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1.0 SCOPE:

The scope of this document is to provide general guidelines to Construction Supervisors / Engineers on
fabrication, erection and various stages of inspection of FEED WATER piping.



2.2 After receipt of material at site, physical checking of the material should be carried out for any
peripheral damages, if any, and intimate the concerned authorities for necessary action such as raising claim
for transit insurance or repairs / rectification as applicable.

2.3 Physical checking shall be carried out for weld edge damages, tears, deep and sharp sling marks,
surface laminations, dimensions of pipes / prefabricated spools, length, Indian Boiler Regulation (IBR)
stampings, colour markings etc. with reference to P&ID, Inspection Test Plan (ITP), Piping Material
Specification (PMS) and technical specification, if any. Prepare a report and inform the concerned
authorities for necessary action. The material should be stacked in proper position wooden sleeper or
brick slab and covered with plastic for dust preventing.


Before starting of High pressure piping the following preparation shall be carried out.


3.1 The following documents are required before execution of fabrication and erection of high pressure

a) Latest & approved For construction P & IDs.

b) Latest revision of approved For construction General Arrangement Drawing for the individual units
elevation wise.
c) Latest and approved For construction Isometric drawings for individual lines.
d) Standard sketches.
e) Standard Support drawings.
f) Procedures for execution, quality, safety, insulation, painting etc.
g) Field Quality assurance plan.
h) Approved WPS & Qualified PQR.
i) Relevant & latest copy of Codes and standards and technical specifications.


Review and approve the construction methodology as per the requirement of technical
specifications, standards and codes, contractual requirements and good engineering practices.

3.2 Rigging Plan

Review and approve the rigging plan submitted by the contractor as per load carrying capacity of
structures, location of winches, safe load carrying capacity of wire ropes, location of directional pulleys


“D” shackles etc. This approval is very important before starting of erection activities. All the lifting tools and
tackles such as cranes, Hydra, Winches, Chain Pulley Blocks, hookchuk / turfur, turn buckle, wire slings,
wire ropes, “D” shackles, clamps etc. should be with latest valid load test certificate issued by
Government Approved Competent Authority .

3.3 NDT Procedure

Generally the following procedures shall be reviewed / approved at site:

a) Visual Inspection
b) Liquid Penetrant Test (LPT)
c) Radiographic Test / Examination (RT)
d) Post-Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) / Stress Relieving
e) Magnetic Particle Test / Inspection (MPT)
f) Hardness Testing.
g) Positive Material Identification Test for materials.
h) Ultrasonic Testing (UT)
i) Hydro-Testing / Pneumatic Testing.

3.4 Field Quality Assurance Plan or Inspection Test Plan (FQAP or ITP)

Review and approve the Field Quality Assurance plan. Ensure that Hold points , witness points review
points are clearly specified / identified and mutually agreed upon.

3.5 Applicable QC Formats

Select QC formats according to Field Quality Assurance plan. Formats are to be selected for each and every
activities mentioned in FQAP.

3.6 Welding Procedure Specification (WPS)

Review and approve the welding procedure specification submitted by Piping Fabricator in accordance with
ASME Sec IX parameters / provisions.

3.7 Procedure Qualification Test Record (PQR)

Review the PQR formats along with laboratory test results in respect of tensile test, root bend test face
bend test, toughness test, fillet weld test & other test as applicable and approve if the results are acceptable.
Alternatively, already qualified welding procedures may be accepted, provided that the proposed PQR
have been prepared, qualified and the conditions listed at ASME Sec IX and other relevant codes like
ASME B31.1, B31.3 etc. are complied with. The requirements of pre-heating and post weld heat
treatment (Stress relieving), when specified should also apply in qualifying the welding procedure. When the
code or the engineering design requires Impact Test, the qualifying welding procedure should include impact

Welder s Performance Qualification

3.8 Test Record (WPQ)

Review the experience data of welder furnished by the Contractor and short-list them for Qualification
Test. Witness Welder Qualification Test (as per ASME Section IX.) and then if the welder’s performance


is noticed acceptable as per ASME-Section- in visual inspection then the test piece will be radio graphed
(in case of butt welding) and interpreted to qualify the welder or otherwise.

3.9 Chemical Cleaning and Flushing

This document is to be reviewed on the basis of process requirement and loop wise, system wise.
Chemical cleaning is generally applicable in power plants and chemical plants. Whether to go in for acid
cleaning and passivation or alkali boil out would depend on the process requirement.

3.10 Thermal Insulation Application.

This document is to be reviewed on the basis of contract document, technical specification, relevant IS
codes and standards. Also please refer to Guidelines for Application of Thermal Insulation (TCE.M7-ME-
ER-G-108 R1) for necessary guidance.


The following statutory clearances are required before starting of fabrication and erection of high pressure

4.1 IBR–Indian Boiler Regulation approvals for steam services (Government body).

IBR clearances are required in the following stages:–

a) Intimation and award of contract-This letter has to be given to IBR mentioning type of boiler, make,
capacity, steam line specification, Location of plant, contractor s name etc. On this basis IBR will give the
permission letter. This letter reference is to be mentioned in all further correspondence.

b)Welder’s certificate endorsement and welder s approval –Welder s IBR certificates to be submitted to
IBR for approval. If there is any extra requirement of welder, the same has to be communicated and
approval is required in this regard.

c) Fabrication and erection isometric drawing approval-Fabrication and erection isometrics have to be
approved by Directorate of Boiler or equivalent cadre.

d)Ground clearance-All material like pipes, fittings and valves shall be inspected by IBR inspector and after
inspection the raw material has to be stamped in presence of IBR inspector.

e)Certificate submission - All certificates pertaining to raw material as per IBR requirements to be

f)Submission of radiography films-All radiography films and reports shall be submitted before hydro test
of lines to the IBR Inspector.

g)Hydro Test witness-During hydro test IBR inspector has to witness the hydro test and his clearance
signature is required before commissioning.

h)Pressure safety valve setting clearance-If any pressure safety valve is present in the line the pressure
setting is to be cleared and certification is required before commissioning of line from IBR Inspector.



5.1 Fabrication Yard

Fabrication area of size 100 m x 75 m is sufficient for fabrication purpose including machine shop.
Ware house purpose is not included in this area calculation. It is preferable to make concrete paving for the
following purpose.

a) Ensures good house keeping.

b) Easy to make leveled fabrication bed.
c) Easy movement of cranes, hydra etc.
d) Easily drainable during Monsoon


6.1 Before starting any fabrication work, first identify the priority of systems required sequentially
and their completion dates as per the Master Project Schedule.

6.2 Check and ensure that the required material for the job is available at site or not. Ensure proper
sequence of required material flow and also list the material yet to be received, indicating most critical,
critical, normal. List these


7.1 Machines required, Number of machines, type of machines shall be decided on the basis of planning
(clause number 4.5). Following Machinery is generally required for fabrication if material is received/
supplied in full lengths.

a) Drilling Machine (For making gamma holes, pressure tapes, thermo wells, vents and drains)
b) Grinding Machine
c) Tapping Set
d) Lifting tools and tackles with latest valid load test certificates issued by Government approved competent
e) Hydra / Suku / Truck Trailer for transporting fabricated spools to erection site.
f) Welding Generators
g) Cutting & Welding accessories and consumables with Batch Certificates and Teat Certificates.
h) Radiography Equipment
i) Induction machines and their accessories.
j) Stress Reliving coils and its recorders Equipment

7.2 Power supply:

Required power at fabrication yard should be finalized keeping in view quantum of fabrication work to
be carried out.


Field welds shall be marked on the basis of the following:

8.1 Field welds shall be located so that the spools shall be as large as possible and consistent with shipping


8.2 Lengths of spools shall not be limited by “match lines” that appear on the drawings. A line and its
branches which appear on more than one drawing is not intended to mean that a field weld is desired at the
continuation point from one drawing to another.

8.3 Where piping is shown passing through a wall or floor, the first weld point on either side of the wall or
floor shall be made field weld, provided it is located at least 250 mm to 300mm away from the end of pipe

8.4 Erection condition shall be considered for location of field weld.


9.1 Detailed list of spool pieces to be fabricated shall be identified, and marked as per approved site
procedure. (e.g. with number like 51-F1-000, drawing number 51,fabrication spool no 1, length 1000
mm). The same has to be transferred on the drawing as well as on the pipe.

9.2 Full utilization of material should be done to minimize wastage. Allotment of spools should be done
carefully to minimize wastages. The % of wastages should not exceed 1% of the total quantity supplied.

9.3 While cutting the full length pipes, reference IBR number, material identification such as heat
number, colour band etc. should be punched reproduced on the pipe spool and also marked on the

9.4 Stubs i.e. pressure points, drain, vent, temperature stubs, radiography hole etc. would be required
on different spool pieces.


10.1 Pre-assembly for pipe line should be carried out for easy erection and / or speedy progress of

10.2 Depending upon the availability of area at site pre-assembly of the pipe line can be carried out at
erection site / fabrication yard.

10.3 During pre-assembly of pipes, take care of location / orientation of drain, vent, pressure, temperature,
warm-up points etc.

10.4 Before pre-assembly mark joint nos. for all joints starting from one end to other end on the

10.5 Whenever fit-up of joint is completed, mark the joint numbers on the pipe as marked on the drawing
and welder number of the welder who has welded that joint.


11.1 Before starting erection works all layouts, schematics, isometric drawings of latest revision Approved
for Construction (AFC) should be available. Whenever any drawing is revised, revisions should be noted
and on previous superseded should be written. All the superseded revision drawing wording


11.2 Identify priority systems and their completion dates as per Project schedule.

11.3 Make a detailed plan, indicating the material, manpower & Machinery required to complete the
job in specified time frame.

11.4 For erection, following equipment / tools are required. Numbers of each equipment / tools
required would depend upon the quantum of job to be executed & the available time.

a) Welding machines
b) Stress relieving induction machines and related accessories.
c) Heat resistance coils and its recorders.
d) Scaffolding material.
e) NDT accessories
f) Hydra
g) Power (Electrical) winches different sizes 5T, 10T, etc.
h)Wire Slings Different size (diameter, length & lifting capacity), Nylon Belts
i) Grinding Machines GQ4, FF2, AG7,AG5,AG4 etc.
j) Chain Pulley blocks of different capacities
k) Maxpul / Hook chuck of different capacities
l) Welding Machines
j.)D shackles
k.)Wire ropes,
l)Manila ropes
m) nylon ropes
n) Gas cutting sets
o)All relevant PPE s

11.5 Study the layout drawing for any interference with the structure / openings / cable tray etc. Inform
the interference to the designer if possible with a solution. During the course of erection no modification
in the pipe line should be carried out without written clearance from the designer and IBR.

11.6 Following type of manpower is required to execute HP piping; however total strength required would
depend upon the quantum of job involved (in inch-dia & inch meters) & time.

a) Sr. fitter Piping

b) Fitter (Piping / Structural)
c) Sarang / Rigger
d) Khalasi / Helper
e) IBR-HP Welder
f)Structural Welder
g) Electrician / Radiography and SR personnel
h) Operator for Grinder / Gas Cutter
i) Qualified Level II NDT Personnel

11.7 Before erection, every pipeline inside shall be cleaned using after using mechanical means for
inside cleaning.
11.8 During erection minor adjustment of weld joint (tapered) could be done for slope of pipe as per

11.9 While erecting the control valves / flow nozzles / De-super heaters / check valves / globe valves
etc., their direction should be checked; these should be erected after hydro test / flushing / blowing.


11.10 During erection no temporary support should be welded to the pipe directly.

11.11 While lifting the pipe ensure correct orientation of pressure point /temperature points / drain /
vent points etc.

11.12 All threads on piping components shall be taper pipe threads as per applicable standards.

11.13 The threads shall be entirely covered by the seal weld and only qualified welders shall carry out
such seal welding.

11.14 All welding attachments such as lugs, shoes, trunions etc, as required for supporting, restraining
or anchoring a pipe shall be welded to the pipe at site and stress relieved as required.

11.15 All welded attachments and thermocouple pads shall be of same material as the parent pipeline and
shall be subjected to the same fabrication and welding procedures as the associated piping.

11.16 While lifting the pipe lines / valves etc. ensure that no person works below.

11.17 Pipe supports shall be erected along with pipes and ensure that pipes are supported on
permanent hangers and not on temporary hangers.

11.18 Pipes shall be erected considering the proper working point deviations and orientations or shear
lugs / trunion attachments.

11.19 Ensure proper capacity chain pulley blocks / winches etc. are selected, keeping the pipe / valve
weight in view; always keep 100% margin in capacity. The chain pulley blocks / winches deployed shall
have latest valid load test certificate issued by the Government approved Competent Authority.

11.20 While erecting the pipe proper capacity ,D -shackles and wire ropes should be selected. The “D”
shackles and wire ropes deployed shall be with latest valid load test certificates issued by Government
approved Competent authority.

11.21 While tying the wire ropes to columns / beams, use gunny bags wrapped around or half sleeve
pipes on the sharp edges as packing between the sharp edges and the wire ropes or wire slings to avoid
cutting / snapping of rope / wire sling strands under load; this is also necessary to avoid damage to

11.22 Erection site should be cleaned at least once a week / preferably at the end of the day.

11.23 In no case the already erected pipe / equipment should be used for tying and/ or chain pulley
anchoring purpose.

11.24 Wherever free matching joint at terminal points is shown in the drawing /specifications or
wherever called for, final joint should be welded only after ensuring free matching at the terminal

a) All pipe lines shall be erected without any cold pull.

b) All hangers shall be erected to assume a truly vertical position when the pipelines are in cold condition.
c) All the permanent hangers shall be installed in the piping systems, their locking pins removed and
cold values shall be recorded & the pipe lines floated on the permanent hangers before making the weld
connections at the terminal points.
d) The pipe lines are brought into positions of co-linearity with their terminal points by making
adjustments to the hanger settings or at the template spools provided for this purpose or both.


e) If the pipeline is not insulated for some reason before the final weld connections are made, weights
shall be added to the pipeline at hanger/support locations to stimulate the weights of insulation.
f) Line erection should be completed in all respects and all Non Destructive Testing (NDT) & Stress
Relieving (SR) completed.
g) If hydro test of pipe line is envisaged before floating of line for free joint, the same should be carried
h) In general, additional length in last spool piece or transition pieces at the terminal point is provided
for any adjustments. If the same is indicated in the drawing it should be erected after adjustments.
i) Free matching of the final joint should be checked. Joint protocol for the same should be prepared and
j) If mismatch is found in the pipeline, minor adjustment in spring hangers may be done to achieve the
alignment; however the new cold values after adjustment should be sent to the designer for approval.
During adjustment slope of the line should not be disturbed in negative direction.
While erecting the small-bore pipe (in general less than 50 NB) i.e. site routed following points should be
a) Layout of the piping should be done in such a way that it does not interfere with operating passage.

b) Erection of field run piping shall be started only after completion of erection of other piping, structure,
equipment, cable trays etc. in the vicinity.

c) To be erected clearing man-height; generally minimum 2.4 meter elevation should be maintained.

d) Proper slope of line should be maintained as per drawing or in general 1:100 or 1:200 slope should be
maintained. Valves / flange joints, wherever and as far as possible, should be located at easy accessible

e) Expansion loops in the line should be provided for expansion during operations.

f) The drains and vents shall be led up to the nearest floor drain in case of cold water systems and up to
closed circuit collecting tanks in case of steam and hot water systems.

g) Line drain, wherever required, should be taken from bottom of the pipelines.

h) In general sliding support, spring supports should be provided nearer the terminal points.

i) After completion of small- bore / site routed piping, „As Built drawing should be prepared.


12.1 Before deploying welders on the job following should be ensured :

12.2 Establish / approve Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) in line with QW-482 of ASME
Section IX, (See Appendix II for P No category, F- Number & A Number for guidance only)

12.3 Establish / approve Procedure Qualification Test Record (PQR) in line with QW-483 of ASME Section

12.4 Conduct Welder Performance Qualification Test Record (WPQ) in line with ASME Section IX.

12.5 All welders employed for HP piping should possess valid IBR certificate.

12.6 Establish weld repair WPS


12.7 The welding processes shall be Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) and Gas Tungsten Arc
welding (GTAW) or a combination of the two.

12.8 All welding shall be performed with low hydrogen electrodes.

12.9 When the welds are made using GTAW, the mode of metal transfer shall be globular or spray.

12.10 GTAW with filler wire shall be employed for root pass welding of all alloy and carbon steel piping.
Subsequent welding after root pass can be carried out by SMAW with basic coated electrodes. Exceptions are
as follows:

a) For pipes of thickness less than 6mm the entire welding shall be carried out by GTAW.

b) For LP piping systems such as water and air piping systems entire welding including root pass may
be carried out by SMAW.

12.11 All welding including tack welding shall be carried out by approved (qualified) welders only.

12.12 All weld attachments such as lugs, trunnions etc. as required for supporting, restraining or anchoring
a pipe should be welded to the pipe during fabrication / erection stage as per drawing and stress relieved as
specified / required.

12.13 Fillet welds shall have a minimum throat dimension equal to 0.707 times the nominal thickness
(minimum) of either of the joint members being welded.

12.14 No single run in SMAW shall exceed 4mm in size.

12.15 Each leg of the fillet weld shall be as per ASME B 31.1. Socket and fillet welds shall have a
minimum of two layers.

12.16 Tack welds shall be either removed completely or shall be properly prepared by grinding or filling
their stopping and starting ends so that they may be satisfactorily incorporated in the final weld.

12.17 For all piping systems welded branch connections shall be full penetration type.

12.18 Irrespective of the class of steel, welding shall be made without interruption except for changing of
electrodes or to allow the welder to reposition himself. In case of interruption in welding, guidelines specified
in ASME 31.1 shall be strictly followed.

12.19 No welding shall be done if there is impingement of rain, snow, sleet or high wind on the weld area.

12.20 Temporary attachments should preferably be avoided, in case welded on bridge pieces (Wedge
pieces) shall be preferably of same material. The preheating requirements shall be applied and
maintained during the welding of pieces. All these pieces shall be removed carefully without damaging the


13.1 After welding commences, the minimum preheat temperature shall be maintained until any
requirement of PWHT is performed P-Nos. 3, 4, 5A,5 B and 6, except when all of the following conditions
are satisfied. A minimum of at least 3/8 inch thickness of weld is deposited or 25%

a) of the welding groove is filled, whichever is less (the weldment shall be sufficiently supported to prevent
over stressing of the weld if the weldment is to be moved or otherwise loaded). For P numbers 3, 4 and
5A (with a chromium content of 3.0%b) maximum) material, the weld is allowed to cool slowly to
room temperature. For P Number 5B (with chromium content greater than 3.0%) and P

c)Number 6 material, the weld is subjected to an adequate intermediate heat treatment (see next clause,
Post heating with controlled rate of cooling) with a controlled rate of cooling.After cooling and before
welding is resumed, visual examination of the weld shall be performed to assure that no cracks have formed.

d)Required preheating shall be applied before welding is resumed.


14.1 Post heating shall be done as per approved WPS and codal requirements.

14.2 Interruption in post heating is not allowed and continuous power requirement is to be ensured by
deploying / using DG sets.

14.3 PWHT shall be done immediately after completion of welding for P-5B material, if PWHT is not
possible, post heating is compulsory.

14.4 Temperature maintenance shall be carried out preferably by induction coils / resistance coils.

14.5 Gas burners are not allowed for post heating purpose.

14.6 Same thermocouples can be used for preheating, PWHT etc.


15.1 PWHT of pipe welds should be carried out as per CL 132 ASME B 31.1 / IBR or as per specifications.

15.2 Automatic calibrated temperature recorders shall be used during preheating and post weld heat

15.3 Heating & cooling should be done as per CL 132.5 ASME B 31.1 or as per specification.

15.4 PWHT shall be performed with electric induction coils or electric resistance coils.

15.5 PWHT by gas burning equipment using natural gas or propane shall not be employed.

15.6 PWHT shall be performed in still air.

15.7 Where members being joined are unequal in thickness, the dimension of heavier section shall
govern the selection of width of the heated band and duration of the holding period.

15.8 When pipes of two different P numbers are welded, PWHT shall be that specified for the material
requiring higher PWHT temperature.

15.9 When non pressure parts are welded to the pipe and PWHT is required by either part, the maximum
PWHT temperature shall not exceed the maximum temperature acceptable for the pipe material.

15.10 The area of the welded joint and the adjacent material to be post weld heat treated shall be insulated
to a minimum as per ASME B 31.1 for local PWHT.


15.11 A minimum of two thermocouples shall be used on pipes up to 200 mm OD positioned diametrically
opposite with a minimum of one on each pipe.

15.12 Above 200 mm to 500mm, minimum three thermocouples shall be positioned at 120 degrees. Above
500mm, one thermocouple shall be used at each 10 inch distance on the circumference. During PWHT of
P-5B materials, a minimum of three thermocouples shall be used with one on each pipe and one on

15.13 Thermocouple wires shall be kept insulated for approximately 8 inches.

15.14 The hot junctions shall be in intimate contact with the surface whose temperature is being
measured. From the hot junction, thermocouple shall beinsulated for a minimum 200 mm. The
thermocouple shall be located on either side of the joint at least 50 mm from the weld edge.

15.15 When employing induction heating, at least six turns of induction cable shall be wrapped on the top of
the insulating material protecting the thermocouples with the first turn approximately 150mm from the
centre of the weld.

15.16 Piping on both sides of any joint shall be adequately supported throughout the preheating, welding,
post heating and PWHT in order to avoid distortion.

15.17 Welded joints of carbon steel piping where the nominal pipe wall thickness of the heaviest material
being joined is greater than 19mm or the carbon content is more than 0.25% for piping systems under
IBR and 0.3% for non IBR piping systems, the piping shall be post weld heat treated upon completion of

15.18 When the wall thickness of a coupling or a pad is greater than 19mm the weld shall be heat treated.

15.19 No interruption shall be allowed during PWHT for P-5B group materials.


16.1 All hanger components including spring shall generally conform to MSS SP58, “Pipe hangers and
support material and design”.

16.2 Lugs or other means of welded attachments to pipes shall be of the same material as the parent
pipe material.

16.3 The diameter of the hanger rods for piping, NB 50mm and smaller, shall be minimum 10mm dia rod.

16.4 The diameter of the hanger rods for piping, NB 65mm and larger, shall be minimum 15 mm dia rod.

16.5 Bolted pipe clamps, used with rod hangers, shall have a minimum thickness of 5mm for weather
protected (indoor service) and 6mm for places exposed to weather (outdoor service).

16.6 Hanger erection should be done strictly as per drawings for any deviations/ s the matter should be
referred to Design Engineer for approval.

16.7 No cold pulling of pipe should be done while erecting the restraint points / anchor points / springs
for alignment or for slope adjustment purposes.


16.8 During floating of lines for free matching, restraints should not be used for adjusting any mis-
alignment at free joint.

16.9 It is preferable to cold load the spring before erection, if the springs are not supplied with cold set

16.10 Insist on spring data sheet. (This would help in conversion of divisions on spring into load
taken by the spring to ascertain that the values are within limits or not.)

16.11 Following are different types of hanger supports generally used :

a) Single variable Hanger

b) Twin variable Hanger

c) Constant Hanger

d) Twin constant Hanger

e) Single rigid Hanger

f) Twin rigid Hanger

g) Restraint support x, y, z direction single / double

h) Snubber x, y, z direction, single / double

i) Seismic supports (Special type of supports)

j) Anchor points

k) Sliding Supports

l) U Clamps