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International Journal for Social Studies ISSN: 2455-3220

Available at https://edupediapublications.org/journals Volume 03 Issue 10


September 2017

Principals’ Supervisory Techniques as Correlates of Teachers’ Job


Performance in Secondary Schools in Ebonyi State, Nigeria
Nnebedum Chidi & Akinfolarin Akinwale Victor
Department of Educational Management and Policy,
Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.
E-mail: chidinnebedum@yahoo.com & E-mail: akinfolarinav@gmail.com
Abstract
Measurement and Evaluation Unit in the
The persistent and prolonged pitiable state
Department of Science Education, all from
of teachers’ job performance leading to
Faulty of Education, Ebonyi State
poor academic achievement of secondary
University, Abakaliki. Cronbach alpha was
school students in Ebonyi State has become
employed for the reliability test and this
a source of concern and worry among
yielded a coefficient of 0.78, 0.68 and 0.81
stakeholders and parents. This could be that
for the three parts of PSTQ and 0.78 for
instructional supervision is not regularly
TJPQ respectively. Pearson product moment
performed by the principals in order to
coefficient was used in answering the
provide professional guidance and
research questions and t-test was used in
assistance to teachers to enable them
testing the hypotheses. The findings of the
improve on their instructional delivery. It
study revealed among others that there is a
therefore becomes necessary to investigate
high positive correlation between classroom
the relationship between principals
observation techniques and teachers’ job
supervisory techniques and teachers job
performance in secondary schools in Ebonyi
performance in secondary schools in Ebonyi
State. It also revealed that there was a
State. The study was guided by three
significant relationship between principals’
research questions and three hypotheses
demonstration techniques and teachers’ job
were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The
performance in secondary schools in Ebonyi
study adopted a correlation research design.
State. Based on the findings, conclusion was
The study population comprised 4,368
drawn and it was recommended among
secondary school teachers in Ebonyi State.
others that government should provide
Stratified proportionate sampling technique
opportunity for principals to attend
was used to sample 1005 respondents from
conferences, workshops, seminars and
the population of the study. The researchers
colloquiums on supervisory techniques at
developed two sets of instruments titled
least once a year both nationally and
‘‘Principals’ Supervisory Techniques
internationally for more acquisition of skills
Questionnaire (PSTQ)’’ and ‘‘Teachers Job
and knowledge for effective instructional
Performance Questionnaire (TJPQ)’’ were
supervision in order to keep them at par
used for data collection. The instrument was
with their foreign counterparts.
subjected to face and content validation by
three experts who are lecturers; two in Keywords: Supervision, classroom
Department of Foundations and the other in visitation, workshops, demonstration,
teachers’ job performance

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International Journal for Social Studies ISSN: 2455-3220
Available at https://edupediapublications.org/journals Volume 03 Issue 10
September 2017

school principal who is a graduate of


Introduction Faculty of Arts might have limited
Principalship is saddled with numerous knowledge of the content and methodologies
responsibilities in the administration of of teaching science subjects. Involvement of
secondary school. Principalship is an heads of departments or subject specialists is
administrative position considered to be imperative in providing professional
highest in hierarchy of authority in assistance to the supervisees.
secondary school which is occupied by a There are several instructional
person charged with the tasks of planning, supervisory techniques. Iloh, Nwaham,
controlling and coordination of human, Igbinedion and Ogogor (2016) listed the
material, financial and time resources to variety of supervision techniques to include:
foster the attainment of the school goals and classroom visitation/ observation, inter/intra
objectives. The school principal as the school, team teaching practices, workshops,
instructional leader is entrusted with the demonstration, clinical supervision and
responsibility of improving the quality of micro-teaching among others. This is also in
instructional delivery through adequate line with Ani (2007) who outlined
supervision of teachers. To support this, supervision techniques as follow: classroom
Ugboka (2012) stated that the school visitation, micro-teaching, research-
principals are the management whose approach, workshop, demonstration
responsibility is to provide variety of technique and tape recording. The
supervision techniques for teachers to see supervisory techniques outlined by the
the need for change, plan for change and above scholars adopted in this study are:
practice new behaviour for effective classroom visitation/observation, workshop
teaching and learning. Instructional and demonstration.
supervision is the actions taken to mentor
and monitor subordinates or teachers and Classroom visitation or observation
provide supportive and conducive is a supervisory technique in which the
atmosphere for improvement on the principals visit the classroom and observe
instructional process. It requires planned and teachers delivery of the instruction taking
systematic monitoring of subordinates and account of their mastery of the subject
providing professional guidance and matter, application of teaching strategies and
assistance to them in order to ensure the aids, classroom management and
successful implementation of the formal or organization among others. Similar to this,
informal curriculum in the school. Iloh et al (2016) pointed out that classroom
observation involves practicality in real
Instructional supervision provides classroom situation, whereby the supervisee,
opportunities for the supervisees to up-date presents what he or she had prepared for his
their skills and knowledge in order to adapt or her lesson, utilizing various teaching
to innovative ways of instructional delivery. methodologies, instructional materials,
It also provides a platform for interaction interacting with the learners, jotting salient
between the principal (supervisor) and the points on the instructional board, assessing
teacher (supervisee). It is essential for the the students using both formative and
supervisor to involve subject experts during summative evaluations, coordinating class
instructional supervision. This is because the activities, while the supervisor (principal)

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International Journal for Social Studies ISSN: 2455-3220
Available at https://edupediapublications.org/journals Volume 03 Issue 10
September 2017

inspects, observes and evaluates what and concepts and suggestions are made,
how the instructor has performed. conclusion are drawn and decision taken
Classroom observation is not an avenue for (Ani, 2007).
fault-finding in the classroom teaching
process before the students but a platform Principals’ demonstration technique
for principals to involve teachers in the involves teaching and learning activities in
process of improving upon their which principal who is skilled and
shortcomings. After the classroom experienced illustrate educational materials,
observation, the objective of the visitation procedures or strategies in order to improve
could not be said to have been achieved instruction (Eze cited in Sule, 2013). During
unless, heads provide professional guidance demonstration, principals clearly explain the
and assistance to help teachers improve on subject matter using vivid examples. Ani
their instructional delivery. This is because (2007) pointed out that demonstration
the essence of supervision is not to witch- technique of supervision gives teachers the
hunt teachers but to provide professional opportunity of asking probing questions that
help for them to improve in delivery of can lead to discovering new methods and
teaching roles. The deficiency of teachers ideas. However, Eze cited in Sule pointed
observed during instructional supervision out that principal as supervisor has little or
could be handled using workshop no time practicing teaching demonstration
supervisory technique. and supervisory services for instructional
improvement.
Workshop as an instructional
supervisory technique is a platform where Secondary school principals in
the supervisor, teachers and subject Ebonyi State seem to spend more of their
specialists are brought together to exchange official hours on the administrative
ideas and share teaching experiences in functions to the detriment of effective
order to acquire knowledge and skills to supervision process and programmes of the
meet current and emerging demands of school (Onuma, 2016). Continuing this,
teaching profession. To buttress this, Ekpoh Onuma pointed out that there are public
and Eze (2015) pointed that workshop is a outcries, reports and comments in print and
technique in which teachers are brought electronic media alleging fallen standards of
together in an organized way to enable education in public education reveal in part
principals communicate with them on the that internal supervision is probably not
matters of school and classroom effectively carried by school principals in
management and most especially on Ebonyi State. Irregular supervision of
instructional improvement. Akinfolarin and teachers could adversely affect their job
Rufai (2017) sees instructional improvement performance.
as the act of making progress in instructional
According to Uko, Umosen and
delivery for better academic achievement.
Caleb (2015), teachers’ job performance
School administrators should communicate
refers to the extent to which teachers are
new ideas and trends in the education
committed to pedagogical delivery and
industry to teachers in order to ensure
display of moral uprightness and academic
instructional improvement. During
excellence in the teaching profession.
workshops, ideas are exchange, analyses of
Teachers job performance is concerned with
new ideas are achieved, evaluations of

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International Journal for Social Studies ISSN: 2455-3220
Available at https://edupediapublications.org/journals Volume 03 Issue 10
September 2017

overall ability of the teachers to exhibit the The main purpose of the study is to ascertain
right attitude to work, be committed and principals’ supervisory techniques as
dedicated to the teaching roles and making correlates of teachers’ job performance in
deliberate efforts toward the attainment of secondary schools in Ebonyi State.
educational goals and objectives. The Specifically, the study sought to examine:
indicator of teacher’s job performance is
evaluated in his or her ability to make 1. The relationship between principals’
deliberate effort to enhance students classroom observation techniques and
academic performance, possession and teachers’ job performance in secondary
display of in-depth knowledge of his or her schools in Ebonyi State.
subject matters, presentation of lesson in a 2. The relationship between principals’
well-organized manner, effective classroom workshop techniques and teachers’ job
organization and control, participation in the performance in secondary schools in
school curricular activities, regularity and Ebonyi State.
punctuality in the school, maintenance of 3. The relationship between principals’
good interpersonal relationship with demonstration techniques and teachers’
subordinates and superiors, discipline, job performance in secondary schools in
motivation and counseling of students and Ebonyi State.
compliance to teachers professional code of
conduct among others. Research Questions
The following research questions guided
Statement of the Problem the study:
The persistent and prolonged pitiable state
1. What is the relationship between
of teachers’ job performance leading to poor
principals’ classroom observation
academic achievement of secondary school
techniques and teachers’ job
students in Ebonyi State seems to indicate
performance in secondary schools in
that instructional supervision is not regularly
Ebonyi State?
performed by the principals in order to
2. What is the relationship between
provide professional guidance and assistance
principals’ workshop techniques and
to teachers to enable them improve on their
teachers’ job performance in secondary
instructional delivery. The secondary school
schools in Ebonyi State?
principals in the Ebonyi State seem to spend
3. What is the relationship between
more of their official hours on other
principals’ demonstration techniques and
administrative duties to the detriment of
teachers’ job performance in secondary
supervision. It is in the light of this
schools in Ebonyi State?
unpleasant situation that this study was set
out to investigate the relationship between
principals’ supervisory techniques and
Hypotheses
teachers’ job performance in secondary The following hypotheses were tested at
schools in Ebonyi State. 0.05 level of significance.

Purpose of the Study 1. There is no significant relationship


between principals’ classroom
observation techniques and teachers’ job

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International Journal for Social Studies ISSN: 2455-3220
Available at https://edupediapublications.org/journals Volume 03 Issue 10
September 2017

performance in secondary schools in States share similar characteristics as


Ebonyi State. application of supervisory techniques in the
2. There is no significant relationship States seem to be very similar. The data
between principals’ workshop obtained were subjected to test for internal
techniques and teachers’ job consistency using Cronbach Alpha. It was
performance in secondary schools in considered appropriate in order to determine
Ebonyi State. the level of homogeneity of the items in the
3. There is no significant relationship clusters. This yielded a coefficient of 0.78,
between principals’ demonstration 0.68 and 0.81 for the three parts of PSTQ
techniques and teachers’ job and 0.78 for TJPQ respectively. The
performance in secondary schools in administration of the instruments was done
Ebonyi State. by the researchers together with six research
assistants who are secondary school teachers
Method in Ebonyi State using direct administration
method. A total of 1005 questionnaires were
The study adopted a correlation survey. The distributed and 985 copies of questionnaire
study population comprised 4,368 secondary were properly filled and successfully
school teachers in Ebonyi State. Stratified retrieved, indicating 98 percent return. In
proportionate sampling technique was used answering the research questions, the
to sample 1005 respondents from the coefficient (r) and the size of the
population of the study. The researchers relationship was interpreted using the
developed two sets of instruments titled interpretation of correlation coefficient by
‘‘Principals’ Supervisory Techniques Downie and Heath cited in Nworgu (2015)
Questionnaire (PSTQ)’’ and ‘‘Teachers Job as shown: 0.80 and above for high, above
Performance Questionnaire (TJPQ)’’ were 0.30 below 0.80 for moderate and 0.30 and
used for data collection. The instrument was below for low respectively. Whereas, t-test
subjected to face and content validation by was used to test the null hypotheses. In
three experts who are lecturers; two in the testing the null hypotheses, if t-calculated is
Department of Educational Foundations and equal to or greater than t-critical at 0.05
the other in Measurement and Evaluation level of significance, the null hypothesis is
Unit in the Department of Science significant, but if otherwise, it is not
Education, all from Faulty of Education, significant.
Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki. The
reliability of the instrument was established.
The data used for computing the reliability
indices were obtained from copies of the
questionnaire administered on a sample of
20 teachers in Enugu State. The choice of
Enugu State was because Ebonyi and Enugu

Results

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International Journal for Social Studies ISSN: 2455-3220
Available at https://edupediapublications.org/journals Volume 03 Issue 10
September 2017

Research Question 1: What is the relationship between principals’ classroom observation


techniques and teachers’ job performance in secondary schools in Ebonyi State?
Table 1: Pearson's Correlation between principals’ classroom observation techniques and
teachers’ job performance in secondary schools

Classroom Teachers’ Decision


N Observation Job
Techniques Performance
Classroom Observation 985 1 .824
Techniques
Positive
Teachers’ Job 985 .824 1
Performance
Table 1 shows that the Pearson's Correlation Coefficient, r. (985) = .824. This is an indication
that there is a high positive correlation between classroom observation techniques and teachers’
job performance in secondary schools in Ebonyi State.

Research Question 2: What is the relationship between principals’ workshop techniques and
teachers’ job performance in secondary schools in Ebonyi State?
Table 2: Pearson's Correlation between principals’ workshop techniques and teachers’ job
performance in secondary schools

Workshop Teachers’ Decision


N Techniques Job
Performance
Workshop Techniques 985 1 .752

Positive
Teachers’ Job 985 .752 1
Performance

Table 2 shows that the Pearson's Correlation Coefficient, r. (985) = .752. This is an indication
that there is a moderate positive correlation between workshop techniques and teachers’ job
performance in secondary schools in Ebonyi State.

Research Question 3: What is the relationship between principals’ demonstration techniques


and teachers’ job performance in secondary schools in Ebonyi State?
Table 3: Pearson's Correlation between principals’ demonstration techniques and teachers’ job
performance in secondary schools

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International Journal for Social Studies ISSN: 2455-3220
Available at https://edupediapublications.org/journals Volume 03 Issue 10
September 2017

Demonstration Teachers’ Decision


N Techniques job
Performance
Demonstration Techniques 985 1 .809

Positive
Teachers’ Job 985 .809 1
Performance

Table 3 shows that the Pearson's Correlation Coefficient, r. (985) = .809. This is an indication
that there is a high positive correlation between demonstration techniques and teachers’ job
performance in secondary schools in Ebonyi State.

Testing the Null Hypotheses

Ho 1: There is no significant relationship between principals’ classroom observation techniques


and teachers’ job performance in secondary schools in Ebonyi State.

Table 4: t-test analysis of no significant relationship between principals’ classroom observation


techniques and teachers’ job performance
Classroom Teachers’ Job
observation Performance t-cal. t-crit. Remark
techniques

Classroom
Observation 985 1 .824
Techniques
1.99 1.96 Rejected
Teachers’ Job
Performance 985 .824 1

From table 4, the t-calculated value of 1.99 is greater than t-critical value of 1.96 at 0.05 level of
significance and 983 degree of freedom. Thus, the null hypothesis is rejected. Thus, there is no
significant relationship between principals’ classroom observation techniques and teachers’ job
performance in secondary schools in Ebonyi State.

Ho 2: There is no significant relationship between principals’ workshop techniques and teachers’


job performance in secondary schools in Ebonyi State.

Table 5: t-test analysis of no significant relationship between principals’ workshop techniques


and teachers’ job performance

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International Journal for Social Studies ISSN: 2455-3220
Available at https://edupediapublications.org/journals Volume 03 Issue 10
September 2017

Workshop Teachers’ Job


Techniques Performance t-cal. t-crit. Remark

Workshop
Techniques 985 1 .752

2.11 1.96 Rejected


Teachers’ Job
Performance 985 .752 1

From table 5, the t-calculated value of 2.11 is greater than t-critical value of 1.96 at 0.05 level of
significance and 983 degree of freedom. Thus, the null hypothesis is rejected. Thus, there is no
significant relationship between principals’ workshop techniques and teachers’ job performance
in secondary schools in Ebonyi State.

Ho 3: There is no significant relationship between principals’ demonstration techniques and


teachers’ job performance in secondary schools in Ebonyi State.

Table 6: t-test analysis of no significant relationship between principals’ demonstration


techniques and teachers’ job performance
Demonstration Teachers’ Job
techniques Performance t-cal. t-crit. Remark

Demonstration
Techniques 985 1 .809

1.99 1.96 Rejected


Teachers’ Job
Performance 985 .809 1

From table 6, the t-calculated value of 1.99 is greater than t-critical value of 1.96 at 0.05 level of
significance and 983 degree of freedom. Thus, the null hypothesis is rejected. Thus, there is no
significant relationship between principals’ demonstration techniques and teachers’ job
performance in secondary schools in Ebonyi State.

Discussion of Findings classroom observation techniques and


teachers’ job performance in secondary
The result of data analysis indicated that schools in Ebonyi State. This implies that
there is a high positive correlation between principals’ regular observation of teachers’

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International Journal for Social Studies ISSN: 2455-3220
Available at https://edupediapublications.org/journals Volume 03 Issue 10
September 2017

instructional delivery in the classroom in There was a high positive


terms of mastery of the subject matter, relationship between principals’
application of teaching strategies and aids, demonstration techniques and teachers’ job
classroom management and organization performance in secondary schools in Ebonyi
among other have positive influence on State. Principals’ demonstration or
teachers’ job performance. This contradicts illustration of a concept provides
the finding of Akinwumi (2002) who opportunity for teachers to discover new
reported that supervision has no significant methods and ideas to be applied during
impact on productivity of teachers. This instructional delivery in order to enhance
contradiction could be attributed to their performance. The finding of the study
difference in geographical area. The finding also indicated that there was a significant
of this study also revealed that there is no relationship between principals’
significant relationship between principals’ demonstration techniques and teachers’ job
classroom observation techniques and performance in secondary schools in Ebonyi
teachers’ job performance in secondary State. This finding disagreed with Sule
schools in Ebonyi State. This finding is (2013) who reported that there was no
supported by Sule, Aropand Alade (2013) significant influence of the principals’
who reported that there was a significant demonstration supervision strategies on the
influence of principals’ classroom teachers’ job performance in terms of
visitation/observation strategies influence on maintenance of discipline, classroom
teachers’ performance. management, instructional ability and
student evaluation. This disagreement could
There was a moderate positive be attributed to difference in time span and
relationship between principals’ workshop location.
techniques and teachers’ job performance in
secondary schools in Ebonyi State. This Conclusion
finding implies that those workshop
supervisory techniques which entail Based on the findings of the study, it was
practical discussion and work on a particular concluded that there was significant
topic or subject has positive influence on relationship between principals’ supervisory
teachers’ job performance. During techniques and teachers’ job performance.
workshop, group of teachers share Thus, regularly supervision of teachers and
knowledge and experience under the provision of the necessary professional
supervision of principal to improve their guidance has positive influence on teachers
instructional delivery. The finding of this job performance in terms of making
study also revealed that there is significant deliberate effort to enhance students
relationship between principals’ workshop academic performance, possession and
techniques and teachers’ job performance in display of in-depth knowledge of his or her
secondary schools in Ebonyi State. This subject matters, presentation of lesson in a
finding is in agreement with Ekpoh and Eze well-organized manner, effective classroom
(2015) who reported that a significant organization and control, participation in the
difference exists between principals’ school curricular activities, regularity and
workshop supervisory technique and punctuality in the school, discipline,
teachers’ job performance.

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International Journal for Social Studies ISSN: 2455-3220
Available at https://edupediapublications.org/journals Volume 03 Issue 10
September 2017

motivation and counseling of students year both nationally and internationally


among others. for more acquisition of skills and
knowledge for effective instructional
Recommendations supervision in order to keep them at par
with their foreign counterparts
The following recommendations were made 2. Principals should endeavour to regularly
based on the findings of the study: observe teachers classroom instructional
delivery and provide professional
1. Government should provide opportunity guidance and assistance to them where
for principals to attend conferences, necessary.
workshops, seminars and colloquiums
on supervisory techniques at least once a
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