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Nokia Academy

LTE Counters and KPI


[FL15a] RA4133-15aA
Mobility measurements
Module 6

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Course Objectives
Mobility measurements
After completing this learning element, the participant should be able to:
• Differentiate HO types and Mobility events in LTE.
• Evaluate the performance of intra and inter eNodeB Handover phases and
analyse.
• Describe Load Balancing
• Explain inter-frequency / inter-RAT redirection.
• Describe HO via X2/S1 interface.
• Analyse service based mobility.
• Discuss Performance matters relating to CSFB.
• Discuss Performance matters relating to SRVCC.
• Describe the inclusion of the HeNB support.

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Contents
1. LTE Handover Mobility Architecture
2. Intra eNodeB Handover
3. Inter eNodeB Handover via X2 interface
4. Inter eNodeB Handover via S1 interface
5. Intra-LTE Inter-Frequency Handover
6. Load Balancing
7. Inter-System Mobility
8. Service based Mobility
9. SRVCC to WCDMA (FDD only), SRVCC to GSM, SRVCC to 1xRTT/CDMA
10. X2 Interface Measurements
11. Open Access Home eNB Mobility FDD only

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Handover Types LTE
• Hard HO in any case, no SHO
• Intra-RAT Handover
– Intra eNodeB
– Inter eNodeB
 Data forwarding over X2
• High performance for 15…120 km/h
• Optimized performance for 0…15 km/h
 If no X2 interface configured between serving and target eNodeB, than HO via S1
interface
• Inter-RAT Handover
- PS HO to WCDMA in RL30
- PS HO to GSM not be available, using NACC in RL30
- SRVCC for WCDMA and GSM RL40
- SRVCC for 1xRTT CDMA FL15a
- PS HO from WCDMA RL60
- PS HO to eHRPD/3GPP2 RL60
- TDD – FDD handover RL50/ RL45

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Handover Types LTE

other RAT
intersystem HO intersystem HO
triggered by other RAT triggered by e.g.
- coverage of E-UMTS
- service load
E-UTRAN macro cell

Inter frequency HO

E-UTRAN micro cells

Intra-frequency HO
(intra eNB) intra-frequency HO
(inter eNB, inter MME)

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Handover Procedure
-> Lossless
• Packets are forwarded from the source to the target
-> Network-controlled
• Target cell is selected by the network, not by the UE
• Handover control in E-UTRAN (not in packet core)
-> UE-assisted
• Measurements are made and reported by the UE to the network
-> Late path switch
• Only once the handover is successful, is the backhaul tunnel moved

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Handover Procedure
Handover Late path
Before handover Radio handover
preparation switching

S-GW + P-GW S-GW + P-GW S-GW + P-GW S-GW + P-GW

MME MME MME MME

Target
Source eNB
eNB X2

= Data in radio = S1 signaling


= signaling in radio = X2 signaling
= GTP tunnel
= GTP signaling

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1

Handover Algorithm
- Initiated by a measurement report
- Handover algorithm decides on HO

- The Handover procedure is composed of a number of single functions:

- Measurements
- Filtering of measurements
- Reporting of measurement results Inter eNb
X2 HO
- Hard handover algorithm
- Execution of handover

Intra eNb

Inter eNb
S1 HO

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Number: 1 Author: Presenter Subject: Presentation Notes Date: 12/4/2015 10:25:12 AM
A Handover will be initiated by a measurement report sent via the RRC protocol
Upon the reception of this measurement report, the handover algorithm will decide whether a handover should take place
In response to the handover decision, the handover execution will be carried out using the corresponding procedures
After the handover execution, the handover algorithm will be informed, whether the handover was successful or not
The Handover procedure is composed of a number of single functions:
Measurements
Filtering of measurements
Reporting of measurement results
Hard handover algorithm
Execution of handover
Handover Events LTE
• Intra-RAT Handover (Nokia implementation)
- Currently based on RSRP only, but not on RSRQ
- Events for intra-frequency HO
- A3: A LTE neighbor becomes better than the server according a relative offset
- A5: The server becomes worse than an absolute threshold and a LTE neighbor better
than another absolute threshold
- Events for inter-frequency mobility
- A2: The serving cell becomes worse than an absolute threshold (triggers redirection)
- A4: Neighbor cell becomes better than a threshold – (Intra eNB Inter freq load balancing)
• Inter-RAT Mobility
• Event based inter-RAT handover
• B1- Inter Rat Neighbor is better than a threshold
• B2 - Inter Rat Neighbor is better than a threshold and serving cell is below a
threshold

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Event A3
RSRP

neighbor

a3Offset
LNCEL, -30..30 dB, 3 dB

a3TimeToTrigger
LNCEL, 0..5120 ms (irregular
steps), 320 ms

server

time
start event A3 HO execution
reporting

a3ReportInterval
LNCEL, 120 ms..60 min (irregular
steps), 640 ms

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Event A5

RSRP
neighbor
Threshold3a
LNCEL, -140..-43 dBm, -114 dBm

server

Threshold3
LNCEL, -140..-43 dBm, -116 dBm

a5TimeToTrigger
LNCEL, 0..5120 ms (irregular
steps), 320 ms

time
start event A5 HO execution
a5ReportInterval reporting
LNCEL, 120 ms..60 min (irregular
steps), 640ms

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Contents
1. LTE Handover Mobility Architecture
2. Intra eNodeB Handover
3. Inter eNodeB Handover via X2 interface
4. Inter eNodeB Handover via S1 interface
5. Intra-LTE Inter-Frequency Handover
6. Load Balancing
7. Inter-System Mobility
8. Service based mobility
9. SRVCC to WCDMA (FDD only), SRVCC to GSM, SRVCC to 1xRTT/CDMA
10. X2 Interface Measurements
11. Open Access Home eNB Mobility FDD only

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Intra eNodeB Handover (Positive)

Target eNB MME SGW


Source eNB
UE RRC Connection Reconfiguration (Measurement Control)

UL/DL Data (source cell)

L2 UL Allocation
M8009 Intra eNodeB Handover Measurements
On level of source cell
RRC Measurement Reports

Handover decision Handover decision


M8009C1 Total handover decisions

Admission control and resources allocation on


target cell Handover preparation
L2 DL Allocation M8009C2 Attempted intra eNodeB handover preparations

RRC Connection Reconfiguration

(hardcoded)
Timer THOoverall
L2 Synchronization Handover Execution
M8009C6 Attempted intra eNodeB handovers
L2 UL Allocation + timing advance

RRC Connection Reconfiguration Complete

Handover completion
Release source resources M8009C7 Successful intra eNodeB handovers

UL/DL Data (target cell)


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Intra eNodeB Handover (Negative)

UE Source eNB Target eNB MME SGW


RRC Measurement Control
UL/DL Data (source cell)

L2 UL Allocation

RRC Measurement Reports M8009C0


Total not started HO preparations
Handover decision

M8009C0 updated if the HO


decision is not to HO at this
time when measurement
report has been received
from UE

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Intra eNodeB Handover

UE Source eNB Target eNB MME SGW

Which counter is triggered?

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Intra eNodeB Handover

UE Source eNB Target eNB MME SGW

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Intra eNodeB Handover (Negative)

UE Source eNB Target eNB MME SGW


RRC Measurement Control
UL/DL Data (source cell)

L2 UL Allocation

RRC Measurement Reports


M8009C0 Total Ho not started
Handover decision M8009C3: Failed intra eNodeB HO
preparations due to admission control
(internal eNB trigger)
Admission control and resources
allocation on target cell M8009C5: Failed intra eNodeB HO
preparations due to other reason

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Intra eNodeB Handover (Negative)

UE Source eNB Target eNB MME SGW


RRC Measurement Control
UL/DL Data (source cell)

L2 UL Allocation

RRC Measurement Reports

Handover decision

Admission control and resources


allocation on target cell

L2 DL Allocation M8009C12: Intra eNB HO drops due to RL failure


M8009C13: Intra eNB HO drops due to other failure
RRC Connection Reconfiguration

M8009C8
L2 Synchronization missing
Total intra eNodeB HO failures
due to timer
THOoverall expires
RRC Connection Reconfiguration Error or missing

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1

Mobility Robustness LTE_533


Late handover (M8015C16)

M8015C20: MRO Ping Pong HO


S
T

RLF in Scell RRC Connection


re-establishment request in Tcell

Early handover type 1 (M8015C17) Early handover type 2 (M8015C18)

S S
T T

HO fails
in T Cell HO “Succeeds”
Connection in T Cell
re-establishment request in Scell N

Shortly afterwards - RRC Connection


re-establishment request in Ncell

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Number: 1 Author: Presenter Subject: Presentation Notes Date: 12/4/2015 10:25:13 AM
A Late Handover is a sequence of a missed HO attempt (instead of HO: RLF on UE side and optionally recoverable RLF on eNB
side) in one cell followed by RRC connection re-establishment request in another cell.
An Early Handover Type 1 is a sequence of a failed HO attempt followed by RRC connection re-establishment in the HO source cell.
An Early Handover Type 2 is recognized in the following cases: Case 1: An Early Handover Type 2 is a sequence of a successful
connection establishment in HO target cell (attempted HO completed) followed by RRC connection re-establishment in another cell
a short time after 'HO completion'. Case 2: An Early Handover Type 2 is a sequence of a successful random access in HO target
followed by failed Msg3 reception (attempted HO not completed) followed by re-establishment request in another cell.

As output MRO may calculate updated values for:


cell-individual Offset (CIO) of the neighbor cell in the identified neighbor relation of the serving cell - in the LNREL object of the
serving cell containing this NR
TimeToTrigger (TTT) of all neighbor cells in the serving cell carrier frequency - in the LNCEL object of the serving cell
Intra eNodeB Handover per Neighbor
• Counters of group M8009 give information per source cell only
• Counters of group M8015 give information per neighbor
- M8015C0: Failed intra eNodeB HO preparations
- M8015C1: Intra eNodeB HO attempts
- M8015C2: Intra eNodeB HO successes
- M8015C15: Intra eNodeB HO failures (any reason)

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Intra eNodeB Handover KPIs

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Intra eNodeB Handover KPIs
LTE_5036a E-UTRAN HO Preparation Success Ratio (intra eNodeB)
Describes the success ratio for the handover preparation phase
The source eNodeB attempts to prepare resources and finally attempts to start the
handover to a neighboring cell within the own eNodeB

Summarization
Logical formula formula (PI ID) Summarization formula (Abbreviation)
Intra HO prep SR = 100 * sum ([M8009C6]) 100 * sum ([ATT_INTRA_ENB_HO]) / sum
(number of successful / sum([M8009C2]) ([INTRA_ENB_HO_PREP])
intra eNB HO prep) /
(total number of intra
eNB HO preparations)
* 100%
= (number of intra
eNB HO attempts) /
(total number of intra
eNB HO preparations)
* 100%

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Intra eNodeB Handover KPIs
LTE_5035a E-UTRAN HO Success Ratio (intra eNodeB)
Describes the success ratio for the handover execution phase
The source eNodeB receives information that the UE successfully is connected to the
target cell within own eNodeB

Summarization Summarization formula


Logical formula formula (PI ID) (Abbreviation)
Intra HO SR = (number of 100 * sum 100 * sum ([SUCC_INTRA_ENB_HO]) /
successful intra eNB HOs) / ([M8009C7]) / sum ([ATT_INTRA_ENB_HO])
(number of intra eNB HO attempts) * sum([M8009C6])
100%

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Intra eNodeB Handover KPIs
LTE_5040b E-UTRAN HO Failure Ratio (intra eNodeB)
Describes the ratio of failed intra eNodeB handovers related to all attempted intra eNodeB
handovers
Represents the case of a failed handover when all UE resources are still allocated for the
UE

Summarization Summarization formula


Logical formula formula (PI ID) (Abbreviation)
Intra HO FR = (number of 100 * sum 100 * sum ([ENB_INTRA_HO_FAIL]) /
unsuccessful intra eNB HOs) / ([M8009C8]) / sum ([ATT_INTRA_ENB_HO])
(number of intra eNB HO attempts) * sum([M8009C6])
100%

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Intra eNodeB Handover KPIs
LTE_5043a E-UTRAN Total HO Success Ratio (intra eNodeB)
Describes the total intra eNB HO Success Ratio from HO preparation start until successful
HO execution

Summarization Summarization formula


Logical formula formula (PI ID) (Abbreviation)
Intra tot HO SR = 100 * sum 100 * sum ([SUCC_INTRA_ENB_HO]) /
(intra eNB HO prep successes) / ([M8009C7]) / sum sum ([INTRA_ENB_HO_PREP])
(intra eNB HO preparations) * ([M8009C2])
(intra eNB HO successes) / (intra
eNB HO attempts) * 100%
=
(intra eNB HO attempts) / (intra eNB
HO preparations) *
(intra eNB HO successes) / (intra
eNB HO attempts) * 100%
=
(intra eNB HO successes) / (intra
eNB HO preparations) * 100%

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Intra eNodeB Handover KPIs
1,000

100.00 900

800

700
95.00

600

500
90.00
400

300

85.00
200

100

80.00 0
23.05.2011

25.05.2011

31.05.2011
27.05.2011

29.05.2011

02.06.2011

04.06.2011

06.06.2011

09.06.2011

11.06.2011

13.06.2011

15.06.2011

17.06.2011

19.06.2011

21.06.2011

LTE_5123a Intra eNB Handover Preparations (#) LTE_5124a Intra eNB Handover Attempts (#)
LTE_5036a intra eNB Handover Prep Success Ratio (%) LTE_5035a intra eNB Handover Success Ratio (%)

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Contents
1. LTE Handover Mobility Architecture
2. Intra eNodeB Handover
3. Inter eNodeB Handover via X2 interface
4. Inter eNodeB Handover via S1 interface
5. Intra-LTE Inter-Frequency Handover
6. Load Balancing
7. Inter-System Mobility
8. Service based mobility
9. SRVCC to WCDMA (FDD only), SRVCC to GSM, SRVCC to 1xRTT/CDMA
10. X2 Interface Measurements
11. Open Access Home eNB Mobility FDD only

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Principle
• Basic mobility feature
• Triggered by same configurable events as
intra eNodeB handover

• Coverage based (event A5)


• Best cell based (event A3)
• Network evaluated handover decision
• Data forwarding via X2
• Radio Admission Control (RAC) gives
priority to handover related access over
other scenarios

S1 X2

S-GW MME
P-GW
S1

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Inter eNodeB Handover (Positive, Preparation)

UE Source eNB Target eNB MME SGW


RRC Measurement Control
UL/DL Data (source cell)

L2 UL Allocation
M8014 Inter eNodeB Handover Measurements
On level of source cell
RRC Measurement Reports

Handover decision

X2AP Handover Request

Admission control and resources Handover preparation


allocation on target cell M8014C0 Attempted Inter eNodeB
handover preparations
X2AP Handover Request Acknowledge

Timer TX2RELOCprep
(hardcoded)
Supervises preparation
phase

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Inter eNodeB Handover (Positive, Execution)

UE Source eNB Target eNB MME SGW

X2AP Handover Request Acknowledge

L2 DL Allocation

RRC Connection Reconfiguration

X2AP Status Transfer

Handover execution
Data forwarding
M80014C6 Attempted inter eNodeB
handovers
L2 Synchronization

L2 UL Allocation + timing advance

RRC Connection Reconfiguration Complete

Timer TX2RELOCexec
(hardcoded)
Supervises execution
phase

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Inter eNodeB Handover (Positive, Completion)

UE Source eNB Target eNB MME SGW

RRC Connection Reconfiguration Complete

RRC Connection Reconfiguration (Meas. Reconfig.)

Path Switch Request

RRC Connection Reconfiguration Complete User Plane Update Request

End Marker

Packet Data

User Plane Update Response

Path Switch Request Acknowledge

X2AP UE Context Release


Handover completion
M80014C7 Successful inter
Release source resources eNodeB handovers

UL/DL Data (target cell)

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Inter eNodeB Handover (Negative)

UE Source eNB Target eNB MME SGW


RRC Measurement Control
UL/DL Data (source cell)

L2 UL Allocation

RRC Measurement Reports

Handover decision

X2AP Handover Request • M8014C2: Failed inter eNodeB HO preparations


due to timer: eg TX2RELOCprep
Admission control and resources • M8014C3: Failed inter eNodeB HO preparations
allocation on target cell due to target eNodeB admission control
• M8014C5: Failed inter eNodeB HO preparations
X2AP Handover Preparation Failure due to other reason
or no response

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Inter eNodeB Handover (Negative)

UE Source eNB Target eNB MME SGW

RRC Connection Reconfiguration Complete

RRC Connection Reconfiguration (Meas. Reconfig.)

Path Switch Request

RRC Connection Reconfiguration Complete User Plane Update Request

End Marker

Packet Data

Error or no response
M80014C8: Total inter eNodeB HO
failures due to timer Error or no response
TX2RELOCoverall expires

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Inter eNodeB Handover per Neighbor

• Counters of group M8014 give information per source cell only


• Counters of group M8015 give information per neighbor
- M8015C5: Failed inter eNodeB HO preparations
- M8015C6: Failed inter eNodeB HO preparations due to timer
- M8015C7: Failed inter eNodeB HO preparations due to admission
control
- M8015C8: Inter eNodeB HO attempts
- M8015C9: Inter eNodeB HO successes
- M8015C10: Inter eNodeB HO failures (any reason)

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Inter eNodeB Handover KPIs
LTE_5049b E-UTRAN HO Preparation Success Ratio (inter eNodeB X2 based)
Describes the success ratio for the handover preparation phase
The source eNodeB attempts to prepare resources and finally attempts to start the
handover to a neighboring cell in a target eNodeB

Summarization Summarization formula


Logical formula formula (PI ID) (Abbreviation)
Inter X2 based HO prep SR = 100 * sum 100 * sum ([ATT_INTER_ENB_HO]) /
(number of successful inter eNB X2 ([M8014C6]) / sum ([INTER_ENB_HO_PREP])
based HO prep) / sum([M8014C0])
(total number of inter eNB X2 based
HO preparations) * 100%
= (number of inter eNB X2 based HO
attempts) /
(total number of inter eNB X2 based
HO preparations) * 100%

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Inter eNodeB Handover KPIs
LTE_5048b E-UTRAN HO Success Ratio (inter eNodeB X2 based)
Describes the success ratio for the handover execution phase
The source eNodeB receives information that the UE successfully is connected to the
target cell within target eNodeB

Summarization Summarization formula


Logical formula formula (PI ID) (Abbreviation)
Inter X2 based HO SR = (number 100 * sum 100 * sum
of successful inter eNB X2 based ([M8014C7]) / ([SUCC_INTER_ENB_HO]) / sum
HOs) / sum([M8014C6]) ([ATT_INTER_ENB_HO])
(number of inter eNB X2 based
HO attempts) * 100%

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Inter eNodeB Handover KPIs
LTE_5055b E-UTRAN HO Failure Ratio (inter eNodeB X2 based)
Describes the ratio of failed inter eNodeB X2 based handovers related to all attempted inter
eNodeB handovers
Represents the case of a failed handover when all UE resources are still allocated for the
UE

Summarization Summarization formula


Logical formula formula (PI ID) (Abbreviation)
Inter X2 based HO FR = (number 100 * sum 100 * sum ([INTER_ENB_HO_FAIL])
of unsuccessful inter eNB X2 ([M8014C8]) / / sum ([ATT_INTER_ENB_HO])
based HOs) / sum([M8014C6])
(number of inter eNB X2 based
HO attempts) * 100%

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Inter eNodeB Handover KPIs

LTE_5058b E-UTRAN Total HO Success Ratio (inter eNodeB X2 based)


Describes the total inter eNB X2 based HO Success Ratio from HO preparation start until
successful HO execution

Summarization Summarization formula


Logical formula formula (PI ID) (Abbreviation)
Inter tot X2 based HO SR = 100 * sum 100 *
(inter eNB X2 based HO prep ([M8014C7]) / sum sum([SUCC_INTER_ENB_HO]) /
successes) / (inter eNB X2 based HO ([M8014C0]) sum ([INTER_ENB_HO_PREP])
preparations) *
(inter eNB X2 based HO successes) /
(inter eNB X2 based HO attempts) *
100%
=
(inter eNB X2 based HO attempts) /
(inter eNB X2 based HO preparations) *
(inter eNB X2 based HO successes) /
(inter eNB X2 based HO attempts) *
100%
=
(inter eNB X2 based HO successes) /
(inter eNB X2 based HO preparations) *
100%

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Inter eNodeB Handover KPIs
12,000

100.00

10,000

95.00 8,000

6,000
90.00

4,000

85.00
2,000

80.00 0
23.05.2011

25.05.2011

27.05.2011

29.05.2011

31.05.2011

02.06.2011

04.06.2011

06.06.2011

09.06.2011

11.06.2011

13.06.2011

15.06.2011

17.06.2011

19.06.2011

21.06.2011
LTE_5126a Inter eNB Handover Preparations (#) LTE_5125a Inter eNB Handover Attempts (#)

LTE_5049a inter eNB Handover Prep Success Ratio (%) LTE_5048a inter eNB Handover Success Ratio (%)

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Contents
1. LTE Handover Mobility Architecture
2. Intra eNodeB Handover
3. Inter eNodeB Handover via X2 interface
4. Inter eNodeB Handover via S1 interface
5. Intra-LTE Inter-Frequency Handover
6. Load Balancing
7. Inter-System Mobility
8. Service based mobility
9. SRVCC to WCDMA (FDD only), SRVCC to GSM, SRVCC to 1xRTT/CDMA
10. X2 Interface Measurements
11. Open Access Home eNB Mobility FDD only

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1

LTE 54/Intra LTE Inter eNB Handover via S1 Interface

• S1-based handover is only applicable for inter-eNB handover


• LTE inter-eNB handover can be executed without X2 interface usage in
following scenarios:
- No X2 connectivity existing between Source and Target eNB (or
blacklisted by operator)
- MME or S-GW change required when routing via Core Network
• User data traffic and signaling messages are indirectly sent via core nodes
(MME and S-GW)
• For UE there is no difference whether HO is executed via X2 or S1 interface
• Feature has an impact on dimensioning

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The feature may be used when the X2 interface between Source and Target eNB may be not existing, not operable or the usage
for handover may be forbidden by O&M.
Source eNodeB will decide whether a handover is executed via X2-Interface or via S1-interface. Core Network has no possibility to
influence this decision.
In opposite to the X2-based Intra and inter eNB handover (see LTE53), the S1-based handover is routed via the Core Network and
therefore provides the possibility to the Core to change the serving MME and/or the serving S-GW.
In addition the S1-based handover can perform handover between different vendor's eNB even if an open X2-Interface is not
supported.
Inter eNodeB Handover per Neighbor

• Counters of group M8014 give information per source cell only


• Counters of group M8015 give information per neighbor
- M8014C14: inter eNodeB S1-HO preparations
- M8014C15: Failed inter eNodeB S1-HO preparations due to timer
- M8014C16: Failed inter eNodeB S1-HO preparations due to admission control
- M8014C17: Failed inter eNodeB S1-HO preparations due to other reason
- M8014C18: Inter eNodeB S1-HO attempts
- M8014C19: Inter eNodeB S1-HO successes
- M8014C20: Inter eNodeB S1-HO failures due to timer

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Key phases of handover procedure
LTE54 Intra LTE Inter eNB Handover via S1 Interface 1/2
- Key phases:

Logically the message content is


created at target eNB and conveyed
to Source eNB through MME

M8014C14
INTER_ENB_S1_HO_PREP
Preparation

M8014C18
INTER_ENB_S1_HO_ATT
Execution

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Key phases of handover procedure
LTE54 Intra LTE Inter eNB Handover via S1 Interface 2/2
- Key phases:

M8014C19
INTER_ENB_S1_HO_SUCC
completion

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Key phases of handover procedure
LTE54 Intra LTE Inter eNB Handover via S1 Interface 1/2
- Key phases:

M8014C14: INTER_ENB_S1_HO_PREP
Preparation

• M8014C15: Failed inter eNodeB S1 HO preparations due to timer: eg TS1RELOCprep


• M8014C16: Failed inter eNodeB S1 HO preparations due to target eNodeB admission
control
• M8014C17: Failed inter eNodeB S1 HO preparations due to other reason

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Key phases of handover procedure
LTE54 Intra LTE Inter eNB Handover via S1 Interface
- Key phases:

Source eNB Target eNB MME SGW


9b. Create Indirect Data
UE
forwarding Tunnel Response
TS1RELOCOverall 10. Handover Control

11. Trigger HO decision

12. RRC Connection Reconf.

Deliver buffered and in transit


packets to target eNB

13a. eNB Status Transfer


13b. MME Status Transfer
(Indirect) Data forwarding
(Indirect) Data forwarding

Buffer Packets from Source eNB

14. Synchronization
14a. UL allocation + TA for UE
15. RRC Connection Reconf. Complete

• M8014C15: Failed inter eNodeB S1 due to timer: eg TS1RELOCoverall

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Key phases of handover procedure
LTE54 Intra LTE Inter eNB Handover via S1 Interface 2/2
- Key phases:

Source eNB Target eNB MME SGW


UE
completion

M8014C19:
INTER_ENB_S1_HO_SUCC

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S1 SCTP measurements

M8035C0 Number of data chunks sent to S1 SCTP peer


M8035C1 Number of data chunks received from S1 SCTP peer
M8035C2 Number of data chunks re-sent to S1 SCTP peer
M8035C3 Duration of congested periods of S1 SCTP association
M8035C4 Number of S1 SCTP association state changes to congested
M8035C5 Duration of unavailable periods of S1 SCTP association
M8035C6 Number of S1 SCTP association state changes to unavailable

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Inter eNB Ho KPI

• LTE_5082a HO Success Ratio, Inter eNB S1 based


• LTE_5083a HO Failure Ratio, nter eNB S1 based
• LTE_5084a Total HO Success Ratio, inter eNB S1 based
• LTE_5106a HO Preparation Failure Ratio inter eNB- timer failure
• LTE_5107a HO Preparation Failure Ratio inter eNB- admission control.
• LTE_5108a HO Preparation Failure Ratio inter eNB- other
• LTE_5127a E-UTRAN HO Preparation, inter eNB S1 based
• LTE_5240a HO Attempts, inter eNB S1 based

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Contents

1. LTE Handover Mobility Architecture


2. Intra eNodeB Handover
3. Inter eNodeB Handover via X2 interface
4. Inter eNodeB Handover via S1 interface
5. Intra-LTE Inter-Frequency Handover
6. Load Balancing
7. Inter-System Mobility
8. Service based mobility
9. SRVCC to WCDMA (FDD only), SRVCC to GSM, SRVCC to 1xRTT/CDMA
10. X2 Interface Measurements
11. Open Access Home eNB Mobility FDD only

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Inter-frequency handover

1 set of counters for 3 scenarios

• Intra eNB HO inter frequency


• Inter eNB HO inter frequency via X2
• Inter eNB HO inter frequency via s1

M8021C0 M8021C2 M8021C4

Attempts Success Fail

Attempts Success Fail


With Measurement gap With Measurement gap With Measurement gap

M8021C1 M8021C3 M8021C5

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Inter-frequency handover Inter eNB via X2 counters

UE Source eNB Target eNB MME SGW


RRC Connection Reconfiguration

RRC Connection Reconfiguration Complete

Measurement report HO_INTERFREQ_ATT (M8021C0)


HO_INTFREQ_GAP_ATT (M8021C1)
HO decision

Handover request

Handover request Ack/ HO command

RRC Connection Reconfiguration


SN Status transfer

synchronization
Random Access
RRC Connection Reconfiguration Complete
Path switch request
Modify bearer request
HO_INTERFREQ_SUCC (M8021C2)
HO_INTFREQ_GAP_SUCC (M8021C3)
Modify bearer response
Path switch request ack
UE context release

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Inter-frequency handover Inter eNB via X2 counters

UE Source eNB Target eNB MME SGW


RRC Connection Reconfiguration

RRC Connection Reconfiguration Complete

Measurement report

HO decision
Start
TX2RELOCoverall Handover request

Handover request Ack/ HO command

RRC Connection Reconfiguration


SN Status transfer

synchronization
Random Access HO_INTERFREQ_FAIL(M8021C04)
HO_INTFREQ_GAP_FAIL (M8021C5)
RRC Connection Reconfiguration Complete
Path switch request
Modify bearer request

TX2RELOCoverall
Expires due to no context release Modify bearer response
Path switch request ack
UE context release

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Inter-Frequency Handover KPI
LTE_5114a E-UTRAN Inter-Frequency HO Success Ratio
This KPI describes the success ratio for the inter-frequency HO, when the source eNB receives
information that the UE successfully is connected to the target cell within target eNB. The KPI is
defined independent of the network topology (intra eNB HO / inter eNB HO) and of the usage of
measurement gaps.

Summarization Summarization formula


Logical formula formula (PI ID) (Abbreviation)
Inter Frequency HO SR = 100*sum([M8021C2 100*sum(HO_INTFREQ_SUCC]) /
(number of successful Inter- ]) / sum([M8021C0]) sum (HO_INTFREQ_ATT])
Frequency HOs) /
(number of Inter-Frequency HO
attempts)*100%

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Inter-Frequency Handover KPI
LTE_5115a E-UTRAN Inter-Frequency HO Success Ratio Measurement Gap assisted
This KPI describes the success ratio for inter-frequency HO when measurement gaps are
configured for the UE, when the source eNB receives information that the UE successfully is
connected to the target cell within target eNB. The KPI is defined independent of the network
topology (intra eNB HO / inter eNB HO).

Summarization Summarization formula


Logical formula formula (PI ID) (Abbreviation)
Inter Frequency HO SR = (number 100*sum([M8021C3 100*sum(HO_INTFREQ_GAP_SUC
of successful Inter-Frequency ]) / sum([M8021C1]) C]) /
HOs measurement gap assisted) sum (HO_INTFREQ_GAP_ATT])
/
(number of Inter-Frequency HO
attempts measurement gap
assisted)*100%

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Intra-Frequency Handover KPI
LTE_5568a E-UTRAN Intra-Frequency HO Success Ratio
network topology independent (intra eNB or Inter eNB)

This KPI describes the success ratio for the intra-frequency HO, when the source eNB receives
information that the UE successfully is connected to the target cell. The KPI is defined
independent of the network topology (intra eNB HO / inter eNB HO).

Summarization Summarization formula


Logical formula formula (PI ID) (Abbreviation)
Intra Frequency HO SR = (number 100*sum([M8009C7 100*sum([SUCC_INTRA_ENB_HO]
of successful Intra-Frequency ] + [M8014C7] + + [SUCC_INTER_ENB_HO] +
HOs) / (number of Intra- [M8014C19] - [INTER_ENB_S1_HO_SUCC] -
Frequency HO attempts)*100% [M8021C2]) / [HO_INTFREQ_SUCC]) /
sum([M8009C6] + sum([ATT_INTRA_ENB_HO] +
[M8014C6] [ATT_INTER_ENB_HO] +
+[M8014C18] - [INTER_ENB_S1_HO_ATT] -
[M8021C0]) [HO_INTFREQ_ATT])

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Contents
1. LTE Handover Mobility Architecture
2. Intra eNodeB Handover
3. Inter eNodeB Handover via X2 interface
4. Inter eNodeB Handover via S1 interface
5. Intra-LTE Inter-Frequency Handover
6. Load Balancing
7. Inter-System Mobility
8. Service based mobility
9. SRVCC to WCDMA (FDD only), SRVCC to GSM, SRVCC to 1xRTT/CDMA
10. X2 Interface Measurements
11. Open Access Home eNB Mobility FDD only

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1

Inter-eNB Inter-frequency Load balancing

 LTE1170 extends LTE1387 functionality in providing


means to move incoming load from a high-loaded cell to
Continuous load
low-loaded cells which use different frequency than the Measurement and
high-loaded serving cell Exchange
 The RL60 feature LTE1531 inter freq load balancing
extensions has no impact on counters/KPIs
 RL70 LTE1140 introduces Intra Frequency Load Step 1 Load Supervision and Exchange

Balancing
 RL70 LTE1841 introduces Inter Frequency Load
Equalization
Step 2 Candidate UE Selection for
Measurement Solicitation

Step 3 Measurement Solicitation

Step 4
iF-LB Execution

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Load Supervision and Exchange
Each cell measures DL GBR, DL non-GBR and PDCCH load periodically and exchanges load information between cells of the same
eNB
eNB decides whether the cell enters or exits active inter-frequency load balancing (iF-LB) state
Candidate UE Selection for measurement solicitation
UEs entering Connected state are considered candidates for measurement solicitation hence avoiding further increase in existing
cell load
Already connected UEs are NOT offloaded to neighbor cells via load-based HOs
UEs with QCI1 bearers established may be excluded from offloaded UEs depending on parameterization
Measurement Solicitation
A4 measurements is activated if candidate UE’s serving cell is in active iF-LB state
iF-LB Execution
Target cell list (TCL) is created based on received RSRP, RSRQ and load measurements
TCL is then sorted and highest ranked neighbor cell is chosen as target cell for offloading
Load-blind HO is supported if load information is not available (ex. Inter-eNB target cells)
Inter-eNB Inter-frequency Load balancing


Update every 1sec
100% Cell in LB mode
iFLBHighLoadxxx
High cell load indicator for
M8011C69
load balancing
Rel.
LoadX(t)
100%
iFLBTargetLoadxxx @ 60%
ACX(t)
50% 80%

60% Available capacity in


Suppose that actual relation to configured
cell load for load type LoadX Rel. 40%
target load threshold
XXX (DL GBR/DL non-
GBR/PDCCH) is as (t) LoadX
shown
30% (t)50
20%
%

50% of the cell’s configured target load


threshold for load type X(DL GBR/DL
non-GBR/PDCCH) is already being
utilized in the cell

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Composite Available Capacity (CAC)
mlbEicicOperMode
Mode for calculating the CAC in load bal. and
• CAC is calculated from the downlink eICIC
GBR, non-GBR and PDCCH loads Loadsettings; nonGbrOnly (0), nonGbrPdcch
(1), allUes (2) : AllUes
• The calculation is completed in 3 steps
• Relative Load = Measured Load /
Target Load
• Available Capacity = 100 % -
Relative Load
• Composite Available Capacity =
Min(Available Capacities)

M8011C81 DL_CAC_EQUAL_ZERO
M8011C82 DL_CAC_ABOVE_0_BELOW_EQ_20
M8011C83 DL_CAC_ABOVE_20_BELOW_EQ_40
M8011C84 DL_CAC_ABOVE_40_BELOW_EQ_60 Available Capacity calculated
M8011C85 DL_CAC_ABOVE_60_BELOW_EQ_80 for GBR, non-GBR and
DL_CAC_ABOVE_80_BELOW_EQ_100 PDCCH
M8011C86

M8011C90 –C107
DL AC for PDCCH non GBR , GBR

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Inter-eNB Inter-frequency Load balancing
• RL70 – counters for CAC

Also now available counters for


Available Capacity for PDCCH GBR and nGBR

• AC PDCCH - M8011C90- 95
• AC GBR – M8011C96-101
• AC nGBR- M8011C102- 107
80> CAC <100
20> CAC <40

40>CAC < 60

60> CAC <80


0 > CAC <20
CAC = 0
M8011C81

M8011C82

M8011C83

M8011C84

M8011C85

M8011C86

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Inter-eNB Inter-frequency Load balancing

UE Source eNB Target eNB

RRC Connection Reconfiguration


Number of load balancing Handover
(cause load based HO) M8021C23
attempts

Number of successful load balancing


M8021C24
Handover completions

L2 Synchronization

L2 UL Allocation + timing advance

RRC Connection Reconfiguration Complete

UE context release

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LTE1357: LTE-UTRAN load balancing
LTE1357 introduces Connected Mode Load Balancing from 4G towards 3G

• 4G cell load is monitored


• Load balancing is triggered when the high
load threshold is exceeded
Load
• UE are selected for handover to 3G
Monitoring
• after entering RRC connected
• after incoming handover High load detected Load
below
• periodic target
• Inter-system measurements are completed Candidate UE Load
using event B1 Selection above
target
• Inter-system handover is completed
• Load balancing stops if load decreases
below target threshold
Inter-System Load
Measurements Monitoring
LNBTS: actUtranLoadBal
Activate inter-RAT UTRAN load balancing
0 (false), 1 (true)
Default: 0
Handover
Execution
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LTE1357: LTE-UTRAN load balancing
Load Monitoring
• High and Target load thresholds are defined for GBR, non-GBR and PDCCH loads
• Handovers triggered when ‘any’ high load threshold exceeded
• Handovers stop when ‘all’‘ loads decrease below the target threshold

LNCEL - utranLbLoadThresholds
100% Load
New Parameters

highLoadGbrDl enter load


highLoadNonGbrDl balancing state exit load
highLoadPdcch balancing state

High Load

LNCEL - loadSettings
Target Load
Parameters
Existing

TargetLoadGbrDl
TargetLoadNonGbrDl
TargetLoadPdcch
0% Load

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LTE1357: LTE-UTRAN load balancing
Performance Management

Number Abbrev name Full name


M8016C43 ISYS_HO_UTRAN_LB_ATT Inter System load balancing handover attempts to
UTRAN
M8016C44 ISYS_HO_UTRAN_LB_SUCC Successful Inter System load balancing handover
completions to UTRAN
M8011C162 HIGH_CELL_LOAD_UTRAN_LB High cell load indicator for load balancing to UTRAN

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Contents
1. LTE Handover Mobility Architecture
2. Intra eNodeB Handover
3. Inter eNodeB Handover via X2 interface
4. Inter eNodeB Handover via S1 interface
5. Intra-LTE Inter-Frequency Handover
6. Load Balancing
7. Inter-System Mobility
8. Service based mobility
9. SRVCC to WCDMA (FDD only), SRVCC to GSM, SRVCC to 1xRTT/CDMA
10. X2 Interface Measurements
11. Open Access Home eNB Mobility FDD only

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Event A2 Based Redirection
• If Scell coverage is dropping to a point where coverage may be lost completely, redirection
can be used.
• Redirection is triggered, if the coverage of the server is below threshold4 for
at least the time given by a2TimeToTriggerRedirect
• Event A2 may be triggered, if e.g. the coverage goes down because no target
cell can be found for handover triggered by event A3 or A5

RSRP/Q
M8033C5 Number of A2 events received, which crossed redirect RSRP threshold
M8033C6 Number of A2 events received, which crossed redirect RSRQ threshold

server

threshold4
LNCEL, -140..-43 dBm: -122dBm
threshold4rsrq
LNCEL, -20..-3 dBm: -19dBm
a2TimeToTriggerRedirect
LNCEL, 0..5120 ms (irregular
steps) 256ms

time
start redirection
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Event A2 Based Redirection
• Must be enabled with actRedirect (LNBTS, off/on, on)
• The number of potential target layers is set with redrtId (REDRT, 1..2)
• The type of target layer is set with redirRAT (REDRT, LTE/WCDMA/(E)GPRS),
i.e. redirection is possible towards
• WCDMA
• GPRS/EDGE
• Another LTE carrier
• Further parameters are used to specify e.g. the (U)ARFCNs of the target layers

•The number of EPS bearer releases due to redirection is given by the counter
M8006C258

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1

CSFB features
FDD TDD
• CS Fallback related features in RL20 • CS Fallback related features in RL15
• CS Fallback to UTRAN or GSM via Redirect • none
(LTE562)
• CS Fallback related features in RL25
• Emergency Call Handling (LTE22) –
• CS Fallback to UTRAN or GSM via Redirect
• CS Fallback related features in RL30 (LTE562)
• CS Fallback to UTRAN with System
Information
• CS Fallback related features in RL35
• CS Fallback related features in RL40
• GSM Redirect with System Information
• CS Fallback to UTRAN via PS HO (LTE736) (LTE984)
• GSM Redirect with System Information
(LTE984)
• CS Fallback related features in RL45
• CS Fallback related features in RL50
• CS Fallback to UTRAN via PS HO (LTE736)
• none
• Enhanced CS Fallback to CDMA/1xRTT for
• CS Fallback related features in RL60 dual RX Ues LTE1441
• CS Fallback to CDMA/1xRTT for dual RX Ues
LTE874
• Enhanced CS Fallback to CDMA/1xRTT for
dual RX Ues LTE1441
• CS Fallback related features in FL15a
• RAN information Management for WCDMA

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CS Fallback related features in RL20
CS Fallback to UTRAN or GSM via Redirect (LTE562) – introduces service-based redirection from LTE to UTRAN or GERAN
whenever CS voice call is to be set-up
Emergency Call Handling (LTE22) – introduces means for special handling of emergency calls in the context of CS Fallback
procedure
CS Fallback related features in RL30
CS Fallback to UTRAN with System Information – CSFB towards UTRAN via redirection has been enhanced with provisioning of
System Information of potential target cells (only towards 3GPP R9 compliant UEs)
CS Fallback related features in RL40
CS Fallback to UTRAN via PS HO (LTE736) – CSFB towards UTRAN realized via PS HO mechanism
GSM Redirect with System Information (LTE984) – CS Fallback to GERAN via redirection will be enhanced with provisioning of
System Information of potential target cells (only towards 3GPP R9 compliant UEs) this enhancement applies also to RRC
Connection Release with Redirection (LTE423)
CS Fallback to UTRAN

RL40 - perform CSFB to UTRAN – PS HO

Blind HO is not supported therefore e-NB will trigger


measurements before CS Fallback to UTRAN.

Configure B1 event based


measurements for UTRAN (3GPP)

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1

Event B2 measQuantUtraFdd
def. which quantity to use for event B2
1. Ms + Hys < Thresh1 & LNCEL; cpichRSCP, cpichEcN0; notUsed;
2. Mn + Ofn – Hys > Thresh2 cpichRSCP

Signal
level
condition 2 fulfilled

Event B2 fulfilled

condition 1 fulfilled
b2threshold2UtraRscp/EcN0

offsetFreqUtra

hysB2ThresholdUtra

S-cell
b2threshold1Utra

hysB2ThresholdUtra

reportAmount

N-cell

time
b2TimeToTriggerUtraMeas S – serving cell LTE
reportIntervalUtra N – neighbor cell WCDMA
LNHOW; 0..5120ms; -; -320ms
LNHOW; 120ms..60 min; -; -

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Please note that hysteresis is used to prevent ping-pong effect between entering and leaving conditions; parameter common both
for serving and neigbor cell
1

Event B1 measQuantityCSFBUtra
def. which quantity to use for event B1
1. Mn + Ofn – Hys > Thresh2 LNCEL; cpichRSCP, cpichEcN0;
notUsed; cpichRSCP
Signal
level

Event B1 fulfilled

hysB1ThresholdCSFBUtra

b1thresholdCSFBRscp/EcN0

reportAmount

N-cell

time
b1TimeToTriggerCSFBUtraMeas S – serving cell LTE
reportIntervalUtra
LNHOW; 0..5120ms; -; - 256ms N – neighbor cell WCDMA
LNHOW; 120ms..60 min; -; -

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Please note that hysteresis is used to prevent ping-pong effect between entering and leaving conditions; parameter common both
for serving and neigbor cell
1

CS fallback to UTRAN RL40 RL45


LTE736
• Possibility to perform CSFB to UTRAN using PS HO functionality
• PS HO to WCDMA for FDD
• PS HO to WCDMA or TD-SCDMA for TDD
• Benefits:
• Faster than CSFB via Redirection
• PS services are not dropped
• Support for MO and MT cases as well as for RRC_IDLE and RRC_CONNECTED states
• Emergency Call can use CS Fallback to UTRAN with PS HO

LTE
WCDMA
CSFB

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Requirements:
License: Pool license - Long-term ON/OFF BTS license
CS Fallback to UTRAN
RL40 RL45 - perform CSFB to UTRAN – PS HO
LTE736 perform CS Fallback to UTRAN using PS HO functionality
 In case of LTE FDD => PS HO to WCDMA is used
 appropriate feature activation flag (actCsfbPsHoToUtra) on the eNB level

UE
eNB MME

Paging
Paging Paging
Paging

RRC: RRCConnectionRequest

RRC: RRCConnectionSetup

RRC: RRCConnectionSetupComplete
/ Extended Service request
Extended Service request

S1AP: UE CONTEXT MODIFICATION REQUES with the CS Fallback Indicator


or
S1AP: INITIAL CONTEXT SETUP REQUEST with the CS Fallback Indicator

RRC: RRCConnectionRelease message

(CSFB_PSHO_UTRAN_ATT)
M8016C32

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LTE1441: CS Fallback to CDMA/1xRTT (e1xCSFB) RL60/RL45

RL60/RL35TD introduces also CS Fallback functionality for 1xRTT network


• The feature LTE1441 Enhanced CS fallback to CDMA/1xRTT (e1xCSFB) allows a single radio UE that is normally
camped on an LTE network to use an operator's CDMA 1xRTT network for voice and other circuit services
• By leveraging the operator's existing CDMA 1xRTT infrastructure, CS Fallback functionality enables the operator
to provide voice and other circuit services for its LTE customers without the expense of deploying an IMS core

Two versions of CS Fallback are supported:


• CS Fallback for 1xRTT via RRC connection release with redirection (3GPP R8 based – 1xCSFB)
• CS Fallback for 1xRTT via Mobility from EUTRAN with CDMA2000 handover preparation (3GPP R9 based –
e1xCSFB)
RL60 release with LTE874 CSFB to CDMA/1xRTT for dual RX UEs extends CS Fallback to 1xRTT network functionality
for dual receiver multimode UEs and single radio UEs emulating dual receiver mode

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CS Fallback

M8016C11 CS Fallback attempts with redirection via RRC Connection Release


M8016C12 CS Fallback attempts (UE in Connected Mode) with redirection via RRC Connection Release
M8016C13 CS Fallback attempts for emergency call reason with redirection via RRC Connection Release
M8016C32 CS Fallback attempts to UTRAN with PS Handover
M8013C46 UE_CTX_SETUP_ATT_CSFB
M8013C48 UE_CTX_SETUP_SUCC_CSFB
M8013C51 UE_CTX_MOD_ATT_CSFB
M8013C53 UE_CTX_MOD_SUCC_CSFB

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CS Fallback Statistics (MT RRC_Connected)

Which counters are triggered?


What is the cause of the
release?

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CS Fallback Statistics (MT RRC_Connected)

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1

LTE60: Inter RAT handover to eHRPD/3GPP2 RL60 FDD only

The basic process of handover to eHRPD is described as follows*:


- Based on a Radio Layer trigger the UE initiates the pre-registration to the CDMA2000 eHRPD Access
• The pre-registration procedure allows the UE to establish and maintain a session in the target HRPD access,
while attached to the E-UTRAN/MME
- When event A2 (start Inter frequency and Inter-RAT measurement) occurs UE starts to monitor eHRPD layer
- After receiving a B2 measurement report from the UE, the eNB initiates the optimized eHRPD handover
• The handover decision is signaled to the UE with Handover from E-UTRA preparation request message
• UE sends an UL handover preparation transfer message to the eNB which starts handover process
- After the HRPD access network allocates the requested radio access resources the MME informs about that
eNB
- eNB performs Inter-RAT handover to HRPD
- UE releases resource in LTE and starts to gain access in eHRPD

HO

LTE eHRPD
UE

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*This functionality is only applicable for multimode devices supporting both LTE and CDMA2000 eHRPD technologies and given
frequency band
1

LTE60: Inter RAT handover to eHRPD/3GPP2 RL60 FDD only

• The handover to eHRPD is achieved with the S101 interface between the MME and the eHRPD
Access
• The S101 interface provides a tunnel between MME and eHRPD Access to relay 3GPP2 signaling
messages for Pre-Registration, Session Maintenance and Active handoffs between E-UTRAN and
eHRPD networks

PDN-GW

S5
HSGW
S103*
(HRPD Serving
S-GW
Gateway)
S11

A10/A11
S1-U
MME
S101 PDSN
A10/A11 Packet Data
S1-MME Serving Node

eHRPD
Access
eNB

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*data forwarding isn’t applied for eHRPD HO so no S103 interface is needed (this interface is used in User Plane interface to
forward DL data to minimize packet losses in mobility from E-UTRAN to eHRPD)
LTE60 Inter RAT handover to eHRPD/3GPP2 RL60 FDD only
Events

The LTE60 uses following events to control LTE/CDMA mobility:


- Event A1/A2: Serving cell down/upcrossing a certain threshold – activation/deactivation of neighbor cell
measurements
- Event B2: Serving becomes worse than threshold1 and Inter-RAT neighbor becomes better than threshold 2 –
handover due to poor LTE and sufficient UTRAN/GSM/eHRPD coverage

RSRP RSRP

A2 trigger B2 threshold1
A1 threshold B2 trigger

B2 threshold2
A2 threshold
A1 trigger
Pilot strength neigh
RSRP serving RSRP serving

move direction move direction

M8033C0 Number of A2 events received, which crossed inter frequency threshold


M8033C2 Number of A2 events received, which crossed WCDMA threshold
M8033C4 Number of A2 events received, which crossed RSRQ mobility threshold
M8033C5 Number of A2 events received, which crossed redirect RSRP threshold
M8033C6 Number of A2 events received, which crossed redirect RSRQ threshold
M8033C7 Number of A1 events triggered for RSRP
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LTE60: Inter RAT handover to eHRPD/3GPP2 RL60 FDD only
Performance Management

New counter Group M8025 LTE Handover to eHRPD per eHRPD bandclass
measurement
Counter Counter name Description
number
M8025C0 ISYS_HO_EHRPD_PREP_BC Inter System Handover preparations to eHRPD per
eHRPD bandclass
M8025C1 ISYS_HO_EHRPD_PREP_FAIL1_BC Failed Inter System Handover preparations to
eHRPD caused by expiration of guarding timer
TUlHoPrepTransferHrpd per eHRPD bandclass
M8025C2 ISYS_HO_EHRPD_PREP_FAIL2_BC Failed Inter System Handover preparations to
eHRPD caused by expiration of guarding timer
TC2KRelocPrepHrpd per eHRPD bandclass
M8025C3 ISYS_HO_EHRPD_PREP_FAIL3_BC Failed Inter System Handover preparations to
eHRPD caused by received HO Failure indication
message per eHRPD bandclass
M8025C4 ISYS_HO_EHRPD_PREP_SUCC_BC Successful Inter System Handover preparations to
eHRPD per eHRPD bandclass
M8025C5 ISYS_HO_EHRPD_ATT_BC Inter System Handover attempts to eHRPD per
eHRPD bandclass
M8025C6 ISYS_HO_EHRPD_FAIL_TIM_BC Failed Inter System Handover attempts to eHRPD
caused by expiration of guarding timer
TC2KRelocOverallHRPD per eHRPD bandclass
M8025C7 ISYS_HO_EHRPD_SUCC_BC Successful Inter System Handover completions to
eHRPD per eHRPD bandclass

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LTE60: Inter RAT handover to eHRPD/3GPP2 RL60 FDD only
Performance Management

KPIs
KPI ID KPI name Formula
LTE_5461a E-UTRAN Inter RAT HO Preparations to eHRPD sum([M8025C0])

LTE_5462a E-UTRAN Inter RAT HO Preparation to eHRPD Success Ratio 100*sum([M8025C4])/ sum([M8025C0])

LTE_5463a, E-UTRAN Inter RAT HO Preparation to eHRPD Failure 100*sum([M8025C1]) / sum([M8025C0])


Ratio expiration of guarding timer TUlHoPrepTransferHrpd”

LTE_5464a, E-UTRAN Inter RAT HO Preparation to eHRPD Failure Ratio 100*sum([M8025C2]) / sum([M8025C0])
expiration of guarding timer TC2KRelocPrepHrpd
LTE_5465a E-UTRAN Inter RAT HO Preparation to eHRPD Failure Ratio 100* sum([M8025C3])/ sum([M8025C0])

LTE_5466a E-UTRAN Inter RAT HO to eHRPD Success Ratio 100*sum([M8025C7]) / sum([M8025C5])

LTE_5467a E-UTRAN Inter RAT to eHRPD HO Attempts sum([M8025C5])

LTE_5468a E-UTRAN Inter RAT HO to eHRPD Failure Ratio 100*sum([M8025C6]) / sum([M8025C5])

LTE_5469a E-UTRAN Inter RAT Total HO to eHRPD Success Ratio 100* sum([M8025C7])/ sum([M8025C0])

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Contents
1. LTE Handover Mobility Architecture
2. Intra eNodeB Handover
3. Inter eNodeB Handover via X2 interface
4. Inter eNodeB Handover via S1 interface
5. Intra-LTE Inter-Frequency Handover
6. Load Balancing
7. Inter-System Mobility
8. Service based mobility
9. SRVCC to WCDMA (FDD only), SRVCC to GSM, SRVCC to 1xRTT/CDMA
10. X2 Interface Measurements
11. Open Access Home eNB Mobility FDD only

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LTE1127 Service based mobility
dedicated solution for networks with VoLTE

• Operator can configure dedicated LTE F1- VoLTE preferred frequency configured by
Operator
frequencies as VoLTE preferred targets for LTE F2- “normal” LTE frequency

service based mobility trigger


- UE with established QCI1 bearer can be moved via
service based handover (SBHO) to VoLTE preferred
frequency

• Service based mobility trigger reuses Inter-


frequency Load Balancing (LB) procedures, F2
F1
however it is not used for LB purposes
- LTE1127 steers QCI1 traffic to preferred
frequencies regardless of load conditions

M8033C3 Number of A2 events received, which crossed WCDMA QCI1 threshold

M8033C1 Number of A2 events received, which crossed inter frequency QCI1 threshold
M8033C8 Number of A1 events received, which crossed A1 QCI1 threshold

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LTE1127 Service based mobility
dedicated solution for networks with VoLTE

• Operator can configure dedicated LTE F1- VoLTE preferred frequency configured by
Operator
frequencies as VoLTE preferred targets for LTE F2- “normal” LTE frequency

service based mobility trigger


- UE with established QCI1 bearer can be moved via
service based handover (SBHO) to VoLTE preferred
frequency

• Service based mobility trigger reuses Inter-


frequency Load Balancing (LB) procedures, F2
F1
however it is not used for LB purposes

- LTE1127 steers QCI1 traffic to


preferred frequencies regardless of
load conditions

M8021C7 Number of service based handover attempts


M8021C8 Number of successful service based handover completions

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LTE64: Service based handover thresholds

Configure dedicated thresholds for a UE that has a QCI1 bearer (VoLTE call)
established. LNBTS: actServBasedMobThr
LNCEL: a2RedirectQci1 Note: No changes to
Activate service based mobility A2 based redirect for VoLTE calls • Hysteresis
thresholds disabled (0), enabled (1) • Time to trigger
0 (false), 1 (true) Default: 1 • A3/A5 IntraFreq thresholds
Default: 0 • B1 thresholds

HO Measurement type New dedicated


threshold for HO
measurement

inter-frequency intra- A1 to stop inter-frequency HO measurements A1_QCI1


LTE A2 to start inter-frequency HO measurements A2_QCI1_IF
A3 for inter-frequency HO measurements (better cell) A3_QCI1_IF
A5 for inter-frequency HO measurements (coverage) A5_QCI1_IF
SRVCC LTE to A1 to stop SRVCC measurements A1_QCI1
WCDMA B2 for SRVCC measurements B2_QCI1_WCDMA
SRVCC LTE to GERAN A1 to stop SRVCC measurements A1_QCI1
B2 for SRVCC measurements B2_QCI1_GERAN
SRVCC LTE to 1xRTT A1 to stop SRVCC measurements A1_QCI1
A2 to start SRVCC measurements A2_QCI1_C2K

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LTE64: Service based handover thresholds
Performance Management

Number Abbrev name Full name


M8021C37 HO_INTFREQ_QCI1_RR_A3A5_ATT Inter-frequency handover attempts for UEs with QCI1
(A3/A5 radio related handovers only)
M8021C38 HO_INTFREQ_QCI1_RR_A3A5_SUCC Successful inter-frequency handover completions for
UEs with QCI1 (A3/A5 radio related handovers only)

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Contents
1. LTE Handover Mobility Architecture
2. Intra eNodeB Handover
3. Inter eNodeB Handover via X2 interface
4. Inter eNodeB Handover via S1 interface
5. Intra-LTE Inter-Frequency Handover
6. Load Balancing
7. Inter-System Mobility
8. Service based mobility
9. SRVCC to WCDMA (FDD only), SRVCC to GSM, SRVCC to 1xRTT/CDMA
10. X2 Interface Measurements
11. Open Access Home eNB Mobility FDD only

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SRVCC to WCDMA (LTE 872)

Introduction

 The aim of the LTE872 feature is to command the UE to leave LTE network if the LTE coverage is ending
and handover the VoIP call (QCI = 1) to the WCDMA network via Single Radio Voice Call Continuity
procedure – in the IMS capable environment
 SRVCC functionality is standardized by the 3GPP and the idea behind this feature is to handover
ongoing VoIP call from LTE to another RAT with simultaneous change of the domain that serves the
connection – from PS to legacy CS
 Feature prerequisite is 3G capability of the LTE UE
 Prior to the actual SRVCC procedure the measurements of 3G network are triggered

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SRVCC to GSM (LTE 873)
Variants of SRVCC to GSM

 Following variants of SRVCC are supported by LTE RL40/RL45TD:


 SRVCC to GSM without DTM support
 VoIP connection is handed over to GSM CS but other PS bearers are suspended and they
could be resumed only after performing Routing Area Update – after the CS call end
 Special option: Emergency SRVCC to GSM without DTM support
 SRVCC to GSM with DTM support
 VoIP connection is handed over to GSM CS, other PS bearers are not handed over but these
PS bearers are established again after performing Routing Area Update – during the CS call
(with the help of DTM mode)
 Special option: Emergency SRVCC to GSM with DTM support

PS handover to GSM is in any case not supported – with or without SRVCC to


GSM functionality

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1

SRVCC to WCDMA (LTE872) FDD only

CS Access and
Call Control CS Bearer

CS-MGW
SRVCC
enhanced MSS
IU-CS / A PSTN/
2G/3G

SRVCC
PLMN
UTRAN/G
ERAN Originating services
UE HLR MAP & anchoring
Sv

Signaling
CS Bearer
H.248
MAP
VoIP Bearer
LTE Access with MGCF IMS-MGW
SRVCC

IMS Call Control NVS


SCC ASCC
Cx
MME HSS ISC

UE Other
PCRF
Rx
Mw
S1-MME IMS Network
STa
S11 S6b Gx
CSCF
Gm
S1-U SGi (VoIP Bearer)
UE
LTE eNb
Serving-GW PDN-GW

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NVS – Nokia Mobile VoIP Server
SCC AS - Service Centralization and Continuity Application Server
1

SRVCC to WCDMA without PS HO FDD only


UE Source SGW MSC Target Target Target IMS
Source MME
eNB PGW MGW MSC SGSN RNS SCC AS

Ongoing VoIP Session with IMS established over LTE

Measurement Report
HO Required (S1)

Bearer Spliting

PS to CS Request (Sv)
Prep HO Req
HO Request (Iu CS)

M8016C29 HO attempts to HO Ack (Iu CS)


UTRAN with SRVCC Prep HO Rsp

Establish Circuit
HO from EUTRAN HO Command (S1) PS to CS Response (Sv) Initiation of Session Transfer (STN-SR)
Command

UE Tuning and HO Detection with new network Session Transfer


Update remote end,
HO Complete (Iu CS) Release Source IMS
M8016C30 HO success to SES [HO Complete]
UTRAN with SRVCC Access leg
Answer
PS to CS Complete/ACK (Sv)
Release resource
Delete Bearer [QCI1] (S11)

Routing Area Update

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After handover completion, UE performs RAU to established the PS bearers (which could not be established together with the CS-
handover) via the Iu-PS
1

SRVCC to WCDMA with PS HO FDD only


UE Source SGW MSC Target Target Target IMS
Source MME
eNB PGW MGW MSC SGSN RNS SCC AS

Ongoing
OngoingVoIP
VoIPSession
Session with
with IMS
IMS established
establishedover
overLTE
LTE

Measurement Report
HO Required (S1)

Bearer Spliting

PS to CS Request (Sv)
Prep HO Req
Reloc/HO Request (Iu CS)
Forward Relocation Request (Gn/S3)
Reloc/HO Request/ACK (Iu PS)
M8016C29 HO attempts to Forward Relocation Response (Gn/S3)
UTRAN with SRVCC Reloc/HO Ack (Iu CS)
Prep HO Rsp
Establish Circuit
HO from EUTRAN HO Command (S1) PS to CS Response (Sv) Initiation of Session Transfer (STN-SR)
Command

UE Tuning and HO Detection with new network


Session Transfer
Reloc/HO Complete (Iu CS) Update remote end,
SES [HO Complete]
Release Source IMS
Answer Access leg
PS to CS Complete/ACK (Sv)

M8016C30 HO success to Delete Bearer [QCI1] (S11) Reloc/HO Complete (Iu PS)
UTRAN with SRVCC Forward Relocation Complete/Ack (Gn/S3)

Update Bearer [NonGBR] (Gn/S4)

Release Resources (S1) Delete Session (S11)

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After HO data ig going from SGSN to PGW and vice versa
VoIP connection is handed over to UTRAN CS while other PS bearers are simultaneously handed over to UTRAN PS
1

SRVCC to GSM without DTM


UE Source SGW MSC Target Target Target IMS
Source MME
eNB PGW MGW MSC SGSN RNS
BSS SCC AS

Ongoing
OngoingVoIP
VoIPSession
Session with
with IMS
IMS established
establishedover
overLTE
LTE

Measurement Report
HO Required (S1)

Bearer Spliting

PS to CS Request (Sv)
Prep HO Req
HO Request (Iu CS)
M8016C22 HO attempts to
HO Ack (Iu CS)
GERAN with SRVCC
Prep HO Rsp

Establish Circuit
HO from EUTRAN HO Command (S1) PS to CS Response (Sv) Initiation of Session Transfer (STN-SR)
Command

UE Tuning and HO Detection with new network


Session Transfer
Suspend (see TS 23.060) Update remote end,
Suspend Release Source IMS
Suspend Request/Response Access leg
M8016C34 HO attempts to
GERAN with SRVCC HO Complete (Iu CS)
SES [HO Complete]
Answer
PS to CS Complete/ACK (Sv)
Release resource

Bearer handling and suspension (S11)

CS Call ended -TAU

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UE runs out of LTE coverage, GSM measurements are activated and SRVCC to GSM is triggered (in the same way as for eNACC to
GSM).
eNodeB initiates S1-HO towards GSM indicating SRVCC for CS only and sets indication „PS Service Not Available“
CS-Handover (incl. SRVCC) towards GSM is executed. MME suspends PS services
UE is served in GERAN connected via CS domain only

VoIP connection is handed over to GSM CS but other PS bearers are suspended and they could be resumed only after performing
Routing Area Update – after the CS call end!
1

SRVCC to GSM with DTM without PS HO


UE Source SGW MSC Target Target Target IMS
Source MME
eNB PGW MGW MSC SGSN RNS
BSS SCC AS

Ongoing
OngoingVoIP
VoIPSession
Session with
with IMS
IMS established
establishedover
overLTE
LTE

Measurement Report
HO Required (S1)

Bearer Spliting

PS to CS Request (Sv)
Prep HO Req
M8016C22 HO attempts to HO Request (Iu CS)
GERAN with SRVCC
HO Ack (Iu CS)
Prep HO Rsp

Establish Circuit
HO from EUTRAN HO Command (S1) PS to CS Response (Sv) Initiation of Session Transfer (STN-SR)
Command

UE Tuning and HO Detection with new network Session Transfer


Update remote end,
HO Complete (Iu CS) Release Source IMS
M8016C34 HO attempts to SES [HO Complete]
Access leg
GERAN with SRVCC Answer
PS to CS Complete/ACK (Sv)

Delete Bearer [QCI1] (S11)


Release resource

Routing Area Update

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UE is served in GERAN connected via CS domain only (no suspension of PS by MME)
PS bearers are established again after performing Routing Area Update – during the CS call (with the help of DTM mode)
SRVCC to WCDMA Counter Summary

M8016C31 

M8016C29 M8016C30


HO attempts to Successful / Failed HO
UTRAN with completions to UTRAN with
SRVCC SRVCC

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SRVCC to WCDMA Handover KPIs
LTE_5564a Inter RAT HO to UTRAN with SRVCC Success Ratio
This KPI describes the inter RAT HO to UTRAN with SRVCC Success Ratio when the source
eNB receives information that the UE successfully is connected to the target cell (UTRAN).

Summarization
Logical formula formula (PI ID) Summarization formula (Abbreviation)
Inter RAT HO UTRAN 100*sum([M8016C30] 100*sum([ISYS_HO_UTRAN_SRVCC_SUCC]) /
SRVCC FR =(number ) / sum([M8016C29]) sum([ISYS_HO_UTRAN_SRVCC_ATT])
of unsuccessful
inter RAT Hos
UTRAN SRVCC) /
(number of inter RAT
HO attempts UTRAN
SRVCC)*100%

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SRVCC to WCDMA Handover KPIs
LTE_5563a Inter RAT HO to UTRAN with SRVCC Failure Ratio
This KPI describes the ratio of failed inter RAT handovers to UTRAN with SRVCC related to all
attempted inter RAT handovers to UTRAN with SRVCC. This KPI represents the case of a failed
Handover when all UE resources are still allocated for the UE.

Summarization
Logical formula formula (PI ID) Summarization formula (Abbreviation)
Inter RAT HO UTRAN 100*sum([M8016C31] 100*sum([ISYS_HO_UTRAN_SRVCC_FAIL]) /
SRVCC FR =(number ) / sum([M8016C29]) sum([ISYS_HO_UTRAN_SRVCC_ATT])
of unsuccessful
inter RAT Hos
UTRAN SRVCC)
/(number of inter
RAT HO attempts
UTRAN
SRVCC)*100%

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SRVCC to GERAN Counter Summary

M8016C35 

M8016C33 M8016C34


HO attempts to Successful / Failed HO
GERAN with completions to GERAN with
SRVCC SRVCC

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SRVCC to GERAN Handover KPIs

LTE_5567a Inter RAT HO to GERAN with SRVCC Success Ratio


This KPI describes the inter RAT HO to GERAN with SRVCC Success Ratio when the source
eNB receives information that the UE successfully is connected to the target cell (GERAN).

Summarization
Logical formula formula (PI ID) Summarization formula (Abbreviation)
Inter RAT HO GERAN 100*sum([M8016C34]) 100*sum([ISYS_HO_GERAN_SRVCC_SUCC]) /
SRVCC SR =(number / sum([ M8016C33]) sum([ISYS_HO_GERAN_SRVCC_ATT])
of successful inter
RAT HOs GERAN
SRVCC) /(number of
inter RAT HO attempts
GERAN SRVCC)*100%

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SRVCC to GERAN Handover KPIs

LTE_5566a Inter RAT HO to GERAN with SRVCC Failure Ratio


This KPI describes the ratio of failed inter RAT handovers to GERAN with SRVCC related to all
attempted inter RAT handovers to GERAN with SRVCC. This KPI represents the case of a failed
Handover when all UE resources are still allocated for the UE.

Summarization
Logical formula formula (PI ID) Summarization formula (Abbreviation)
Inter RAT HO 100*sum([M8016C35] 100*sum([ISYS_HO_GERAN_SRVCC_FAIL]) /
GERAN SRVCC FR ) / sum([ M8016C33]) sum([ISYS_HO_GERAN_SRVCC_ATT])
=(number of
unsuccessful inter
RAT HOs GERAN
SRVCC) / (number of
inter RAT HO
attempts GERAN
SRVCC)*100%

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1

LTE738: SRVCC to 1xRTT/CDMA


1xCS 1xRTT
S-GW / 1xCS 1xRTT
SRVCC eNB MME CS
UE PDN GW IWS MSC
access
1. Ongoing VoIP session over the IMS access leg established over E-UTRA access
2.Measurement Reports

B2 reports 3. Handover decision

4. .HO- from EUTRA preparation


request (3G1x Parameters)
3GPP 23.216
5. UL Handover prep. transfer
(MEID, 1x Origination)
6. UL S1 cdma2000 tunnelling
(MEID, RAND, 1x Origination)
7. S102 Direct Transfer (1x Air
Interface Signalling (Origination))

8. 1x traffic assignment/handoff initiation


9. S102 Direct Transfer (1x Air Interface
Signalling (Handoff Direction))
10. DL cdma2000 tunnelling
(Handoff Direction)
11. Mobility from EUTRA
command (Handoff Direction)
12. 1x radio interface procedures to acquire a traffic channel

13. 1x handoff completion message

14. 1x handoff done

15. Ongoing voice call over the CS access leg established over 1xRTT access

16. S1 UE Context
Release Request
17. Suspend Request/Ack

18. S1 UE Context Release

19. Subscriber Location Report


GMLC

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Ongoing VoIP session over the IMS access leg established over EPS/E-UTRAN access.
2. 1xCS SRVCC UE sends measurement reports to eNodeB.
3. E-UTRAN decides to initiate an inter-technology handover to cdma2000 1xRTT.
4. E-UTRAN signals the UE to perform an inter-technology handover by sending a Handover from EUTRA Preparation
Request (3G1x Overhead Parameters, RAND value) message.
5. UE initiates signalling for establishment of the CS access leg by sending a UL handover preparation Transfer message
containing the 1xRTT Origination message.
6. E-UTRAN sends an Uplink S1 cdma2000 message to the MME.
7. Upon reception of the Uplink S1 cdma2000 Tunnelling message, the MME selects a 3GPP2 1xCS IWS and encapsulates the
1x Origination Message along with the MEID and RAND in a S102 Direct Transfer message.
The traffic channel resources are established in the 1x RTT system and 3GPP2 1xCS procedures for initiation of Session Transfer
are performed
3GPP2 1xCS IWS creates a 1x Handover Direction message and encapsulates it in a S102 Direct Transfer message.
10. MME sends the 1x message and CDMA2000 HO Status IE in a Downlink S1 cdma2000 Tunnelling message to the
E-UTRAN.
11. If the CDMA2000 HO Status IE indicates successful handover preparation, the E-UTRAN forwards the 1x Handoff Direction
message embedded in a Mobility from EUTRA Command message to the UE. This is perceived by the UE as a Handover Command
message.
12. Once the UE receives the traffic channel information from the cdma2000 1xRTT system, the UE retunes to the 1xRTT
radio access network and performs traffic channel acquisition with the 1xRTT CS access.
13. UE sends a 1xRTT handoff completion message to the 1xRTT CS access.
1

LTE738: SRVCC to 1xRTT/CDMA


1xCS 1xRTT
S-GW / 1xCS 1xRTT
SRVCC eNB MME CS
UE PDN GW IWS MSC
access
1. Ongoing VoIP session over the IMS access leg established over E-UTRA access
2.Measurement Reports

3. Handover decision

4. .HO- from EUTRA preparation


request (3G1x Parameters)
5. UL Handover prep. transfer
(MEID, 1x Origination)
6. UL S1 cdma2000 tunnelling
(MEID, RAND, 1x Origination)
7. S102 Direct Transfer (1x Air
Interface Signalling (Origination))

8. 1x traffic assignment/handoff initiation


9. S102 Direct Transfer (1x Air Interface
Signalling (Handoff Direction))
10. DL cdma2000 tunnelling
(Handoff Direction)
11. Mobility from EUTRA
command (Handoff Direction)
12. 1x radio interface procedures to acquire a traffic channel

13. 1x handoff completion message

14. 1x handoff done

15. Ongoing voice call over the CS access leg established over 1xRTT access

16. S1 UE Context
Release Request
17. Suspend Request/Ack

18. S1 UE Context Release

19. Subscriber Location Report


GMLC

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1xRTT CS Access sends message to 1xRTT MSC to indicate of handoff done. The resources between 1x CS IWS and 1xRTT MSC
may be released at this step.
15. Ongoing voice call over the CS access leg established over 1xRTT access. The E-UTRAN/EPS context may be released
based on the normal E-UTRAN/EPS procedure.
16. The eNodeB sends an S1 UE Context Release Request (Cause) message to the MME. Cause indicates the S1 release
procedure is caused by handover from E-UTRAN to 1xRTT.
17. The MME deactivates GBR bearers towards S-GW and P-GW(s) by initiating MME-initiated Dedicated Bearer Deactivation
procedure. PS-to-CS handover indicator is notified to P-GW for voice bearer during the bearer deactivation procedure. The MME
starts preservation and suspension of non-GBR bearers by sending Suspend Notification message towards S-GW. The S-GW
releases S1-U bearers for the UE and sends Suspend Notification message to the P-GW(s). The MME stores in the UE context that
the UE is in suspended status. All the preserved non-GBR bearers are marked as suspended status in the S-GW and P-GW.
18. S1 UE Context in the eNodeB is released.
19. For an emergency services session after handover is complete, if the control plane location solution is used on the source
side, the source MME shall send a Subscriber Location Report carrying an indication of the 1xRTT MSC (e.g. reference cell ID) to
the GMLC associated with the source side to support location continuity. This enables location continuity for the 1xRTT side.
Alternatively, if the control plane solution is not used on the source side, location continuity procedures shall be instigated on the
1xRTT side.
LTE738: SRVCC to 1xRTT/CDMA
Performance Management
Number Abbrev name Full name
M8016C36 SRVCC_1xRTT_PREP Inter System Handover preparations to 1xRTT with
SRVCC
M8016C37 SRVCC_1xRTT_PREP_FAIL1 Failed Inter System Handover preparations to 1xRTT
with SRVCC due to expiration of guarding timer
TUlHoPrepTransfer1xSrvcc
M8016C38 SRVCC_1xRTT_PREP_FAIL2 Failed Inter System Handover preparations to 1xRTT
with SRVCC due to expiration of guarding timer
TC2KRelocPrep1xSrvcc
M8016C39 SRVCC_1xRTT_PREP_FAIL3 Failed Inter System Handover preparations to 1xRTT
with SRVCC due to received HO Failure indication
message
M8016C40 SRVCC_1xRTT_PREP_SUCC Successful Inter System Handover preparations to
1xRTT with SRVCC
M8016C41 SRVCC_1xRTT_ATT Inter System Handover attempts to 1xRTT with SRVCC
M8016C42 SRVCC_1xRTT_UE_CONTEXT_REL UE context release due to Inter System Handover to
1xRTT with SRVCC

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Contents
1. LTE Handover Mobility Architecture
2. Intra eNodeB Handover
3. Inter eNodeB Handover via X2 interface
4. Inter eNodeB Handover via S1 interface
5. Intra-LTE Inter-Frequency Handover
6. Load Balancing
7. Inter-System Mobility
8. Service based mobility
9. SRVCC to WCDMA (FDD only), SRVCC to GSM, SRVCC to 1xRTT/CDMA
10. X2 Interface Measurements
11. Open Access Home eNB Mobility FDD only

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1

X2 Interface
• Inter eNodeB interface
.. • X2AP special signaling protocol
(E)-RRC User PDUs User PDUs
• Functionalities
PDCP

RLC
– Facilitate inter eNodeB handover and
TS 36.300
provide data forwarding for it
MAC
– Provide e.g. load information to
LTE-L1 (FDD/TDD-OFDMA/SC-FDMA) eNB
neighboring eNBs to facilitate radio
resource and interference management
LTE-Uu • Logical interface
X2-UP – Does not need direct site-to-site
(User Plane) connection
X2-CP
(Control Plane) – Can be routed e.g. via core network as
User PDUs well
TS 36.423 X2-AP GTP-U
X2 M8036C0 Number of data chunks sent to X2 SCTP peer
SCTP UDP TS 36.424 M8036C1 Number of data chunks received from X2 SCTP peer
TS 36.422
IP IP M8036C2 Number of data chunks re-sent to X2 SCTP peer
M8036C3 Duration of congested periods of X2 SCTP association
TS 36.421 L1/L2 L1/L2 TS 36.421
M8036C4 Number of X2 SCTP association state changes to
congested
M8036C5 Duration of unavailable periods of X2 SCTP association

TS 36.420 M8036C6 Number of X2 SCTP association state changes to


unavailable

eNB
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UDP: User Datagram Protocol ( L4 Transport Layer) . Similar to TCP but only provides connectionless service.
X2 Throughput Counters and KPIs
LTE_5064b E-UTRAN average incoming Signaling Throughput on X2
Shows the average incoming signaling throughput on X2AP layer per eNB
Unit is kbit/s

Summarization Summarization formula


Logical formula formula (PI ID) (Abbreviation)
AVG IN X2 SIG THP = Sum ([M8004C0]) * Sum ([VOLUME_X2_IN_SIG_DATA])
(incoming X2AP signaling 8 / (sum * 8 / (sum
volume) * 8 / (MEASUREMENT_ (MEASUREMENT_DURATION) *
(MEASUREMENT_DURATION * DURATION) * 60*1000)
60*1000)
60*1000)

M8004C0
Incoming signaling data volume in Byte

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X2 Throughput Counters and KPIs
LTE_5065b E-UTRAN average outgoing Signaling Throughput on X2
Shows the average outgoing signaling throughput on X2AP layer per eNB
Unit is kbit/s

Summarization Summarization formula


Logical formula formula (PI ID) (Abbreviation)
AVG OUT X2 SIG THP = Sum ([M8004C1]) * Sum
(outgoing X2AP signaling 8 / (sum ([VOLUME_X2_OUT_SIG_DATA]) *
volume) * 8 / (MEASUREMENT_ 8 / (sum
(MEASUREMENT_DURATION * DURATION) * (MEASUREMENT_DURATION) *
60*1000) 60*1000) 60*1000)

M8004C1
Outgoing signaling data volume in Byte

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X2 Throughput Counters and KPIs
LTE_5068a E-UTRAN average incoming Data Throughput on X2
Shows the average incoming user plane data throughput on X2AP layer per eNB
Unit is Kbit/s

Summarization Summarization formula


Logical formula formula (PI ID) (Abbreviation)
AVG X2 DAT THP IN = Sum ([M8004C2]) * Sum
(incoming X2AP user plane data 8 / 1000 / (sum ([X2_DATA_VOL_IN_UPLANE]) * 8 /
volume) * 8 / 1000 / (MEASUREMENT_ 1000 / (sum
(MEASUREMENT_DURATION * DURATION) * 60) (MEASUREMENT_DURATION) * 60)
60)

M8004C2
Incoming user plane data volume in Byte

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X2 Throughput Counters and KPIs
LTE_5069a E-UTRAN average outgoing Data Throughput on X2
Shows the average outgoing user plane data throughput on X2AP layer per eNB
Unit is Kbit/s

Summarization Summarization formula


Logical formula formula (PI ID) (Abbreviation)
AVG X2 DAT THP OUT= Sum ([M8004C3]) * Sum
(outgoing X2AP user plane data 8 / 1000 / (sum ([X2_DATA_VOL_OUT_UPLANE]) *
volume) * 8 / 1000 / (MEASUREMENT_ 8 / 1000 / (sum
(MEASUREMENT_DURATION * DURATION) * 60) (MEASUREMENT_DURATION) * 60)
60)

M8004C3
Outgoing user plane data volume in Byte

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Contents
1. LTE Handover Mobility Architecture
2. Intra eNodeB Handover
3. Inter eNodeB Handover via X2 interface
4. Inter eNodeB Handover via S1 interface
5. Intra-LTE Inter-Frequency Handover
6. Load Balancing
7. Inter-System Mobility
8. Service based mobility
9. SRVCC to WCDMA (FDD only), SRVCC to GSM, SRVCC to 1xRTT/CDMA
10. X2 Interface Measurements
11. Open Access Home eNB Mobility (FDD only)

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1

LTE1442 Open Access Home eNB Mobility FDD RL50

• HeNB is consumer or enterprise deployed


eNodeB with low transmit power (~23 dBm)
LTE1442 is the
macro cell feature
• Home eNodeB are distinguished by as
configurable range of PCI

• RRC connection release with redirect is used Foreign vendor


instead of prepared HO Home eNodeB's

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HeNB = femto
The access to HeNB may be open, or closed (Closed Subscriber Group – CSG), when only selected users can connect to it
LTE1442 feature supports only Open Access HeNBs
A single range of PCI can be configured in the Macro eNB for HeNB usage per frequency  up to 503 PCI’s
1

LTE1442 Open Access Home eNB Mobility FDD RL50

• Radio Network Layer


Cause (Inter-RAT UE Source eNB MME S-GW
Home eNB
Redirection) is used to
handover the UE to the User Data User Data

Home eNB
RRC:Measurement Report
• After the redirect UE (measResult(measId of
performs cell selection „Event E-UTRA A3” or „Event E-UTRA A5”))

and call setup towards


Home eNodeB Decision for mobility
towards a PCI
belonging to Home eNB
Number of UEs attempted
M8008C15
to redirect to Home eNB
UE Context Release with Redirect

other already existing PM counters UE performs cell selection and call setup towards Home eNodeB
for monitoring the redirect
procedure are also applicable for
the Redirect to Home eNB User Data User Data

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- LTE BTS sets the cause value of the S1AP UE Context Release Request message to "Radio Network Layer (Inter-RAT redirection)"
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