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Land Governance for Equitable and Sustainable Development Conference

A New Urban Agenda


in times of financial
capitalism
U SpatialPlanning
URBANISM

&Strategy
Delft University of
Technology
Cities are cultural artefacts and they
embody livelihoods and economies
Cities are cultural artefacts and they
embody livelihoods and economies
The association of the production
of urban space and capitalism
The association of the production
of urban space and capitalism
The association of the production
of urban space and capitalism
The association of the production
of urban space and capitalism
Lefebvre and then Harvey:
The Urbanisation of Capital
Las Vegas
The Dutch version of suburbanisation:
home ownership as a mechanism
to promote growth and prosperity (don’t
forget the Netherlands is a very
particular type of entrepreneurial welfare
state!)
VINEX: the updated suburban
dream (compact, connected to
public transportation)
Dubai
But there are more spectacular
embodiments of the
financialisation of urban space
Hong Kong
Pudong
Sao Paulo: global city in
the semi-periphery of capitalism
Houses and offices need to
be furnished
Infrastructure needs to be built to connect
suburbs and new corporate centralities
and cars need to be bought

but there are limits to real


estate speculation
Thai 1997 Crisis:
‘Monuments to Speculators’
Spanish 2008 Real Estate Bubble:
‘The Cities That Never Were’
United States Subprime Mortgage Crisis
‘House of Cards’
The Big Short
Chinese Ghost Cities

the next chapter


Chinese Ghost Cities
Meanwhile
Favela Paraisopolis, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Brazil:
100 million new urban dwellers in the
post-war alone!
Favela da Rocinha, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Complementarity of formal and informal


INSIDE THE SAME LOGIC OF PRODUCTION OF
URBAN SPACE:
RIGHTS DEFICIT
Torre David, Caracas , Venezuela
Petare Slum, Caracas Venezuela
Slum in Jakarta, Indonesia (c. 2000)
Slum in Haiti after 2010 earthquake
globalisation
globalisation of production means that
countries all over the word are
inserted in production chains that
promote some sort of ‘subordinate’,
incomplete or defective modernisation
in the periphery of capitalism
Subordinate
modernisation has
triggered unchecked
rural to urban migration
This happens (mostly) in
weak institutional contexts ,
where the rule of law is
defective and there is a
deficit in civil rights
Exclusive
urbanisation
Urban exclusion is not the result of poverty
(only).
It is the result of complex ecosystems of
world production in which some countries or
regions have a subordinate role, with some
groups of people taking the blunt of the
prevailing unequal distributions of gains
Sao Paulo

Poor official responses


Poor official responses

‘Minha casa minha vida’


federal programme
Mexico Poor official responses
Mumbai Poor official responses
Sao Paulo Poor official responses
unsustainable
environmentally

socially economically
Sustainable urbanisation is key to
successful development
(…) “ If well managed, cities offer important opportunities for economic
development and for expanding access to basic services, including health care
and education, for large numbers of people. Providing public transportation, as
well as housing, electricity, water and sanitation for a densely settled urban
population is typically cheaper and less environmentally damaging than
providing a similar level of services to a dispersed rural population”.

Source: http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/news/population/world-urbanization-prospects-2014.html
Planning Urgencies
in Latin American
Cities
ial= s pat ial d iv id e t hat c hara ct er is es
1. How to bridge t he s o c
the capitalist city?

Source: Instituto Pereira Passos, http://portalgeo.rio.rj.gov.br


n e w cit y d wel lers
ion s ( b i l l io n s ? ) o f
t o i nt e g ra t e m i l l it y ’ ?
2. H ow e n s ’ ‘ r i g h t t o t h e c
s p e ct in g citi z
while re
3.How to harmonise urgent environmental issue
s (climate
change) with social needs?
fa c e of
p ety
r i n
n o f p ro
l f u n ct io ket ?
e s o c i a a t e m ar
s er ve t h r e al es t
w t o pr e gu l a t e d
4.H o g e u n re
sava
st ain a b ilit y in
e a b i lit y a n d su
s e ho u s i n g , l i v ir on m e nt s
h arm oni an c e en v
.5 How to c it ie s i n w e a k g o ve r n
s i vely g ro w i ng
explo
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m an a g e m ent an d
h e q u a l it y of cit y
m p rove t
6. How to i d an d fa i r g ov er n an c e
pro m o t e go o
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27
7. How to promote fair a
ccess, use, regulation,
and taxation of urban la
nd

Urban
Reform? 53
25
How to promote urban reform
without fundamentally changing
the way we deal with urban land
and urban property in the city
produced by financial
capitalism ? 54
25
Any
questions?