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Renewable Energy

Resources
Solar Energy
mohsintnveer7@gmail.com
15teemohsin@uspcase.nust.edu
.pk

By Mohsin Tanveer
Solar Energy

By Mohsin Tanveer
Facts about Sun
 The sun is a sphere of intensely hot gaseous matter with a diameter of
1.39×109 m and is, on the average, 1.5 × 1011 m from the earth.

 The sun has an effective blackbody temperature of 5777 K.

 The temperature in the central interior regions is variously estimated at 8


×106 to 40 × 106 K and the density is estimated to be about 100 times that
of water

 The energy produced in interior of solar sphere at temperatures of many


millions of degrees must be transferred out to the surface and then be
radiated into the space.

 With a mean average distance of 150 million kilometers from Earth and
with light travelling at 300,000 kilometers per second, dividing one by the
other gives us an approximate time of 500 seconds, or eight minutes and
20 seconds.
By Mohsin Tanveer
Facts about Sun
 Inner layer of the sun is considered to be active (find by scientists). Fusion
reaction take place in it. The temperature of active layer is approx. 8×106 K to
40×106 K.
 There are some other layers of The sun. These layers interact with the earth.
They act as black body. The absorb heat from active layer and radiate them
towards space. Temperature of passive layer is approx. 5800K.

 Total Heat produced by sun is 3.8×1020 MW.

 Total energy received by earth is 1.7×1014 kW. If we take all of this energy that
reaches earth and collect it for 30 min, it will provide power for whole year.

By Mohsin Tanveer
Extraterrestrial radiations and EM spectrum
 Extra-terrestrial radiations are the radiations closer to the sun surface. some
times radiations outside the earth atmosphere are also considered extra-
terrestrial.

 The radiant flux from the sun at the earth surface varies through year by ±4 %
due to non circular path of earth around the sun.

 The radiation also varies by ± 0.3 % per year due to sun spots.

 None of these variations are significant enough for solar energy application. So
we consider extra-terrestrial radiations constant.

 Total energy received by earth is 1.7×1014 kW. If we take all of this energy that
reaches earth and collect it for 30 min, it will provide power for whole year.

By Mohsin Tanveer
Extraterrestrial radiations and EM spectrum
 Below given figure shows spectral distribution of the solar irradiance at the
earth’s mean distance, uninfluenced by any atmosphere.

 This distribution is similar to the that of from a black body at 5800 K in shape and
peak wavelength and total power emitted.

By Mohsin Tanveer
Extraterrestrial radiations and EM spectrum
 The intensity of radiation outside of the earth’s atmosphere is 1367 Wm-2 and is
known as solar constant. This value is equal to the area under the curve of above
given spectral distribution chart.

The solar spectrum can be divided into three main regions.


 Ultra violent region (λ<0.4µm) ≈5% of the irradiance
 Visible region (0.4µm<λ<0.7µm) ≈ 43% of the irradiance
 Infrared region (λ>0.7µm) ≈52% of the irradiance

By Mohsin Tanveer
Components of radiation
 Outside of the earth’s atmosphere from the direction of the sun, the radiations
are extraterrestrial beam radiation.
Direct radiation
is also sometimes called "beam radiation" or "direct beam radiation". It is used to
describe solar radiation traveling on a straight line from the sun down to the surface
of the earth.

By Mohsin Tanveer
Components of radiation
Diffused Radiation
The sunlight that has been scattered by molecules and particles in the atmosphere
but that has still made it down to the surface of the earth.

 Direct radiation has a definite direction but diffuse radiation is just going any
which way. Because when the radiation is direct, the rays are all travelling in the
same direction, an object can block them all at once. This is why shadows are
only produced when direct radiation is blocked.

 Even on cloudless, clear days, there is always at least 10% diffuse irradiance from
the molecules in the atmosphere.

By Mohsin Tanveer
Components of radiation
Notations used for different type of radiations

 b for beam
 d for diffuse
 T for total
 H for horizontal plane
 C for the plane of the collector
 *for plane perpendicular to the beam
 0 for values outside the atmosphere in space

By Mohsin Tanveer
Components of radiation
Notations used for different type of radiations

By Mohsin Tanveer
Geometry of Earth & Sun

By Mohsin Tanveer
Geometry of Earth & Sun
Meridian
An imaginary line that runs vertically, north and south, from the north pole to the
south pole. All points on the meridian have same longitude.

Prime Meridian
The prime meridian serves as the starting point for longitude measurement, so is
indicated as 0 degrees longitude. The prime meridian passes directly over the british
observatory in Greenwich, England.

By Mohsin Tanveer
Geometry of Earth & Sun
Latitude
It is angular distance (north or south of the equator) measured in degree, along a
meridian from equator to a point on the surface of the earth.

Imaginary horizontal mapping lines on the earth. They are known as parallels of
latitude because they run parallel to the equator.
Longitude
It is the angular distance (in degree) from the prime meridian(solar noon) through
green witch UK, east or west to a point on the surface of the earth.

Imaginary vertical mapping of lines on earth known as meridian of longitude.

By Mohsin Tanveer
Geometry of Earth & Sun

By Mohsin Tanveer
Geometry of Earth & Sun
Noon Solar time
It is the time when local meridional plane includes the sun.

Civil Time
It is the time a large part of a country (15° of longitude) observes in order to share
the same official time zone.

Hour Angle ω
It is the angle through which the earth has rotated since
solar noon.
Earth rotates at 360°/24h=15°/h

𝜔 = (15°ℎ−1 )(𝑡𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟 − 12ℎ)

𝜔 = 15°ℎ−1 𝑡𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟 − 12ℎ + 𝜔𝑒𝑞 + (𝜓 − 𝜓𝑧𝑜𝑛𝑒 )

By Mohsin Tanveer
Geometry of Earth & Sun
The Earth’s Axis Tilt
The earth’s axis is tilted at an
angle of 23.5° away from the
plane of ecliptic. And it’s
because of this tilt that we have
seasons here on earth.

Summer happens in the


hemisphere tilted towards the
sun, and winter happens in the
hemisphere titled away from the
sun.

By Mohsin Tanveer
Geometry of Earth & Sun
The Earth’s Axis Tilt

By Mohsin Tanveer
Geometry of Earth & Sun
The Earth’s Axis Tilt

By Mohsin Tanveer
Geometry of Earth & Sun
Declination angle
The plane that includes the earth 's equator is called the equatorial plane. If a line is
drawn between the center of the earth and the sun, the angle between this line and
the earth's equatorial plane is called the declination angle denoted by δ

At the time of year when the


northern part of the earth’s
rotational axis is inclined toward
the sun, the earth’s equatorial
plane is inclined 23.45° to the
earth-sin line.

By Mohsin Tanveer
Geometry of Earth & Sun
Declination angle
The declination angle can be calculated by the equation

284 + 𝑛
𝛿 = 23.45sin(360 × )
365

By Mohsin Tanveer