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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION

The power system is a highly nonlinear system that operates in a


constantly changing environment of loads, generator outputs and key
operating parameters. Disturbances are likely to occur on the system at any
point of time. The disturbance may be large or small. Large disturbances are
in the form of transmission line fault or loss of generation or loss of large
loads. Small disturbances are in the form of continual load changes. When
subjected to a disturbance, the stability of the system might be lost. The
power system stability is defined as the ability of the electric power system to
remain in a state of operating equilibrium under normal operating conditions
and to regain an acceptable state of operating equilibrium after being
subjected to a disturbance.

The instability of the system manifests as loss of synchronism


between rotating inertia of the synchronous generators in the system which
leads to the electromechanical oscillations. These oscillations will persist in
the system due to non-zero difference between the mechanical and electrical
power of the machines. If countermeasures are not taken, it may lead to total
system block out.
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This chapter explains the fundamentals of power system stability,


the development of oscillations in the power system and the techniques to
suppress the power oscillations.

1.2 STABILITY OF POWER SYSTEM

Stability is a condition of equilibrium between opposing forces.


The mechanism by which interconnected synchronous machines maintain
synchronism with one another is through restoring forces, which act whenever
there are forces tending to accelerate or decelerate one or more machines with
respect to other machines.

Power system stability is broadly categorized into (i) Rotor angle


stability and (ii) Voltage stability. Rotor angle stability is concerned with the
ability of interconnected synchronous machines of a power system to remain
in synchronism under normal operating conditions and after being subjected
to a disturbance. It depends on the ability to maintain or restore equilibrium
between electromagnetic torque and mechanical torque of each synchronous
machine in the system. Instability may also occur in the form of increasing
angular swings of some generators leading to their loss of synchronism with
other generators.

Voltage stability is the ability of a power system to maintain steady


acceptable voltages at all buses in the system under normal operating
conditions and after being subjected to a disturbance. Voltage stability
problems normally occur in heavily stressed systems. A system enters a state
of voltage instability when a disturbance, increase in load demand, or change
in system condition causes a progressive and uncontrollable drop in voltage.
The main factor causing voltage instability is the inability of the power
system to meet the demand for reactive power. This research work deals with
the rotor angle stability only.
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The rotor angle stability is classified as

Small Signal Stability which deals with the maintenance of


stability under small disturbances.

Transient Stability which deals with the maintenance of


synchronism under severe disturbance.

1.2.1 Swing Equation

The equations of central importance in power system stability


analysis are the rotational inertia equations describing the effect of unbalance
between the electromagnetic torque and the mechanical torque of the
individual machines. The equations of motion of a synchronous machine is
given by

d2
M Pm Pe (1.1)
dt 2

where M = the angular momentum of the synchronous generator


= Rotor angle of the generator
Pm = Mechanical power to the generator
Pe = Electrical power generated by the generator

Equation (1.1) is commonly referred to as the swing equation


because it represents swings in rotor angle during disturbances.

1.2.2 Power Angle Relation

In order to compute and , it is necessary to determine the


electrical power Pe during disturbance. The relationship between the electrical
power of the generator Pe and the rotor angle of the machine ‘ ’ is given by
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E 'V
Pe sin Pmax sin (1.2)
XT

E 'V
where Pmax (1.3)
XT

where XT is the transfer reactance between E ' and V .

As small signal stability and transient stability deals with power


angle oscillations, a brief discussion on the basic concepts of power system
oscillations and small oscillations in generator connected to an infinite bus is
carried out in the next section.

1.3 LOW FREQUENCY OSCILLATIONS IN POWER SYSTEM

Power systems are often subject to low frequency electro


mechanical oscillations in the frequency range of 0.2 – 2 Hz. These low
frequency oscillations in a power system constraints the capability of power
transmission, threatens system security and damages the efficient operation of
the power system.

Electric power utilities have experienced the following types of low


frequency oscillations.

Local plant mode oscillations


Interarea mode oscillations
Torsional mode oscillations
Control mode oscillations

Local plant mode oscillation problems are the most commonly


encountered and are associated with units at a generating station oscillating
with respect to the rest of the power system. Such problems are usually
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caused by the action of the AVRs of generating units operating at high-output


and feeding into weak-transmission networks; the problem is more
pronounced with high-response excitation systems. The local plant
oscillations typically have natural frequencies in the range of 1–2 Hz.

Inter area modes are associated with machines in one part of the
system oscillating against machines in other parts of the system. They are
caused by two or more groups of closely coupled machines that are
interconnected by weak ties. The natural frequency of these oscillations is
typically in the range of 0.1–1 Hz.

Torsional mode oscillations are associated with the turbine


generator rotational (mechanical) components. There have been several
instances of torsional mode instability due to interactions with controls,
including generating unit excitation and prime mover controls.

Control mode oscillations are associated with generating units and


other controls. Poorly tuned exciters, speed governors, HVDC converters, and
static var compensators are the usual causes of instability of these modes.

1.4 POWER OSCILLATION DAMPING (POD)

The use of Power System Stabilizer (PSS) to control generator


excitation systems is the most cost effective method of enhancing oscillatory
stability of power system. Generally, Power System Stabilizers (PSS) are used
in conjunction with Automatic Voltage Regulators (AVR). The function of
the PSS is to add damping to generator rotor oscillations. This is achieved by
modulating the generator excitation so as to develop a component of electrical
torque in phase with rotor speed deviations. The block diagram representation
of a PSS with IEEE type- ST1 excitation system is shown in Figure 1.1. The
various types of power system stabilizers used in practice based on the input
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signal given to the stabilizer are (i) Delta-Omega stabilizer (ii) Delta-P-omega
stabilizer (iii) Frequency based stabilizer and (iv) Digital stabilizer. In
general, the output voltage of the stabilizer can be described as

E fd ( K A (Vref v u pss ) E fd ) / TA (1.4)

where KA and TA are the gain and time constant of the excitation system,
respectively. Vref is the reference voltage. The PSS is installed in the feedback
loop to generate a stabilizing signal upss.

v
-
E max
fd
Vref KA Efd
+
upss 1 sTA E min
+ fd

Power system stabilizer


max
U pss
sTw 1 sT1 1 sT3
K STAB
min 1 sTw 1 sT2 1 sT 4
U pss
wash out filter Lead-Lag compensator

Figure 1.1 IEEE Type – ST1 excitation system with PSS

In large power systems, it is difficult to select the units for


installing PSS to damp power system oscillations. In addition to that,
participation factor corresponding to the speed deviations of the generators
are to be determined for placing the PSS for effective damping which need
more evaluation using residues and frequency responses. Also in some
operating conditions this device may not produce adequate damping and other
effective alterations are needed in addition to PSS.
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1.5 FACTS DEVICES FOR DAMPING OSCILLATIONS

FACTS devices based on Power Electronics technology makes a


novel way to damp out the oscillations thereby improves power system
stability because of their ability of fast and easy control. FACTS devices
control the flow of AC power by changing the impedance of a transmission
line or the phase angle between the ends of a specific line. FACTS devices
include Static Var Compensator (SVC), STATic COMpensator (STATCOM),
Thyristor-Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC) and Unified Power Flow
Controller (UPFC).

SVC is one of the important shunt FACTS device used to provide


automatic and continuous voltage control for maintaining the bus bar voltage
at a constant value. A typical shunt connected static var compensator is
composed of Fixed Capacitors (FC) and Thyristor Controlled Reactors (TCR).
The compensator is normally operated to regulate the voltage of the
transmission system at a selected terminal.

The SVC equipped with a voltage regulator provides the


synchronizing torque but the damping torque contributions are small. To
improve damping in a power system, a supplementary damping controller can
be applied to the primary regulator of SVC. The supplementary control action
modulates the output signal of SVC in such a way that damping is added to
the power system swing modes of concern. This thesis explores the
application of shunt FACTS device SVC, for power oscillation damping.

Most of the FACTS controllers belong to PI type and regulated


from active or reactive power deviations and other integrals. Although PI
controllers are simple and easy to design, their performance deteriorates when
the system operating conditions vary widely and large disturbances occur,
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hence intelligent control algorithms are needed to improve the performance of


the FACTS devices.

1.6 OBJECTIVES OF THE THESIS WORK

The main objectives of this research work are to

Analyze the damping performance of SVC.

Design and develop an optimal controller for use in auxiliary


control loop of SVC to improve the Power Oscillation Damping
(POD).

Develop a fuzzy logic based controller for SVC auxiliary loop.

Coordinately tune the voltage regulator and auxiliary controller


of SVC for improved performance.

1.7 ORGANIZATION OF THE THESIS

The thesis is organized into seven chapters. A brief outline of the


forthcoming chapters is given below:

Chapter 2 reviews the literature on power system stability, power


oscillation damping using PSS and static var compensator. It also reviews the
literature on the auxiliary controllers for SVC.

Chapter 3 presents the configuration and model of SVC for power


system stability studies. The details of the auxiliary controller for improving
the oscillation damping are also presented.

Chapter 4 presents the application of GA technique for tuning the


SVC controller parameters to damp out the system oscillation. The various
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issues involved in applying the GA–based technique for controller design are
also presented.

Chapter 5 presents the application of fuzzy logic controller The


performance of the proposed controller is compared with conventional PID
controller and the existing fuzzy logic controller.

Chapter 6 explains the coordinated design of voltage regulator and


the auxiliary controller of SVC. An Improved Genetic Algorithm is proposed
to improve the performance of the power system under different fault
conditions.

Chapter 7 provides the summary of specific contribution of this


research work as well as suggestions for future work.