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Chapter 1


I. Basic Definitions

A. Police
➢ Originated from the Greek word “Politeia” meaning a government of city
➢ It is applied to officers not necessarily policeman
➢ Romans changed the word to “Politia”
➢ French changed the word to “Police” and applied it to those who actually enforced
the law
➢ English and Americans borrowed the word intact and used it to describe a law

B. Patrol
➢ French word PATROUILLER - rough by, to travel on foot. Keep watch over an area
by regularly walking or traveling around or through it.
➢ Is the act of moving about in an area specially by authorized and trained persons
usually police officers for the purpose of observation, inspection, collaboration,
prevention of crimes, and provision of a secured environment.
➢ Basic police function.
➢ Backbone of policing.

II. Overview of Patrol work

1. Police patrol, whether on foot, in an automobile, or in whatever manner it is performed, is

the basic law enforcement method.
2. While it is not as spectacular and glamorous as many other interesting police work, it gets the
basic police work of crime prevention done.
3. Careful patrol by intelligent officers is the first line of defense against crime.
4. The man on the beat, the day-by-day work that makes or breaks a law enforcement agency,
that controls the majority of criminals and is the major basis of the police function of
protecting life and property and service to the public.
5. Many officers will find duty monotonous. This is the fault of the officers, rather than the fault
of the duty.
5.1. Patrol is monotonous if the patrol officer is only trying to put 8-hours duty walking or
driving around the area assigned to him.

Prof. Jopher F. Nazario graduated cum laude with the degree of Bachelor of Science in Criminology and Master of Science in Criminal
Justice with specialization in Criminology at Universidad de Manila. In 2009, he passed the Criminologist Licensure Examination for
Criminologist with a remarkable performance for landing 4 th Place among the thousands of examinees. Currently, he is a full-time
faculty member and the Associate Dean of his alma mater. Prof. Nazario also serves as a reviewer for Criminologist Licensure
Examination to different criminology schools and review centers throughout the country.

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6. Patrol can be extremely interesting if the officer tries to do good job. In patrol work the officer
is dealing largely with people.
6.1. The study of individuals is one of the most interesting subjects in the world.
6.2. If the patrol officer on duty attempts to analyze his area, the people in the area and their
problems, he will find that time goes faster and he is doing a better job. No matter how
dead a beat may seem, there is a great deal to be observe if the officer is looking for it.
6.3. Each area has its own characteristics and its own police problems.
6.4. Much of the monotony often associated with patrol work will disappear where the officer
makes an intelligent effort to discover and solve problems.

III. The Importance of Police Patrol

A. Patrol as the Backbone of the Police Organization

➢ Patrol is the most important of all police functions. All other police services and activities
exist only for the exclusive purpose of supporting and enhancing the patrol effort. Patrol
is the essence of policing.
➢ The patrol force is the single largest element in the police organization, and the actions
taken by the officers have direct impact on citizen satisfaction and well being, and on the
accomplishment of police goals and objectives.

B. Patrol as the Essence of Police Function

➢ Patrol is the only form of police service, which directly attempts to eliminate the
desire/opportunity of an individual to commit misconduct.

C. Patrol as the Operational Heart of the Police Organization

➢ The patrol force incorporates all objectives inherent in the police organization.

IV. Objectives of Police Patrol

1. Crime Prevention – the mere presence of patrol officers on the streets reduces, if not
totally eliminates the opportunity of a criminal to commit crime. Patrol officers, on a daily
basis, acquire firsthand information and experience on the situation in the community
particularly identifying the crime prone areas and the usual suspects or recidivists. Hence,
the conduct of patrol and the appropriate deployment of patrol officers to reduce if not
totally prevent crimes is an indispensable component of policing.

2. Law Enforcement – familiarity in the community helps the patrol officers in law
enforcement. Patrol officers can immediately enforce the law where there are suspicious
activities monitored or reported by the community and in the product of directed police

3. Public Safety and Security – police visibility helps relieve apprehensions of community
knowing that a police officer is just around ready to assist and respond in case of
emergency. Patrol Officers can facilitate the management of an emergency situation, bring
it to normalcy, and keep the citizen calm and safe. The conduct of patrol creates an
atmosphere of safety and security to the community as police response can be promptly
dispensed. Moreover, other non-hostile public safety concerns, i.e existence of an open
manhole, fallen electrical post, fire incident, etc. can be acted upon by the patrollers by

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coordinating with the concerned agency to address the situation. This specific function of
the police is one of the basic proactive elements of community policing which many
developed countries are now adhering to.

4. Police-Community Partnership – patrollers are deployed to serve as ambassadors of

goodwill of the police to the community. Whatever they do, good or bad reflects directly
to the entire police organization. As such, patrol officers must possess the needed skills
on public relations and community organizing as well as on problem-solving and strategy
development. With stronger rapport with the community, patrollers subtly establish
information network that can be developed. Crime information will naturally flow from the
community as peace and order becomes a shared and balanced responsibility between
the police and the community.

In essence, patrolling which is regarded as the backbone of policing becomes the

ENGINE of the police Station that will generate most of our policing and accomplishments.

V. Goal, Functions, and Activities of Police Patrol

A. Police Patrol Goal

The general goal of the patrol is to SAFEGUARD THE COMMUNITY

B. Police Patrol Functions

To achieve police patrol goal, patrol officers perform the following functions:

1. Protection of life and property

2. Preservation of peace and order
3. Prevention of crime
4. Suppression of criminal activities
5. Apprehension of criminals
6. Enforcement of laws and ordinances
7. Regulation of non-criminal conduct
8. Performing necessary services and inspections

Likewise, the patrol force has always been expected to handle a variety of
situations, many of them unrelated to the commonly accepted duties in crime prevention
and law enforcement, such as:

1. Request to intervene in situation between husband and wife

2. Between landlord and tenant
3. Between businessman and customers
4. Conflicts among neighbors
5. Quieting of loud disco parties
6. Dispersion of unlawful assemblies, etc., which if unattended to and resolved might
result in crime

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7. Report to corresponding agencies underground water pipes leaks, open manholes,
clogged drainages, uncollected garbage, flooded streets, street excavations, street
light outrages, etc. which constitutes hazards to safety and health

C. Police Patrol Activities

While it is true that in certain situations our patrolling officers must provide non-
enforcement services as well as assist citizens in need, they must not overlook the fact
that they are solely responsible for seeing and attempting to correct conditions that
prevent an opportunity for crime. Therefore, the patrol force is responsible for undertaking
the following activities:

1. Patrol and Observation

2. Called for Services
3. Inspectional Services
4. Control for public gatherings
5. Responding to emergencies
6. Attending to complaints
7. Conducting initial investigations
8. Preservation of crime scene
9. Criminal apprehension
10. Writing reports

VI. History of Police Patrol

1. Ancient China – law enforcement was carried out by prefect. Prefects were government
officials appointed by local magistrates who reported to higher authorities such as the
governors who in turn were appointed by head of state usually the emperor of the dynasty.

2. Ancient Greece – publicly owned slaves were used by magistrates as police. In Athens, a
group of 300 Scythian slaves (rod-bearers) was used to guard public meetings to keep
order and for crowd control and also assisted with dealing with criminal, handling prisoners
and making arrests.

3. Roman empire – the army rather than a dedicated police organization provided security.
Local watchmen were hired by cities to provide some extra security. Magistrates such
as procurators, fiscals and quaestors investigated crime. Under the reign of Augustus, 14
wards were created, the wards were protected by seven squads of 1000 men called vigiles
who acted as firemen and night watchmen. Their duties included apprehending thieves and
robbers and capturing runaway slaves. The vigiles were supported by the urban cohorts who
acted as a heavy-duty riot force and praetorian guard if necessary.
3.1. Praetorian Guard – bodyguards used by roman emperors
3.2. Urban Cohorts – were created by Augustus to counter balance the enormous power of
the praetorian guard in the city of Rome and serve as the police force
3.3. Vigiles (watchmen of the city) – were the firefighters and police of ancient Rome
3.4. Ward – a subdivision of a municipality

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4. Medieval England – the Anglo-Saxon system of maintaining public order since the Norman
conquest was a private system of tithing, led by a constable to enforce the law.
4.1. Tithing – was a grouping of 10 households
4.2. Constable – Is a person holding a particular office most commonly in law enforcement.
The office of constable can vary significantly in different jurisdiction
5. Spain – modern police in Europe has a precedent in the Hermandus or (brotherhood) - peace
keeping association of individuals, a characteristic of municipal life in medieval Spain. The first
recorded case of the formation of the hermandad occurred when the towns and the peasantry
of the north united to police the pilgrim road to Santiago de compostela in galicia and protect
the pilgrims against robber knights.

6. France – The first police force in the modern sense was created by the government of king
Louis XIV in 1667 to police the city of Paris, then the largest city in Europe.

7. Britain and Ireland – In England, a system of sheriffs, reeves and investigative juries to
provide basic security and law enforcement.
7.1. Sheriff – Is a contraction of the term "shire-reeve" - designated a royal official
responsible for keeping the peace through out a shire or county on behalf of the king.
7.2. Reeve - a senior official with local responsibilities under the crown. ex., chief magistrate
of a town or district.
7.3. Shire – traditional term for a division of land in the UK and Australia.
7.4. Jury – Is a sworn body of people convened to render impartial verdict officially
submitted to them by a court or to set a penalty or judgement.
7.5. Thief taker – a private individual hired to capture criminal.
7.6. Bow street runners – London's first professional police force.
7.7. Henry Fielding – a magistrate educated at Elton college who founded the Bow street
runners originally numbered just six.
7.8. Statute of Winchester – In 1285, obliged the authorities of every town to keep a
watch at the city gates and arrest all suspicious night walkers.
7.9. Sir Robert Peel – Prime Minister of England from Dec. 1834 to April 1835 and again
From Aug.1841 to June 1846. While home secretary, help create the modern concept of
the police force leading to officers being known as bobbies in England and peelers in
7.10. Patrick Colquhoun (1745 - 1820) – a Scottish merchant and a magistrate who
founded the first regular preventive police force in England, the Thames River Police.

8. In the US – the first city police services were established in Philadelphia in 1751, Boston
1838 and New York 1845.

8.1. August Vollmer – first police chief of Berkeley California. He is sometimes called the
father of modern law enforcement in the US.
8.1.1. He was the first chief to require that police officers attain college degrees
8.1.2. First police chief to create a motorized force placing officers on motorcycles and
cars so that they could patrol broader areas with greater efficiency.
8.1.3. He was also the first to use the lie detector in police work.

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8.2. O.W. Wilson – studied under August Vollmer. Became Chief of Police of the Fullerton
Police Department. He also became Chief of Police of the Wichita Police Department. He
introduced the following reforms and innovations:
8.2.1. Requires new policeman to have college education
8.2.2. Use of police car for patrol, mobile radios and use of a mobile crime laboratory
8.2.3. He believes that the use of a two way radio allowed better supervision of patrol

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Chapter 2


I. Organization and Staffing of the Patrol Function

Organization is consist of arranging personnel and functions in a systematic manner

designed to accommodate stated goals and objectives in the most efficient manner possible.

A. Organization Principles

Principles that enable goals of organizing the patrol affairs are achieved:

1. Simplicity - which can be done by providing simple organizational plan clearly understood
by all concerned, yet detailed enough to provide clear lines of authority and responsibility.

2. Organizing by function - it emphasizes the grouping of similar tasks, job assignments,

performance of functions together and placing them under a single supervision or command
officer. In keeping this principle basic distinction between line and staff functions must be

3. Chain of Command - it holds that successive person in the chain of command, from the
first level supervisor to the chief of police, must be given an opportunity to deal with those
incidents for which he or she is responsible. A person cannot be held accountable if the chain
of command is violated by allowing other persons below or to handle the situation.

4. Span of Control - it is based on the assumption that there is a limit to the number of
individuals that one person can effectively supervise. It depends upon various factors such
4.1. The type and complexity of the work performed
4.2. The skills, training and experience of personnel performing the work
4.3. The degree of specialization involved in the work performed
4.4. The knowledge, skills and experience of the supervisor

5. Unity of Command - it is based on the belief that an individual should be responsible to one
and only one person at any given time and in any given situation.

B. Territorial Units in Patrol

1. Post - A fixed point or location to which an officer is assigned for duty, such as designated
desk or office/ an intersection or cross work for traffic duty or spot location for general guard

2. Route (line beat) - A length of street or streets designated for patrol purposes.

3. Beat - An area assigned for foot patrol purposes.

4. Sector - An area containing two or more beats, routes or posts.

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5. District - A geographical subdivision of a large city, each composed of designated districts.

6. Area - A section or territorial division of a large city.

C. Organizational Duties and Responsibilities

1. Administrative Aspects
1.1. Staff Supervisor
1.2. Shift/Platoon In-Charge
1.3. Deskmen
1.4. Dispatchers

2. Operational Aspects
2.1. Field Supervisor
2.2. Crew (In mobile patrol)

II. Factors Affecting Patrol Operations

The organization and operation of the patrol force is said to be a semblance of the pattern
of the organization of a police department because patrol is the police. Due to the nature of
the work they perform, they adhere very closely to the rigid chain of command, specific
assignment of duties and responsibilities, and functional job description that distinguishes
between line and staff authority.

A. Factors That Determine the Number of Police Officer Assigned In A Certain Area
And How They Shall Perform Their Duties:

1. The effectiveness of the patrol desired.

2. The police problems encountered on the beat.
3. The objective applied in laying out the area for effective patrol.

B. Factors That Determine Patrol Deployment

1. Resident and transient populations in the business and tourist districts, and the University
2. Number and types of crimes and arrest.
3. Location of crimes and arrest.
4. Traffic Collision statistics and patterns.
5. Location of "frequent incidents" or hazard requiring concentrated police coverage such as
sport arenas, stadiums or other places where people usually gather.
6. Disproportionate concentration of populations, such as widely separated single-family
residence versus the heavily concentrated dwellings in depressed areas.
7. Socio-economic factors
8. Zoning Plan of the city
9. Size and shape of AOR
10. Location, sizes, and access to parks and recreational facilities
11. Age, gender and civil status ratio of population

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12. Homogeneity of population
13. Modes of transportation and location of terminals
14. Number and qualification of officers available for field duties
15. Level of trust and confidence of the people to the police

C. Police Hazards

Constant and alert patrolling with keen sense of observation of persons and things is a
gauge of an efficient patrol officer.

Only people commit crimes and they invariably do so with the medium of things. Hence,
the beat policeman or the mobile patrol crews must focus their attention on those two factors,
namely: Persons; and Things.

If these factors are left unobserved and unattended they will constitute to POLICE

1. Hazard - is any person, place, thing, situation, or condition which, if allowed to exist may
induce an accident or cause the commission of a crime.

2. Police Hazard - is any person, place, thing, situation, or condition possessing a high potential
for criminal attack or for creation of any other type of problem necessitating a demand for
immediate police service, falling under several categories, to wit:

Persons Places Property Situation/Condition

➢ Criminals ➢ Piers ➢ Unoccupied ➢ Athletic Events
➢ Alcoholics ➢ Railroad Station ➢ Dwellings ➢ Political Meetings
➢ Addicts ➢ Boarding/Lodging ➢ Warehouses ➢ Parades
➢ Prostitutes Houses ➢ Safes ➢ Conventions
➢ Gamblers ➢ Gambling Joints ➢ Automobiles ➢ Demonstrations
➢ Pimps ➢ Pool Halls ➢ Buildings ➢ Celebrations
➢ Drug Peddlers ➢ Parks ➢ Under ➢ Disasters
➢ Feebleminded ➢ Second Hand Stores Construction
➢ Insane ➢ Prostitution Dens ➢ Gas Stations
➢ Juvenile ➢ Banks
➢ Problem Children
➢ Vagrants
➢ Taxi drivers

D. Factors that Creates Hazards

1. Deficient Visibility - resulting from inadequate illumination or obstruction of views, may

create both crime and accident hazards.

2. The insecurity of premises and other properties - which is created by the absence of
suitable locks, bars and gratings.

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3. The presences of condition of things create hazards. A lake or stream of water poorly
designed roadways, defects or obstruction in public spaces and presence of combustibles.

4. The presence of people maybe a hazard. A crowd offers opportunities for theft, loss of
persons or things, and fights and panic that may injure persons or damage property.

5. Lack of regulation may be a hazard.

Some hazard creates a desire and, others present an opportunity to misbehave. Some
hazards are temporary and some are permanent; some may be corrected or minimized by physical
changes, regulation or public education, others by the presence of policeman.

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Chapter 3


I. Police Patrol Methods

1. Beat
1.1. Foot Patrol
1.2. Bicycle Patrol

2. Sector (Motorized)
2.1. Automobile Patrol
2.2. Motorcycle Patrol
2.3. Aircraft Patrol

3. Specialized
3.1. Horse (Mounted) Patrol
3.2. Marine (Water) Patrol
3.3. Canine (K-9) Assisted Patrol
3.4. Special Terrain Patrol

I. The Foot Patrol

The method consisting of fixed post line beat and random patrol. Foot patrol is restricted
to small areas and used to deal with special problems of prevention and repression that cannot
be adequately handled by the officers in radio cars.

A. Foot Patrol Tactics

1. Develop friendly attitude for the purpose of community relations task for the department in
addition to usual patrol tasks;
2. Maintain a free flow of pedestrian traffic;
3. Do not develop a routine but should see to it that area is given sufficient coverage during the
tour of duty
4. The entire duty time of the policeman belongs to the department and to the people in general,
it should be spent accordingly
5. Walk from one place to another so that it will appear to the observer that you are patrolling
and not loitering
6. When patrolling at nighttime always approach each building with caution, always assume the
possibility that a felon maybe lurking inside.
7. Know the personalities in the area, particularly the wanted persons, known felons, drug users
and the pushers and the business establishment, which usually fall prey to armed robbery
and burglary
8. Walk close to the curb during the day and close to the building at night. The reason offered
for this is that the objective of nighttime patrol is to be seen by as few people as possible and
to catch criminals in the act before they become aware of police presence

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9. Keep in mind that police patrol means service as well as protection, hence, never hesitate,
whenever practicable to offer services, in whatever way consistent with the purpose of law

B. Advantages of Foot Patrol

1. It provides closer observation of persons and things

2. It maintains better personal contact with citizens and develops police community relations
3. Patrol officers can enter small alleys and side streets
4. It deters vandalism, shoplifting, snatching and loitering
5. It closely observed surrounding conditions and circumstances that may require police
attention, which if not immediately acted upon, may escalate into serious crime
6. The patrol officer, before lunging himself into any situation has sufficient time to
asses/estimate the nature and degree of the incident

C. Disadvantages of Foot Patrol

1. Low Mobility
2. Low response time
3. It requires large number of personnel

II. The Automobile Patrol

The automobile is the most extensively used and the most effective means of
transportation for police patrol. Equipped with the latest kinds of police gear, it provides a rapid,
safe and efficient means of transportation under average operating conditions.

A. Automobile Patrol Tactics

1. Frequently get out of the car in order to be visible and accessible to the public
2. When conducting solo patrol, frequent contact should be made with communication personnel
and other field units
3. When working in pairs; work as a team for purposes of field contacts, issuance of citations,
checking open doors and responding to calls for assistance
4. Drive the vehicle at normal speed, consistent with traffic conditions
5. Patrol the district so that the vehicle will be seen by the greatest number of people, frequently
turning the corners and covering the side streets as well as the main thoroughfares
6. Whatever patrol patterns is used, do it in irregular and unpredictable manner
7. Give ample attention to the entire district with emphasis on those places that requires special
attention because of high crime frequency
8. Always assume the possibility that a crime will be committed in the most illogical places at
the most unusual times or days

B. Patrol Driving

1. Habitually use the seat belts and other safety devises installed in the patrol car
2. Keep awake

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3. Set an example to other motorist by obeying all traffic laws particularly the traffic lights
signals, speed limits and the general rules of the road
4. Park the patrol vehicle in a legal manner unless in case of emergency
5. Do not leave the car keys in the ignition since criminals are resorting to anything even the
least expected

C. Advantages of Automobile Patrol

1. Covers wider area

2. Provides constant availability to public calls
3. Provides an element of surprise, especially when a crime is in progress
4. Faster response to public calls
5. Provides the officer with needed protection, during inclement weather and enables him to
carry other equipment
6. It is more economical

D. Disadvantages of Automobile Patrol

1. It diminishes personal contact with the public and sources of information

2. It hampers apprehension and surveillance operations

E. Coordinated functions between Foot and Automobile Patrol

1. In manpower distribution, foot patrol officers concentrate within the busy, congested,
commercial and financial areas, whereas, the patrol cars shall cruise the outer perimeters.
Mobile patrol serves as a back up or pursuit. Vehicle for the beat patrol officer in case of
2. Combine the patrol efforts by allowing patrol officers in a motorized sector to park the car at
a strategic place and patrols on foot within the hearing distance of the vehicles radio

F. The Mobile Patrol Sector: One-Car One-Sector

A sector is the area of patrol responsibility covered by a mobile car. It is composed of

several foot patrol beats.

All factors that influence the organization of beats like topography, accessibility,
population density, crime rate, hazards, called for services, etc. have been considered in laying
out these sectors. It is intended that each sector is to be covered by a single patrol car for every
eight-hour tour of duty during the 24-hour period. It is calculated in the operational plan that the
operating time interval, i.e., the interval between the commission of the crime and the arrival of
a patrol officer at the scene shall be reduced.

G. Phases of the Operating Time Interval of the "Critical Time".

1. Time between the commission of crime and the call to the police
2. Time between the lifting of the receiver and the beginning of the actual message between
the caller and the desk officer

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3. Time between the caller-police conversation and broadcast of the report by the radio
dispatcher to the specific car assigned to the scene
4. The running time/response time of the dispatched patrol car from his position where the
assignment was received and arrival at the scene of the incident. The ideal response time is
5 minutes.

H. One-Mobile Man versus Two-Man Patrol

1. Advantages of one-Mobile Man Patrol

1.1. Preventive enforcement is doubled by having twice as many police cars on the street
1.2. An officer who is alone devotes his full attention to driving and beat observation rather
than talking with his partner
1.3. Personality clashes are reduced and/or avoided
1.4. Promotes self-reliance and self-confidence

2. Advantages of Two-Mobile Man Patrol

2.1. Provide officers with greater safety by doubling the firepower and physical protection
2.2. Mistake by one officer maybe noticed and immediately corrected by his partner
2.3. Each officer could get rest
2.4. Beneficial since two pairs of eyes are better than one
2.5. One could operate the radio while the other one drives
2.6. Sleeping on duty could be avoided especially foe the one who is driving

III. The Bicycle Patrol

The bicycle patrol has been used in many countries as a simple and inexpensive means
of silent transportation to carry police officers throughout their patrol districts.

Small vehicles may be used for routine patrol to replace or augment foot or automobile
under conditions when such vehicle is more practical than conventional modes of travel. The
versatility of small vehicles makes them indispensable for covering crowded areas and places
unreachable by automobile patrol.

A. Advantages of Bicycle Patrol

1. Can cover areas not accessible by patrol cars, or are too widespread to be patrolled by foot.
2. Has the combine advantage of mobility and stealth
3. Effectively used by plainclothes patrol officers from surveillance
4. Found to be highly effective for combating theft, burglary, vandalism in residential areas,
parks and shopping malls.
5. Expedite the delivery of police assistance
6. Energy saver
7. Inexpensive to operate

IV. Motorcycle Patrol

Initially used by traffic policemen for traffic management and escort. Recently,
motorcycles, because of their high mobility especially in traffic-congested areas were used for

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tandem police patrols for anti-bank robbery missions by police special units. They are fielded in
areas where banks and pawnshops are concentrated.

A. Disadvantages of Motorcycle Patrol

1. Relatively high cost to operate

2. Limited use in bad weather
3. Inability to carry additional equipment or officers
4. The danger involve in riding

V. Horse (Mounted) Patrol

Horses maybe used for certain patrol problems in jurisdictions that contain large park
areas or similar places where automobiles either cannot go or maybe forbidden. Mobile patrol
cars cannot be expected to race across grass fields or wooden areas but horses provided the best
mobility in those situations.

VI. Marine/Bay/River Patrol

Marine or water patrol units, aside from being highly specialized form of police patrol, it
is likewise expensive to maintain. Its objective is to use primarily the watercraft in anti-smuggling.

VII. Airborne Patrol (Helicopter and Fixed-Wing Aircraft)

Except for patrolling long stretches or highway of inaccessible land, the fixed-wing aircraft
has very little flexibility in congested metropolitan areas. They are however excellent for traffic
control in long stretches or highways, for search and surveillance, and other special missions.

The helicopter on the other hand has the advantage of being able to travel at low speeds,
to hover if necessary, and to land even in inaccessible areas because of its special take-off and
landing capabilities. It is useful for rescue, medical evacuation, general patrol, criminal
apprehension, crime prevention and repression, emergency transportation, surveillance and other

VIII. Plain Clothes Patrol

This type of assignment is particularly effective for "saturation coverage" of high crime
areas. It provides extra coverage without alarming the occupants with an unusual number of
police officer.

For this kind of patrol, police officer should dress in a manner that would fit the occasion
and wear whatever clothing is the mode of the day and fits the type of activity to be covered.

IX. Canine (K-9) Assisted Patrol (Dog Patrol)

First used by the Egyptians for patrolling, police dogs are especially useful in high crime
areas, dangerous search situations, dealing with street gangs, dispersing crowd, taking fleeing
suspects into custody, guarding suspects, searching alleys, parks, schools and other large

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building. The most recent is in the search and detection of drugs in packages or on suspects. K-
9 corps is essential for most medium size and large police departments.

A. Uses of K-9s in Police Operations

1. Great assistance is search and rescue as well as in smelling out drugs and bombs
2. Provide protection for solo patrol
3. Great value in crowd control because properly trained dogs are virtually fearless, loyal to their
handlers and have a significant psychological effect on would-be trouble makers
4. Extensively used in international airports to detect narcotics and bombs because of their keen
sense of smell. A dog is capable of recognizing an odor 10 million times better than a human
5. Specially trained dogs are effective in finding bodies - dead or alive, just buried or buried for
6. Locating trap people during emergencies
7. Can be an asset to public relation efforts
8. Well-trained police dogs can be used for demonstrations in public affairs, school or parades.

B. Disadvantages of Dog Patrol

1. Most police dogs work with only one handler

2. K-9, like most dogs, is territorial, and its handler and its K-9 cruiser are part of its territory
3. Dog training is expensive; it usually takes 10 to 12 weeks
4. Police department that initiates K-9 section is vulnerable to law suits

C. Breeds of Working Dogs Best Suited for Police Work

1. German Shepherd - the most frequently used and high scoring dog for police work
2. Black Labrador Retrievers
3. Giant Schnauzers
4. Rottweilers
5. Doberman Pinschers
6. Bouviers
7. Newfoundlands
8. Airedale terriers
9. Alaskan Malamutes
10. Bloodhounds – a large powerful dog with dropping ears, sagging jaws, and keen sense of
smell; formerly used for tracking.

D. WOLVES (Wireless Operational Link and Video Exploration System) – the system of attaching
a miniature camera and transmitter to a search dog, which makes the dog man's best friend
and even better friend, because the dog can now be the eyes and ears of his handler in
situations, where saving life is paramount objective

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Chapter 4


I. Proactive, Reactive and Preventive Patrol

1. Proactive Patrol - the deployment of field personnel in their respective AOR with prescribe
objectives and verifiable tasks schedule for the day to augment the calls and other on-sight
activities that make up the officer's day.

2. Reactive Patrol - a patrol activity, which consist of driving around the district waiting for
something to happen.

3. Crime Prevention - an anticipation, recognition and appraisal of crime risk and the initiation
of positive action to remove or reduce risk. Its objective aimed towards ways and means to
reduce the desire of human being to commit crime.
3.1. Crime Suppression – Is a modern approach in crime control, which deals with
apprehension, investigation, trial correction and punishment of the criminal.
3.2. Crime Repression – Is the act of preventing the actual commission of crimes.

II. Team Policing

It represents an attempt to integrate the police and the community interest into a working
relationship so as to produce the desire objective of peacekeeping in the community. It is a
grassroot approach undertaken to bring the people and the police together in a cooperative
situation. Its distinguishing feature is the establishment of neighborhood crime watch groups to
encourage the people to report crimes and assume greater interest and responsibility in crime
prevention and suppression.

A. Characteristics of Team Policing

1. Geographic stability of the patrol force

2. Maximum interaction between team members
3. Maximum communication between team members and community residents

B. Organizational Features of Team Policing

1. Unity of Supervision - intended to enhance consistency and continuity of police policies

and procedures and to provide greater uniformity in developing solutions to community

2. Low-level flexibility in decision-making - team members are encourage to share and

exchange ideas, and work together in solving problems within their area of responsibility.

3. Unified delivery of services - it places emphasis on the development of generalist, rather

than specialist, skills among team members.

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4. Combined investigation and patrol functions - this is designed to bridge the gap
between patrol officers and investigators, thereby leading to more cooperative approach to
problem solving.

C. Mechanics of Team Policing as an Alternative Patrol Strategy

Team policing revolves around a team of police officers who are given a fixed, continuous,
and expanded responsibility for providing all police services to a well-defined geographical area
or neighborhood.

In developing its methods of operation, the team first surveys the area in order to become
familiar with neighborhood resources that may prove helpful. As greater rapport between the
police and the community is established, traditional hostilities and suspicions are lessened. The
team is unified under a leader whose responsibility is to facilitate: democratic participation in
policy formulation; decentralized decision-making; and participatory management of the group's

The team leader assumed the round-the-clock responsibility for ensuring the protection
of the community. His supervision is direct, informal, flexible, professional, and collegial. He acts
as a resource and guides and monitors the situational leadership by all team members.

In this strategy, the patrol officer performs dual functions - as a generalist and as a
specialist. The plainclothes detectives from the central office are assign to the team to act as a
supportive element who will contribute to developing investigative knowledge and skills in patrol

III. Police Visibility and the Strategy of High and Low Visibility Patrol

A. The Anatomy of Crime

For any crime to happen, there are three elements or ingredients that must be present at
the same time and place; the Motive, Instrumentalities and Opportunity.

1. Motive refers to the reason or cause why a person group of person will perpetrate a
crime, such as dispute economic gain, jealousy, revenge, insanity, thrill, intoxication, drug
addiction etc.

2. Instrumentality is the means or implement used in the commission of the crime, such
as firearm, bolo, knife, icepick, crowbar, picklocks etc.

3. Opportunity consist of the acts or omission and/or commission by the person (victim)
which enables another person or group of persons (the criminals) to perpetrate the crime,
such as leaving one's home on car unattended for a long time, walking all alone in a well-
known crime prone alley, wearing expensive jewelry in slum area, readily admitting a
stranger into one's residence and the like. It is synonymous with carelessness, acts of
indiscretion and lack of crime prevention - consciousness on the part of the victim.
Whether a crime incident would happen or not, it will depend on the presence and merging
of Motive, Instrumentality and Opportunity at the same time and the same place.

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B. Police Visibility. Police visibility is not just the presence or actual presence of the policeman
on the beat. Police visibility involves three things:
1. Physical Presence;
2. Patrolling Scheme; and
3. Response Time, which must be proper, adequate and timely (ideal is 5 minutes).

C. High and Low Visibility Patrol

The general tendency in crime prevention strategy is High Police Visibility to ensure
citizens feelings of security for the law abiding but the reaction of fear for the would-be violators.

Low visibility patrol programs have been designed to increase police activities of arrest of
criminals or are in the act of committing selected type of crimes.

1. High Visibility Patrol. The theory underlying the high visibility patrol concept is that
increasing the "aura of police omnipresence" in the community can reduce certain types
of crimes. This effectively accomplished by the walking beats of the foot patrol officer in the
congested down town business areas where street crimes where predominantly committed.
Another strategy of high visibility patrol is the saturation concept wherein selected high-risk
crime of robbery in residential areas of the city is saturated by intensive patrol of clearly
marked police vehicle equipped with two-way radios.

2. Low Visibility Patrol. Low visibility patrol is a strategy wherein the members of the police
force in plainclothes patrol areas on foot or in unmarked automobiles where street crimes
become high risk. Under the low visibility set-up, the primary purpose of patrol is no longer
crime prevention but crime repression wherein the objectives are the increase apprehension
of criminals engage in selected street crimes and deterrence of selected criminal activity as a
result of a greater probability of apprehension.

2.1. Stop and Frisk (Spot Check/Accosting and Pat Down Search). To further imprint
in the mind of criminals the feeling of fear of arrest is the application of the strategy of
"stop and frisk" both by the foot patrol and mobile crew. When patrol officers are
observed stopping persons on the street whose behavior is suspicious, detaining them
briefly by questioning, and frisking them for concealed weapons, the actions of the police
heightens the effect of high visibility patrol. The stop, frisk and street interrogation
procedure is a common patrol practice, particularly in high crime areas; persons whose
behavior is suspicious are accosted on the street, interrogated and frisked. The method
of frisking is to pat down the outer clothing of the suspect for any concealed weapon or
contraband. Frisk is not search because the police officer does not insert his hand inside
the pocket of the suspect. Instead, it is the suspect himself who produces from his pocket,
as requested by police officer, the object or article in question.

2.2. Street Interview/Interrogation. The street interview or interrogation aspect is part

of the stop and frisk method. In some police department it is also known as field interview
technique. Whatever term it is called, the fact is that the police objective is to rip crime
in the bud by aggressively investigating crimes that may have just occurred, are occurring
or are about to occur. Through this technique, persons whose answer or conducts arouse

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suspicion of criminal involvement give the police a probable cause to arrest. The operation
of this technique, being highly visible to the public, gives a deterrent impact to the would-
be criminals.

Grounds for Spot Check/Accosting

The police officer may stop an individual for the purpose of conducting a spot
check/accosting only when reasonable suspicion exists. Reasonable suspicion must be
more than just a hunch or feeling. In justifying the stop, the police officer must be able
to point to specific facts that, when taken together with rational inferences, reasonably
warrant the stop. Such facts include, but are not limited to, the following:

1. The appearance or demeanor of the individual suggests that he is part of a

criminal enterprise or is engaged in a criminal act;
2. The actions of the individual suggest that he is engaged in a criminal activity;
3. Questionable presence of the individual in the area;
4. The subject is carrying a suspicious object;
5. The suspect’s clothing bulges in a manner that suggests he is carrying a weapon;
6. The suspect has been found in the time and place proximate to an alleged crime;
7. The police officer has knowledge of the suspect’s prior criminal record or
involvement in criminal activity; and
8. The individual flees at the sight of a police officer.

Procedures and Guidelines for Spot Checks/Accosting

1. When approaching the individual, the police officer shall clearly identify himself
as a police officer. If not in uniform, by announcing his identity and displaying
official identification card and/or badge.
2. Police officers shall be courteous at all times but maintain caution and vigilance
for suspicious movements like tending to retrieve weapon, conceal or discard
contraband, or other similar actions.
3. Before approaching more than one individual, police officers should determine
whether the circumstances warrant a request for back-up and whether the spot
check/ accosting can and should be delayed until such back-up arrives.
4. Police officers shall confine their questions as to suspect’s identity, place of
residence, and other inquiries necessary to resolve the police officer’s suspicion.
However, in no instance shall a police officer hold a suspect longer than the period
reasonably necessary to be able to make these limited inquiries and to resolve
5. Police officers are not required to give the suspect Miranda Warning unless the
person is placed under arrest.

Grounds for Body Frisk/Pat-Down Search

A police officer has the right to perform a pat-down search if the individual has
been legitimately stopped with reasonable suspicion and when the police officer has
reason to believe that the individual possesses weapon/s on his person and poses a threat

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to the police officer’s or another person’s safety. Circumstances which may justify pat-
down search:

1. The type of crime believed to be committed by the subject – particularly crimes

of violence where the threat of use or use of deadly weapon is involved;
2. Where the police officer handles several suspects;
3. The time of the day and the location where the pat-down search took place;
4. Prior knowledge by the police officer of the suspect’s use of force and/or
propensity to carry deadly weapons;
5. The appearance and demeanor of the suspect;
6. Visual indications suggesting that the suspect is carrying a firearm or other deadly
weapon; and
7. Whenever possible, pat-down searches should be performed by police officers of
the same gender.

Procedures for Pat-Down Search

When reasonable suspicion justifies a pat-down search, the search should be

performed with due caution, restraint, and sensitivity. Pat-down searches should be
conducted in the following manner:
1. Whenever possible, pat-down searches should be conducted by at least two (2)
police officers, one to perform the search while the other provides protective
2. Because pat-down searches are cursory in nature, they should be performed with
the suspect in a standing position, or with hands placed against a stationary
object, and feet spread apart. However, should an officer visually observe a
weapon, a more secure search position may be used like the prone (lying face
down) position.
3. In a pat-down search, officers are permitted only to feel the outer clothing of the
suspect. Police officers may not place their hands inside the pockets of the
subject’s clothing unless they feel an object that could probably be a weapon,
such as a gun, knife, club, or the likes.
4. If the suspect is carrying an object such as handbag, suitcase, briefcase, sack, or
other similar items that may conceal a weapon, the police officer should not open
the item but instead put it in a place out of the suspect’s reach.
5. If the external patting of the suspect’s clothing fails to disclose evidence of a
weapon, no further search may be made. If a weapon is found and the possession
of which amounts to a violation of the law, the police officer shall arrest the
suspect and conduct a complete search.

Reporting after the Spot Check/Accosting or Pat-Down Search

If after conducting a spot check/accosting or pat-down search, the police officer

has no basis for making an arrest, he should record the facts of such spot check/accosting
or pat-down search and forward a report to the appropriate authority. If the spot
check/accosting or pat-down search gives a justification for a valid warrantless arrest,
then an arrest shall be made.

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2.3. Decoy/Undercover/Plainclothes Patrol. The common meaning of the word decoy is
trap, bait, and induce. Hence, decoy or undercover or plainclothes operations differ from
traditional patrol methods in that the strategy is to rely heavily on disguise, deception,
and lying in wait rather than upon high and low visibility patrol techniques. The decoy
patrol concept has achieved a high degree of success against selected types of crimes in
cities where police department resources are available to support the activities on a
continuing basis.

Operational Concept of decoy Patrol

1. It is performed by a group of highly trained specialist rather than regular patrol

2. These specialists may operate under the supervision of the patrol commander or
may operate entirely independent of the patrol force.
3. Decoy officer are usually assigned to selected high crime areas and are given
instructions to concentrate their activities against specific types of crimes.
4. Decoy officer are not generally available for routine patrol assignments. Their
most salient characteristics is that they have as their primary purpose the
detection and interception of crime in progress rather than crime prevention which
is secondary objective.
5. Team members are permitted to dress in a manner design to help them blend
with the neighborhood where they are assigned.
6. Team member - male or female - may disguised themselves as derelicts,
panhandlers, drunks or street vendors to avoid detection.
7. In the New York City Police Department, members performing decoy patrol are
assigned in their street crime unit. They concentrate on specific areas of the city
that have been plagued by a series of street crimes

D. The Psychology of Omnipresence. The psychology of omnipresence as an initial police

strategy establishes the aura of police presence in the community, and is best exemplified
and effectively applied in patrol crime prevention activities by uniformed foot or mobile patrol
officer in conspicuously marked, radio-equipped patrol vehicles.

Its strategic objective is the patrol officer to be seen alertly and constantly patrolling
so as to establish a highly visible police presence; hence to make his presence psychologically
be felt in spite of his physical absence, thereby creating a feeling of security on the part
of the law abiding citizen, a feeling of fear on the part of the would be violator and
a feeling of confidence that the police are constantly available to respond to any
situation at a moment's notice.

IV. The Patrol Patterns

1. The Clockwise Pattern - done in the start of the eight hours tour of duty, its purpose
is for the patrol officer to survey the condition and situation of the boundaries of his area
of responsibility.

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2. Zig-zag or Free-wheeling Pattern - this is done by patrolling the streets within the
perimeter of the beats, not at random but with a definite target location where patrol
officer knows that his presence is necessary. This action is based on the study of the
situation and condition of the beat.

3. Counter-Clockwise Patter - this technique is simply the reverse of the clockwise

pattern. This is done at the last hour of the eight-hour tour of duty to ensure that nothing
unusual has happened to the area of responsibility.

4. Straightway and Criss-cross Patterns - straightway is done by patrolling the length

of the street and therefore the easiest to observe the movement of the patrol officer;
while criss-cross is more or less similar to zig-zagging.

V. Rules in Stopping Vehicles (Do's and Don'ts in Stopping Vehicles and

Interrogating Drivers)

1. During daytime, the widest portion of the road where to stop a motorist must be selected.
2. The motorist must signaled to pull closer to the right side of the curb with the patrol
vehicle parked behind the violator's vehicle.
3. Observe the flow of traffic coming from behind before opening the door and alighting from
the patrol vehicle.
4. In issuing the citation, the patrol officer must occupy the right side of the vehicle, either
the motorist car or the patroller, using the hood to accomplish the citation.
5. At night time, a well-lighted place should be selected to stop a motorist.
6. In issuing, while the recorder is busy filling the ticket, the driver should regulate traffic.
7. A citation must be issued within three (3) minutes.
8. Don't stand in front of a stopped vehicle, or between the stopped vehicle and the patrol
car while the engine of one of them or both is running and the driver still at the wheel; or
on the way of the door of the stopped vehicle specially if you are ordering the suspicious
driver to get out of the vehicle.
9. Don't allow a person being interrogated to stand on a firearm side.
10. Don't allow an apprehended suspect to sit inside the patrol car on the side where the
police officer's firearm is tucked.

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Chapter 5


I. The Philippine National Police’s Integrated Patrol System (LOI 63/2010 Police
Integrated Patrol System (PIPS) (Date issued: November 27, 2010)

This is the PNP's answer to the requirement of police visibility. It is contained in the
acronym PATROL which means: (Policemen assigned to reinforce order in the locality)

P – olicemen
A – ssigned
R – einforce
O – rder in the
L – ocality

Considered as the best way of immersing policemen in various activities of a particular

area and to demonstrate to the populace the commitment of the police to serve and protect the
community. This provides a symbiotic relationship between the police and the community, which
would eventually draw the active support and cooperation of the populace.

A. Features of the IPS

1. Pre-emptive
2. Widespread and forward deployment
3. Force mixture (complimentary and supportive)
4. Cross Checking of deployment
5. Force multiplier
6. Jibes with COPS/BPLK

B. Components of the IPS

1. Fixed Components - include the different police station headquarters, police community
precincts, police visibility points and traffic posts manning the different intersections and

2. Patrol Components - include the air patrols, the line beat patrols, mobile patrols, motorcycle
patrols, bicycle patrols and detective repressive patrols.

3. Auxiliary Components - include the security guards deployed in area, the traffic
enforcers/aides, the junior police, the barangay tanods, civilian volunteers radio groups, and
non-government organizations.

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C. Operational Guidelines in the Conduct of Beat patrol

1. Pre-Deployment Phase
1.1. The members of the patrol team shall form and assemble at the Police Unit Headquarters
at least 30 minutes before the start of their shift for their accounting.
1.2. Platoon Commanders shall conduct inspection as to appearance and completeness of
individual equipment, equipment and raincoat and/or flashlight, as appropriate.
1.3. After the inspection, the Platoon Commander shall conduct a short troop information and
education and disseminate instructions/orders.
1.4. The Front-Desk Officer shall then read their assigned line beats. He may, if applicable,
disseminate information/requirements that should be monitored during their patrol duty.
1.5. The Front-Desk Officer shall make the report on the higher headquarters on the dispatch
of the patrollers.

2. Deployment Phase
2.1. Upon arrival at their beats, patrol officer shall report to the desk and give the number
and name of patrol members and their locations. They shall likewise give their situation
report, which shall be done on an hour basis.
2.2. While on patrol, the patrol officers shall adopt the "buddy-buddy system", keeping in
mind to make a patrol plan and follow the patrol procedures.
2.3. Upon reaching the end of their line beat, patrol officer shall make a situation report before
returning to their point of origin.
2.4. All unusual incidents, which came to their attention, must be reported and/or recorded
in the patrol sheet report.

3. Post-Deployment Phase
3.1. After their tour of duty, patrol officers shall return to their Patrol Unit Headquarters and
surrender the team equipment.
3.2. They shall likewise accomplish the Daily Patrol Report before being released and
3.3. They shall turn over to the Front-Desk Officer on duty all items confiscated/recovered
during their tour of duty.
3.4. Their Platoon Commander shall then properly dismiss them after conducting an
accounting of personnel.
3.5. The Police Unit Commander shall collect the Daily Patrol Report and submit the same to
the Police Headquarters for consolidation and reference.

D. Cross Inspection by Patrol Elements

1. Mobile Patrol Crews while on designated patrol beat shall inspect and account the foot patrol
teams, PCP elements and traffic cops manning fixed posts during their tour of duty and vice
versa as to the other patrol elements.
2. They shall require these policemen to sigh the checklist before leaving the line beat.
3. The crew of patrol cars shall report to the station concerned their findings through radio for
these units to take necessary actions on defects noted
4. After their tour of duty, these checklists shall be submitted for compilation and reference.

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II. PNP Standard Patrol Procedures

A. Duties and Responsibilities of Patrol Officers

1. Attend the Roll Call Formation before his Tour of Duty for briefing and likewise attend the
after Tour of Duty formation for debriefing;
2. Patrol the assigned beats, observe and check suspicious people, structures/buildings,
compounds and vehicles;
3. Respond to calls, entertain complaints, initiate the investigation and protection of the scene
and minimize the after effects of accidents, fires and other catastrophes;
4. Observe and monitor public gatherings, prevent disorders and disperse unlawful assemblies;
5. Prevent crimes and arrest sighted law violators, assuring the public that peace is preserved;
6. Inspect and/or conduct surveillance in various places of business establishments and other
installation and remove hazards to public safety;
7. Assist personnel of responsible agencies/unit in facilitating the flow of traffic at busy
intersections/roads within his Area of Responsibility (AOR), assist and provide pedestrian
information such as directions and street locations;
8. Conduct home visitations when circumstances warrants, ugnayans/dialogues with the
residents in their beat;
9. Report occurrences and conditions which relate to crime, public peace, order and safety;
10. Enforce city/municipal ordinances on liquor establishments and night clubs, cabarets and all
houses of ill-reputes; and
11. Check suspicious vehicles (private, public, or commercial/ delivery vehicles) along the
highways in the course of their patrol.
12. Patrol Officers shall wear the prescribed patrol uniform.
13. Patrol Officers must have the equipment necessary in the performance of their duty.

B. Duties of Patrol Supervisors

1. In any operation, careful planning is a must in order to avoid waste of time, effort and
resources. Make a patrol plan with the following details:
1.1. Area Coverage: safe haven, ambush areas and crime prone areas
1.2. Organizational Detail of Personnel
1.3. Duration
1.4. Stand-by points
1.5. Route plan
2. Designate and select the members of the patrol team/s.
3. Inspect the members of the patrol on the completeness of the uniforms, availability of
personnel, and operational readiness of personnel and equipment.
4. Conduct briefing, prior to dispatch, on the priority of activities to be undertaken during the
patrol as the situation demands; remind the patrol on the strict observance of the PNP
Operational Procedures.
5. Render hourly report of location and situation through radio/ telephone to Police Community
Precinct (PCP)/Station Headquarters Tactical Operation Center (TOC).
6. Render after-patrol report duly signed by detailed personnel. PCP Commanders shall collate
and submit significant details to the Station Patrol Supervisor, who in turn, will submit the
same to the Provincial/District Patrol Supervisor.
7. Strictly observe “Buddy System” during the patrol operations.

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8. Conduct debriefing after the patrol to assess its conduct and make necessary corrective
measures on defects noted.

C. Patrol Guidelines

1. Observe precautionary measures and personal safety while on patrol.

2. Practice defensive driving and follow traffic rules and regulations.
3. Select routes which provide best visibility.
4. Be observant of people, places, situations or conditions and develop a suspicious attitude
especially if the subject appears to be slightly out of the ordinary.
5. Use tact and persuasiveness when conducting spot inquiry or questioning individuals for
6. When requiring a suspicious person or any individual for identification, avoid taking the wallet
or bag in which the cards/documents are placed. Let the individual remove and hand them to
7. Be familiar, as much as possible, with known criminals/ex- convicts residing in or frequenting
the patrol beat.
8. Be on the alert for loiters.
9. Keep under close observation actions of juveniles, trouble makers/ agitators and the mentally
ill/retarded persons.
10. Observe the practice of “shaking doors” of unguarded business establishments during night
patrol. Check for signs of intrusion.
11. When checking suspicious persons, places, buildings/ establishments and vehicles especially
during nighttime, be prepared to use your service firearm. Flashlight should be held tightly
away from the body to avoid making you a possible target.
12. Be familiar with stay-in employees of business establishments in your beat.
13. Establish good rapport with the people in your beat.
14. Keep watch of uninhabited homes.
15. Patrol members should avoid loitering in theaters, restaurants and other recreational places.
16. Develop contacts by getting to know as many people as possible who can give factual
information about crime condition in the patrol beat.
17. Patrol members must be always on the look-out for indications of vices and other illegal
activities in their beat.
18. Patrol members must be knowledgeable of all conditions, events and details of places in their

D. Guidelines and Procedures when Responding to Calls for Police Assistance

1. Gather and note down in your patrol logbook all available data as to the nature of the calls,
date, time and name of the caller. It may be regular, urgent or emergency in nature.
2. In all cases, the driver of the mobile patrol should avoid reckless driving.
3. The manner of approach will be dependent on the nature of the call either with haste/secrecy
or with/without flashing lights and sirens.
4. Consider the pertinent factors like the time, condition of traffic, the possibility of greater
damage and the neighborhood characteristics.
5. Stop the car at some distance away from the scene.
6. Approach the scene on foot in complete silence and exercising extreme caution.

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7. Immediately attend to the injured unless the other members of the patrol are in immediate
8. Focus all efforts to arrest criminals; however, priority shall be given to aiding the injured.
9. Determine the crime committed, identify and question briefly the victim/complainant and
possible witnesses at the scene.
10. When the suspects or criminals have fled the scene before your arrival, immediately relay the
composition, armament, appearance, and mode and direction of escape of the suspects to
the Tactical Operation Center (TOC) for the conduct of dragnet operations.
11. When responding to street fights/brawls, the patrol member should call for back-up before
intervening. If there are no injuries and insufficient corroborative statements obtained to
identify who started the fight, disperse the crowd and make complete notes.
12. Never treat calls or complaints of loud noises caused by barking dogs, drunks, appliances and
parties as negligible or a nuisance. They only need courteous and tactful intervention and not
enforcement actions.
13. When responding to call for police assistance due to planted or found explosives, never
attempt to handle, move or lift the object. Instead contact TOC and request for Explosive
Ordnance Disposal Team (EODT). On-lookers must be promptly led to a safe distance.
14. When responding to calls from owners of beerhouses, bars or inns or any other similar
establishments during night time, request the owner to put the lights on first before entering
the establishments.
15. Do not attempt to arbitrate and resolve conflicts/differences between neighbors,
landlords/tenants, husband and wife. However, you should allow both sides to tell their

E. Protecting and Preserving the Crime Scene

1. Respond as soon as possible. Record the time of arrival, weather condition and situation at
the crime scene, and if possible, take photographs of the scene and its immediate vicinity.
2. Establish the police lines and exclude unauthorized persons from the scene.
3. Avoid touching or stepping on anything that may represent evidence.
4. Check and protect adjacent areas from the scene where firearms, footprints, dropped articles
and bloodstains could be found.
5. Look for the presence of bloodstains and other body fluids.
6. Turn over all initial information and pieces of evidence gathered to the responding
investigation unit/elements.

III. Contemporary Policing

A. Neighborhood Oriented Policing - a philosophy of police suggesting that problem solving

is best done at the neighborhood level, where issues originate not at a far-off central

B. Pro Active Policing - aggressive law enforcement style in which patrol officers take the
initiative against crime instead of waiting for criminal acts to occur.

C. Problem Oriented Policing - a style of police management that stresses pro active problem
solving instead of reactive crime fighting.

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D. Community Oriented Policing - programs designed to bring the police and the public
closer together and create more cooperative working environment between them. Reactive
Policing - the opposite of Pro Active policing where the police wait for crime to occur.

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Chapter 6


I. Police Communication System

A. Basic Definitions

1. Communication – In general, the transfer of thought or idea from one person to another
through a common medium or channel. Technically, this refers to the equipment which can
be electrical or electronic used to exchange the thought or idea.
2. Communications – This refers to the technical field of study or science involving the
exchange technical field of study or science involving the exchange of intelligence through
the various available channels. This refers also to the NETWORK or SYSTEMS.
3. Communications Channel – The various means or systems used to transfer the intelligence
between persons or units like the telephone, facsimile, radio or TV.
4. Communications System – The channel or combination of channels used for the transfer
of intelligence. It can be teletype, radio, wire or combination.
5. Communication Medium – The language whether in clear or coded used when transferring
the idea or intelligence. It can be a Filipino, English or in codes.
6. Administrative Messages – Official messages in a police or law enforcement organizations
that are non-operational in nature such as: orders, directives, information bulletins, transfer
and promotion of personnel or athletic notices.
7. Amplitude Modulation (AM) – Modulation in which the amplitude of a wave is the
characteristic subject to variation. This is used in a single side band, double side band and
independent side band radios.
8. Frequency Modulation (FM) – Used in some radio equipment whereby the amplitude is
made constant in the carrier wave together with the signal so that variations are found in
rarefactions and condensations of the wave just like in steel spring.
9. Antenna – Also called as aerial. A metallic wire or rod used for radiating or receiving waves
to and from space.
10. Coordinating Center – The center base station of a police or law enforcement
communications or CENTER.
11. Inter-com – Short for “intercommunication”. A wired system used within a building or
compound for direct exchange of calls.
12. Intra-communication – Communication existing within a province, organization or
13. Hotline – A term used as a direct means of inter-communication. The system is used for
special purpose and can be wired or wireless.
14. Landline – Wired communication like telephone, teletype, facsimile, etc. The wires can be
underground, on the ground or aerial.
15. Radio – Communication by electromagnetic waves transmitted through space.
16. Subscriber – A person, residence or office connected to the Private Base Exchange (PBX).
17. Telecast – Acronym of Television broadcasting specifically a TV program.
18. Dispatchers/Coordinators – Personnel in a police ComCenter charged with receiving and
transmitting messages.

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B. Essentials for a Police Communication System

1. Training – as much as possible, messages and communications should be conformed to

standard procedure.

2. Dependability (Reliability) – It must be totally dependable under both emergency and

routine conditions. Secondary system must be available, on a stand-by basis and they must
be totally operational.

3. Security – It must be secured from attack in the event of any criminal action directed toward
destruction or neutralization of any part of the organization’s vital functions.

4. Accessibility or Adaptability – all operational units of the organization must have

convenient access to every type of communications that is essential to its efficient operation.

5. Speed – maximum utilization of a language that is clearly understandable to all its users but
that can be appreciably shorten the time it takes to deliver the message.

6. Confidentiality – police communications should not be made public. Much of the information
in possession of the police agency private or personal; in nature as its relates to suspects and

C. Communication Network in Police Activities

In modern society today, most of the activities of the citizen, one way or another, involve
police action. Whether it is reporting a suspicious character lurking in neighborhood or someone
meeting a vehicular accident, police assistance will immediately sought. In fact, when a fire breaks
out in the neighborhood, the first impulse or reaction is to call the police. It is therefore,
mandatory that efficient communication between the police and the community be available at
all time.

1. Administrative Communication Net – The exchange of non-operational information

among police precincts, or between a prescient and its headquarters. Directives, non-
operational messages, order, follow-ups, memoranda, information cell are examples of
communication passing through this net.

2. Operational Communication Net – Pertains to police field and non-administrative activities

involving peace, law and orders, as well as general public well being. Examples of Police
Operation Nets are:

2.1. Mobile and Foot Patrol- Mobile radio net is the backbone of operational police radio
2.2. Anti-riot and Crowd Control
2.3. VIP Security

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D. Police Communication Operation

Requirements for Effective Police Communications

1. Detailed Planning
2. Logistic Support
3. Maintenance Program
4. Round The Clock Supervision
5. Specialized Training
6. Good Organization
7. Qualified Personnel

E. Police Radio Operator – Called “Dispatcher”, “Coordinators”, or “Voice Radio Operators”.

Before a policeman or civilian can be dispatchers, they must be trained formally or by the job

F. Dispatched Personnel – In communication center or coordinating center charged with the

receiving and transmitting messages.

G. Advantages of Trained Dispatchers

1. Ease of understanding
2. Elimination of errors
3. Minimum communication time
4. Development of a professional manner
5. Inter service cooperation
6. Conversation of equipment

H. Basic Qualification of a Dispatcher/Operator/Coordinator

1. Ability to speak clearly and distinctively at all times

2. Ability to reduce rambling and disconnected material into concise and accurate messages
3. Ability to think and act promptly in emergencies
4. Ability to analyze the situation accurately and to take an effective course of action
5. Thorough understanding of the capacities of the communication system
6. Adequate understanding of the technical operation of his own system to allow intelligent
reporting about the equipment’s failure
7. Physical and mental ability to work effectively under all conditions encountered
8. Knowledge of the rules and regulations applying to dispatchers responsibilities

I. Three Characteristics of a Person’s Voice

1. Loudness or volume – depends on the size of the human voice box

2. Pitch or frequency – depends upon the number of cycles per time emitted by the speaker
3. Timbre or quality – makes a good speaker or singer

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J. Requisites of a Good Dispatchers Voice

1. Alertness – give the impression that you are alert, wide awake, and interested in the person’s
2. Pleasantness – build a pleasant office image with the proverbial “voice with smile”.
Pleasantness is contagious.
3. Naturalness – use simple straightforward language. Avoid repetition or mechanical words
or phrases; particularly avoid technical words and slang.
4. Distinctiveness – speak clearly and distinctly. Move the lips, tongue and jaw freely. Talk
directly into the microphone.
5. Expressiveness – a well-modulated voice carries best over the microphone, use normal tone
of voice; it should be neither too fast nor too slow. Vary your tone of voice will bring out the
meaning of your sentences and add color and vitality to what you say.

K. Police Radio System

Advantages of the Use of Radio in Police Work:

1. The cost of transceivers has relatively gone down

2. The ease in the use of radio equipment
3. The relatively simple installation process
4. The availability of safeguards in the transmission of classified operational information

L. Frequencies Use to Meet the Needs of the Police Department

To meet the needs, police department utilize frequencies above 30 Megahertz (MHz) or
within the Very High Frequency (VHF) spectrum. VHF spectrum is from 30-300 (MHz). VHF is
short range and has a line-of-straight propagation. Some countries with national police agencies
use frequencies below or above the High Frequency (HF) transmission.

M. Four Basic Requirements for any Communication System

1. Reliability – means that the radio is free from frequency drifts and interference’s and can
operate continuously.
2. Adequacy – refers to the capability of the equipment to handle the load of traffic at all times.
3. Speed – Is how fast can be receive by addressee.
4. Security – refers to the transmission of radio messages into codes and electronic scramblers.

N. How Sound Travels

Radio or electromagnetic waves travel as fast as the speed of light at 186,000 miles per
second or 300,000 kilometers second.

O. Two General Types of Radio Waves:

1. Ground Wave – Is radiated energy that touches along the surface of the earth.
2. Sky Wave – Is radiated energy that travels to the ionosphere and is reflected back to earth.

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The Frequency Ranges

Name of Abbreviation Frequency Range Wavelength Range

Very Low Frequency (VLF) 3-30 kHz 30,000- 10,000 mtrs
Low Frequency (LF) 30-300 kHz 10,000- 1,000 mtrs
Medium Frequency (MF) 300- 3000 kHz 1,000- 100 mtrs
High Frequency (HF) 3-30 MHz 100-10 mtrs
Very High Frequency (VHF) 30-300 MHz 10-1 mtrs
Ultra High Frequency (UHF) 300-3,000 MHz 100-10 cm
Super High Frequency (SHF) 3,000- 30,000 MHz 10-1 cm
Frequencies Above 30 MHz

For short distances transmission, frequency range between 30-300 MHz is used.

P. Characteristics of VHF transmission are the following:

1. The received strength is proportional to the height of the transmitting and receiving antennas
2. The signal is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the receiver and
the transmitter.
3. The signal strength is directly proportional to the frequency.
4. The field strength of the space wave is proportional to the square root of the radiated power.

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Associated Public Safety Communication Officers, Inc.

10-0 Caution 10-50 Accident

10-1 Unable to copy/ change location 10-51 Wrecker needed
10-2 Signal good 10-52 Ambulance needed
10-3 Stop transmitting 10-53 Road blocked
10-4 Acknowledgment/ roger 10-54 Fire stock highway
10-5 Relay 10-55 Intoxicated driver
10-6 Busy- standby unless urgent 10-56 Intoxicated pedestrian
10-7 Out of service 10-57 Hit and Run
10-8 In Service 10-58 Direct traffic
10-9 Repeat/ Say again 10-59 Convoy or escort
10-10 Fight in progress 10-60 Squad in vicinity
10-11 Dog case 10-61 Personnel in area
10-12 Stand-by 10-62 Reply to message
10-13 Weather and road report 10-63 Prepare to make written copy
10-14 Report of prowler 10-64 Message to local delivery
10-15 Civil disturbance 10-65 Next message assignment
10-16 Domestic trouble 10-66 Message cancellation
10-17 Meet complainant 10-67 Clear to read net message
10-18 Complete the assignment quickly 10-68 Dispatch information
10-19 Return to______ 10-69 Message received
10-20 Location 10-70 Fire alarm
10-21 Call______ by telephone 10-71 Nature of fire
10-22 Disregard 10-72 Report progress in fire
10-23 Arrived at scene 10-73 Smoke report
10-24 Assignment complete 10-74 Negative
10-25 Report in person (meet) 10-75 In contact with
10-26 Detaining subject, expedite 10-76 En route
10-27 Drivers License Information 10-77 ETA (estimate time of arrival)
10-28 Vehicle Registration Information 10-78 Need assistance
10-29 Check record for wanted 10-79 Notified
10-30 Illegal use of radio 10-80 Kidnapping
10-31 Crime progress 10-81 Stolen vehicle
10-32 Man with gun 10-82 Reserve lodging
10-33 Emergency 10-83 Found vehicle
10-34 Riot 10-84 If meeting advice ETA
10-35 Major crime alert 10-85 Will be late
10-36 Correct time 10-86 Missing person
10-37 Investigate suspicious vehicle 10-87 Pick-up checks for distribution
10-38 Stopping suspicious vehicle 10-88 Advice present telephone number of______
10-39 Urgent use light and siren 10-89 Found person
10-40 Silent run- no light or siren 10-90 Bank alarm
10-41 Beginning of tour of duty 10-91 Unnecessary use of radio
10-42 Ending tour of duty 10-92 Wanted person
10-43 Information 10-93 Blockade
10-44 Request permission to leave patrol 10-94 Drag racing
10-45 Animal carcass in lane at_______ 10-95 Stole cattle
10-46 Assist motorist 10-96 Mental subject
10-47 Emergency road repairs needed 10-97 Secret
10-48 Traffic standards needed repairs 10-98 Prison jailbreak
10-49 Traffic lights out 10-99 Record indicate wanted or stolen

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A Alpha .
B Bravo ___ . . .
C Charlie ___ . ___ .
D Delta ___ . .
E Echo . ___
F Foxtrot . . ___ .
G Golf ___ ___ .
H Hotel ....
I India ..
J Juliet . ___ ___ ___
K Kilo ___ . ___
L Lima . ___ . .
M Mama ___ ___
N November ___ .
O Oscar ___ ___ ___
P Papa . ___ ___ .
Q Quebec ___ ___ . ___
R Romeo . ___ .
S Sierra ...
T Tango ___
U Uniform . . ___
V Victory . . . ____
W Whiskey . ___ ___
X X-ray ___ . . ___
Y Yankee ___ . ___ ___
Z Zulu ___ ___ . .

1 . ___ ___ ___ ___
2 . . ___ ___ ___
3 . . . ___ ___
4 . . . . ___
5 .....
6 ___ . . . .
7 ___ ___ . . .
8 ___ ___ ___ . .
9 ___ ___ ___ ___ .
0 ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

Distress Signal (SOS)

. . ___ ___ ___ . . .

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➢ ACD – Automatic Call Director. This is attached to SPRINT for computer dispatching
➢ ALERT – Automatic law-enforcement reporting technique. A type of data base info system
➢ APCO – Associated Public- Safety Communications Officers, Inc
➢ CABLE – Computer Assisted Bay Area Law Enforcement
➢ CB – Citizens Band
➢ LEAPS – Law Enforcement Agencies Processing System
➢ ORACLE – Optimum Record Automation for Court and Law- Enforcement
➢ RADAR – Radio detection and ranging. A complex electronic equipment capable of detecting
approaching aircraft and altitude
➢ SPRINT – Special Radio Inquiry Network
➢ TRACIS – Traffic Records and Criminal Justice Information System
➢ VPU – Voice Privacy Unit. An electronic scramble device attached to telecom equipment for
exclusive communication.

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