = 2.02995 Ω


line zero seq. Reactance(X0L) = 7.03815 Ω
XN = (X0L-X1L)/3
= 1.6694 Ω
line pos seq. Resistance(R1L) = 0.3779 Ω
line zero seq. Resistance(R0L) = 2.52995 Ω
RN = (R0L-R1L)/3
= 2.40398 Ω
Φloop = arctan((X1L+ XN)/(R1L+ RN)

53.0571 degree

In subject case loop angle Φloop = 53.06 degree

Prepared by: DAR Engineering DWG : CE-736211


14 REV 00
S/S 8846 FPFM 87L‐21‐67N‐1
RELAY SETTINGS RED670

7.1 Phase-to-earth fault in forward direction:

The reactive reach in forward direction must as minimum be set to cover the measuring zone used in the Teleprotection schemes,
mostly zone 2. For clearance labels PHS and Zm is introduced to distinguish between setting parameter for PHS and zone
measurement Zm. The minimum recommended reactive reach may be proposed as follows:
1. X1PHS > 1.44 * X1ZM
1. X0PHS > 1.44 * X0ZM

X1ZM= X12( the reactive reach for the Zone Covered by PHS) = 3.14417 Ω
X1PHS > 1.44 * X1ZM = 4.5276 Ω
X0ZM= X02( the reactive reach for the Zone Covered by PHS) = 11.3886 Ω
X0PHS > 1.44 * X0ZM = 16.3995 Ω
The reactive reach in reverse direction is automatically set to the same reach as for forward direction. No additional setting is
required.

7.2 Fault resistance reach RFPE:


The resistive reach must cover RFPE for the overreaching zone to be covered, mostly zone 2. Consider the longest overreaching zone
if correct fault selection is important in the application. The minimum recommended resistive reach is given as follows: RFFwPE >
1.2 *RFPEZM
RFREZM = RFPE2 = 10 Ω
RFFwPEmin= 1.2 * RFPEZM = 12 Ω

Phase-to-earth fault in reverse direction:


Reactive reach
The reactive reach in reverse direction is the same as for forward so no additional setting isrequired.
Resistive reach
The resistive reach in reverse direction must be set longer than the longest reverse zones. Inblocking schemes it must be set longer
than the overreaching zone at remote end that is used inthe communication scheme.
RFRvPEmin > 1.2 * RFPEZM

RFREZM = RFPE2 = 10 Ω
RFRVPEmin= 1.2 * RFPEZM = 12 Ω

Prepared by: DAR Engineering DWG : CE-736211


15 REV 00
S/S 8846 FPFM 87L‐21‐67N‐1
RELAY SETTINGS RED670

Phase-to-phase fault in forward direction:


Reactive reach
The reach in reactive direction is determined by the setting of X1 parameter of phase-to earth reach. No extra setting is required.
Resistive reach
In the same way as for phase-to-earth fault, the reach is automatically calculated based on the
setting of X1. The reach will be X1/tan(60°) =X1/SQR(3).
Fault resistance reach

The fault resistance reaches in forward direction RFFwPP, must cover RFPPZm with at least 25% margin. RFPPZm is the setting of
fault resistance for phase-to-phase fault for the longest overreaching zone to be covered by PHS. The minimum recommended reach
can be calculated as:
RFFwPP > 1.25 * RFPPZM

RFPPZM = RFPP2 7 Ω
RFFwPP= 1.25 * RFPPZM 8.75 Ω
Phase-to-phase fault in reverse direction:
Reactive reach
The reactive reach in reverse direction is the same as for forward so no additional setting is
required.
Resistive reach
The resistive reach in reverse direction must be set longer than the longest reverse zones. In blocking schemes it must be set longer
than the overreaching zone at remote end that is used in the ommunication scheme.
RFRvPPmin > 1.25 * RFPEZM

RFPPZM = RFPP2 =7 Ω
RFRvPPmin= 1.25 * RFPPZM = 8.75 Ω
Resistive reach with load encroachment characteristic
The procedure for calculating the settings for the load encroachment consist basically to define the load angle ARGLd, the blinder
RLdFw in forward direction and blinder RLdRv in reversedirection.

Load Encroachment

The maximum load current on the transmission line has been considered as 125% nominal loading of transmission line to cover
emergency loading of the protected line in case of parallel line tripping.
=
Load impedance Zload
48.5965560777209+19.0769119776451i
Rlmin = 48.5966 Ω
RLdfw = 80% OF RLmin = 38.8772 Ω
The resistive boundary RLdRv for load encroachment characteristic in reverse direction can be calculated in the same way as RLdFw.

Load angle (θZload) = 31.79 degree

Set value = 32 degree

8 Power Swing Detection (PSD)

Outer resistive load boundary, Forward (RLdOutFw) = KL*Rlmin


RLdOutFw = 38.8772 Ω
Where KL = 0.8

Prepared by: DAR Engineering DWG : CE-736211


16 REV 00
S/S 8846 FPFM 87L‐21‐67N‐1
RELAY SETTINGS RED670

Inner resistive load boundary, Forward (RLdInFw) = KLdRfw*RLdOutFw


Where KLdRfw = 0.8
RLdInFw = 31.1018 Ω
Line resistance for inner characteristic angle R1LIn = 1.3Re(Z3)
R1LIn = 1.17905 Ω
Inner reactive boundary, forward X1InFw = 1.3 *X13
X1InFw = 6.33344 Ω
Fault resistance coverage to inner resistive line, forward R1FInFw = 1.3 * RFPP3
R1FInFw = 18.2 Ω
Inner reactive boundary, reverse X1InRv = 1.3 * X13
X1InRv = 6.33344 Ω
Fault resistance coverage to inner resistive line, reverse R1FInRv = 1.3 * RFPP3
R1FInRv = 18.2 Ω
9 Residual Over Current protection (PTOC, 51N/67N)

Directional Earth fault element is intended for the detection of low fault currents, which are encountered during a condition like a
broken conductor fallen on the ground, and the fault current is low enough, not to be detected by the distance elements. For networks
with high earth loop resistance, I0 & V0 polarization is recommended

Calculation for Zero sequence Source impedance


Nominal voltage Un = 76210.2 V
= 7.04/ 2.52995
X/R ratio for ground Faults = 2.78193
angle θ = atan(XoR) = 70.2284
Max. fault current Ikmax = 63000 A
Resistive Componenet of Source impedance Rn = 0.4092 Ω
Reactive Componenet of Source impedance Xn = 1.13837 Ω
DEF Current setting = 0.2 A

10 Circuit Breaker Failure

Current settigns = 10 % of the CT ratio


Current settigns (Primary) = 120 A
Current settigns (secondary) = 0.1 A

Time settings = 150 ms

Prepared by: DAR Engineering DWG : CE-736211


17 REV 00