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• Usually, most of the CO2 absorbents are with -OH eg: NaOH or


• Sources of CO2 are usually those with the -CO3 eg: CaCO3,


• a non-chemical source: gas cylinder

• the gas is supplied through a bubbler

• to measure CO2 concentration: use probe with meter

• method of controlling: use an electronic water-bath (a beaker of

boiling water)-depends on the experiment

• use an electronic thermostat

• heat screen*/ heat filter

*for uniform distribution of heat.

• incubator

• digital/mercury thermometer

• for food tests, such as Benedict's test, the temp must be above

Always mention:

- the method of timing (stopwatch/ wall clock)

-precise time

-mention the time according to the need

(Teacher's advice: Don't be vague when mentioning the time

period; be sensible, realistic and precise! )

Sample Size:
• the larger the sample size, the more reliable the results.

• When making concentrations, the minimum number you should

make is 3. Ideally, the number of conc. you're going to make

must be 5.

• mass must be the same when comparing two samples.

• use mm calipers

• a ruler- calibrated to cm or mm

• measuring cylinders

• syringe, pipette
• weighing scale/ electronic balance

• digital/mercury thermometer


1) use ruler

2) use a thread (remind me to explain what this means if i

didn't by the end of this post please)


1) measure distance moved at a certain time (or)

2) measure time taken for certain distance moved


1) mention the diameter

2) and the surface area

• RATE OF TRANSPIRATION= DIAMETER (of capillary tubing)/

DISTANCE MOVED(by the droplet) orLENGTH

• never use the same sample when you are going to repeat the

• always reset- whenever resetting the exp. always refresh the

specimen with the same mass and volume you were using in

the first exp.

• repeat and take average/ plot a graph

• use the right apparatus

• gas syringe for measuring volume of gas

• look at "Measuring" for more information

• always use same species

• same developmental age

• keep in mind the size of leaves, size of roots, and the number of

roots (and leaves).


1. light intensity

2. temperature

3. humidity

4. CO2 and O2 concentrations

5. wind
6. water

7. mineral content

• same mass of germinating seeds

• shoots of same size/length

• when the plant is placed in water, the stem must be cut slanted

under water to prevent any air-locking

• use of bung or air-tight screw to prevent evaporation of water

• in some questions, you'll see a screw: it's there for resetting the


• accuracy factor: measure properly and cut using a thread

• to control the surrounding temperature, plant experiments must

be done in a thermostatically controlled room

• When using a suspension, always use either same mass or

same volume

• in a question on dry mass (and you're dealing with seeds): the

water is removed (evaporated) by placing seeds in an incubator

or oven but never use bunsen flames-it damages the seed!

• when cutting the leaf in discs for comparing the rate of

photosynthesis (or cutting anything, such as a potato):

1) the size and cross-section must always be the same

2) always cut the curved edges out and cut out a flatter

surface from the centre

• if the question is on electrophoresis, the distance is always


• for accuracy: always cut out the same size of DNA fragments

• restriction enzymes are used to cut at any specific place

• Keep three things in mind:

1) keeping light constant

2) varying it

3) excluding it

• in any experiment, you can only test for one factor at a time.

Varying Light:

• same wattage of bulb & varying distances

• same distance and varying bulb wattage

• different number of lamps at same distance

• a dark room with light of fixed illumination

• lamp at same distance and use light filter with different

Measuring Light Intensity:

• light meter

• light-dependent resistor

• photometer

• camera meter

• photodiode

Methods of Eliminating Light:

• card board box, black paper, dark room, black bag

• place in a cupboard

• temperature, pH, and substrate concentration

• When varying the concentration of the enzyme, then the

substrate concentration must be kept constant

• temp control: use water bath

• pH control: use buffer solution

Exp on Effect of Chemicals on Enzyme Action:

• must think whether the chemical is an inhibitor

• when dealing with beads of enzyme: always use the same

number/ same mass of beads

KEY: Remember the 4 factors affecting enzyme activity plus the

effect of inhibitor

• used to show the presence of a substrate

• it always shows a change in it's original colour to mark the end

point of a reaction

• the colour change of the indicator will always be mentioned in

the question only if it isn't mentioned in our syllabus

• For any experiment: note colour change at a fixed time (or)

• note the time taken for the colour change to take place

• when repeating the experiment, always replace/refresh the

indicator with the same volume and concentration that was

used in the previous experiment

(Two of the points that i didn’t know how to title)

• the specimen is always wrapped to exclude a certain

environmental factor when an absorbent, such as CO2, is


• wrapping is also done to prevent evaporation

• measurement of height, sex, heart rate, disease

• Reliability factors:

1) age group

2) gender

3) body mass/size

4) genetics/race

5) state of health

6) time of the day the test is being conducted

7) any tolerance or addiction

8) use of any stimulant or depressant

9) metabolism: Metabolic activity decreases with age!!!

• sigmoid curve: drawing, labelling, and the reasons behind every


• What decreases population?

1) destruction of habitat

2) disease

3) food availability
4) migration and emigration

5) increase in predators

6) increase in parasite

7) lesser nesting places

8) hibernation

9) accumalation of toxic waste

10) for plants: -> increased grazing -> environmental factors:

natural disasters, soil erosion -> deforestation: causes soil



• Food Availability and Disease!!!

• use a fan

• for varying wind: vary the fan speed or the distance from the


Organism Growth:
• source: corn syrup, glucose, protein, low grade NH3

• never write nutrient broth

• mention 2 examples at least

• same amount or conc. of nutrient broth to the two sets of


• the nutrient supply must be kept constant

• mention flow rate through fermenter

• For batch culture: note the amount of time the organism is left in

the fermenter

• keep in mind the O2 supply, temperature, pH

• sterility of the fermenter is very important [so that no other

organism grows and acts as a competitor]

• sterility is important in both batch and continuous culture- in

fact, every time you set up a batch culture, sterility must be


Planning Questions:
• decide what the experiment is on (like diffusion, osmosis,


• use the same apparatus; describe what you're going to vary

and what must be kept constant- decide which is the dependant

and independent variable (eg light intensity? CO2 conc.? or gas


• how will you vary (count bubbles? use gas syringe?)---always

ask yourself: is it a comparison

• units--same volume, same mass, same concentration

• What are the constants? How will you keep them constant?

• give brief description of the steps; if time is required, BE


• inference: in some experiments you need a control, but don't

write anything which isn't required otherwise

• precautions (FREE MARK!!!)

> give time for calibration

(Calibration time is adjusting time)

>Repeat 3 times to be certain that the results are consistent-do not

change the parameter

>large sample size

Why repeat?
• increases the certainty that the results are consistent

• so that anomalous results can be removed

• permit variance from mean

• to take an average
• means measuring in a reliable manner. Eg

1) weighing scale

2) thermometer

3) vernier caliper

4) measuring cylinder

5) gas syringe

• use of a buffer solution to maintain pH

• using sol of known conc. (by serial dilution)

• comparing colours of solution by a colorimeter

• larger number of known conc.

• washing syringes and pipettes

• mixing and stirring for uniformity to prevent settling of


• in microscopy: eye-piece graticule

• to measure the surface area, the specimen is placed on a grid,

where the full squares, half or more than half are taken into


• FILTERING AND CENTRIFUGING: the suspension spins and

the more dense sinks at the bottom

• in an experiment with living organisms, the control must be a

dead organism

• whatever factor is being used in the question is emitted from the


• For counting chromosomes and making them visible, the

growing regions of the plant are cut

• cut surface of the specimen

• chromosomes are counted by placing cut surface under a high

power light microscope(with high magnification)

• How to make chromosomes visible?

• > add dye/stain them

• > Examples of dyes:

1) methylene blue

2) aceto-carmine

3) aceto-orcein