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BUSHINGS

DOREL NEDELCUT,

Research, Development and Testing National Institute for Electrical Engineering –ICMET

Craiova, Calea Bucuresti, 144

ROMANIA

dnedelcut@icmet.ro http://www.icmet.ro

DUMITRU SACERDOTIANU

Research, Development and Testing National Institute for Electrical Engineering –ICMET

Craiova, Calea Bucuresti, 144

ROMANIA

micro@icmet.ro http://www.icmet.ro

Abstract: - At present, the tendency to implement the condition-based maintenance (CBM), which allows the

optimization of the expenses for equipment monitoring, is more and more evident; also, the transformer substations

with remote monitoring are increasingly used. This paper reviews all the advantages of the on-line monitoring and

presents an equipment for on-line monitoring of bushings, which is the own contribution of specialists who are the

authors of this paper. The paper presents a study of the temperature field, using the finite element method. For

carrying out this study, the 3D modelling of the above mentioned bushing was performed. The analysis study is

done taking into account the extreme thermal stresses, focusing at the level of the first cooling wing section of the

ceramic insulator. This fact enables to justify the tanδ variation in time, depending on the transformer loading and

the environmental conditions.

Power transmission and distribution systems from the failure in exploitation with grave consequences.

economically developed countries are already aged Based on the authors’ experience in the field of

being, in many cases, more than 30 years old. All the monitoring of electric networks parameters and power

fixed assets of the power systems have a standardized transformers thermal condition [2], a digital

life time of maximum 30 years. equipment for the monitoring of bushings insulation,

From now on, any equipment is in danger to fail at with an original conception, was finalized .

any times with no previous warning.

Under these conditions the on-line monitoring is one

of the most useful methods for prolonging the life 2. Contributions to the condition-based

time up to the failure time limit and for replacing the maintenance of the bushings by their

assets or recovering them in the last moment.

Because the bushing is a key element in the operation

monitoring

of electrical power equipment, its safe operation is a

special issue because its degradation leads, in many 2.1. The importance of on-line monitoring of

cases, to the explosions followed by fires with very bushings

grave consequences for the stations and the The damage of bushings is one of the main causes

substations. leading to the improper operation of the transformers

If up to the present the time-based maintenance or even to the explosions. The statistics confirmed that

(TBM), with periodical revisions, was used, in the last 30% of the transformer damages are due to capacitor-

years one tries to find solutions to pass to the type bushings. The European statistics show that 80%

condition-based maintenance (CBM) which allows the of the damaged bushings are between 12 and 20 years

minimization of the costs, the prolongation of old and therefore the monitoring is necessary even

81

WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on ENVIRONMENT and DEVELOPMENT Dorel Nedelcut, Dumitru Sacerdotianu

before the middle of their life time [1]. - use of a modified Schering bridge, where special

The high electric field gradients in the bushing methods are taken for suppressing the disturbances

insulation and the high working temperature (standard capacitor supplied at the low voltage side of

contribute to the acceleration of insulation ageing. a voltage transformer connected on the same phase as

The explosion of the bushing can damage the the tested object, replacement of the conventional null

transformer tank, can generate an extended fire by indicator by a microcontroller-based measuring device

transformer oil ignition, and fire in the bundle of fitted out with adaptive filtration).The equipment has

cables in the electric switch box or in the control room in its structure standard components which require

through the secondary wiring. special metrological verifications, is bulky and could

A damage of the bushing leads to financial losses be achieved with high costs.

(between 1 and 3 million of dollars) to the insurers, The equipment achieved by this method

both for physical damages and for the disturbances implementation allows monitoring the dielectric

of the affairs in the companies they are serving.. dissipation factor (tan δ), but is very expensive.

These losses can reach, in exceptional situations, tens - vector addition of the capacitive currents of the

million of dollars. bushings mounted on the three phases and detection of

The explosion can generate material damages and the unbalance current (Fig.1)

human life losses because of the porcelain pieces

spread at long distance and with a very high speed.

The traditional diagnosis systems of the bushing

insulation are based on periodical measurements of

insulation loss factor, once within 2-3 years. In such

case, it is necessary to put the transformers out of

service and to measure tanδ at an applied voltage of

10 kV. The disadvantages of this traditional method

for monitoring the bushing insulation are the

following:

-The testing frequency arbitrarily chosen is not Figure 1 - Block diagram of capacitive current

usually correlated with the failure rate development. acquisition

The practice proved that the period between the Where:

measurements must not exceed 100 days to detect A, B, C – bushings under potential

95% from the defective bushings, and this is C1 - main capacity of the bushing

practically unacceptable;

C2 - capacity of the last layer of the bushing

-The measurements for tanδ performed at an applied

voltage of 10 kV are not relevant for the actual I A , I B , I C - capacitive currents acquired at the

condition of the bushing insulation. The bushing measuring terminals

measurements at rated voltage, performed on the IΣ - vector adder

bushings where partial discharges appear, showed

values of 5-8 times higher than those measured at 10

On the basis of the analysis on the magnitude and

kV. The oil deterioration at high temperatures

generates chemical modifications and sediment phase of the unbalance current ∆I Σ (Fig.2) the degree

accumulations leading to the failures of the bushings. of modification for the dielectric properties of

The detection of this type of fault at the voltage of 10 bushings is found; the disadvantage is that it does not

kV can be very difficult, even by tanδ measurement at present on line the value of tan δ for each bushing.

the rated voltage.

-The traditional testing methods require a lot of work

and the putting out of service for a long time.

By these reasons it is preferable to use on-line

monitoring methods for the bushings.

Bushing monitoring methods known at present are

presented below:

82

WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on ENVIRONMENT and DEVELOPMENT Dorel Nedelcut, Dumitru Sacerdotianu

volume of dielectric) at the temperature θ and, at the

stress with the electric field having the strength E:

P p ⋅ v ⋅ E2 pθ ⋅ S ⋅ d ⋅ E2

Ia = = θ = = p θ ⋅ S ⋅ E (6)

a) b) c) d) U E⋅d E⋅d

S

Ir = 2 ⋅ π ⋅ f ⋅ U ⋅ C = 2 ⋅ π ⋅ f ⋅ E ⋅ d ⋅ ⋅ ε0 ⋅ εr =

a) balanced bushings d (7)

b) determination of the initial unbalance current, I 0 Σ ; = 2 ⋅ π ⋅ f ⋅ εo ⋅ εr ⋅ S ⋅ E

c) determination of the unbalance current I Σ , and I pθ

tan δ = a = (8)

sum current ∆I Σ , taking also into account the initial Ir 2 ⋅ π ⋅ f ⋅ ε0 ⋅ εr

unbalance current I 0 Σ ; The phasor diagram is presented in the figure 3:

d) determination of the unbalance current ∆I Σ ,

modulus and phase, related the phase B Ia

∆I Σ

Figure 3 – The phasor diagram

monitoring of bushings

The dielectric losses of a bushing are:

For on-line monitoring of bushings it is ideal to

P = U ⋅ I a = U ⋅ I r ⋅ tan δ = 2 ⋅ π ⋅ f ⋅ U 2 ⋅ C ⋅ tan δ

(9)

monitor the time variation of dielectric losses and of

bushings own capacity. The used measuring diagram presented in the figure 4

In a quasi-homogeneous dielectric, in homogeneous is the classical one.

electric field, the losses in dielectric depend on the U

electric field strength and temperature. The losses

I

increase proportionally to the square of the electric R1

C1

field strength but they strongly depend also on the Ux Uy

Ux=aI

temperature θ in dielectric [6], [8]. Uy=bU

1

P(θ ) = ε 0 ε r (θ) ⋅ E 2 ⋅ ω tan δ(θ)

C2 r R2

(4)

2

At high electric fields, the losses have even more

accentuated increase related to the electric field C1, C2 - bushing or CT under test

strength. R1, R2 - high voltage resistive divider

The heat produced by Joule losses from the central

(capacitive divider or voltage

conductor of the bushing generate also a temperature

transformer)

rise in the insulating material, which overlaps on that

r - additional shunt resistor

one due to the dielectric losses.

r << XC2

Because of dielectric losses, the alternating current

which passes through a bushing is not purely reactive After calibration φ[Ux ,Uy] ~ k tgδ

Ir, but it has an active component Ia named leakage Figure 4 – The measuring diagram

current.

Let us consider an elementary capacitor with the aria The equipment, [9] (Fig.6), is composed by an unit for

of the armature S, the thickness d, at the voltage U signals conditioning and adaptation (UCAS), which

and the frequency f, which has the losses P: takes over the current information from the test taps of

P = pθ ⋅ v ⋅ E2 (5) the transformer bushings through the adapters Ac(A),

Ac(B), Ac(C), Ac(a), Ac(b), Ac(c) and the reference

83

WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on ENVIRONMENT and DEVELOPMENT Dorel Nedelcut, Dumitru Sacerdotianu

from the secondary measuring winding of measuring

voltage transformers through the adapters AU(A),

AU(B), AU(C), AU(a), AU(b), AU(c) and applies them

at the inputs of two microcontrollers which perform

the sampling, the storage and the transmission of the

signals through the adapting blocks (BA1), (BA2),

(MUX) towards the microcontroller of the central

processing unit (UC). These ones perform the

calculation of the dielectric loss factor, using a Fourier

series algorithm for the decomposition of the non-

sinusoidal periodic current and voltage signals,

measurement of phase displacement between the

fundamentals of the voltage and current signals, the

calculation and the display of tan δ and currents

measured at the terminals on the alphanumeric display Figure 5 – The block diagram of on-line

(LCD), the creation of a data base in the external monitoring equipment for tan δ

memory of the central unit, the generation of light

signals and energizing of relay contacts when The current adapters perform the conversion of the

exceeding the thresholds rated for alarm, the bushing leakage current in voltage signal in phase

communication with a compatible computer IBM-PC with that one. Their construction is compact and they

for the data visualization, the setting of parameters, replace the short-circuiting switch existing at the

alarms and the archive downloading. measuring terminal of the bushing achieving the same

The proposed solution has the following advantages: protection degree.

- it solves the problem of monitoring the evolution The conversion is done by non-inductive resistive

of loss dielectric factor , tan δ , current at the elements and very low capacities. Over-voltage

terminals of the bushings afferent to the power protective elements are foreseen.

transformers; For each monitored bushing the method presumes the

- it allows the identification of the bushing with high acquisition of two signals: one signal taken over from

dielectric losses by activating the corresponding the test tap of the bushing and the second signal,

alarm; representing the reference voltage, taken over from

- it carries out the rejection of the disturbances the instrument transformer corresponding to the

generated by climatic and electric factors, by the monitored bushing [3].

implementation of a numerical recursive filter; The taken over signals have non-sinusoidal periodical

- it allows the calculation of the bushing own character and they have the following form:

∞

capacity and its monitoring. f ( t ) = A 0 + ∑ [M k ⋅ cos(kωt ) + N k ⋅ sin (kωt )] (10)

The voltage adapters are step-down transformers k =1

measuring range. The implemented program performs the calculation of

These ones assure: tan δ by the extraction of fundamentals from the

- the practical elimination of the phase sampled signals by a Fourier analysis algorithm.

displacements between the primary and the The calculation algorithm presumes:

secondary; - determination of the coefficients Mk and Nk for the

- the elimination of the earth loops; fundamentals of the two signals (k=1)

- the elimination of the disturbing signals. 2T

To eliminate the phase difference on the secondary M 1 = ∫ f ( t ) cos(ωt )dt (11)

T0

one mounts a resistive load in order to carry out a 2T

constant consumption and to eliminate the time N 1 = ∫ f ( t ) sin(ωt )dt (12)

T0

variation of the phase differences.

The coefficients M1 and N1 are determined for each

acquired quantity.

84

WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on ENVIRONMENT and DEVELOPMENT Dorel Nedelcut, Dumitru Sacerdotianu

- determination of initial phases of the taking into account the Joule losses in the terminal

fundamentals and the dielectric losses in the capacitor, also their

M M' variation with temperature. The external temperature

ϕ1 = arctan 1 (13) ϕ1' = arctan '1 (14)

N1 N1 is considered as being given: θ e .

where, The calculation model is presented in Figure 7. The

ϕ1 = the initial phase of the fundamental of rated current IN flows through the terminal with

the signal taken over from the measuring diameter de, generating on the unit of length the Joule

terminal of the bushing; losses [11]:

4

ϕ1' = the initial phase of the fundamental of P0 = k r ⋅ ρ 0 ⋅ (1 + α 0 ⋅ θ 0 ) ⋅ ⋅ I N2 (20)

reference signal taken over from the π ⋅ d e2

measuring terminals of the voltage

transformer corresponding to the measured

bushing.

Noting: δ 1 = ϕ1 − ϕ1' (15)

The loss dielectric factor is:

tan δ = tan (90 0 − δ 1 ) (16)

For non-sinusoidal state we have:

1

u = ∫ idt (17)

C

du ∞

i=C = ∑ 2kCωU k (18)

Figure 7 – Bushing calculation model

dt 1

From here:

Here, kr is the skin effect factor, ρ0 is the resistivity of

I k = kCωU k (19)

the terminal material and α0 is the temperature

Thus, by calculation, the own capacity of the bushing coefficient at 0°C, and θ0 is the terminal temperature

is obtained. in °C.

Further on, the increasing factor for the resistance of

the solid circular cylindrical conductor is calculated.

One considers the case the solid circular cylindrical

conductor with diameter d, resistivity ρr and

temperature coefficient αr at the reference temperature

θr and relative permeability µ r, in sinusoidal

alternating current having the frequency f.

One calculates firstly the resistivity ρ0 and the

temperature coefficient α0 at 0°C:

αr

ρ 0 = ρ r ⋅ (1 − α r ⋅ θ r ), α 0 = (21)

1 − α r ⋅θ r

One notes:

d 2 ⋅π ⋅ f ⋅ µ0 ⋅ µ r

Figure 6 – Monitoring equipment mounted in the ξ0 = ⋅ (22)

station 4 ρ0

ξ0

ξ= (23)

1 + α 0 ⋅θ

4. Calculation of bushing heating under

if θ is the conductor temperature.

long time duty and thermal capacity From the theory of the skin effect, the following

expression of the complex inner impedance of the

The calculation is performed in a covering manner,

cylindrical conductor is set:

supposing that the axial thermal flux is neglected, but

85

WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on ENVIRONMENT and DEVELOPMENT Dorel Nedelcut, Dumitru Sacerdotianu

Z i = Rel i + j ⋅ X el i = Rel 0 ⋅ k z ; k z =

J 1 ⋅ (2 ⋅ ζ ) j ⋅ x0 ⋅ k x

kr + , where x0 is the inner reractance at

(24) Rel 0

where Rel 0 is the direct current resistance of the

conductor: x0 ξ2

direct current distribution: = to the

4⋅l Rel 0 2

Rel 0 = ρ 0 ⋅ (1 + α 0 ⋅ θ ) ⋅ (25)

π ⋅d2 cylindrical conductor. kx is the factor for changing the

By ζ the complex variable was symbolized: inner reactance of the cylindrical conductor, due to the

skin effect.

ζ = ξ ⋅ j 3/ 2 (26) Observation – For bushings with rated currents up to

and J0 and J1 are Bessel functions of first kind, order 2500 A the skin effect within the current path could be

0 and 1. neglected.

Taking into account the shape of the series giving Coming back to the Figure 7, the terminal is inside the

these functions: guiding tube with inner diameter di. It results a

J 0 ⋅ (2 ⋅ ζ ) = ∑

∞

(− 1)

k

⋅ ζ 2k (27)

thermal resistance per unit of length:

1 d 1 d − de

k =0 (k !) 2

R0 = ⋅ ln i ≈ ⋅ i (33)

2 ⋅ π ⋅ λu de π ⋅ λu d i + d e

J 1 ⋅ (2 ⋅ ζ ) = ζ ∑

∞

( − 1)

k

⋅ ζ 2k (28) Towards the environment, the terminal is bounded by

k =0 (k!) ⋅ (k + 1)

2

a flange with outer diameter df and it transmits heat to

The following expression is derived: the environment with temperature θe by a release

∞ ∞

factor αe (16 - 32 W/m2 C). It results a thermal

1

4

1

1− ζ 2 + ⋅ζ 4 − ⋅ζ 6 + K

36

∑a

0

k ∑ (u

0

k + j ⋅ vk )

resistance per unit of length

kz = = k

= ∞

1 1 1 1

1− ⋅ζ 2 + ⋅ζ 4 −

2 12 144

⋅ζ 6 + K ∑b k ∑ (x k + j ⋅ yk ) Re = (34)

0 0

π ⋅αe ⋅ d f

(29)

The coefficients of the series from the numerator and If the bushing flange is fixed on the transformer tank,

denominator are determined step by step, using the one could consider Re≈0, and for θe the maximum

algorithm: temperature of the oil at the level of transformer cap

(θe ≈ 90°C) is taken.

2 a

a1 = 1 and then a k +1 = − a k ⋅ ζ şi b k = k The capacitor bushing itself is made of n layers

k + 1 k +1 numbered 1....n, from inside towards outside. The

(30) layer numbered by k is comprised between the

respectively u1 = 1 and then diameters dk-1 and dk, has a middle temperature θk, the

uk x vk y voltage Uk is applied on it; dielectric losses per unit of

xk = , vk = ξ 2 ⋅ k , yk = , u k +1 = −ξ 2 ⋅ k

2k + 1 2k + 1 2k + 2 2k + 2 length, Pk, are developed within the layer. On each

(31) diameter dk an enclosure (foil) with axial length lk is

The series being with oscillating sign terms, they are located. The geometric permeance per unit of length

added until the modulus of the added term decreases for the layer k is symbolized by Λk :

below the modulus of the sum multiplied with relative 2π d + d k −1

tolerance.

Λk = ≈π ⋅ k , k ∈ (1, n ) (35)

dk d k − d k −1

The algorithm is a stable one, in simple accuracy, up ln

d k −1

to ξ = 5 , limit sufficient for practice. Further on,

The dielectric losses per unit of length for the layer k

asymptotic developments could be used.

are expressed as:

The factor for increasing the resistance, kr , represents

the real part of the factor k z .

Pk = pd ⋅ Λ k ⋅ eσ (θ k −θ d ) ⋅ U k2 , k ∈ (1, n ) (36)

where pd is the volume density of the dielectric losses

Rel i

kr = = Re⋅ (k z ) (32) at reference temperature θd and for the unit of electric

Rel 0 field strength, and σ is the temperature coefficient for

the exponential variation of specific losses.

86

WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on ENVIRONMENT and DEVELOPMENT Dorel Nedelcut, Dumitru Sacerdotianu

Note – In general, the relation from below is valid: from bushing inside and outside (calculated by the

pd = 2 ⋅ π ⋅ f ⋅ ε 0 ⋅ ε r ⋅ tgδ (37) relation 42) Temperatures are immediately determined

by the relation:

where f is the frequency, ε0 is the vacuum k

i =0

and δ is the loss angle. Because losses depend on temperature, directly or by

The voltage Uk applied to the layer results from the means of voltage distribution on layers, the resolution

voltage Um applied to the bushing (43) is iteratively resumed, correcting each time the

Sk losses in accordance with the previously calculated

Uk =Um ⋅ n

, k ∈ (1, n ) (38)

temperatures, until a stationary solution (fixed point)

∑S

i =1

i is got. During the experimentations improvements

were made in order to reduce the influence of tan δ

where by Sk the elastance of the layer k was variation with the load, with the environment factors

expressed: and with the electromagnetic disturbances, filtering

1

Sk = , k ∈ (1, n ) (39) the disturbing influences [4], [10], [12], [13]. It is

ε 0 ⋅ ε k ⋅ Λ k ⋅ lk necessary to get the variation tendency from the

monitored data, using an adequate filter for

By ε k it was noted the relative permittivity of the eliminating the influences of the disturbing factors

dielectric from layer k, which may depend on the and for allowing to pass only the slowly variable

temperature by means of the relation: component of the losses in the main insulation.

ε k = ε d ⋅ eζ (θk −θ d ) , k ∈ (1, n ) (40) Without any influence, the variation of the dielectric

loss factor series would be very slow. Because of the

εd is the relative permittivity of the dielectric at the influence of everyday and seasonal variations of the

reference temperature θ d , and ζ is the temperature environment temperature and humidity the variation

coefficient. of the dielectric loss factor is cyclic. Besides, for the

The thermal resistance of the layer k is expressed by influence of the random effect of signal and

the relation: electromagnetic disturbances transmission to a

1 substation, there are many singular points in the data.

Rk = , k ∈ (0, n + 1) (41) Therefore the series of the on-line monitored

λ ⋅ Λk dielectric loss factor (tanδm) can be decomposed in the

where λ is the thermal conductibility of the following way [7]:

dielectric. The diagram for bushing heating tanδm(t) = tanδ(t) + ∆tanδw(t) + ∆tanδr(t) (44)

calculation is given in Figure 8: where: -tanδ(t) is the main component which reflects

One makes the notations: the actual condition of the insulation which

can be considered as the component with slow

R1 R + Rk +1 R variation;

Z 0 = R0 + R0' + ; Zk = k , k ∈ (1, n - 1); Z n = n + Re + Re'

2 2 2 -∆tanδw(t) is the component which reflects the

(42) everyday and seasonal influences on the

environment and of other factors with slow

variation (e.g. the load variation) and can be

considered as the low frequency component;

-∆tanδr(t) is the component which reflects the

influences of the random factors including

unusual climatic conditions, electromagnetic

disturbances, etc. (its frequency band is wide

and in the greatest part it is in the high

Figure 8 – Diagram for bushing heating calculation

frequency section).

If the tendency for tanδ(t) can be deducted from the

where by R0' şi R 'e there were expressed the thermal initial data, the efficiency of the fault diagnosis can be

resistances of the possible buffer layers, no voltage, much improved. If an adequate software recurrent

87

WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on ENVIRONMENT and DEVELOPMENT Dorel Nedelcut, Dumitru Sacerdotianu

from the loss coefficient series. The dielectric loss Result: tan ∂ = tan ∂ 0 exp[a (θ − θ 0 )] (47)

factor, tanδ, is filtered according to the relation: For the bushings with resin-lacquered paper insulation

tan δ pm − tan δ p −1 , as a results of the laboratory experiments, the

tan δ pa = tan δ p −1 + (45) variation of tanδ as a function of temperature is as

k

where: tan δ pa = the present displayed value shown in Figure 10:

tan δ p-1 = the previous value (measured and

displayed)

tan δ pm = the present measured value

k = the filtration coefficient

The interval between the readings is of the order of

minutes. It is possible to attenuate random influences

with a relatively short duration (minutes, hours and

possibly days). As a result tanδ(t) is obtained when

both the high frequency component and the low

frequency one are eliminated. The filtration method is

useful because it reduces the complexity of the

diagnosis since the data can be directly processed,

without the need of extended samples. The Figure0 9

show, as example, the time variations of tanδ in a

high-voltage substation at a transformer of 250 MVA,

Figure 10 - The variation of tanδ as a function of

400/200 kV.

temperature

of the dielectric losses in the course of one day and,

especially, the dependence on the network load

variation can be very clearly obtained.

The application of this information is very useful

because it confirms this accuracy of the measurements

performed with this monitoring equipment placing

confidence in this equipment utilization for protecting

the capacitor-type bushings, the high power

Figure 9 – The time variation of tanδ at the transformer, key-factors in the good operation of

bushings on the outputs of 400 kV power systems, implicitly.

variation on the load factors and This work presents the advantages of on-line

environmental conditions monitoring and especially of on-line continuous

By analysing the got results, it is noticed the identical monitoring of the bushings on the power transformers.

behaviour of the dielectric layers, namely a significant On-line monitoring methods for the own capacity of

increase of the average temperature, due to the the bushings are known. These ones present the

increase of the environmental temperature, especially disadvantage that information concerning the

in the hours of load peak (17 – 22), even when the variation of the losses in dielectric and implicitly the

environmental temperature decreases significantly. ageing of the insulation is unknown. Other equipment

But the material parameter depends also on the monitors the vector addition of the capacitive currents

temperature, according to the relation: through the insulation of the bushings and it detects

p θ = p θ ⋅ exp[a (θ − θ 0 )]

0

(46) their residual current; thus, it is sent information

concerning the degradation of a bushing without

where „a” is a constant depending on the dielectric

88

WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on ENVIRONMENT and DEVELOPMENT Dorel Nedelcut, Dumitru Sacerdotianu

detecting which one it is.The method is used Conference on Live Maintenance – ICOLIM

especially in the United States where there are utilized – 2004”, Bucureşti, România, 2004.

bushings with paper armatures having applied a semi- [4]. Nedelcuţ D., Bică M., Ţălu M., Monitoring

conducting varnish on them, which migrates in time in of Capacitor-Type Bushings Considerations

oil. Following this disequilibrium all the 3 capacitor- Regarding the Influence on Thermal Field

type bushings are replaced. The method presented in Distribution on Dielectric Losses, IASTED

this paper allows the early detection of the faulty Conference – Power and Energy Systems

bushing and its replacement before the appearance of EuroPES 2005, Benalmadena, Spain.

a failure danger. At present 12 pcs. of this type of [5] Nedelcuţ D., Marinescu A., Sacerdoţianu D.,

monitoring equipment are mounted and they are Pătru I., Purcaru I. - Equipment for on-line

continuously monitored by the authors, but until now monitoring of capacitor-type bushings,

no non-conformities were found in equipment CIGRE WORKING GROUP D1.02 Meeting,

operation. Romania, Eforie,2005

The presented method and equipment is the object of [6] Roth, A., Hochspannungstechnik, IV

author’s patent. edition, Wien, 1959

As a result of the experiments, the equipment has been [7] Wang N., Lu F.C., Li H.M., Analytical

provided with soft filtration enabling to remove the Processing of On-Line Monitored

influence of load variation and environmental factors Dissipation Factor Based on Morphological

on the variation of dielectric losses, making possible a Filter, IEEE, 2004

rigorous monitoring and just-in time alarm in case of a [8] Ifrim A., Notinger P., Electrotechnical

fault occurrence. Materials, EDP, Bucureşti, 1979

[9] Kuchler A., Neumann C., Koch N., Loppach

K., Krause C., Alff J.J., Condition

References Assessment of Aged Transformer Bushing

Insulations, CIGRE 2006

[1] Arshad M., Islam S.M., Power transformer [10] Bica, M., Thermotechnics and heat engines,

condition monitoring and assessment for Universitaria Publishing House, Craiova,

strategic benefits, Curtin University of 2000

Technology Department of Electrical & [11] Zalewcki, J., Izolacja przekladnikov

Computer Engineering, Perth, Australia. pradowych na napiecia 220 i 400 kV, PET

[2] Nedelcuţ D., Popa D., Monitoring, Control (1962), no 7, pages 273-281

and Protection Equipment for Power [12] *** Cosmos M.2.6. User guide, Structural

Transformers, Workshop “Technic Research and Analysis Corporation, Los

Qualification and Transient Behaviour of Angeles, California, 2000

Components of High Voltage Substation” , [13] *** SolidWorks. User guide, Structural

Karlsruhe-Germania, 2002. Research and Analysis Corporation, Los

[3] Nedelcuţ D., Marinescu A., Sacerdoţianu D., Angeles, California, 2004

Pătru I., Purcaru I., Equipment for HV

Capacitor-Type Bushings (DPD)

monitoring, „The 7th International

89

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